600,982 results match your criteria Hormone Therapy


AKR1D1 regulates glucocorticoid availability and glucocorticoid receptor activation in human hepatoma cells.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7LE, UK. Electronic address:

Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, have potent actions to regulate many cellular processes within the liver. The steroid A-ring reductase, 5β-reductase (AKR1D1), is predominantly expressed in the liver, where it inactivates steroid hormones and, in addition, plays a crucial role in bile acid synthesis. However, the precise functional role of AKR1D1 to regulate steroid hormone action in vitro has not been demonstrated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Thermal manipulation and GnRHa therapy applied to the reproduction of lambari-do-rabo-amarelo, Astyanax altiparanae females (Characiformes: Characidae) during the non-breeding season.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Instituto de Biociências -USP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Lambari-do-rabo-amarelo Astyanax altiparanae in the wild reproduce during spring and summer, but females undergo vitellogenesis throughout the year, including the non-spawning winter period when water temperatures are low. The present study investigated the physiological role of temperature modulation on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads axis of lambari during winter, as well as the effects of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy. Captive females were exposed to two different temperatures (20°C and 27°C) and were injected weekly with GnRHa for 21 days during winter (Control, CTR; Low dose; LD and high dose of GnRHa, HD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2019.02.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Nanocarriers for vaginal drug delivery.

Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Laboratory of Nanomedicine, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar -751023, Odisha. India.

Background: Vaginal drug delivery approach represents one of the imperative strategies for local and systemic delivery of drugs. The peculiar dense vascular networks, mucus permeability, range of physiological characteristics of the vaginal cavity have been exploited for therapeutic benefit. Furthermore, the vaginal drug delivery has been curtailed due to the influence of different physiological factors like acidic pH, constant cervical secretion, microflora, cyclic changes during periods along with turnover of mucus of varying thickness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1872211313666190215141507DOI Listing
February 2019

Estimating utilities/disutilities for high-risk metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) and treatment-related adverse events.

Qual Life Res 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Patient Centered Sciences, Mapi, Boston, USA.

Purpose: To capture UK societal health utility values for high-risk metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) and the disutility associated with treatment-related adverse events (AEs) to inform future cost-utility analyses.

Methods: A literature review, and patient and clinical expert interviews informed the development of health states characterising mHSPC symptoms and the impact of treatment-related AEs on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Three base health states were developed describing a typical patient with high-risk mHSPC: receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) [Base State 1]; receiving docetaxel plus ADT [Base State 2]; completed docetaxel and still receiving ADT whose disease has not yet progressed [Base State 3]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-019-02117-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Subacute and subchronic oral toxicity assessments of (DC.) Guill. & Perr. root in Wistar rats.

Toxicol Rep 2019 30;6:161-175. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics & Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, P.M.B, 12003, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.

Recent adverse herb reactions have stimulated interest documenting the safety profile of medicinal agents. Thus, subacute and subchronic oral toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of root (HEASR) in Wistar rats was investigated. In the 28 and 90-day subacute and subchronic toxicity tests, sixty-four rats (n = male: female = 1:1 = 32) were divided into four of eight/group and ninety-six (n = male: female = 1:1 = 48) into twelve/group respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360914PMC
January 2019

Prognostic factors of refractory NSCLC patients receiving anlotinib hydrochloride as the third- or further-line treatment.

Cancer Biol Med 2018 Nov;15(4):443-451

Department of Pulmonary Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060, China.

Objective: Anlotinib hydrochloride is a multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Kit, and c-MET; therefore, it exhibits both antitumor and anti-angiogenetic activities. A phase III trial has shown that anlotinib improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who presented with progressive disease or intolerance after standard chemotherapy. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of patients receiving anlotinib treatment to determine the dominant populations who are fit for the treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2018.0158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372914PMC
November 2018

Effects of Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Thyroid Function of Adult Men.

Toxicol Res 2019 Jan 15;35(1):9-12. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

One of the major challenges in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for drug dependence is the physiological side effects on endocrine hormones. Because of the key role of the thyroid gland in the normal functioning of the human body and brain, this study examined the effect of MMT on thyroid function. Thyroid hormones (T3, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) were evaluated in normal and user treated with MMT who were referred to the Province Clinical & Pathology Center of Urmia, Iran. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5487/TR.2019.35.1.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354949PMC
January 2019

Transgender Care in the Primary Care Setting: A Review of Guidelines and Literature.

Fed Pract 2018 Jul;35(7):30-37

is a Primary Care Physician and Ambulatory Care Clerkship Director at West Los Angeles VA Medical Center in California. is Chief of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System. is the Director of the UCLA Gender Health Program and Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, Dr. Hashemi is Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, and Dr. Weinreb is a Clinical Professor of Medicine, both at the David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles. is an Associate Physician, Division of Endocrinology, Kaiser Permanente Woodland Hills Medical Center in California.

For patients who desire transgender care, providers must use appropriate language, know the basics of cross-sex hormone therapy, and understand the risks and adverse effects of treatment options. Read More

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Bilateral osteonecrosis of the hip in panhypopituitarism.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Feb 13;12(2). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is a condition that causes significant morbidity and loss of function. It is a common complication seen with supraphysiological steroid use. Early diagnosis is critical as it impacts prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227471DOI Listing
February 2019

Cartilage-Targeted IGF-1 Treatment to Promote Longitudinal Bone Growth.

Mol Ther 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Section on Growth and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is commonly used to treat short stature in children. However, GH treatment has limited efficacy, particularly in severe, non-GH-deficient conditions such as chondrodysplasias, and potential off-target effects. Because short stature results from decreased growth plate chondrogenesis, we developed a cartilage-targeting single-chain human antibody fragment (CaAb) aiming to deliver therapeutic molecules to the growth plate, thereby increasing treatment efficacy while minimizing adverse effects on other tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2019.01.017DOI Listing
February 2019

Repository Corticotropin Versus Glucocorticoid for Nephrotic Syndrome: When Will We See the Evidence?

Am J Kidney Dis 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

VA Portland Health Care System, Research Service, Portland, OR; Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR. Electronic address:

Despite little evidence supporting its superiority to glucocorticoid therapy, use and expenditures for repository corticotropin (rACTH) injection (H.P. Acthar Gel; Mallinckrodt) have increased dramatically in the last 5 years, particularly among a small number of nephrologists, rheumatologists, and neurologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.12.025DOI Listing
February 2019

Low Preoperative Prolactin Levels Predict Non-Organ Confined Prostate Cancer in Clinically Localized Disease.

Urol Int 2019 Feb 14:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Urology, University of Verona, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona, Verona, Italy.

Introduction: To evaluate the association between preoperative serum prolactin (PRL) levels and risk of non-organ confined prostate cancer (PCa) in clinically localized disease.

Materials And Methods: From December 2007 to December 2011, 124 patients with clinically localized PCa were retrospectively evaluated. Non-organ confined disease in the surgical specimen was defined according to extra-capsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, and lymph node invasion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496833DOI Listing
February 2019

Emerging roles for the relaxin/RXFP1 system in cancer therapy.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Electronic address:

A role for the hormone relaxin in cancer was described well before the receptor was identified. Relaxin predominantly increases the growth and invasive potential in cancers of different origins. However, relaxin was also shown to promote cell differentiation and to act in a dose-and time-dependent manner in different cancer cell models used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

A comprehensive review of hormonal and biological therapies for endometriosis: latest developments.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

a Academic Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Ospedale Policlinico San Martino , Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa , Italy.

Introduction: Endometriosis is a chronic benign estrogen dependent disease characterized by the presence of endometriotic glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Although combined hormonal contraceptives and progestins, currently available first-line treatments for endometriosis, are efficacious and well tolerated for treating disease-related pain, some women experience partial or no improvement of pain or its recurrence is frequent after discontinuation of the therapies. For these reasons, new drugs are under investigation for the treatment of endometriosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2019.1581761DOI Listing
February 2019

Taxane-based chemohormonal therapy for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: A Cochrane Review.

BJU Int 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

Objectives: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has historically been the main management option for men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Over the last two decades, a number of agents have demonstrated a benefit in castration-resistant disease[1] and there has been interest to employ these drugs earlier in the disease course when the cancer is hormone-sensitive. Taxane-based chemotherapy has been utilized in such a manner and we aimed to assess the effects of early taxane-based chemohormonal therapy for newly diagnosed, metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.14711DOI Listing
February 2019

Tailored NEOadjuvant epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound paclitaxel for breast cancer: The phase II NEONAB trial-Clinical outcomes and molecular determinants of response.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(2):e0210891. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

University Hospital Geelong, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Background: This study evaluated the feasibility of achieving high response rates in stage II or III breast cancer by tailoring neoadjuvant therapy using clinical and histopathological features and the Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score. Genomic determinants of response and resistance were also explored.

Patients And Outcome Measures: Fifty-one patients were enrolled. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210891PLOS
February 2019

Evaluation of A Novel Pb-203-Labeled Lactam-Cyclized Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Peptide for Melanoma Targeting.

Mol Pharm 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

The purpose of this study is to examine the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) targeting and specificity of 203Pb-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex in melanoma cells and tumors to facilitate its potential therapeutic application when labeled with 212Pb. The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R)-specific targeting and imaging properties of 203Pb-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex were determined on B16/F1 and B16/F10 murine melanoma cells, and in B16/F1 flank melanoma-, B16/F10 flank melanoma- and B16/F10 pulmonary metastatic melanoma-bearing C57 mice. 203Pb-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex displayed MC1R-specific binding on B16/F1 and B16/F10 melanoma cells and tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00025DOI Listing
February 2019

Be aware of the effects of glucocorticoids on SIADH: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Feb;98(7):e14295

Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Guangdong Province, China.

Rationale: Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders in clinic. Due to the complicated etiology and the nonspecific clinical manifestations, the diagnosis of hyponatremia is a complicated process. A variety of clinical disorders can cause inappropriately increased antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion, leading to inappropriate water retention and consequent hyponatremia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014295DOI Listing
February 2019

Association of hormone replacement therapy with increased risk of meningioma in women: A hospital-based multicenter study with propensity score matching.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Centre of Systems Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Aim: There is no consensus regarding the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and risk of meningioma so far. We conducted the first study among Chinese female patients to investigate the influence of HRT use on the risk of meningioma.

Methods: We retrospectively collected records of diagnosis of meningioma for women aged 50 years and above during 2011-2016 and dispense of HRT prior to meningioma diagnosis in three tertiary hospitals in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13138DOI Listing
February 2019

Phenotype and Function of Activated Natural Killer Cells From Patients With Prostate Cancer: Patient-Dependent Responses to Priming and IL-2 Activation.

Front Immunol 2018 25;9:3169. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

John van Geest Cancer Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Although immunotherapy has emerged as the "next generation" of cancer treatments, it has not yet been shown to be successful in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer, for whom therapeutic options remain limited to radiotherapy and androgen (hormone) deprivation therapy. Previous studies have shown that priming natural killer (NK) cells isolated from healthy individuals via co-incubation with CTV-1 cells derived from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) enhances their cytotoxicity against human DU145 (metastatic) prostate cancer cells, but it remains unknown to what extent NK cells from patients with prostate cancer can be triggered to kill. Herein, we explore the phenotype of peripheral blood NK cells in patients with prostate cancer and compare the capacity of CTV-1 cell-mediated priming and IL-2 stimulation to trigger NK cell-mediated killing of the human PC3 (metastatic) prostate cancer cell line. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362408PMC
January 2019

Correction: Polymorphisms at phase I-metabolizing enzyme and hormone receptor loci influence the response to anti-TNF therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Pharmacogenomics J 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Genomic Oncology Area, GENYO Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research, Pfizer / University of Granada / Andalusian Regional Government, PTS Granada, Granada, Spain.

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Ana Rodríguez-Ramos, which was incorrectly given as Ana Rodríguez Ramos. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41397-019-0084-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Function and mechanisms of enteroendocrine cells and gut hormones in metabolism.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Gut hormones have many key roles in the control of metabolism, as they target diverse tissues involved in the control of intestinal function, insulin secretion, nutrient assimilation and food intake. Produced by scattered cells found along the length of the intestinal epithelium, gut hormones generate signals related to the rate of nutrient absorption, the composition of the luminal milieu and the integrity of the epithelial barrier. Gut hormones already form the basis for existing and developing therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, exemplified by the licensed glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) mimetics and dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors that enhance GLP1 receptor activation. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-019-0168-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41574-019-0168-8DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Comprehensive RNA sequencing and co-expression network analysis to complete the biosynthetic pathway of coumestrol, a phytoestrogen.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 13;9(1):1934. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Plant Science and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Coumestrol (CMS), a coumestan isoflavone, plays key roles in nodulation through communication with rhizobia, and has been used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy in humans. Because CMS content is controlled by multiple genetic factors, the genetic basis of CMS biosynthesis has remained unclear. We identified soybean genotypes with consistently high (Daewonkong) or low (SS0903-2B-21-1-2) CMS content over 2 years. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-38219-6
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38219-6DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Helicobacter pylori and nutrition: a bidirectional communication.

Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Unit of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy.

Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a gram negative flagellated pathogen acid-resistant bacterium; it belongs to the order Campylobacterales that is wide spread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world population. HP infection is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and with 3 to 6-fold increased relative risk for developing gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MA LT) lymphoma. For this reason HP is recognized by the World Health Organization as a Class I human carcinogen. Read More

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https://www.minervamedica.it/index2.php?show=R08Y9999N00A190
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S1121-421X.19.02568-6DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of IGF1/IGFBP3 Molar Ratio as an Effective Tool for Assessing the Safety of GH Therapy in Small-for-Gestational-Age, GH-Deficient and Prader-Willi Children

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche St-Antoine UMR S938, AP-HP, Trousseau Hospital, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, 75012, Paris, France

Objective: IGF1 concentration is the most widely used parameter for the monitoring and therapeutic adaptation of recombinant human growth hormone (rGH) treatment. However, more than half the variation of the therapeutic response is accounted for by variability in the serum concentrations of IGF1 and IGFBP3. We therefore compared the use of IGF1/IGFBP3 molar ratio with that of IGF1 concentration alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2018.0277DOI Listing
February 2019

TARBP2-Enhanced Resistance during Tamoxifen Treatment in Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 12;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704, Taiwan.

Tamoxifen is the most widely used hormone therapy in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, which accounts for approximately 70% of all breast cancers. Although patients who receive tamoxifen therapy benefit with respect to an improved overall prognosis, resistance and cancer recurrence still occur and remain important clinical challenges. A recent study identified TAR (HIV-1) RNA binding protein 2 (TARBP2) as an oncogene that promotes breast cancer metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020210DOI Listing
February 2019

TSH-Suppressive Therapy: A Thorny Issue.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2017 27;4(2):000547. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

UOC Medicina Interna, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy.

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-suppressive therapy with levothyroxine is a cornerstone of thyroid carcinoma follow-up therapy, but the achievement of therapeutic goals must be balanced against L-T4 side effects. We describe the case of a 64-year-old cardiopathic patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma and autoimmune thyroiditis, whose cardiac condition worsened during TSH-suppressive therapy. TSH concentrations also fluctuated widely because of changing intestinal absorption due to coeliac disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12890/2016_000547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346897PMC

Hormone-replacement therapy and lobular cancers: new deals and old myths.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2008 May;3(3):287-290

b Academic Department of Gynaecological Oncology, University of Turin Mauriziano Umberto I° Hospital of Turin & Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment of Candiolo, Turin, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.3.3.287DOI Listing

Acquired disorders of the thyroid following treatment for head and neck cancer.

Authors:
Richard O Wein

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2013 Sep;8(5):461-467

a Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

The multimodality management of head and neck cancer routinely utilizes radiation therapy in treatment. The hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid gland may be included within treatment fields. The incidence of human papilloma virus-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma has seen a dramatic increase over the last 3 decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.2013.827396DOI Listing
September 2013

Modes of application of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for endometriosis treatment.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;1(6):709-714

c Zentrum für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie and Reproduktionsmedizin, Kinderwunschzentrum, Langenhagen, Germany.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists have gained extensive clinical use, ranging from reproduction to oncology. There are many clinically available GnRH agonists and these can be used via various methods of delivery, ranging from nasal application to daily subcutaneous injection and various forms of depot preparations. The depot preparations are available as once-monthly intramuscular or subcutaneous injections or 3-month depot moieties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.1.6.709DOI Listing
November 2006

Activation of the growth hormone receptor.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2006 Mar;1(2):189-198

b University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Building 80, Services Road, St Lucia, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

Growth hormone (GH) is a major regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism. There are extensive clinical applications for GH or its antagonists, including treatments for dwarfism, cancer and metabolic wasting. Owing to this, there is considerable interest in the mechanisms of GH receptor (GHR) activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.1.2.189DOI Listing

Cinacalcet hydrochloride: calcimimetic for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2006 Mar;1(2):167-179

d Department of Nephrology. A. Manzoni Hospital, Via dell'eremo 9/11 23900 Lecco, Italy.

Mineral metabolism disorders, including those related to secondary hyperparathyroidism, affect a large number of patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with increased relative risk of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The traditional therapy of secondary hyperparathyroidism based on vitamin D compounds and calcium-based phosphate binders is often limited by the increase of serum calcium and phosphorus levels limiting the dose that can be given safely, and thus, preventing the attainment of treatment targets. Cinacalcet hydrochloride (Sensipar, Mimpara, Parareg) is the first in a new class of therapeutic agents, the calcimimetics, that increase the sensitivity of calcium-sensing receptors to the extracellular calcium ions, thus lowering parathyroid hormone production and release, decreasing serum calcium and phosphorous concentrations simultaneously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.1.2.167DOI Listing

Genetics, clinical management and natural history of congenital hypothyroidism.

Authors:
John S Fuqua

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2006 Mar;1(2):265-279

a Associate Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Section of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, 702 Barnhill Drive, Room 5960, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Congenital hypothyroidism has an incidence of 1:3000-4000 newborns. In the past, it was a common cause of mental retardation, although newborn screening has improved the prognosis. Several transcription factors are crucial to the early organogenesis of the thyroid, including TITF1, FOXE1, PAX8 and HHEX. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.1.2.265DOI Listing

Pramlintide: profile of an amylin analog.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2012 Nov;7(6):599-609

a Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Amylin is a naturally occurring hormone that regulates food intake and postprandial glucose excursions. Amylin is synthesized in the β cell and cosecreted with insulin. Type 1 diabetes and insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetes are amylin-deficient as well as insulin-deficient states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eem.12.50DOI Listing
November 2012

Recent developments in bone anabolic therapy for osteoporosis.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2012 Nov;7(6):677-685

c Institute for Advancing Translational Medicine in Bone and Joint Diseases, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Osteoporosis is a disorder in which there is a net bone loss and microarchitectural deterioration with an increased risk of bone fracture because of uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption. The treatment of osteoporosis aims to inhibit bone resorption by osteoclasts and/or promote bone formation by osteoblasts. However, most of the current approaches for treating osteoporosis focus on inhibiting bone resorption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eem.12.63DOI Listing
November 2012

An epidemiological overview of the relationship between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2011 May;6(3):397-409

b National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 0200 Australia.

Large-scale randomized clinical trials and observational studies have consistently found that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of breast cancer. More recently, ecological studies have shown correlations between dramatic reductions in use of HRT in many countries, and declines in the rates of breast cancer in older women. Meta-analyses of data from the trials and observational studies show that the increase in breast cancer risk is greater for combined estrogen-progestin therapies compared with estrogen alone; that for both types of preparation, breast cancer risk increases with duration of use; and that the risks decrease relatively quickly after cessation of use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eem.11.31DOI Listing

Markers of sensitivity, dependence and resistance to endocrine therapy for breast cancer.

Authors:
William R Miller

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2011 May;6(3):345-357

a University of Edinburgh, 2 Stoneycroft Road, South Queensferry, West Lothian, EH30 9HX, UK.

Owing to its efficacy and relative lack of toxicities, endocrine therapy is a major treatment modality for breast cancer. However, resistance and the inability to accurately predict response are obstacles to optimal management. There is a need to identify markers of clinical response and elucidate mechanisms of resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eem.11.26DOI Listing

How the hypothalamus controls glucose production: an update.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2006 Sep;1(5):601-608

b University of Cincinnati, Genome Research Institute, ML0506, 2140 East Galbraith Rd, Cincinnati, OH 45237, USA.

Recent evidence highlights a crucial role of the brain in the control of glucose homeostasis. The hypothalamus senses and integrates signals of fuel abundance, such as circulating macronutrients (glucose and fatty acids) and nutrient-induced hormones (insulin and leptin). This, in turn, results in the activation of neural pathways that return circulating nutrients to baseline by reducing hepatic glucose production and food intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.1.5.601DOI Listing
September 2006

Plausible biochemical mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment ("chemobrain"), a condition that significantly impairs the quality of life of many cancer survivors.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA; Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA. Electronic address:

Increasing numbers of cancer patients survive and live longer than five years after therapy, but very often side effects of cancer treatment arise at same time. One of the side effects, chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI), also called "chemobrain" or "chemofog" by patients, brings enormous challenges to cancer survivors following successful chemotherapeutic treatment. Decreased abilities of learning, memory, attention, executive function and processing speed in cancer survivors with CICI, are some of the challenges that greatly impair survivors' quality of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2019

A follistatin-based molecule increases muscle and bone mass without affecting the red blood cell count in mice.

FASEB J 2019 Feb 13:fj201801969RR. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Renal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Inhibitors of the activin receptor signaling pathway (IASPs) have become candidate therapeutics for sarcopenia and bone remodeling disorders because of their ability to increase muscle and bone mass. However, IASPs utilizing activin type IIA and IIB receptors are also potent stimulators of erythropoiesis, a feature that may restrict their usage to anemic patients because of increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Based on the endogenous TGF-β superfamily antagonist follistatin (FST), a molecule in the IASP class, FST-mFc, was generated and tested in both ovariectomized and naive BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201801969RRDOI Listing
February 2019

Adjuvant chemotherapy in lobular carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathological score identifies high-risk patient with survival benefit.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, INSERM, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, CRCM, Marseille, France.

Background: Invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs) represent approximately 10% of all breast cancers. Despite this high frequency, benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) is still unclear.

Methods: Our objective was to investigate the impact of CT on survival in ILC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-019-05160-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification of growth patterns of preterm and small-for-gestational age children from birth to 4 years - do they catch up?

J Perinat Med 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Center for Medicine and Society, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background A legitimate indication for growth hormone (GH) therapy in children born too light or short at birth [small-for-gestational age (SGA)] exists in Germany and the European Union only if special criteria are met. Methods We conducted a longitudinal, multi-centered study on full-term appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA, n=1496) and pre-term born SGA (n=173) and full-term SGA children (n=891) in Germany from 2006 to 2010. We analyzed height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2018-0239DOI Listing
February 2019

dTMP-GH Fusion Protein Therapy Improves Survival after Radiation Injury Combined with Skin-Burn Trauma in Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Combined Injury, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Exposure to ionizing radiation combined with traumatic tissue injury is an important life-threatening condition found in the civilian populations after nuclear and radiological events. The significance feature of radiation combined injury (RCI) is the severe combined effect, which makes the injury more complicated. At present, there are limited measures available to treat RCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR5218.1DOI Listing
February 2019

Metabolic and hormonal effects of a combined Myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol therapy on patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Ginekol Pol 2019 ;90(1):7-10

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Clinical Hospital of Interior, Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a combined Myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) therapy on the hormonal and metabolic parameters of women with PCOS. Prospective clinical study. Clinical Study registration number - EUPAS25705 Material and methods: Seventy women diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria were enrolled in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.2019.0002DOI Listing
January 2019
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Brain metastases and treatment: multiplying cognitive toxicities.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

a Institut Curie , 26 rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris , France.

Introduction: Thirty per cent of cancer patients develop brain metastases, with multiple combination or sequential treatment modalities available, to treat systemic or central nervous system (CNS) disease. Most patients experience toxicities as a result of these treatments, of which cognitive impairment is one of the adverse events most commonly reported, causing major impairment of the patient's quality of life. Areas covered: This article reviews the role of cancer treatments in cognitive decline of patients with brain metastases: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, immunotherapies and hormone therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2019.1582336DOI Listing
February 2019

Turner syndrome: update on current therapies.

Authors:
Carolyn Bondy

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2007 May;2(3):359-366

a Chief Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institutes of Health, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, 10 Center Dr., Rm 1-3330, Bethesda, MD 20982, USA.

New treatments for girls and women with Turner syndrome (monosomy X) have dramatically improved their quality of life and health. Young girls are treated with growth hormone to enhance adult height, and with estrogen to induce and maintain feminization, and prevent osteoporosis. Vigilant screening for otitis, thyroid disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes allows for early and effective medical treatment of these common problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.2.3.359DOI Listing

Pituitary-directed medical treatment of Cushing's disease.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2009 May;4(3):263-272

b Clinica di Endocrinologia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, 60100 Ancona, Italy.

The treatment of Cushing's disease is very complex and represents a challenge for clinicians. Transphenoidal surgical excision of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma remains the treatment of choice but, unfortunately, the rate of cure at long-term follow-up is suboptimal and recurrences are high, even in the hands of skilled neurosurgeons. Other treatment options, such as bilateral adrenalectomy and pituitary radiotherapy, are currently in use but no treatment has proven fully satisfactory during the lengthy progress of this chronic and devastating disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eem.09.10DOI Listing

Current and future perspectives on recombinant growth hormone for the treatment of obesity.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2008 Jan;3(1):75-90

c Department of Endocrinology, CHU de Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium.

The similarities between patients with untreated growth hormone (GH) deficiency and those with the cardiometabolic syndrome and the beneficial effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) on body composition have led to the hypothesis that rhGH treatment may have utility in obesity. GH release is reduced in the setting of obesity, primarily due to hyperinsulinism and increased free fatty acid levels. We reviewed the outcomes of 23 clinical studies carried out between 1987 and 2006 that examined the effects of rhGH administration in the obese state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.3.1.75DOI Listing
January 2008

Risk of diabetes insipidus after pituitary surgery.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2008 Jan;3(1):23-27

b Academic Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital/RCSI Medical School, Dublin 9, Ireland.

Diabetes insipidus is a common complication of pituitary surgery, occurring acutely in 18-30% of operations. Most patients recover full posterior function but a minority sustain sufficient damage to vasopressin-secreting neurons to develop permanent diabetes insipidus. The triplephase response, comprising early transient diabetes insipidus, followed by a period of antidiuresis and hyponatremia, before resolving into permanent diabetes insipidus, is an uncommon but important variant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.3.1.23DOI Listing
January 2008

Initial combination therapy with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, and metformin for patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Authors:
Tina Vilsbøll

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2008 Jan;3(1):13-19

a Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Niels Andersens Vej 65, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark.

The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide potentiate nutrient-dependent insulin secretion following meal ingestion. Metabolic control can be improved markedly by administration of exogenous GLP-1, but the native peptide is almost immediately degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 and, therefore, has little clinical value. Oral formulations that inhibit DPP-4, thereby prolonging the duration of endogenous incretin action, have, therefore, been developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.3.1.13DOI Listing
January 2008
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