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    Ruxolitinib-associated infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Am J Hematol 2017 Nov 18. Epub 2017 Nov 18.
    Research Center on Thromboembolic Disorders and Antithrombotic Therapies, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Ruxolitinib exerts immunosuppressive activity that may increase the risk of infectious complications. We performed a systematic review of the literature with the aim of estimating the risk of infections in patients treated with ruxolitinib. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE database. Read More

    Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma at the Site of a Herpes Zoster Scar.
    World J Oncol 2012 Aug 26;3(4):199-203. Epub 2012 Aug 26.
    Depts of Dermatology, MD Anderson Cancer Center and University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas; 6655 Travis Street, Suite 980 Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
    Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, occurs upon reactivation of a primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). Risk factors for reactivation include stress, older age, and immunosuppression, all of which are associated with a decrease in host immunity. Common complications of herpes zoster include scarring and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Read More

    Family History of Zoster Risk of Developing Herpes Zoster.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA.
    Background: Studies have investigated a possible association between family history of HZ and the occurrence of HZ. However, the results were inconclusive and susceptible to bias. We evaluated this association in an elderly population. Read More

    Herpes zoster in hospitalized adults: Practice gaps, new evidence, and remaining questions.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Electronic address:
    Herpes zoster can present many uncertainties for consulting dermatologists. We review the current guidelines and recent literature on important issues that arise in the care of hospitalized patients with herpes zoster, including infection control isolation practices, treatment courses for zoster and acute zoster-associated pain, and indications for long-term prophylaxis. We present the findings of an inpatient zoster management practices survey of the membership of the Society of Dermatology Hospitalists, an expert resource group of the American Academy of Dermatology, and discuss directions for future investigation and potential opportunities for management improvements in light of these collective data. Read More

    Post herpes zoster infection neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
    Mult Scler Relat Disord 2017 Nov 27;18:93-94. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Microbiology, St. John's Medical College Hospital, Sarjapura Road, Bangalore 560034, Karnataka, India.
    Neuromyelitis optica is a severe autoimmune demyelinating disease; however, the trigger for autoimmunity in an individual patient is unclear. Here, we report the case of a 48 year old female presenting with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in the cervical region of the spinal cord two weeks post herpes zoster infection in right C6 dermatome. Though post herpetic myelitis was provisionally diagnosed, serological evaluation revealed aquaporin-4 antibody positivity, confirming the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Read More

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis in an MS patient receiving Fingolimod.
    Mult Scler Relat Disord 2017 Nov 12;18:106-108. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; Universidad ICESI, Cali, Colombia. Electronic address:
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which lymphocytes target putative myelin antigens in the CNS, causing inflammation and neurodegeneration. Fingolimod (FTY720) is an immunosuppressive drug used as a second line therapy for relapsing forms of MS due to its safety profile and good response to treatment. Despite its safety, there are still concerns about the possibility of Fingolimod being linked to the development of opportunistic infections like disseminated varicella zoster infections and herpes simplex encephalitis. Read More

    Tofacitinib: A Review in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
    Drugs 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Springer, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, 0754, New Zealand.
    Tofacitinib (Xeljanz(®)) is a potent, selective JAK inhibitor that preferentially inhibits Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and JAK3. In the EU, oral tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant of, one or more DMARDs. Several clinical studies of ≤ 24 months' duration showed that tofacitinib monotherapy (as first- or second-line treatment) and combination therapy with a conventional synthetic DMARD (csDMARD; as second- or third-line treatment) was effective in reducing signs and symptoms of disease and improving health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), with benefits sustained during long-term therapy (≤ 96 months). Read More

    Varicella zoster virus-associated morbidity and mortality in Africa - a systematic review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 14;17(1):717. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Vaccines for Africa Initiative, Division of Medical Microbiology & Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and herpes zoster. These vaccine preventable diseases are common globally. Most available data on VZV epidemiology are from industrialised temperate countries and cannot be used to guide decisions on the immunization policy against VZV in Africa. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of baricitinib in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Subgroup analyses of four multinational phase 3 randomized trials.
    Mod Rheumatol 2017 Nov 14:1-9. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    g Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine , Keio University School of Medicine , Tokyo , Japan.
    Objectives: To evaluate efficacy/safety of baricitinib for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japanese subpopulations from four phase 3 studies, and assess whether results in these subpopulations are consistent with the overall study populations.

    Methods: Subgroup analyses (394 patients) of four phase 3 randomized controlled trials: RA-BEGIN [no or limited treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)], RA-BEAM [inadequate response (IR) to methotrexate], RA-BUILD [IR to conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs)], and RA-BEACON (IR to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors receiving csDMARDs).

    Results: For American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement (ACR20) response rate, Japanese patients receiving baricitinib 4-mg showed similar improvement compared to methotrexate at Week 24 (72 versus 69%; RA-BEGIN), and greater improvement compared with placebo at Week 12 (67 versus 34%; RA-BEAM). Read More

    The Influence of Hepatic and Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of a Treatment for Herpes Zoster, Amenamevir (ASP2151): Phase 1, Open-Label, Single-Dose, Parallel-Group Studies.
    Adv Ther 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
    Introduction: Amenamevir (ASP2151) is a nonnucleoside human herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor that was approved in Japan for the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles) in 2017. This article reports the results of two clinical trials that investigated the effects of renal and hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of amenamevir.

    Methods: These studies were phase 1, open-label, single-dose (oral 400 mg), parallel-group studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of amenamevir in healthy participants and participants with moderate hepatic impairment and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment. Read More

    Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion with optic perineuritis following herpes zoster dermatitis in an immunocompetent child.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;65(11):1233-1235
    Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    A 15-year-old healthy boy developed acute, rapidly progressing visual loss in left eye following herpes zoster dermatitis, with a combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), along with optic perineuritis. Laboratory tests were negative. Despite an empirical, intensive antiviral treatment with systemic corticosteroids, and vision could not be restored in the affected eye. Read More

    Sixteen-year history of rituximab therapy for 1085 pemphigus vulgaris patients: A systematic review.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2017 Nov 10;54:131-138. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Read More

    Vaccinations in Older Adults.
    Clin Geriatr Med 2018 Feb 14;34(1):131-143. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, 750 North Lakeshore Drive, 10th Floor, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
    Vaccines are important for preventing infections in adults aged ≥65 years. Older adults are at increased risk for complications from vaccine-preventable illnesses due to age-associated changes in immune function and chronic medical comorbidities. Vaccination rates for older adults remain low despite widely accepted practice guidelines. Read More

    The effectiveness of shingles vaccine among Albertans aged 50 years or older: A retrospective cohort study.
    Vaccine 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3D17 TRW Building, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: We assessed the effectiveness of shingles vaccine in preventing incident shingles among Alberta residents aged 50 years or older over the period 2009 - 2015, using administrative health data.

    Methods: The cohort comprised of Albertans from the Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan Registry (AHCIP) as of June 30, 2009 and aged 50 years or older. Those who received shingles vaccine were identified from the provincial pharmaceutical information network. Read More

    Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccine in Adults With Autoimmune Disease: A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Oct;65(7):1174-1182
    Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey.
    Background: Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated zoster vaccine (ZVIN) were evaluated in adults with autoimmune disease.

    Methods: Adults with autoimmune disease treated with immunosuppressive therapy (biologic or nonbiologic) were randomized to receive 4 doses of ZVIN, ZVIN containing a higher quantity of antigen, or placebo. To measure varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific immune responses using glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT), blood samples were collected at baseline, post-doses 2, 3, and 4. Read More

    Decreased Immunity to Varicella Zoster Virus in Giant Cell Arteritis.
    Front Immunol 2017 24;8:1377. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Introduction: Herpes zoster, which can have a major impact on quality of life, results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. We hypothesized that giant cell arteritis (GCA) patients are at increased risk of herpes zoster because of treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids and advanced age. Aim of the study, therefore, was to determine cell-mediated and humoral immunity to VZV in patients with GCA, patients with closely related disease polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR; treated with lower doses of glucocorticoids) and healthy controls (HCs). Read More

    Decreased absolute numbers of CD3(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells during aging in herpes zoster patients.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 8;7(1):15039. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.
    Herpes zoster (HZ) is an infectious dermatosis with high incidence worldwide. Age is a key risk factor for HZ, and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the main sequelae. Until now, no index has been available to predict the pathogenesis of PHN, and rare reports have focused on the immune response during aging and PHN. Read More

    A RARE CASE OF INFECTIOUS MULTIFOCAL SERPIGINOID CHOROIDITIS.
    Acta Clin Croat 2016 12;55(4):667-70
    Multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis is an infectious variety of serpiginous choroiditis. The disease is characterized by infectious etiology and overlapping clinical features in an intermediary form of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy and serpiginous choroiditis. In a 33-year-old patient, bilateral multiple placoid partially confluent chorioretinal lesions were diagnosed after a febrile flu-like episode. Read More

    TREATMENT OF POSTHERPETIC NEURALGIA WITH 5% TOPICAL LIDOCAINE PLASTER – EXPERIENCE FROM A SMALL COUNTY HOSPITAL: CASE REPORT.
    Acta Clin Croat 2016 12;55(4):655-8
    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) characterized by chronic neuropathic pain is a common complication of herpes zoster. We investigated the efficacy, safety and cost of treating refractory chronic neuropathic pain with 5% topical lidocaine plaster (TLP) in a female patient attending pain unit at a small county hospital. An 80-year-old female diagnosed with PHN presented with severe left intercostal allodynia and hyperalgesia up to the root of the fourth to tenth thoracic dermatome. Read More

    Low intrathecal antibody production despite high seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in multiple sclerosis: a review of the literature.
    J Neurol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Molecular Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently have an intrathecal production of antibodies to different common viruses, which can be detected by elevated antiviral antibody indices (AIs). There is a strong and consistent association of MS and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection.

    Objective: To systematically compare the frequencies of intrathecal antibody production to EBV, measles virus, rubella virus, varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in patients with MS. Read More

    Widespread activation of antisense transcription of the host genome during herpes simplex virus 1 infection.
    Genome Biol 2017 Oct 31;18(1):209. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, 13125, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Herpesviruses can infect a wide range of animal species. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is one of the eight herpesviruses that can infect humans and is prevalent worldwide. Herpesviruses have evolved multiple ways to adapt the infected cells to their needs, but knowledge about these transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications is sparse. Read More

    Varicella Zoster Virus specific T cell responses in untreated Giant Cell Arteritis.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Translational Immunology, Dep. of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a large vessel vasculitis of unknown cause. Infections were long suspected as potential disease triggers, yet a disease causing pathogen has not been identified to date(1). Recently, several studies reported Varicella zoster virus (VZV) particles in artery biopsies(2). Read More

    Impact of Herpes Zoster and Post-Herpetic Neuralgia on Health-Related Quality of Life in Japanese Adults Aged 60 Years or Older: Results from a Prospective, Observational Cohort Study.
    Clin Drug Investig 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Health Economics Department, GSK, Wavre, Belgium.
    Background And Objectives: Herpes zoster (HZ) and its most frequent complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), have been shown to considerably impact quality of life (QoL). This has not yet been demonstrated in Japan.

    Methods: QoL in HZ and PHN patients was evaluated using the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory (ZBPI), EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D), Short-Form 12 version 2. Read More

    [Inhibition of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription is a new treatment modality of rheumatoid arthritis].
    Ugeskr Laeger 2017 Oct;179(44)
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease. The introduction of a new class of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, which work by inhibiting the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, has led to new possibilities for achieving remission of RA. Tofacitinib and baricitinib are both JAK/STAT inhibitors, which have shown efficacy in line with anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment. Read More

    Herpes zoster meningitis in immunocompetent children: Two case reports and a literature review.
    Pediatr Int 2017 Oct;59(10):1116-1118
    Department of Pediatrics, Kitano Hospital, Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Osaka City, Osaka, Japan.
    We encountered two cases of Herpes zoster (HZ) meningitis, a rarely occurring complication of HZ, in previously healthy children. One patient treated with i.v. Read More

    Koebner's sheep in Wolf's clothing: does the isotopic response exist as a distinct phenomenon?
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Oct 28. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Departments of Dermatology, Allergology and Venereology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Until 1995, a case of psoriasis developing within the dermatome of a healed herpes zoster was taken as a Koebner phenomenon. In this year, however, the term "isotopic response" was introduced by Wolf et al. to describe "the occurrence of a new skin disorder at the site of another, unrelated and already healed skin disease", thus appearing "on apparently unaffected and healthy skin. Read More

    Herpes Zoster in the Older Adult.
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 2017 Dec;31(4):811-826
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC), Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (LSCVAMC), Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address:
    Herpes zoster (HZ) is the result of reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) and occurs most frequently in older adults. Classically, HZ presents as a unilateral, selflimited, dermatomal rash. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common sequela, presenting as severe pain that persists after the rash has resolved. Read More

    A randomized lot-to-lot immunogenicity consistency study of the candidate zoster vaccine HZ/su.
    Vaccine 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Pfizer Inc., 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: The risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ) increases with age and is thought to be associated with a decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults. The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) recombinant subunit vaccine (HZ/su) showed >90% efficacy in the prevention of HZ when administered in adults ≥50 years of age. Here we aim to evaluate immunogenicity consistency of 3 different HZ/su vaccine lots and to assess safety of these lots. Read More

    Herpes Zoster During Immunosuppressive Therapy For Autoimmune Diseases.
    J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2017 Jul-Sep;29(3):481-485
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Background: Patients on immunosuppressive therapy are at a greater risk for herpes zoster reactivation and are more likely to have adverse outcomes. Propylactic antivrials and vaccinations may potentially prevent these complications.

    Methods: Medical literature addressing the clinical course and therapy of herpes zoster in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune disorders, and the roles of anti-viral prophylaxis and vaccination was reviewed. Read More

    Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of the Interactions of Amenamevir (ASP2151) with Ketoconazole, Rifampicin, Midazolam, and Warfarin in Healthy Adults.
    Adv Ther 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Introduction: Amenamevir is a nonnucleoside antiherpes virus compound available for treating herpes zoster infections. Four studies aimed to determine any potential interactions between amenamevir and ketoconazole, rifampicin, midazolam, or warfarin in healthy male participants.

    Methods: Two studies were open-label studies that evaluated the effects of multiple doses of ketoconazole (400 mg) and rifampicin (600 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of amenamevir. Read More

    Epidemiological Profile of Acute Viral Encephalitis.
    Indian J Pediatr 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Radiology, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Objective: To study the etiology and clinico-epidemiological profile of acute viral encephalitis in children with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES).

    Methods: An observational study including 100 patients fulfilling the criteria for AES was conducted in children of age group 1 mo - 16 y. Viral isolation was done on RD cells, HEp-2 cells and Vero cells from the cerebrospinal fluid samples of suspected viral encephalitis (VE) cases. Read More

    Clinical Profile of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a South Indian Patient Population.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Oct 26:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    c Department of Biostatistics , National Institute of Mental Health Sciences , Bangalore , India.
    Purpose: To analyze and compare the clinical profile of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) patients in a South Indian patient population aged <60 years and ≥60 years and determine the risk factors for recurrence of ocular inflammation.

    Methods: Retrospective study of 249 cases between 2006 and 2016 from two tertiary referral eye centres in south india.

    Results: Out of 249 cases, 189 cases were <60 years (Group 1) and 60 cases were aged ≥60 years (Group2). Read More

    Association of serum Ninjurin2 levels with neurologic damage and postherpetic neuralgia occurrence: an observational cohort study in chinese herpeszoster patients.
    Oncotarget 2017 Sep 4;8(42):71520-71527. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Pain Management, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.
    Objectives: Postherpetic neuralgia(PHN) is the most common complication of herpeszoster (HZ) infection. The study aimed to explore whether serum Ninjurin2 (for nerve injury-induced protein 2, NINJ2), a novel neurologic damage related protein, is associated with nerve injury and the occurrence of PHN.

    Results: Seventy-four of the eighty patients completed the study. Read More

    Acupuncture and Cutaneous Medicine: Is It Effective?
    Med Acupunct 2017 Oct;29(5):269-275
    Medical Acupuncture of Chester County, West Chester, PA.
    Background: In China, acupuncture has been used as a form of medical therapy for more than 2500 years. It is a part of traditional medical practice and is used to treat the entire spectrum of human and veterinary disease. Although dermatologic disease has received much less attention in worldwide acupuncture research than pain and musculoskeletal conditions, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting acupuncture's usefulness in this area. Read More

    An updated review of the JAK1/2 inhibitor (ruxolitininb) in the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.
    Future Oncol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Haematology, Guy's Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT, UK.
    Ruxolitinib (Rux), a JAK1/2 inhibitor, has been approved for patients with myelofibrosis and in polycythemia vera with inadequate response/intolerance to hydroxycarbamide. Studies have demonstrated that Rux improves disease-related symptoms and splenomegaly. A late emerging observation from two Phase III trials was that Rux was associated with survival advantage in comparison with placebo or other available therapies in myelofibrosis. Read More

    Studies with herpes zoster vaccines in immune compromised patients.
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 Dec 7;16(12):1217-1230. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    c Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology , University of Alabama , Birmingham , AL , USA.
    Introduction: The active component of the herpes zoster vaccine (ZVL), licensed for people ≥50 years of age, is a live attenuated varicella-zoster virus. ZVL is contraindicated for immune compromised individuals, with limited regard to the degree of immunosuppression. Areas covered: This review evaluates phase I and II and observational studies for ZVL, and published reports of the off-label use of ZVL, for conditions and therapies for which investigators considered the risk-benefit for using ZVL to be favorable. Read More

    Mood Disorders and Risk of Herpes Zoster in Two Population-Based Case-Control Studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom.
    Am J Epidemiol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    We examined the association between mood disorders and risk of herpes zoster in two case-control studies using data from nationwide Danish registries and practices in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We included incident zoster cases diagnosed in general practice (using systemic antivirals as proxy in Denmark) or hospital during 1997-2013 in Denmark (n = 190,671) and during 2000-2013 in the UK (n = 177,361). We risk-set sampled four matched population controls per case. Read More

    Human Cytomegalovirus vaccine development: Immune responses to look into vaccine strategy.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    a State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics , National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen , China.
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes considerable morbidity and disability in high risk, immunocompromised populations including recipients of solid organ transplants, and fetuses whose immune systems are not yet mature. Vaccines aimed at ameliorating the severity of disease and preventing HCMV infection can be categorized into two main approaches of vaccine design, with one focusing on virus modification and the other on individual antigens. However, no candidates in either class have been successful in achieving durable and protective immunity. Read More

    Clinical efficacy of transforaminal epidural injection for management of zoster-associated pain: a retrospective analysis.
    Skeletal Radiol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-Daero, 137-701, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Objectives: Transforaminal epidural injection (TFEI) has superior accessibility to the dorsal root ganglion, which is an essential location of pain signaling in herpes zoster. However, the effectiveness of TFEI for herpes zoster patients has not previously been studied. We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of TFEI for pain control and prevention of PHN in patients with acute and subacute herpes zoster. Read More

    Projections of zoster incidence in Australia based on demographic and transmission models of varicella-zoster virus infection.
    Vaccine 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    School of Public Health and Community Medicine, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Botany Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Electronic address:
    Re-exposure to varicella infection is believed to delay the occurrence of herpes zoster (HZ), which has led to predictions of increased HZ following introduction of varicella vaccination programs. However, there is evidence of rising HZ rates before vaccination was introduced. Here, we explore a potential explanation for this effect through demographic change leading to reductions in varicella exposure and boosting in the context of Australia over the 20th century. Read More

    Varicella and herpes zoster vaccine development: lessons learned.
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 Dec 30;16(12):1191-1201. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    b Division of Infection and Immunity , University College London , London , UK.
    Introduction: Before vaccination, varicella zoster virus (VZV), which is endemic worldwide, led to almost universal infection. This neurotropic virus persists lifelong by establishing latency in sensory ganglia, where its reactivation is controlled by VZV-specific T-cell immunity. Lifetime risk of VZV reactivation (zoster) is around 30%. Read More

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