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    Optimized DNA Vaccine Enhanced by Adjuvant IL28B Induces Protective Immune Responses Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in Mice.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    1 National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University , Changchun, China .
    Antigen-specific immune responses determine the efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaccines. To optimize the immunogenicity of the antigen gD2, we developed the gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccine encoding HSV-2 glycoprotein D and UL25 gene encoding viral capsid vertex proteins in this study. The gD2 and gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccines were compared with formalin-inactivated HSV-2 (FI-HSV-2), and results showed a greater protective immune response induced by gD2ΔUL25 than by gD2. Read More

    Latent virus reactivation in astronauts on the international space station.
    NPJ Microgravity 2017 12;3:11. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Mail code SK, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058 USA.
    Reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . Twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Read More

    Oncolytic Herpes Virus rRp450 Shows Efficacy in Orthotopic Xenograft Group 3/4 Medulloblastomas and Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors.
    Mol Ther Oncolytics 2017 Sep 25;6:22-30. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.
    Pediatric brain tumors including medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor are associated with significant mortality and treatment-associated morbidity. While medulloblastoma tumors within molecular subgroups 3 and 4 have a propensity to metastasize, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors frequently afflict a very young patient population. Adjuvant treatment options for children suffering with these tumors are not only sub-optimal but also associated with many neurocognitive obstacles. Read More

    Idiopathic esophageal ulcer as an initial manifestation of HIV infection.
    Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2017 Jun 26;109. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Hospital Público Comarcal de Baza.
    The esophageal ulcer us a common complication in people affected by the acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially in the final stages and in patients who develop an acute retroviral syndrome. Although, it can be caused by various infectious agents, such as species of candida, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV), no aetiological agent is successfully identified in a large proportion of patients and it is classified as idiopathic. We report the case of an idiopathic esophageal ulcer associated with the initial diagnosis of HIV-1. Read More

    Tubuloreticular inclusions in peritubular capillaries of renal allografts.
    Pathol Res Pract 2017 Jun 6. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Pathology, Republic of Korea; Institute of Transplantation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: Tubuloreticular inclusions (TRIs) are anastomosing networks of microtubules that are frequently found in autoimmune diseases and viral infections. In renal allografts, TRIs have been reported in glomerular endothelial cells in association with viral infections and donor specific antibodies (DSAs), but their presence in peritubular capillaries has not been explored.

    Methods: We collected seven cases with TRIs out of 148 consecutive renal allograft biopsies taken from Dec. Read More

    Infection-related microcephaly after the 2015 and 2016 Zika virus outbreaks in Brazil: a surveillance-based analysis.
    Lancet 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Background: On Nov 11, 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a Public Health Emergency of National Concern in response to an increased number of microcephaly cases, possibly related to previous Zika virus outbreaks. We describe the course of the dual epidemics of the Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in Brazil up to Nov 12, 2016, the first anniversary of this declaration.

    Methods: We used secondary data for Zika virus and microcephaly cases obtained through the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance systems from Jan 1, 2015, to Nov 12, 2016. Read More

    Modelling efforts needed to advance herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine development: Key findings from the World Health Organization Consultation on HSV Vaccine Impact Modelling.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland.
    Development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important goal for global sexual and reproductive health. In order to more precisely define the health and economic burden of HSV infection and the theoretical impact and cost-effectiveness of an HSV vaccine, in 2015 the World Health Organization convened an expert consultation meeting on HSV vaccine impact modelling. The experts reviewed existing model-based estimates and dynamic models of HSV infection to outline critical future modelling needs to inform development of a comprehensive business case and preferred product characteristics for an HSV vaccine. Read More

    Herpes simplex virus-1 infects the olfactory bulb shortly following ocular infection and exhibits a long-term inflammatory profile in the form of effector and HSV-1-specific T cells.
    J Neuroinflammation 2017 Jun 23;14(1):124. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Departments of Microbiology, Immunology, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.
    Background: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Read More

    Herpes Simplex Virus Establishment, Maintenance, and Reactivation: In Vitro Modeling of Latency.
    Pathogens 2017 Jun 23;6(3). Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA.
    All herpes viruses establish lifelong infections (latency) in their host, and herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are highly prevalent worldwide. Recurrence of HSV infections contributes to significant disease burden in people and on rare occasion can be fatal. Cell culture models that recapitulate latent infection provide valuable insight on the host processes regulating viral establishment and maintenance of latency. Read More

    PEDF plus DHA modulate inflammation and stimulate nerve regeneration after HSV-1 infection.
    Exp Eye Res 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Neuroscience Center of Excellence, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health New Orleans, LA, United States; Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health New Orleans, LA, United States. Electronic address:
    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection leads to impaired corneal sensation and, in severe cases, to corneal ulceration, melting and perforation. Here, we explore the potential therapeutic action of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on corneal inflammation and nerve regeneration following HSV-1 infection. Rabbits inoculated with 100,000 PFU/eye of HSV-1 strain 17Syn+ were treated with PEDF + DHA or vehicle. Read More

    Regulation of T-type Ca(2+) channel expression by herpes simplex virus-1 infection in sensory-like ND7 cells.
    J Neurovirol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD, 21853, USA.
    Infection of sensory neurons by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 disrupts electrical excitability, altering pain sensory transmission. Because of their low threshold for activation, functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels regulates various cell functions, including neuronal excitability and neuronal communication. In this study, we have tested the effect of HSV-1 infection on the functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in differentiated ND7-23 sensory-like neurons. Read More

    Comparing the effect of diode laser against acyclovir cream for the treatment of herpes labialis.
    J Clin Exp Dent 2017 Jun 1;9(6):e729-e732. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Postgraduate Student, Dep of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Science, Zahedan, Iran.
    Background: Recently alternative therapies such as the use of diode laser therapy have been introduced for recurrent herpes labial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diode laser for treatment of recurrent herpes labialis.

    Material And Methods: This was single-blind randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of diode laser for the treatment of recurrent herpes labial. Read More

    Herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as stroke-like symptoms with atypical MRI findings and lacking cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Neurology, Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital.
    A 73-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of right hemiparesis and was diagnosed as having cerebral infarction on the basis of diffusion-weighted brain MRI, which demonstrated lesions in the left parietal cortex. On the 3rd day, the patient developed right upper limb myoclonus, aphasia, and disturbance of consciousness with high fever. On the 6th day, she was transferred to our hospital with suspected viral encephalitis, and treatment with acyclovir was started. Read More

    Analysis of HSV reactivation in explant reveals a method dependent difference in measured timing of reactivation.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is widespread in the human population. Following orofacial infection, HSV establishes latency in innervating sensory neurons, primarily located in the trigeminal ganglia. A central feature of HSV pathogenesis is the ability to periodically reactivate in those neurons and transport back to the body surface. Read More

    Role of JNK pathway in varicella-zoster virus lytic infection and reactivation.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
    Mechanisms of neuronal infection by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have been challenging to study due to the relatively strict human tropism of the virus and the paucity of tractable experimental models. Cellular mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to play a role in VZV infection of non-neuronal cells, with distinct consequences on infectivity in differing cell types. Here, we utilize several human neuronal culture systems to investigate the role of one such MAPK, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in VZV lytic infection and reactivation. Read More

    Prevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and other sexually transmissible infections among women attending antenatal clinics in three provinces in Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional survey.
    Sex Health 2016 Oct;13(5):420-427
    Public Health Interventions Research Group, Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia, Wallace Wurth Building, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.
    Background Papua New Guinea (PNG) is estimated to have among the highest prevalences of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) of any Asia-Pacific country, and one of the highest burdens of maternal syphilis globally. The prevalence of curable STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), among pregnant women in PNG is relatively unknown.

    Methods: A cross-sectional bio-behavioural survey to investigate the epidemiology of CT, NG, TV and other STIs among pregnant women in three provinces of PNG was undertaken. Read More

    The spectrum of aseptic central nervous system infections in southern Germany - demographic, clinical and laboratory findings.
    Eur J Neurol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Background And Purpose: Aseptic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are frequently observed in Germany. However, no study has systematically addressed the spectrum of aseptic CNS infections in Germany.

    Methods: Data on 191 adult patients diagnosed from January 2007 to December 2014 with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis/meningoencephalitis at our hospital were collected by chart review and analyzed for demographic, clinical and laboratory findings. Read More

    Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections Seen in the Pediatric Dermatology Office.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.
    Background/objectives: Atypical and severe clinical manifestations of primary and recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections may present to a pediatric dermatologist for evaluation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features of the population diagnosed with HSV referred to a pediatric dermatology office.

    Methods: This retrospective case series examined patients diagnosed with HSV in a pediatric dermatology practice at an academic medical center from 2005 to 2015. Read More

    Efficacy of inactivation of viral contaminants in hyperimmune horse plasma against botulinum toxin by low pH alone and combined with pepsin digestion.
    Biologicals 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Department of Biotechnology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness-Ziona, Israel. Electronic address:
    Assuring viral safety of horse plasma-derived products is fundamental for ethical and regulatory reasons. We previously demonstrated the ability of pepsin digestion at low pH to inactivate West Nile and Sindbis viruses in horse plasma. The present study further examined the efficiency of pepsin digestion to inactivate four additional viruses: HSV-1 and BVDV (lipid-enveloped), BPV and Reo-3 (nonenveloped). Read More

    Herpes neolabialis: herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of the neolabia in a transgender woman.
    Int J STD AIDS 2017 Jul 19;28(8):841-843. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    1 Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    A 24-year-old transgender woman consulted our outpatient clinic with a painful, itchy and red left labia. She underwent a penile inversion vaginoplasty 18 months before presentation. At physical examination of the left labia, erythema, edema and herpetic vesicles with ulceration were observed. Read More

    Anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity of Houttuynoid A, a new flavonoid from Houttuynia cordata Thunb.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Guangdong South China United Vaccine Institute, Guangzhou, China; Sino-French Hoffmann Institute of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection reactivate latent human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human papillomavirus in the presence of acyclovir (ACV). The common use of nucleoside analog medications, such as ACV and pencyclovir, has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-1 strains in clinical therapy. Therefore, new antiherpetics that can inhibit early events in HSV-1 infection should be developed. Read More

    Chronic Herpetic Retinitis: Clinical Features and Long-Term Outcomes.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Jun 19:1-10. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    a Ophthalmology Department , Reference Centre for Rare Diseases, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, University Paris VI , Paris , France.
    Introduction: Chronic uveitis treated with immunosuppressive agents may have unfavorable outcomes due to delays in diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review initial data from clinical and ocular assessments and patient outcomes following specific treatments for atypical herpes virus ocular infections.

    Methods: The records of four consecutive patients with recurrent uveitis for at least five years treated in our department between 2001 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    [EVALUATION OF DYNAMIC TELOMERE LENGTH SHORTENING OF LYMPHOCYTES IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY].
    Georgian Med News 2017 May(266):99-103
    1I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow; 2Russian University of peoples friendship, Moscow, Russia.
    Nowadays it is common to observe the growth of viral-viral and viral-bacterial co-infections in children of different ages, due to dysfunction of lymphocytes (DL), which can be connected with the process of the accelerated shortening of the end structures of chromosomal telomeres, telomere length changes are described in lymphocytes of children with chronic mono-infections. The conducted study has shown the shortening of telomere lymphocytes in children with CDRT seropositive for mixed-herpes viral infections (herpes simplex virus, virus, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in various combinations) and for bacterial co-infections - Chlamydia trachomatis and (or) Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The use of regression analysis and attribute analysis (in percent) made possible to neutralize age-groups differences of seropositive and seronegative children. Read More

    Herpes simplex encephalitis with thalamic, brainstem and cerebellar involvement.
    Neuroradiol J 2017 Jan 1:1971400917703990. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Department of Pediatric Neurosciences, Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, India.
    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. Read More

    Chromatin organization regulates viral egress dynamics.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 16;7(1):3692. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Various types of DNA viruses are known to elicit the formation of a large nuclear viral replication compartment and marginalization of the cell chromatin. We used three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography, confocal and electron microscopy, combined with numerical modelling of capsid diffusion to analyse the molecular organization of chromatin in herpes simplex virus 1 infection and its effect on the transport of progeny viral capsids to the nuclear envelope. Our data showed that the formation of the viral replication compartment at late infection resulted in the enrichment of heterochromatin in the nuclear periphery accompanied by the compaction of chromatin. Read More

    Herpes simplex virus-2 transmission following solid organ transplantation: Donor-derived infection and transplantation from prior organ recipients.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Jun 15. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Background: Owing to limited availability of donor organs, previous solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are increasingly considered as potential organ donors. We report donor-derived transmission of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) to two clusters of SOT recipients with transmission from the original donor and an HSV-2-infected recipient who subsequently became a donor.

    Methods: We reviewed medical records of the donors and recipients in both clusters. Read More

    Global sensing of the antigenic structure of herpes simplex virus gD using high-throughput array-based SPR imaging.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jun 14;13(6):e1006430. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
    While HSV-2 typically causes genital lesions, HSV-1 is increasingly the cause of genital herpes. In addition, neonatal HSV infections are associated with a high rate of mortality and HSV-2 may increase the risk for HIV or Zika infections, reinforcing the need to develop an effective vaccine. In the GSK Herpevac trial, doubly sero-negative women were vaccinated with a truncated form of gD2 [gD2(284t)], then examined for anti-gD serum titers and clinical manifestations of disease. Read More

    Chromium(III) and iron(III) inhibits replication of DNA and RNA viruses.
    Biometals 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, Str., 10-957, Olsztyn, Poland.
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of treating of chromium(III) and iron(III) and their combinations on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV) replication. The antiviral efficacies of chromium(III) and iron(III) on HSV-1 and BVDV were evaluated using Real Time PCR method. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of these microelements was examined using the MTT reduction assay. Read More

    Review: Oncolytic Virotherapy, updates and future directions.
    Oncotarget 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.
    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are viral strains that can infect and kill malignant cells while spare their normal counterparts. OVs can access cells through binding to receptors on their surface or through fusion with the plasma membrane and establish a lytic cycle in tumors, while leaving normal tissue essentially unharmed. Multiple viruses have been investigated in humans for the past century. Read More

    The Primary Enveloped Virion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1: Its Role in Nuclear Egress.
    MBio 2017 Jun 13;8(3). Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Laboratory of Structural Biology Research, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Many viruses migrate between different cellular compartments for successive stages of assembly. The HSV-1 capsid assembles in the nucleus and then transfers into the cytoplasm. First, the capsid buds through the inner nuclear membrane, becoming coated with nuclear egress complex (NEC) protein. Read More

    A Herpesviral Immediate Early Protein Promotes Transcription Elongation of Viral Transcripts.
    MBio 2017 Jun 13;8(3). Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genes are transcribed by cellular RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). While four viral immediate early proteins (ICP4, ICP0, ICP27, and ICP22) function in some capacity in viral transcription, the mechanism by which ICP22 functions remains unclear. We observed that the FACT complex (comprised of SSRP1 and Spt16) was relocalized in infected cells as a function of ICP22. Read More

    Analysis of cervical lesions for presence of HSV-2 and HPV-16 and HPV-18 in Iranian patients by PCR.
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    .
    Objective Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the leading causes of deaths from cancer among women worldwide. Viral infections is now one of the known risk factors for CC. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), human papilloma virus types 16 (HPV-16) and human papilloma virus types 18 (HPV-18) in Iranian patients with CC using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Read More

    A case of presumed herpes keratouveitis in a patient treated with fingolimod.
    Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin 2016 Jan-Dec;2:2055217316652907. Epub 2016 Jun 3.
    Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, USA.
    We discuss a case of presumed bilateral herpes simplex keratouveitis in a 36-year-old multiple sclerosis patient switched to fingolimod from glatiramer acetate. Fingolimod treatment appears to increase the risk of herpesvirus infections, including with herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus. This case report reviews the potential immunology behind this risk, and identifies the need for further research, including ways to minimize and stratify risk for herpesvirus reactivation. Read More

    Systems-guided forward genetic screen reveals a critical role of the replication stress response protein ETAA1 in T cell clonal expansion.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia;
    T-cell immunity requires extremely rapid clonal proliferation of rare, antigen-specific T lymphocytes to form effector cells. Here we identify a critical role for ETAA1 in this process by surveying random germ line mutations in mice using exome sequencing and bioinformatic annotation to prioritize mutations in genes of unknown function with potential effects on the immune system, followed by breeding to homozygosity and testing for immune system phenotypes. Effector CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell formation following immunization, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) infection was profoundly decreased despite normal immune cell development in adult mice homozygous for two different Etaa1 mutations: an exon 2 skipping allele that deletes Gly78-Leu119, and a Cys166Stop truncating allele that eliminates most of the 877-aa protein. Read More

    Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Infectious Diseases: An Update.
    Crit Care Clin 2017 Jul;33(3):681-712
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Department of Cell Biology, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
    Among the critically ill, infectious diseases can play a significant role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disturbances. All critical care physicians are familiar with delirium as a secondary complication of systemic infection. This article focuses on key infectious diseases that commonly and directly produce neuropsychiatric symptoms, including direct infection of the central nervous system, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and AIDS. Read More

    An intravaginal ring that releases three antiviral agents and a contraceptive blocks SHIV-RT infection, reduces HSV-2 shedding, and suppresses hormonal cycling in rhesus macaques.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.
    Women globally need access to multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), sexually transmitted infections that increase HIV acquisition/transmission risk, and unintended pregnancy. Seeking an MPT with activity against HIV, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), and human papillomavirus (HPV), we developed a prototype intravaginal ring (IVR), the MZCL IVR, which released the antiviral agents MIV-150, zinc acetate, and carrageenan (MZC for short) and the contraceptive levonorgestrel (LNG). Previously, we showed that an MZC gel has potent activity against immunodeficiency viruses, HSV-2, and HPV and that the MZCL (MZC with LNG) IVR releases all four components in macaques in vivo at levels associated with efficacy. Read More

    Does maternal HSV-2 coinfection increase mother-to-child transmission of HIV? A systematic review.
    Sex Transm Infect 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
    Background: Reducing HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is critical to ending the HIV pandemic. Reports suggest that herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), a common coinfection in HIV-infected individuals, is associated with increased MTCT, but results have been conflicting. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of this relationship (PROSPERO no. Read More

    Modeling HSV-1 Latency in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.
    Pathogens 2017 Jun 8;6(2). Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) uses latency in peripheral ganglia to persist in its human host, however, recurrent reactivation from this reservoir can cause debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease. Most studies of latency use live-animal infection models, but these are complex, multilayered systems and can be difficult to manipulate. Infection of cultured primary neurons provides a powerful alternative, yielding important insights into host signaling pathways controlling latency. Read More

    Neutralization of matrix metalloproteinase-9 potentially enhances oncolytic efficacy of tanapox virus for melanoma therapy.
    Med Oncol 2017 Jul 7;34(7):129. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Laboratory of Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008, USA.
    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are involved in degradation of extracellular matrix, are critical regulators in tumor progression, metastasis and angiogenesis. Although induction of MMPs is frequently observed during the viral infection, the effect of MMPs on viral replication varies between viruses. MMP-9, for instance, is upregulated and promotes the replication of some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, but inhibits the replication of others. Read More

    Enhancement of Th1/Th17 inflammation by TRIM21 in Behçet's disease.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 7;7(1):3018. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    The etiology of Behçet's disease (BD), a chronic, multisystemic autoinflammatory and autoimmune disease, remains unknown; however, researchers have postulated that infectious agents, such as herpes simplex virus, are significant triggering factors of BD. Tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins exhibit antiviral properties, mediating antiviral defense mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate TRIM21 protein expression in the monocytes of BD patients and to identify the role of TRIM21 in immune dysregulation in BD. Read More

    A highly conserved sequence of the viral TAP inhibitor ICP47 is required for freezing of the peptide transport cycle.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 7;7(1):2933. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Institute of Virology, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates antigenic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen for loading onto MHC class I molecules. This is a key step in the control of viral infections through CD8+ T-cells. The herpes simplex virus type-1 encodes an 88 amino acid long species-specific TAP inhibitor, ICP47, that functions as a high affinity competitor for the peptide binding site on TAP. Read More

    Evasion of the STING DNA sensing pathway by the VP11/12 of herpes simplex virus type 1.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, MSN 3029, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160
    The STimulator of INterferon Genes (STING) is a broad antimicrobial factor that restricts HSV by activating type I interferon and pro-inflammatory responses upon sensing of foreign DNA. UL46 is one of the most abundant tegument proteins of HSV-1 but a well-established function has yet to be found. We found that the HSV-1 UL46 protein interacts with and co-localizes with STING. Read More

    Detection of herpes simplex-1 and -2 and varicella zoster virus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in corneas from patients with bacterial keratitis.
    Arq Bras Oftalmol 2017 Mar-Apr;80(2):84-87
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Objective:: Bacterial keratitis occurs worldwide, and despite recent developments, it remains a potentially blinding condition. This study assesses the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and -2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in corneal scrapings from patients with bacterial keratitis.

    Methods:: A total of 65 patients with clinical diagnoses of infectious corneal ulcers prospectively underwent clinical eye examinations. Read More

    Role of LIGHT in the pathogenesis of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.
    World J Exp Med 2017 May 20;7(2):49-57. Epub 2017 May 20.
    Afsie Sabokbar, Sara Afrough, David J Mahoney, Yoshinobu Uchihara, Catherine Swales, Nicholas A Athanasou, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford OX3 7HE, United Kingdom.
    Aim: To characterise the role of substitutes for receptor-activator nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joint destruction.

    Methods: Synovial fluid (SF) macrophages isolated from the knee joint of RA patients were incubated with 25 ng/mL macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and 50 ng/mL LIGHT (lymphotoxin-like, exhibits inducible expression and competes with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes) in the presence and absence of 25 ng/mL RANKL and 100 ng/mL osteoprotegerin (OPG) on glass coverslips and dentine slices. Osteoclastogenesis was assessed by the formation of multinucleated cells (MNCs) expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) on coverslips and the extent of lacunar resorption pit formation on dentine slices. Read More

    Viral Encephalitis of Unknown Cause: Current Perspective and Recent Advances.
    Viruses 2017 Jun 6;9(6). Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Viral encephalitis causes acute inflammation of the brain parenchyma and is a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality. Although Herpes Simplex encephalitis is the most frequent known cause of fatal sporadic encephalitis in humans, an increasingly wide range of viruses and other microbial pathogens are implicated. Up to 60% of cases of presumed viral encephalitis remain unexplained due to the failure of conventional laboratory techniques to detect an infectious agent. Read More

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