67,314 results match your criteria Herpes Simplex
Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):218-223
National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya, Moscow, 123098, Russian Federation.
Increased protease activity and a significant amount of granzyme B were observed in in organs of mice infected with acute herpes simplex virus HSV-1 with the introduction of Stimforte (100 or 250 µg/mouse). Thus, this drug activates killer cells, which play an extremely important role in the suppression of HSV-1 infection. Although the administration of Stimforte (100 μg/mouse) to intact mice results in the activation of IFN-β production and does not activate the production of IFN-λ, Stimforte administration to animals infected with HSV-1 reduces production of IFN-β in serum, brain and lungs, whereas the production of IFN-λ considerably increases as the result of administration of 100 μg/mouse of Stimforte. Read More
Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(1):35-40
The closed corporation "ECOlab", Elektrogorsk, Moscow oblast, Russia.
The new original national set of reagents "Line-Blot human herpesvirus-profle" was developed to detect antibodies (IgG - set 1 and IgM - set 2) to main agents of herpesvirus infections (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV) in the format of linear immunoblotting. The preliminary clinical trials were implemented using 319 samples of blood serum: HIV-infected patients (n=128), pregnant women (n=86) and persons undergoing treatment or diagnostic examination (n=105). In the case of every infection agent analyzes were implemented using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and linear immunoblotting with new set and its analogues of German manufacturer. Read More
Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12:e13038. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
Herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE) is a rare complication of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. We report two cases of HZE in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and review ten other cases in the literature. In this review, rash was present in 67% of cases. Read More
Traffic 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB, Stuttgart, Germany.
Morphogenesis of herpesviral virions is initiated in the nucleus but completed in the cytoplasm. Mature virions contain more than 25 tegument proteins many of which perform both nuclear and cytoplasmic functions suggesting they shuttle between these compartments. While nuclear import of herpesviral proteins was shown to be crucial for viral propagation, active nuclear export and its functional impact are still poorly understood. Read More
AIDS Rev 2018 ;20(4):187-204
Sexually Transmitted infections Unit, Centro Sanitario Sandoval. Madrid, Spain.
Nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of the four major curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs), namely trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Despite huge global incidence, STIs remain as neglected diseases. The success of antiretrovirals for halting progression to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and for stopping HIV transmission to uninfected contacts, either as pre- or post-exposure -prophylaxis, has to lead to increased risky sexual behaviors through risk compensation. Read More
eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 4;13:63-69. Epub 2018 Jul 4.
Hospital Emergencias Pediatricas, Lima, Peru.
Multicenter collaborative networks are essential for advancing research and improving clinical care for a variety of conditions. Research networks are particularly important for central nervous system infections, which remain difficult to study due to their sporadic occurrence and requirement for collection and testing of cerebrospinal fluid. Establishment of long-term research networks in resource-limited areas also facilitates diagnostic capacity building, surveillance for emerging pathogens, and provision of appropriate treatment where needed. Read More
J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales.
Background: Information on the risks of herpes zoster (zoster) preceding a cancer diagnosis and the role of cancer treatment on risk is limited.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort of 241497 adults, with mean age 62.0 years at recruitment (2006-2009), linked to health datasets from 2006 to 2015. Read More
J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Clin Imaging 2018 Nov 14;54:53-56. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, BCM 360, Houston, TX 77030, United States.
Fingolimod is an oral medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Initial clinical trials did not show a significantly increased rate of serious infections with fingolimod therapy. However, a mildly increased risk of less serious infections, such as varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus, was reported. Read More
MMW Fortschr Med 2018 Dec;160(21-22):52-61
Institut für Infektionsmedizin und Krankenhaushygiene, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Am Klinikum 1, D-07747, Jena, Deutschland.
J Virol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes disease in cattle populations worldwide. Sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant sphingolipid in the mammalian cell membrane, where it preferentially associates with cholesterol to form lipid raft domains. SM is a substrate for the lysosome-resident enzyme acid sphingomyelinase, which plays a role in cell membrane repair following injury. Read More
Sci Transl Med 2018 Dec;10(471)
Division of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Melanoma is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy, but advances over the past decade have resulted in multiple new therapeutic options, including molecularly targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and oncolytic virus therapy. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex type 1 oncolytic virus, and trametinib is a MEK inhibitor approved for treatment of melanoma. Therapeutic responses with T-VEC are often limited, and BRAF/MEK inhibition is complicated by drug resistance. Read More
Curr Health Sci J 2015 Oct-Dec;41(4):375-378. Epub 2015 Dec 22.
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Universitary Hospital Santa Maria, Lisbon.
The statistics proved that approximately 25% of the patients with acute HCV present with jaundice, and only 10-20% develop gastrointestinal symptoms. We present the case of a 58 year-old woman, with prior antecedents of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus since 25 years old, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, psoriasis, epilepsy and depressive syndrome. She clinically presents asthenia, anorexia, itching, jaundice and choluria. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2018 27;7(12):e1503032. Epub 2018 Aug 27.
Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
Oncolytic viruses selectively target and kill cancer cells in an immunogenic fashion, thus supporting the establishment of therapeutically relevant tumor-specific immune responses. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the oncolytic herpes simplex virus T-VEC for use in advanced melanoma patients. Since then, a plethora of trials has been initiated to assess the safety and efficacy of multiple oncolytic viruses in patients affected with various malignancies. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 22;9:2585. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Division of Developmental Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA, United States.
Over 1.5 million individuals in the United States are afflicted with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While the progression of IBD is multifactorial, chronic, unresolved inflammation certainly plays a key role. Read More
J Breath Res 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Medical Department, Division of Respiratory Diseases, University of Piemonte Orientale, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Novara, ITALY.
Background: The aetiology of lower respiratory tract infections is challenging to investigate. Despite the wide array of diagnostic tools, invasive techniques, such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), are often required to obtain adequate specimens. PneumoniaCheck™ is a new device that collects aerosol particles from cough, allowing microbiological analyses. Read More
Intervirology 2018 Dec 12:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, MAHSA University, Saujana Putra Campus, Jenjarum,
Objective: Herpes simplex virus infection through the neuronal route is the most well-studied mode of viral encephalitis that can persists in a human host for a lifetime. However, the involvement of other possible infection mechanisms by the virus remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims to determine the temporal effects and mechanisms by which the virus breaches the human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Read More
Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 8;5(11):ofy295. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) Unité, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Hôpital Saint Louis, France.
We evaluated the impact of on-demand oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1/2 incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the ANRS IPERGAY trial. Serum samples were tested at baseline and at the last visit for HSV-1/2 antibodies. Overall HSV-1 incidence was 11. Read More
Am J Emerg Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Ataturk University School of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey.
Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:153-176
Departament Periodontology, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
One of the main steps in the development of the life in the earth is multicellularity. It enables cell differentiation and the development of morphological structures within an organism and is an essential factor in how to recognize friendly cells that are part of the multicellular organism and which foreign organisms can be harmful. Recognition includes devices such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Read More
Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Sep 6;7(9). Epub 2018 Sep 6.
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid), Madrid, Spain.
Herpes simplex virus 2, or human herpesvirus 2, is a ubiquitous human pathogen that causes genital ulcerations and establishes latency in sacral root ganglia. We fully sequenced and manually curated the viral genome sequence of herpes simplex virus 2, strain 333 using Pacific Biosciences and Illumina sequencing technologies. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 10;14(12):e1007416. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
MOE& MOH Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, P. R. China.
Aberrations in STAT6-mediated signaling are linked to the development of multiple cancer types. Increasing evidence has shown that activation of human oncogenic herpesvirus lytic replication is crucial for viral tumorigenesis. However, the role of STAT6 in herpesvirus lytic replication remains elusive. Read More
Am J Case Rep 2018 Dec 9;19:1459-1462. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
Pharmacy Section, Jerry L Pettis Veterans Memorial Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
BACKGROUND The elderly population in the United States and the world is rapidly increasing. With aging, immunity and kidney function decrease, thus predisposing people to viral illnesses for which there is no effective prophylaxis. Herpes zoster afflicts the elderly and other immunocompromised patients, like those with end-stage renal disease, transplant recipients, and cancer patients, causing significant morbidity and sometimes mortality. Read More
Shock 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.
Div. of Surgical Research/Department of Surgery, Lifespan-Rhode Island Hospital and Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
Therapeutic interventions to treat acute lung injury (ALI) remain largely limited to lung-protective strategies, as a real molecular pathophysiologically driven therapeutic intervention has yet to become available. While we have previously documented the expression of HVEM on leukocytes of septic mice and critically ill patients, its functional role in shock/sepsis-induced ALI has not yet been studied. Inasmuch; a murine model of indirect ALI (iALI) was induced by hemorrhagic shock (HEM) followed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), septic challenge and HVEM-siRNA or PBS was administrated by intra-tracheal instillation 2 hours after hemorrhage to determine the role of HVEM in the development of experimental iALI. Read More
Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Jan;38(1):37-41
bioMérieux, Durham, NC.
Background: Large epidemiologic studies evaluating the etiologies, management decisions and outcomes of infants and children with meningitis and encephalitis in the United States are lacking.
Methods: Children 0-17 years of age with meningitis or encephalitis as assessed by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes available in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2011-2014 were analyzed.
Results: Six thousand six hundred sixty-five patients with meningitis or encephalitis were identified; 3030 (45. Read More
J Immunol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201; and
Chronic inflammation in tissues often causes the development of hypoxia. Herpes stromal keratitis (HSK) is a corneal chronic inflammatory condition that develops in response to recurrent HSV-1 infection. In this study, we investigated the development of hypoxia, the expression of hypoxia-associated glycolytic genes in HSV-1 infected corneas, and the outcome of blocking hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) dimerization on the severity of HSK. Read More
J Clin Virol 2018 Dec 3;110:42-44. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Virology Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, 151 Route Saint Antoine Ginestiere, 06202 Nice Cedex 3, France. Electronic address:
Background: HSV-1 infection is very common worldwide and can be associated with severe medical conditions such as encephalitis and neonatal herpes. Current diagnosis relies heavily on molecular assays targeting the viral genome. One of the pitfalls of these assays is genetic variability, as viral polymorphisms located in the target region can impair the detection of HSV-1. Read More
Am J Med 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Division of Medicine, Sengkang General Hospital, SingHealth, 110 Sengkang East Way, Singapore 544886. Electronic address:
Presse Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Hôpital d'instruction des armées Sainte-Anne, service de neurochirurgie, BP600, 83800 Toulon Cedex 09, France.
Vaccine 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Berry Technology Solutions, USA.
Background: Coverage levels for many recommended adult vaccinations are low. The cost-effectiveness research literature on adult vaccinations has not been synthesized in recent years, which may contribute to low awareness of the value of adult vaccinations and to their under-utilization. We assessed research literature since 1980 to summarize economic evidence for adult vaccinations included on the adult immunization schedule. Read More
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2018 04 2;32(2):271-294. Epub 2018 Nov 2.
Department of Rheumatology, Hospital of Bruneck, Bruneck, Italy; Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) are the most common primary systemic vasculitides of the adult population, while polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a clinical syndrome often associated with GCA. Incidence and prevalence rates of AAV have been increasing in the last decades, whereas those of GCA and PMR have remained stable. The mutual interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors leading to the development of these diseases has been further analyzed in the last years. Read More
J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Loyola Univ Medical Center Dermatology, 321 N La Grange Rd, La, Grange Park, IL. Electronic address:
The incidence of zoster is increased in many autoimmune diseases. This study found a significantly increased zoster incidence in dermatomyositis and cutaneous lupus erythematosus compared with a control group.Physicians should be aware of this risk and consider administering the vaccine against zoster to these patients if not contraindicated. Read More
J Gen Virol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Institute of Virology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
While it is fairly clear that herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA replication requires at least seven virus-encoded proteins in concert with various host cell factors, the mode of this process in infected cells is still poorly understood. Using HSV-1 mutants bearing temperature-sensitive (ts) lesions in the UL9 gene, we previously found that the origin-binding protein (OBP), a product of the UL9 gene, is only needed in the first 6 hours post-infection. As this finding was just a simple support for the hypothesis of a biphasic replication mode, we became convinced through these earlier studies that the mutants tsR and tsS might represent suitable tools for more accurate investigations in vivo. Read More
Open Access J Contracept 2018 12;9:91-112. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Global Health, Population and Nutrition, FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA,
Purpose: Evidence on the association between contraceptive use and risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) is lacking, with few prospective studies. We systematically reviewed the last 10 years' evidence on the association between contraception and STI/BV, building on the most recent systematic reviews published in 2006 and 2009.
Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and POPLINE databases for peer-reviewed articles p ublished between January 1, 2008 and January 31, 2018 reporting prospective studies that assessed the association between contraceptive use and incident STI and/or incident or recurrent BV. Read More
J Virol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Retrovirus y SIDA (INBIRS), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an abundant plasma protein with a multidomain structure allowing its interaction with many ligands including phospholipids, plasminogen, fibrinogen, IgG antibodies, and heparan sulfate. HRG has shown to regulate different biological responses such as angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Here, we found that HRG almost completely abrogated the infection of GHOST, Jurkat, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages by HIV-1 at low pH (range 6. Read More
BMC Med 2018 Dec 6;16(1):228. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Unit of PharmacoTherapy, -Epidemiology & -Economics (PTE2), University of Groningen, Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Background: The newly registered adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) has a higher efficacy than the available live-attenuated vaccine (ZVL). National decision-makers soon need to decide whether to introduce HZ/su or to prefer HZ/su above ZVL.
Methods: Using a Markov model with a decision tree, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination with HZ/su (two doses within 2 months) or zoster vaccine live (ZVL) (single dose, or single dose with a booster after 10 years) for cohorts of 50-, 60-, 70- or 80-year-olds in the Netherlands. Read More
Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 3;143(24):1755-1758. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Klinische Arbeitsgemeinschaft AIDS Deutschland (KAAD), Sektion der Deutschen AIDS-Gesellschaft (DAIG).
Guidelines from 3 clinical societies and peer-reviewed publications have been reviewed for recent changes in the management of opportunistic infections. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazol administered intravenously is an option to treat cerebral toxoplasmosis if oral therapy is not feasible. CD4 T cell cut-off for starting prophylaxis with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is now 200/µl. Read More
Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Manipal Centre for Virus Research, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Karnataka, India.
Background: Infections due to drug-resistant herpes simplex viruses (HSV) represent an important clinical concern, especially in the immunocompromised patients. The present study was aimed at detecting acyclovir (ACV) susceptibility in HSV clinical samples.
Methods: A total of 13 HSV-positive clinical samples (five HSV-1 and eight HSV-2) recovered from patients (one immunocompromised, and 12 of unknown immune status) were included in the study. Read More
Infection 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Department of Neurology, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.
Purpose: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis continues to be the most common form of sporadic lethal encephalitis worldwide. The wide spectrum of clinical presentations and laboratory findings often poses a diagnostic challenge for physicians which might delay administration of life-saving therapy with acyclovir. Atypical presentations of HSV encephalitis have become increasingly prevalent with better diagnostic techniques and have not been well studied. Read More
Mol Ther Oncolytics 2018 Dec 18;11:62-74. Epub 2018 Oct 18.
Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.
Ewing sarcoma is a highly aggressive cancer that promotes the infiltration and activation of pro-tumor M2-like macrophages. Oncolytic virotherapy that selectively infects and destroys cancer cells is a promising option for treating Ewing sarcoma. The effect of tumor macrophages on oncolytic virus therapy, however, is variable among solid tumors and is unknown in Ewing sarcoma. Read More
Inflamm Intest Dis 2018 Nov 12;3(1):11-15. Epub 2018 Jul 12.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
Background: Patients with moderate-severe inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are commonly treated with long-term immunosuppressive therapies involving immunomodulators such as thiopurines, biologics (anti-TNF and anti-adhesion molecules), or novel small molecules such as Janus kinase inhibitors.
Summary: Some infections seen with immunosuppressive therapy in IBD are preventable with vaccines. IBD-specific immunosuppressive therapy is generally initiated by gastroenterologists. Read More
Indian Dermatol Online J 2018 Nov-Dec;9(6):383-388
Department of Dermatology, Military Hospital, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Herpes zoster (HZ) is a viral infection believed to be caused by the re activation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) or human herpes virus type 3 (HHV 3) that persists in the posterior nerve root ganglion. HZ is rarely reported in the pediatric age group with an intact immunity. Past infection with VZV and immunization with chickenpox vaccine are key markers in the onset of varicella zoster in children. Read More
Acta Pharm Sin B 2018 Oct 23;8(6):933-943. Epub 2018 Aug 23.
State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.
Five new sulfur-enriched alkaloids isatithioetherins A-E (-), and two pairs of scalemic enantiomers (+)- and (-)-isatithiopyrin B ( and ) and isoepigoitrin and isogoitrin and ), along with the known scalemic enantiomers epigoitrin and goitrin ( and ), were isolated and characterized from an aqueous extract of the roots. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic data analysis, including 2D NMR and theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra based on the quantum-mechanical time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Compounds - represent a novel group of sulfur-enriched alkaloids, biogenetically originating from stereoselective assemblies of epigoitrin-derived units. Read More
Indian J Dermatol 2018 Nov-Dec;63(6):502-505
Department of Pediatrics, Base Hospital, New Delhi, India.
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have a definite role in the facilitation of HIV infection, which, in turn, also increases susceptibility to other STIs. Further, the social stigma and secrecy surrounding STIs create difficulty in estimating its true incidence and prevalence.
Objective: The objective of this study was to know the pattern of diseases including different clinical presentations and final diagnosis among the STI clinic attendees. Read More
Indian J Dermatol 2018 Nov-Dec;63(6):484-489
Department of VD Serology and Department of STD, Institute of Serology, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Context: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) constitute important public health problem worldwide. Syndromic diagnosis of vaginal/cervical discharge (VCD) is often inaccurate leading to over- or under-treatment.
Aims: This study aimed to ascertain the laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of VCD and their relative frequency in a group of patients presenting to a STI clinic in eastern India and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis. Read More