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    1 OF 959

    Inborn Errors of RNA Lariat Metabolism in Humans with Brainstem Viral Infection.
    Cell 2018 Feb;172(5):952-965.e18
    St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, Paris 75015, France; Paris Descartes University, Imagine Institute, Paris 75015, France; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, NY 10065, USA; Pediatric Immunology-Hematology Unit, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris 75015, France.
    Viruses that are typically benign sometimes invade the brainstem in otherwise healthy children. We report bi-allelic DBR1 mutations in unrelated patients from different ethnicities, each of whom had brainstem infection due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), influenza virus, or norovirus. DBR1 encodes the only known RNA lariat debranching enzyme. Read More

    Infection and Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Neurons: Role of the Cytoskeleton.
    Viruses 2018 Feb 23;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Centre for Virus Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Westmead NSW 2145, Australia.
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neuroinvasive human pathogen that has the ability to infect and replicate within epithelial cells and neurons and establish a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. HSV-1 depends on the host cellular cytoskeleton for entry, replication, and exit. Therefore, HSV-1 has adapted mechanisms to promote its survival by exploiting the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons to direct its active transport, infection, and spread between neurons and epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infections. Read More

    Ethnic differences in infectious burden and the association with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 22;18(1):276. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ, J2-209, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: The burden of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol and hypertension, is unequally distributed across ethnic groups. Recent findings suggest an association of infectious burden (IB) and metabolic risk factors, but data from ethnic groups are scarce. Therefore, we investigated ethnic differences in IB and its association with metabolic risk factors. Read More

    [Pediatric acute liver failure. Working group of the Latinamerican Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (LASPGHAN).]
    Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam 2016 Mar;46(1):52-70
    Pediatric acute liver failure is a syndrome ofsevere and sudden dysfunction of the hepatocytes which produces a failure in synthetic and detoxifyingfunction. It is an infrequent and severe disease butpotentiallyfatal, occurring in children with no prior history of liver disease. Etiology is related to the age and geographic region of the patient, recognizing the origin: metabolic, infectious, drug exposure, autoinmune, vascular and oncologic. Read More

    Guide for health professionals addressing oral care for individuals in oncological treatment based on scientific evidence.
    Support Care Cancer 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Curso de Odontologia e Programa de Pós-graduação em Odontologia, Rua Josué Montello, No. 1, Renascença II, São Luís, Maranhão, 65075-120, Brazil.
    Objective: Oncological treatment can cause changes in the oral cavity compromising oral functions. The aim of the study was, based on a systematic review, to draft a guide directed at the team of health professionals involved in the oral care of oncological patients.

    Methods: A systematic search of the literature was performed for articles published between 2000 and April 2017. Read More

    Undisturbed characteristic herpes simplex virus 2 outbreak.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Oct 15;23(10). Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa.
    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a common sexually transmitted disease that typically presents with focal erosions or small vesicles on an erythematous base.Herein, a case is described in which a 42-year old man experienced a genital HSV-2 outbreak after sustaining a spinal cord injury. No typical prodromal symptomswere experienced; therefore the vesicular lesions remained completely intact, granting an unusual opportunity to visualize herpetic infection in its most classic morphology. Read More

    Antiviral activities of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau extract against Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).
    J Fish Dis 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Ornamental Aquatic Animals and Aquatic Animals for Conservation Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a virulent viral infection in common carp and koi. The disease has caused global epizootic and economic loss in fish aquaculture and in the wild. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. Read More

    Systematic review: non A-E, seronegative or indeterminate hepatitis; What is this deadly disease?
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Hepatology and Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Background: A significant proportion of cases of acute liver failure (ALF) do not have an identifiable cause; so called "non A-E," "non A, non B, non C," "seronegative" or "indeterminate" hepatitis. However, this entity is clinically not well described.

    Aim: To collate the known incidence and outcomes in indeterminate hepatitis. Read More

    A case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus affecting the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease.
    Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2018 Mar 13;9:68-71. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Ophthalmology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.
    Purpose: To report a case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease.

    Observations: A 37-year old African American female with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and a recent history of treated genital herpes, presented with an ulcerative lesion of the left upper and lower eyelids, and severe ocular inflammation with symblepharon. Initially, eyelid biopsy revealed findings consistent with IgG4-related disease, and the patient was treated with high dose oral prednisone. Read More

    Fatal fulminant herpes simplex hepatitis following surgery in an adult.
    World J Clin Cases 2018 Feb;6(2):11-19
    Department of Pathology, Shinshiro Municipal Hospital, Shinshiro 441-1387, Japan.
    We present a case of a healthy 72-year-old man with herpes simplex hepatitis (HSVH) development soon after ordinary surgery for biliary stones. A sudden onset of hepatitis associated with high fever and leukopenia emerged on postoperative day 5, followed by a rapid and lethal course (died on day 9), despite an acyclovir therapy on day 8. Postmortem liver biopsy revealed positive immunostaining for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1. Read More

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Seroprevalence among Different National Populations of Middle East and North African Males.
    Sex Transm Dis 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation - Education City, Doha, Qatar.
    Background: There are limited data on herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). We examined country- and age-specific HSV-2 seroprevalence among select MENA populations residing in Qatar.

    Methods: Sera were collected from male blood donors attending Hamad Medical Corporation June 2013-2016. Read More

    Delay of Alternative Antiviral Therapy and Poor Outcomes of Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Recipients of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant.
    Transpl Int 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control, and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
    Acyclovir is commonly used to prevent and treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), and only few reports have been published on acyclovir-resistant HSV in HCT recipients. We reviewed the medical records of patients with a microbiologic diagnosis of acyclovir-resistant HSV by plaque reduction test who received an HCT from 2002 through 2014. A total of 4028 HCTs were performed during the study period, and 18 of the recipients met the diagnostic criteria for acyclovir-resistant HSV. Read More

    Pediatric Lip Adhesion Following Bullous Erythema Multiforme and Review of Similar Oral Complications.
    J Cutan Med Surg 2018 Feb 1:1203475418761038. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    3 Division of Paediatric Medicine, Section of Dermatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Background: Erythema multiforme (EM) is a mucocutaneous disease most often associated with preceding herpes simplex virus or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. It is characterized by targetoid lesions occurring on the limbs and head and neck. Mucosal involvement can be extensive. Read More

    [Increased myocardial expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 9 as a marker of active myocarditis and a possible predictor of therapeutic effectiveness].
    Arkh Patol 2018 ;80(1):11-20
    I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia.
    Aim: to investigate the myocardial expression of some structural proteins and markers of cellular proliferation and innate immunity for assessing their possible diagnostic and prognostic role in patients with chronic myocarditis.

    Subjects And Methods: The investigation enrolled 23 patients (16 men; mean age, 52.0±12. Read More

    Aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome in Uttar Pradesh, India from 2014 to 2016.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Oct-Dec;54(4):311-316
    Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.
    Background & Objectives: It is imperative to know the aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) for patient management and policy making. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of common aetiological agents of AES in Uttar Pradesh (UP) state of India.

    Methods: Serum and/or CSF samples were collected from AES patients admitted at Gandhi Memorial and Associated Hospital, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, a tertiary care centre, UP during 2014-16. Read More

    The Lactobacillus s and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.
    J Chin Med Assoc 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

    Sexually transmitted infections and immune activation among HIV-infected but virally suppressed youth on antiretroviral therapy.
    J Clin Virol 2018 Feb 7;102:7-11. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Duke University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 133 MSRB I, DUMC Box 2644, Durham, NC, 27710, United States.
    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with chronic immune activation, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase immune activation.

    Objectives: Because HIV-infected youth are at high risk of STIs and little is known about the impact of STIs on immune activation in HIV-infected youth, we conducted an exploratory study examining the association between STIs and systemic inflammation and immune activation among HIV-infected adolescents.

    Study Design: Forty-nine behaviorally infected U. Read More

    [The Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of neonatal herpes simplex infections].
    • Authors:
    An Pediatr (Barc) 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. Read More

    Mechanisms controlling nucleic-acid-sensing Toll-like receptors.
    Int Immunol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Division of Innate Immunity, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to DNA/RNA derived from pathogens and dead cells. Structural studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms by which TLRs sense NAs. Double-stranded RNA and single-stranded DNA directly bind to TLR3 and TLR9, respectively, whereas TLR7 and 8 bind to nucleosides and oligoribonucleotides derived from RNAs. Read More

    Helicase-primase inhibitor amenamevir for herpesvirus infection: Towards practical application for treating herpes zoster.
    Drugs Today (Barc) 2017 Nov;53(11):573-584
    Department of Virology, University of Toyama, Toyoma, Japan.
    Valacyclovir and famciclovir enabled successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection by their phosphorylation with viral thymidine kinase. Helicase-primase inhibitors (HPIs) inhibit the progression of the replication fork, an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands. The HPIs amenamevir and pritelivir have a novel mechanism of action, once-daily administration with nonrenal excretory characteristics, and clinical efficacy for genital herpes. Read More

    A TRAMP-derived orthotopic prostate syngeneic (TOPS) cancer model for investigating anti-tumor treatments.
    Prostate 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    The Prostate Centre, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.
    Background: Patients with advanced prostate cancer have limited curative options, therefore new treatments are needed. Mouse models play a pivotal role in the discovery and development of new treatments. In the present study, a TRAMP-derived Orthotopic Prostate Syngeneic (TOPS) mouse model was developed and found to provide a consistent means of monitoring tumor and metastatic responses to novel treatments. Read More

    Necrotizing retinitis of multifactorial etiology.
    Rom J Ophthalmol 2017 Jan-Mar;61(1):49-53
    "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.
    We present the case of a 73-year-old woman with osteoporosis, who presented to the emergency room with a sudden vision loss and ocular pain in the right eye, which appeared two days before. The patient mentioned loss of appetite, weight loss for three months and low fever for two weeks.Among the ophthalmological findings, the most important were panuveitis, and large confluent necrotic areas in the peripheral retina. Read More

    Herpes Simplex Virus 1 VP22 Inhibits AIM2-Dependent Inflammasome Activation to Enable Efficient Viral Replication.
    Cell Host Microbe 2018 Feb;23(2):254-265.e7
    Division of Molecular Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan; Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Electronic address:
    The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation. Read More

    QuickStats: Age-Adjusted* Trends in the Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Among Adolescents and Adults Aged 14-49 Years - United States, 1999-2000 Through 2015-2016.
    • Authors:
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Feb 16;67(6):203. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    During 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of HSV-1 was 48.1% among adolescents and adults aged 14-49 years (50.9% for females and 45. Read More

    New frontiers in oncolytic viruses: optimizing and selecting for virus strains with improved efficacy.
    Biologics 2018 9;12:43-60. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    PanTherapeutics, Lutry, Switzerland.
    Oncolytic viruses have demonstrated selective replication and killing of tumor cells. Different types of oncolytic viruses - adenoviruses, alphaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, Newcastle disease viruses, rhabdoviruses, Coxsackie viruses, and vaccinia viruses - have been applied as either naturally occurring or engineered vectors. Numerous studies in animal-tumor models have demonstrated substantial tumor regression and prolonged survival rates. Read More

    An off-target effect of BX795 blocks herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of the eye.
    Sci Transl Med 2018 Feb;10(428)
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes recurrent mucocutaneous lesions in the eye that may advance to corneal blindness. Nucleoside analogs exemplified by acyclovir (ACV) form the primary class of antiherpetic drugs, but this class suffers limitations due to the emergence of viral resistance and other side effects. While studying the molecular basis of ocular HSV-1 infection, we observed that BX795, a commonly used inhibitor of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), strongly suppressed infection by multiple strains of HSV-1 in transformed and primary human cells, cultured human and animal corneas, and a murine model of ocular infection. Read More

    In vitro anti-influenza virus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb.
    J Int Med Res 2018 Jan 1:300060517750284. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    4 Department of Genomics Research, R&D Solutions, Elsevier Inc., Rockville, MD, USA.
    Objective To investigate the in vitro antivirus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb (TFTLR). Methods Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell lines were used to test the antivirus effect of TFTLR on nine virus subtypes: four H1N1, one H3N2, and four other subtypes prevalent in North China. Tamiflu, Ribavirin and Lianhua Qingwen were used as active comparators. Read More

    Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 in Persons Aged 14-49: United States, 2015-2016.
    NCHS Data Brief 2018 02(304):1-8
    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are common, lifelong infections, which often have no symptoms (1). People with symptoms may have painful blisters or sores at the site of infection (2,3). The viruses are transmitted through contact with an infected person’s lesion, mucosal surface, or genital or oral secretions. Read More

    Retrospective Identification of Herpes Simplex 2 Virus-Associated Acute Liver Failure in an Immunocompetent Patient Detected Using Whole Transcriptome Shotgun Sequencing.
    Case Reports Hepatol 2017 26;2017:4630621. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Biomedical & Health Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe condition in which liver function rapidly deteriorates in individuals without prior history of liver disease. While most cases result from acetaminophen overdose or viral hepatitis, in up to a third of patients, no clear cause can be identified. Liver transplantation has greatly reduced mortality among these patients, but 40% of patients recover without liver transplantation. Read More

    Cytoskeletons in the Closet-Subversion in Alphaherpesvirus Infections.
    Viruses 2018 Feb 13;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Centre for Virus Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.
    Actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments form the cytoskeleton of vertebrate cells. Involved in maintaining cell integrity and structure, facilitating cargo and vesicle transport, remodelling surface structures and motility, the cytoskeleton is necessary for the successful life of a cell. Because of the broad range of functions these filaments are involved in, they are common targets for viral pathogens, including the alphaherpesviruses. Read More

    Laser Adjuvant-Assisted Peptide Vaccine Promotes Skin Mobilization of Dendritic Cells and Enhances Protective CD8Tand TCell Responses Against Herpes Infection and Disease.
    J Virol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA 92697
    There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines against the widespread viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex viruses type 2 (HSV-2), that infect a large proportion of the world human population. In the present study, we investigated the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a laser adjuvant peptide vaccine (LAP vaccine) in the B6 mouse model of genital herpes. This LAP vaccine, and its laser-free peptide vaccine analog (LFP vaccine), contain the immunodominant HSV-2 glycoprotein B CD8T cell epitope (HSV-gB) covalently linked with the promiscuous glycoprotein D CD4T helper cell epitope (HSV-gD). Read More

    Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Dramatically Alters Loading and Positioning of RNA Polymerase II on Host Genes Early in Infection.
    J Virol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) transcription is mediated by cellular RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). Recent studies investigating how Pol II transcription of host genes is altered after HSV-1 are conflicting. ChIP-seq studies suggest Pol II is almost completely removed from host genes at 4 hours post infection (hpi), while 4SU labeling experiments show that host transcription termination is extended at 7 hpi implying a significant amount of Pol II remains associated with host genes in infected cells. Read More

    CCCTC-Binding Factor Acts as a Heterochromatin Barrier on Herpes Simplex Viral Latent Chromatin and Contributes to Poised Latent Infection.
    MBio 2018 Feb 6;9(1). Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes latent infection in neurons via a variety of epigenetic mechanisms that silence its genome. The cellular CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) functions as a mediator of transcriptional control and chromatin organization and has binding sites in the HSV-1 genome. We constructed an HSV-1 deletion mutant that lacked a pair of CTCF-binding sites () within the latency-associated transcript () coding sequences and found that loss of these CTCF-binding sites did not alter lytic replication or levels of establishment of latent infection, but their deletion reduced the ability of the virus to reactivate from latent infection. Read More

    Herpes Encephalitis: A Mortal Complication in a Patient Treated with Immunosuppressive Drugs because of Immune-Related Adverse Events after Ipilimumab Treatment.
    Case Rep Oncol 2017 Sep-Dec;10(3):1112-1115. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Until a few years ago, metastatic melanoma had a poor prognosis with limited treatment options. These therapeutics options and thereby median survival have increased obviously over 5 years with the arrival of immunotherapeutic drugs like ipilimumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab. Nowadays, ipilimumab is often used in patients with metastatic melanoma. Read More

    Relevance of non-synonymous thymidine kinase mutations for antiviral resistance of recombinant herpes simplex virus type 2 strains.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Feb 7;152:53-57. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Institute for Infection Medicine, Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Brunswiker Straße 4, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:
    Therapy or prophylaxis of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections with the nucleoside analog aciclovir (ACV) can lead to the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-2 strains, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In this context, multiple amino acid (aa) changes can accumulate in the ACV-converting viral thymidine kinase (TK) which hampers sequence-based diagnostics significantly. In this study, the so far unknown or still doubted relevance of several individual aa changes for drug resistance in HSV-2 was clarified. Read More

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 IgG antibodies in sera of umbilical cord as a proxy for placental infection in asymptomatic pregnant women.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Oncovirology Program, Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Problem: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and is mainly sexually transmitted. When infecting pregnant women, HSV-2 is able to infect the placenta, can reach the fetus, and may affect the fetal development. We sought to determine the prevalence of HSV-2 infection and reactivation in asymptomatic pregnant women, the correlation between IgG in the maternal circulation and cord blood, and the correlation between circulating IgG, placental, and newborn infection (blood cord). Read More

    Multi-viral canaliculitis: case report and review of literature.
    Int Ophthalmol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Jhaveri Microbiology Laboratory, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, 34, India.
    Aim: To report an atypical case of multiple viruses causing canaliculitis.

    Methods: Case report of a young female presenting with atypical course of refractory unilateral canaliculitis with complete mid-bicanalicular obstructions. Canalicular scrapings were subjected to immunofluorescence techniques and polymerase chain reactions to identify the viruses. Read More

    TRIM56-mediated monoubiquitination of cGAS for cytosolic DNA sensing.
    Nat Commun 2018 Feb 9;9(1):613. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.
    Intracellular nucleic acid sensors often undergo sophisticated modifications that are critical for the regulation of antimicrobial responses. Upon recognition of DNA, the cytosolic sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) produces the second messenger cGAMP, which subsequently initiates downstream signaling to induce interferon-αβ (IFNαβ) production. Here we report that TRIM56 E3 ligase-induced monoubiquitination of cGAS is important for cytosolic DNA sensing and IFNαβ production to induce anti-DNA viral immunity. Read More

    Localized Trichiasis Causing Focal Full-Thickness Corneal Edema, Endothelial Cell Loss, and Corneal Scarring Requiring Penetrating Keratoplasty.
    Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct-Dec;24(4):216-218
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    The purpose of the study was to report a case of focal trichiasis causing full-thickness corneal edema, scarring, and endothelial cell loss requiring penetrating keratoplasty (PK). A 66-year-old male was referred for trichiasis of the right upper eyelid corresponding to an area of full-thickness corneal edema. No keratic precipitates or guttata was noted. Read More

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with necrotic herpetic adenitis: an elusive clinical condition.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 2;2018. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia, USA.
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) adenitis is a rare but important cause of morbidity in immunocompromised patients. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) is an indolent disease which impairs the cellular and humoral immunity, predisposing patients to a myriad of infections. Clinically, herpetic adenitis can mimic large cell (Richter's) transformation in patients with CLL. Read More

    Talimogene laherparepvec: First in class oncolytic virotherapy.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Feb 8:1-8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    b Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham , AL , USA.
    Oncolytic viruses represent a novel drug class in which native or modified viruses mediate tumor regression through selective replication within and lysis of tumor cells as well as induction of systemic antitumor immunity capable of eradicating tumor at distant, uninjected sites. Talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) is a type I herpes simplex virus genetically modified to preferentially replicate in tumor cells, enhance antigen loading of MHC class I molecules and express granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to increase tumor-antigen presentation by dendritic cells. It is presently the only oncolytic virus approved by the FDA with an indication for advanced melanoma based upon improved durable response rate in a randomized, phase III trial. Read More

    Corneal perforation after noncontact tonometry in patients with active recurrent herpes simplex keratitis: case report.
    Int Ophthalmol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.
    Purpose: To report iatrogenic complications and to review the potential complications caused by noncontact tonometry (NCT) in related literature.

    Methods: This case report describes two cases of active recurrent herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) on top of a thin corneal scar. The cornea was perforated by the air pulse from the NCT, resulting in an air bubble in the anterior chamber. Read More

    Infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults in Denmark: A prospective nationwide observational cohort study (DASGIB).
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Aalborg University Hospital, Mølleparkvej 4, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark.
    Objectives: To monitor epidemiological trends of infectious meningitis (bacterial and viral) and encephalitis in Denmark.

    Methods: Nation-wide prospective observational study of all cases with proven community-acquired infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults treated in all departments of infectious diseases in Denmark from 1of January 2015 to 30of June 2016. We included data on symptoms, aetiology, treatment and outcome assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 30-days after discharge. Read More

    Broad anti-herpesviral activity of α-hydroxytropolones.
    Vet Microbiol 2018 Feb 27;214:125-131. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, United States. Electronic address:
    Herpesviruses are ubiquitous in animals and cause economic losses concomitant with many diseases. Most of the domestic animal herpesviruses are within the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, which includes human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Suppression of HSV-1 replication has been reported with α-hydroxytropolones (αHTs), aromatic ring compounds that have broad bioactivity due to potent chelating activity. Read More

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