4,777 results match your criteria Herpes Simplex Encephalitis


[Structural epilepsy or herpes simplex encephalitis relapse: diagnostic problems].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2022 ;122(5):123-127

Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

The article gives the clinical case of herpes simplex encephalitis relapse with the resistant seizures in a child. What we describe is a clinical approach towards the differential diagnostic of the seizures in structural epilepsy, which are resistant to anticonvulsants, or late herpes simplex encephalitis relapse. Good clinical perspective may be the indication of the intratecal synthesis of the IgG-specific antibodies to the herpes simplex type 1 and 2. Read More

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Atypical anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis associated with varicella zoster virus infection.

J Neurovirol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Neurology Department, Mongi Ben Hamida Institute of Neurology, University of Tunis El Manar, Omar Chedly Street 1029, Bab Saâdoun, Tunis, Tunisia.

The triggering effect of herpes simplex virus infection on the development of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is now well established. However, there are very few reports that has linked a varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. In this report, we describe a case of a 57-year-old man presented with atypical clinical presentation of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with gait ataxia, complete ophtalmoplegia, and abolished reflexes followed by drowsiness and confusion. Read More

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A Case Report of Herpes Simplex-1 Viral Encephalitis Complicated by Hemorrhagic Conversion.

Cureus 2022 Apr 18;14(4):e24255. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Critical Care Medicine, Nuvance Health at Vassar Brothers Medical Center, Poughkeepsie, USA.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of nonendemic sporadic encephalitis in the United States. Treatment with acyclovir has been proven to reduce mortality by 50%. Antiviral therapy should be initiated immediately in patients with clinical suspicion of viral encephalitis and should not be delayed by serological confirmation of the diagnosis. Read More

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Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis: A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Jul 8;17(7):2428-2431. Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Neurology, Changsha Central Hospital, Yuhua District, Changsha, China.

Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome presents with the features of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is rare and has been described in only a few case reports. Our case describes a 17-year-old female with no significant previous medical history presenting with an acute onset of fever, headache, and epilepsy, similar to HSE. Computed tomography of the brain showed bilateral basal ganglia calcification. Read More

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How do we reduce acyclovir overuse? Impact of FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel tests for pediatric patients.

J Infect Chemother 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Kobe Children's Hospital, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: Few Japanese hospitals can perform in-house cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen for herpes simplex virus, leading to patients being administered acyclovir (ACV) for several days. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel (ME Panel) is a multiplex PCR test that can identify 14 major pathogens within 1 h. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the ME Panel in children admitted with central nervous system infections in Japan. Read More

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A Review of the Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Six Immunocompetent Patients.

Cureus 2022 Apr 13;14(4):e24129. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Infectious Disease, Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, Fayetteville, USA.

Introduction The optimal treatment regimen for herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis is ill-defined. Current guidelines recommend the initiation of acyclovir in all suspected cases of encephalitis; however, there is limited research regarding the details of acyclovir treatment or the adjuvant use of corticosteroids. Specifically, there is a paucity of evidence-based guidelines detailing the optimal management of HSV-1 encephalitis in immunocompetent patients. Read More

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Z-DNA binding protein 1 mediates necroptotic and apoptotic cell death pathways in murine astrocytes following herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 May 13;19(1):109. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC, 28223, USA.

Background: The mechanisms by which glia respond to viral central nervous system (CNS) pathogens are now becoming apparent with the demonstration that microglia and astrocytes express an array of pattern recognition receptors that include intracellular RNA and DNA sensors. We have previously demonstrated that glia express Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1) and showed that this cytosolic nucleic acid sensor contributes to the inflammatory/neurotoxic responses of these cells to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). However, the relative contribution made by ZBP1- to HSV-1-mediated cell death in glia has not been determined. Read More

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Epidemiology and long-term neurological sequelae of childhood herpes simplex CNS infection.

J Paediatr Child Health 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: Herpes simplex CNS infection is a rare but important cause of neurological disability. Long term outcomes after HSV CNS infection in Australia have not yet been fully described. We sought to provide a comprehensive review of HSV CNS infection in children using a retrospective 13-year evaluation of statewide laboratory and clinical records and a parent survey conducted at least one year after the initial infection. Read More

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[Genetics and immunology behind herpes simplex encephalitis].

Ugeskr Laeger 2022 Apr;184(16)

Institut for Biomedicin, Health, Aarhus Universitet.

Herpes simplex encephalitis is a devastating neurological disorder with a poor prognosis. For years, it remained elusive why a fraction of otherwise healthy individuals presented with the condition; this lack of insight has hampered understanding of disease pathogenesis and the development of novel effective therapies. However, recent studies have shown that the lack of viral containment can be caused by functionally related monogenic inborn errors of immunity at least in a subset of patients. Read More

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[Treatment with Intravenous Acyclovir Desensitization for Severe Acyclovir Allergy: A Case of Herpes Encephalitis].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2022 Apr;56(2):371-376

University of Health Sciences Adana City Training and Research Hospital Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Adana, Turkey.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a sporadic viral encephalitis agent that causes high mortality and morbidity, accompanied by neurological dysfunction findings. Acyclovir is the only antiviral treatment option that should be initiated in all patients with suspected encephalitis as soon as possible. Acyclovir is rarely possible to cause allergic reactions. Read More

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Rituximab as Second-Line Treatment in Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis after Herpes Simplex Encephalitis in Children.

Indian J Pediatr 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre (Imas12), Hospital Universitario, 12 de Octubre, Avda Córdoba s/n. 28041, RITIP, Madrid, Spain.

The long-term response of two infants with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) post herpes simplex encephalitis treated with rituximab is reported here. Rituximab may improve the course of the disease and should be considered early as second-line treatment. Data on the long-term effect of rituximab in B cell depletion and immunoglobulins levels in infants are needed. Read More

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The Importance of CXCL1 in Physiology and Noncancerous Diseases of Bone, Bone Marrow, Muscle and the Nervous System.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 11;23(8). Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Powstańców Wlkp. 72 Av., 70-111 Szczecin, Poland.

This review describes the role of CXCL1, a chemokine crucial in inflammation as a chemoattractant for neutrophils, in physiology and in selected major non-cancer diseases. Due to the vast amount of available information, we focus on the role CXCL1 plays in the physiology of bones, bone marrow, muscle and the nervous system. For this reason, we describe its effects on hematopoietic stem cells, myoblasts, oligodendrocyte progenitors and osteoclast precursors. Read More

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Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-2 Variation Contributes to Neurovirulence During Neonatal Infection.

J Infect Dis 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonatal brain causes severe encephalitis and permanent neurologic deficits. However, infants infected with HSV at the time of birth follow varied clinical courses, with approximately half of infants experiencing only external infection of the skin rather than invasive neurologic disease. Understanding the cause of these divergent outcomes is essential to developing neuroprotective strategies. Read More

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An algorithmic approach to identifying the aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome in India: results of a 4-year enhanced surveillance study.

Lancet Glob Health 2022 05;10(5):e685-e693

CDC India, New Delhi, India.

Background: Annual outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome pose a major health burden in India. Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) accounts for around 15% of reported cases, the aetiology of most cases remains unknown. We aimed to establish an enhanced surveillance network and to use a standardised diagnostic algorithm to conduct a systematic evaluation of acute encephalitis syndrome in India. Read More

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Differential Performance of the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Assay To Detect Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Both Pediatric and Adult Populations.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Apr 11;10(2):e0277421. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Virology, St Antoine - Tenon - Trousseau University Hospitals, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Meningitis/encephalitis (ME) syndromic diagnostic assays can be applied for the rapid one-step detection of the most common pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the comprehensive performance of multiplex assays is still under evaluation. In our multisite university hospital of eastern Paris, France, ME syndromic testing has been gradually implemented since 2017 for patients with neurological symptoms presenting to an adult or pediatric emergency unit. Read More

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Antibody response to herpes simplex virus-1 is increased in autoimmune encephalitis.

Eur J Immunol 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology with Institute of Translational Neurology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

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SARS-CoV-2-associated haemorrhagic encephalitis mimicking Herpes encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Although acute encephalopathy is quite commonly seen in patients of SARS-CoV-2 infection, encephalitis characterised by brain inflammation is relatively rare. Encephalitis caused by Herpes simplex type 1 is the most common cause of identified sporadic encephalitis, and early diagnosis and prompt treatment can prevent the devastating outcome. In this brief communication, we report a case of SARS-CoV-2 associated haemorrhagic encephalitis mimicking herpes encephalitis. Read More

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Single-cell transcriptomics of the ventral posterolateral nucleus-enriched thalamic regions from HSV-1-infected mice reveal a novel microglia/microglia-like transcriptional response.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 Apr 6;19(1):81. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU de Québec-Laval University Research Center and Department of Pediatrics and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Background: Microglia participate in the immune response upon central nervous system (CNS) infections. However, the role of these cells during herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) has not been fully characterized. We sought to identify different microglia/microglia-like cells and describe the potential mechanisms and signaling pathways involved during HSE. Read More

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Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Induces Microglia Gasdermin D-Dependent Pyroptosis Through Activating the NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 3 Inflammasome.

Front Microbiol 2022 21;13:838808. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Guangzhou Jinan Biomedical Research and Development Center, College of Life Science and Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a highly prevalent virus in humans and causes severe forms of inflammation, such as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Pyroptosis is a new inflammatory cell death triggered by inflammasome and cysteine-requiring aspartate protease-1 (caspase-1) activation. Nonetheless, HSV-1 induces encephalitis, and cell death mechanisms are not understood. Read More

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Variations in Aspects of Neural Precursor Cell Neurogenesis in a Human Model of HSV-1 Infection.

Organogenesis 2022 Dec;18(1):2055354

Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Encephalitis, the most significant of the central nervous system (CNS) diseases caused by Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), may have long-term sequelae in survivors treated with acyclovir, the cause of which is unclear. HSV-1 exhibits a tropism toward neurogenic niches in CNS enriched with neural precursor cells (NPCs), which play a pivotal role in neurogenesis. NPCs are susceptible to HSV-1. Read More

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December 2022

[COVID-19 and herpesvirus encephalitis].

Rev Neurol 2022 04;74(8):280-283

Hospital Escuela Eva Perón, Granadero Baigorria, Argentina.

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, could give rise to damage the nervous system. Many studies have been conducted on this topic, but few have focused specifically on encephalitis. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the clinical expression of other neurotropic viruses, such as Herpesviridae, is unknown. Read More

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Caspr2 antibodies in herpes simplex encephalitis: an extension of the spectrum of virus induced autoimmunity? - A case report.

BMC Neurol 2022 Apr 5;22(1):131. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Post herpes simplex virus (HSV) autoimmune encephalitis has been reported mainly in association with NMDA receptor antibodies, however, never with Caspr2 antibodies.

Case Presentation: We report an 82-year old female patient with encephalitis who presented with aphasia, left temporo-mesial hyperintense lesion on MRI, epileptiform discharges on spot electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis and who showed positive HSV polymerase chain reaction in CSF as well as antibodies against contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2).

Conclusion: This is the first report of a patient with encephalitis who tested positive for HSV as well as for Caspr2 antibodies. Read More

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Case Report: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Acute Retinal Necrosis With Viral Encephalitis in Children.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 16;9:815546. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Few cases concerning acute retinal necrosis with viral encephalitis in children have been reported, especially cases where the fundus cannot be identified due to severe vitreous opacity in the early stage that makes diagnosis difficult.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of an unusual case of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) acute retinal necrosis with viral encephalitis in an immunocompetent child, along with a review of relevant literature published up to September 2021.

Result: An 11-year-old girl presented with an approximate 20-day history of ocular redness and decreased visual acuity in the left eye. Read More

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Startle Seizures and Diffuse Leukoencephalopathy After Resolution of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Encephalitis in a Child.

Child Neurol Open 2022 Jan-Dec;9:2329048X221083761. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

We describe a unique clinical presentation of a child after the acute phase of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) encephalitis. A 17-month-old boy first presented with HSV1 encephalitis and was promptly treated with antiviral medication. Seven months later, he was re-admitted for startle seizures. Read More

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Human Brain Organoids as Models for Central Nervous System Viral Infection.

Viruses 2022 03 18;14(3). Epub 2022 Mar 18.

OrganoVIR Labs, Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC Location Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Pathogenesis of viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood, and this is partly due to the limitations of currently used preclinical models. Brain organoid models can overcome some of these limitations, as they are generated from human derived stem cells, differentiated in three dimensions (3D), and can mimic human neurodevelopmental characteristics. Therefore, brain organoids have been increasingly used as brain models in research on various viruses, such as Zika virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. Read More

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Development of a translational inflammation panel for the quantification of cerebrospinal fluid Pterin, Tryptophan-Kynurenine and Nitric oxide pathway metabolites.

EBioMedicine 2022 Mar 10;77:103917. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Kids Neuroscience Centre, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; Clinical School, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Neuroinflammatory diseases such as encephalitis, meningitis, multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases with inflammatory components, have demonstrated a need for diagnostic biomarkers to define treatable and reversible neuroinflammation. The development and clinical validation of a targeted translational inflammation panel using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) could provide early diagnosis, rapid treatment and insights into neuroinflammatory mechanisms.

Methods: An inflammation panel of 13 metabolites (neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenic acid, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, quinolinic acid, picolinic acid, arginine, citrulline and methylhistamine) was measured based on a simple precipitation and filtration method using minimal CSF volume. Read More

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Absence of the lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin reduces HSV-1 lethality of mice with increased microglia responses.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 Mar 11;19(1):66. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Background: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can induce fatal encephalitis. Cellular factors regulate the host immunity to affect the severity of HSV-1 encephalitis. Recent reports focus on the significance of thrombomodulin (TM), especially the domain 1, lectin-like domain (TM-LeD), which modulates the immune responses to bacterial infections and toxins and various diseases in murine models. Read More

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Role of HSV-1 in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis: A challenge for novel preventive/therapeutic strategies.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2022 Apr 8;63:102200. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council (CNR), 00133 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous DNA virus able to establish a life-long latent infection in host sensory ganglia. Following periodic reactivations, the neovirions usually target the site of primary infection causing recurrent diseases in susceptible individuals. However, reactivated HSV-1 may also reach the brain resulting in severe herpetic encephalitis or in asymptomatic infections. Read More

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A rare presentation of herpes simplex virus encephalitis occurring in a pediatric patient on dupilumab for atopic dermatitis.

Pediatr Dermatol 2022 Mar 3;39(2):288-290. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Dermatology, Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

A 4-year-old female with a history of atopic dermatitis developed herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis while being treated with dupilumab and concomitant topical steroids. There was no prior history of HSV infections or immunodeficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HSV encephalitis in a patient receiving dupilumab. Read More

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Herpes simplex encephalitis following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination: a case report and review of the literature.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Mar 3;22(1):217. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Imam Ali Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Roudan, Iran.

Background: Ever since the administration of early doses of COVID-19 vaccines, instances of adverse effects have been reported. Viral infections, specifically herpes simplex reinfection and coinfections, have been reported following administration of different types of vaccines. To our knowledge, there have not been any reports of herpes simplex encephalitis following administration of any type of COVID-19 vaccine to date. Read More

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