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    Reliable Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus Sequence Variation by High-Throughput Resequencing.
    Viruses 2017 Aug 16;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    University of Florida Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has resulted in data for a number of herpes simplex virus (HSV) laboratory strains and clinical isolates. The knowledge of these sequences has been critical for investigating viral pathogenicity. However, the assembly of complete herpesviral genomes, including HSV, is complicated due to the existence of large repeat regions and arrays of smaller reiterated sequences that are commonly found in these genomes. Read More

    Inhibitors of the Histone Methyltransferases EZH2/1 Induce a Potent Antiviral State and Suppress Infection by Diverse Viral Pathogens.
    MBio 2017 Aug 15;8(4). Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Epigenetic regulation is based on a network of complexes that modulate the chromatin character and structure of the genome to impact gene expression, cell fate, and development. Thus, epigenetic modulators represent novel therapeutic targets used to treat a range of diseases, including malignancies. Infectious pathogens such as herpesviruses are also regulated by cellular epigenetic machinery, and epigenetic therapeutics represent a novel approach used to control infection, persistence, and the resulting recurrent disease. Read More

    Macrophage Polarization Contributes to Glioblastoma Eradication by Combination Immunovirotherapy and Immune Checkpoint Blockade.
    Cancer Cell 2017 Aug;32(2):253-267.e5
    Molecular Neurosurgery Laboratory and the Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Glioblastoma is an immunosuppressive, fatal brain cancer that contains glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) selectively replicates in cancer cells while inducing anti-tumor immunity. oHSV G47Δ expressing murine IL-12 (G47Δ-mIL12), antibodies to immune checkpoints (CTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1), or dual combinations modestly extended survival of a mouse glioma model. Read More

    Interaction between herpesvirus entry mediator and HSV-2 glycoproteins mediates HIV-1 entry of HSV-2-infected epithelial cells.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Aug 15. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    2​Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK 1​State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, PR China.
    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and transmission via unclear mechanisms. Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), an HSV-2 entry receptor, is highly expressed on HIV-1 target cells (CD4+ T cells) and may be incorporated into HIV-1 virions, while HSV-2 glycoproteins can be present on the infected cell surface. Since HVEM-gD interaction together with gB/gH/gL is essential for HSV-2 entry, HVEM-bearing HIV-1 (HIV-1/HVEM) may enter HSV-2-infected cells through such interactions. Read More

    Isolation, Purification, and Culture of Primary Murine Sensory Neurons.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1656:229-251
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth University, 630E Borwell Building, One Medical Center Drive, HB 7556, Lebanon, NH, 03756, USA.
    Cultured primary neurons have been of extraordinary value for the study of neuronal anatomy, cell biology, and physiology. While use of neuronal cell lines has ease and utility, there are often caveats that arise due to their mitotic nature. This methods article presents detailed methodology for the preparation, purification, and culture of adult murine sensory neurons for the study of herpes simplex virus lytic and latent infections. Read More

    Extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke show strong antiviral activity against the sexually transmitted pathogen herpes simplex virus type 2.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Rheumatology & Inflammation research, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke have been traditionally used by women of the Tacana tribe in the Bolivian Amazonas for genital hygiene and for treatment of genital infection/inflammation.

    Aim Of The Study: To assess the ability of extracts from Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke to block genital viral infection by herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Materials And Methods: Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke were collected from the Amazon region of La Paz, Bolivia. Read More

    Aseptic meningitis in adults and children: Diagnostic and management challenges.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Aug 4;94:110-114. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas (UT) Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Aseptic meningitis represents a common diagnostic and management dilemma to clinicians.

    Objectives: To compare the clinical epidemiology, diagnostic evaluations, management, and outcomes between adults and children with aseptic meningitis.

    Study Design: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 through September 2010 at 9 Memorial Hermann Hospitals in Houston, TX. Read More

    Utility of routine urine CMV PCR and total serum IgM testing of small for gestational age infants: a single center review.
    J Perinat Med 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    .
    Background: Due to the extremely low incidence of TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, CMV, herpes simplex virus) infections, diagnostic testing of all small for gestational age (SGA) infants aimed at TORCH etiologies may incur unnecessary tests and cost.

    Objective: To determine the frequency of urine CMV PCR and total IgM testing among infants with birth weight <10% and the rate of test positivity. To evaluate the frequency of alternative etiologies of SGA in tested infants. Read More

    Blockade of transforming growth factor-β signaling enhances oncolytic herpes simplex virus efficacy in patient-derived recurrent glioblastoma models.
    Int J Cancer 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Despite the current standard of multimodal management, glioblastoma (GBM) inevitably recurs and effective therapy is not available for recurrent disease. A subset of tumor cells with stem-like properties, termed GBM stem-like cells (GSCs), are considered to play a role in tumor relapse. Although oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) is a promising therapeutic for GBM, its efficacy against recurrent GBM is incompletely characterized. Read More

    Rhodoterpenoids A‒C, Three New Rearranged Triterpenoids from Rhododendron latoucheae by HPLC‒MS‒SPE‒NMR.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 11;7(1):7944. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, People's Republic of China.
    Rhodoterpenoids A‒C (1‒3), three new rearranged triterpenoids, together with one new biogenetically related compound, rhodoterpenoid D (4), were isolated and efficiently elucidated from Rhododendron latoucheae by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance (HPLC‒MS‒SPE‒NMR). Compounds 1 and 2 possess an unprecedented skeleton with a 5/7/6/6/6-fused pentacyclic ring system, while compound 3 contains a unique 6/7/6/6/6-fused pentacyclic carbon backbone. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. Read More

    Non-Activated Titanium-Dioxide Nanoparticles Promote the Growth of Chlamydia trachomatis and Decrease the Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles.
    J Appl Microbiol 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary, 6720, Dóm sq. 10.
    Aims: Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus are the most prevalent bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections. Due to the chronic nature of their infections, they are able to interact with titanium-dioxide nanoparticles applied as food additives or drug delivery vehicles. The aim of our study was to describe the interactions of these two prevalent pathogens with the titanium-dioxide nanoparticles. Read More

    Multipurpose Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Electrospun Fibers for the Prevention of HIV-1 and HSV-2 Infections In Vitro.
    Int J Pharm 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Bioengineering, Speed School of Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, KY, United States; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, KY, United States; Center for Predictive Medicine, Louisville, KY, United States. Electronic address:
    Sexually transmitted infections affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and -2) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) remain incurable, urging the development of new prevention strategies. While current prophylactic technologies are dependent on strict user adherence to achieve efficacy, there is a dearth of delivery vehicles that provide discreet and convenient administration, combined with prolonged-delivery of active agents. Read More

    Systemic virotherapy for multiple myeloma.
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 2017 Aug 10:1-13. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    a Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology , University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino , Torino , Italy.
    Introduction: The multiple myeloma (MM) treatment scenario has changed considerably over the past few years. Several novel targeted therapies are currently under consideration including oncolytic virotherapy. Areas covered: This review provides an analysis of the mechanisms of action of virotherapy, and summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies of systemic virotherapy developed for the treatment of MM. Read More

    Pseudorabies Virus dUTPase UL50 Induces Lysosomal Degradation of Type I Interferon Receptor 1 and Antagonizes the Alpha Interferon Response.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China
    Alphaherpesviruses that establish persistent infection partly rely on their ability to evade host anti-viral responses, notably, the type I interferon (IFN) response. However, the mechanisms employed by alphaherpesviruses to avoid this response are not well understood. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an economically important pathogen and a useful model system to study alphaherpesvirus biology. Read More

    The UL21 tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type-1 is differentially required for the syncytial phenotype.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033
    The initial goal of this study was to re-examine the requirement of UL21 for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication. Previous studies suggested that UL21 is dispensable for replication in cell cultures, but a recent report on HSV-2 challenges those findings. As was done for the HSV-2 study, a UL21-null virus was made and propagated on complementing cells to discourage selection of compensating mutations. Read More

    Refractory pemphigus foliaceus associated with herpesvirus infection: case report.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 3;59:e41. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Laboratório de Virologia, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de JaneiroBrasil.
    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is an autoimmune disease characterized by blistering of the skin. Infections caused by members of the herpesviridae family have been suggested as a possible triggering factor for pemphigus vulgaris (PV), but not for PF. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Human herpesvirus (types 1, 2, 3) in corticosteroid refractory skin lesions from a patient with PF, by a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Read More

    Viral Ubiquitin Ligase Stimulates Selective Host MicroRNA Expression by Targeting ZEB Transcriptional Repressors.
    Viruses 2017 Aug 7;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
    Infection with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) brings numerous changes in cellular gene expression. Levels of most host mRNAs are reduced, limiting synthesis of host proteins, especially those involved in antiviral defenses. The impact of HSV-1 on host microRNAs (miRNAs), an extensive network of short non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability/translation, remains largely unexplored. Read More

    Natural killer cells in herpesvirus infections.
    F1000Res 2017 26;6. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Viral Immunobiology, Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent innate cytotoxic lymphocytes for the destruction of infected and transformed cells. Although they were originally considered to be ready-made assassins after their hematopoietic development, it has recently become clear that their activity is regulated by mechanisms such as repertoire composition, licensing, priming, and adaptive memory-like differentiation. Some of these mechanisms are influenced by infectious disease agents, including herpesviruses. Read More

    In vitro schistosomicidal and antiviral activities of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) against Schistosoma mansoni and Herpes simplex virus-1.
    Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Aug 3;94:489-498. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, R. José Lourenço Kelmer s/n, Campus Universitário, 36036-900 Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. Read More

    Retrospective use of next-generation sequencing reveals the presence of Enteroviruses in acute influenza-like illness respiratory samples collected in South/South-East Asia during 2010-2013.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Jul 14;94:91-99. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, 315/6, Rajavithi Road, Rajathewi, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:
    Background: Emerging and re-emerging respiratory pathogens represent an increasing threat to public health. Etiological determination during outbreaks generally relies on clinical information, occasionally accompanied by traditional laboratory molecular or serological testing. Often, this limited testing leads to inconclusive findings. Read More

    Fissures, Herpes Simplex Virus, and Drug Reactions: Important Erosive Vulvar Disorders.
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2017 Sep;44(3):421-443
    Vulva Clinic, Jean Hailes Medical Centre, 173 Carinish Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Electronic address:
    Vulvar fissures, excoriations, and erosions are common problems resulting from a variety of etiologies, many involving other mucosal and cutaneous sites. We present historical and examination features and useful investigations that can help establish a diagnosis so that definitive therapy can be instituted. Vulvar involvement also can be part of life-threatening conditions that require hospital admission and a multidisciplinary approach for optimal patient care. Read More

    Inactivation of model viruses and bacteria in human fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and long wave ultraviolet rays.
    Iran J Microbiol 2017 Feb;9(1):50-54
    Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.
    Background And Objectives: Pathogen reduction technologies are among methods to eliminate transfusion transmitted infections. Mirasol method using riboflavin in combination with ultraviolet rays is one of them. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of Mirasol method to inactivate some model pathogens as well as examination of the sensitivity of plasma proteins after treatment. Read More

    Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of 90% kanuka honey versus 5% aciclovir for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis in the community setting.
    BMJ Open 2017 Aug 3;7(8):e017766. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Introduction: Worldwide, about 90% of people are infected with the herpes simplex virus, 30% of whom will experience recurrent herpes simplex labialis, commonly referred to as 'cold sores', which can last up to 10 days. The most common treatment is aciclovir cream which reduces healing time by just half a day compared with no specific treatment. This is a protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the efficacy of medical grade kanuka honey-based topical treatment (Honevo) in reducing the healing time and pain of cold sores, compared with topical aciclovir treatment (Viraban). Read More

    Herpes Simplex Virus 1 interferes with autophagy of murine dendritic cells and impairs their ability to stimulate CD8(+) T lymphocytes.
    Eur J Immunol 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
    The MHC class I presentation is responsible for the presentation of viral proteins to CD8(+) T lymphocytes and mainly depends on the classical antigen processing pathway. Recently, a second pathway involving autophagy has been implicated in this process. Here, we show an increase in the capacity of murine dendritic cells to present viral antigens on MHC class I after infection with a mutant herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1-Δ34. Read More

    Genomic Signature of the Natural Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus HF10 and Its Therapeutic Role in Preclinical and Clinical Trials.
    Front Oncol 2017 14;7:149. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Cancer Immune Therapy Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are opening new possibilities in cancer therapy with their unique mechanism of selective replication within tumor cells and triggering of antitumor immune responses. HF10 is an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 with a unique genomic structure that has non-engineered deletions and insertions accompanied by frame-shift mutations, in contrast to the majority of engineered OVs. At the genetic level, HF10 naturally lacks the expression of UL43, UL49. Read More

    Crystal structure of the N-terminal half of the traffic controller UL37 from Herpes Simplex virus Type 1.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology and Graduate Program in Molecular Microbiology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111
    Inner tegument protein UL37 is conserved among all three subfamilies of herpesviruses. Studies of UL37 homologs from two alphaherpesviruses, Herpes Simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), have suggested that UL37 plays an essential albeit poorly defined role in intracellular capsid trafficking. At the same time, HSV and PRV homologs cannot be swapped, which suggests that in addition to a conserved function, UL37 homologs may also have divergent virus-specific functions. Read More

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer's disease: possible mechanisms and signposts.
    FASEB J 2017 Aug;31(8):3216-3226
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Support for the concept that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), when present in the brains of apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers, is a major risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing steadily, with over 120 publications providing direct or indirect evidence relevant to the hypothesis. No articles have contested the concept, apart from 3 published 13-18 yr ago. This review describes very recent studies on the role of HSV1 but refers also to older studies that provide background for some lesser-known related topics not covered in other recent reviews; these include the relevance of herpes simplex encephalitis and of epilepsy to AD, the action of IFN, and the possible relevance of the different types of DNA damage to AD-in particular, those caused by HSV1-and mechanisms of repair of damage. Read More

    Comparing optical coherence tomography findings in different aetiologies of infectious necrotising retinitis.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Ophthalmological Unit, IRCCS-Cà Granda Foundation - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.
    Aims: To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of active necrotising infectious retinitis (NIR) due to toxoplasmosis or herpesviruses and to determine distinctive OCT signs for these two causes of infectious retinitis.

    Methods: OCT scans from eyes with active NIR due to varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and toxoplasmosis (TOXO) were reviewed. All images were evaluated for the presence of previously described OCT findings in TOXO-NIR and compared with the viral group. Read More

    Design, Synthesis, and the Biological Evaluation of a New Series of Acyclic 1,2,3-Triazole Nucleosides.
    Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.
    A new strategy for the synthesis of N(3) -benzoylated- and N(3) -benzylated N(1) -propargylquinazoline-2,4-diones 30a-d and 31a-d from isatoic anhydride 41 is reported. The alkynes 30a-d and 31a-d were applied in the 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions with azides 27 and 28 to synthesize acyclic 1,2,3-triazole nucleosides. The obtained alkynes and 1,2,3-triazole were evaluated for antiviral activity against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses. Read More

    A Case of Membranous Aplasia Cutis Congenita and Dermoscopic Features.
    Int J Trichology 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):33-34
    Department of Dermatology, Hospital General de Ciudad Real, Obispo Rafael Torija, 13005, Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Membranous, bullous, or cystic aplasia cutis congenita is a clinical subtype of aplasia cutis, covered with a membranous or glistening surface. A male newborn presented at birth with two flat lesions on the left parietal scalp, surrounded by a rim of terminal hairs. Physical examination revealed two translucent papules. Read More

    Therapeutic strategies for locally recurrent and metastatic de-differentiated liposarcoma with herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells.
    Cytotherapy 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Transplantation Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, SungKyunKwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Background Aims: Major challenges in de-differentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) therapy are the high rate of sequential recurrence (>80%) and metastasis (20-30%) following surgical removal. However, well-defined therapeutic strategies for this rare malignancy are lacking and are critically needed.

    Methods: We investigated a new approach to DDLPS therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells expressing herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (MSC-TK). Read More

    Postoperative herpetic endophthalmitis-A case report.
    Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Oct-Dec;28(4):160-161. Epub 2015 Feb 10.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan.
    We report a case of herpetic endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. A 65-year-old man underwent uneventful phacoemulsification and vision improved within the first few postoperative days. However, visual loss with an anterior chamber reaction of ++++ and a ++ vitreous cell were noted in the 4th postoperative week. Read More

    Comparative transcriptome analysis of zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain and spleen infected with spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV).
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan, 430070, China; Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, China; Hubei Engineering Technology Research Center for Aquatic Animal Diseases Control and Prevention, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:
    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is the pathogen of spring viremia of carp (SVC) and often causes acute hemorrhagic symptoms in various kinds of cyprinids and induces serious environmental and economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms of infection remain poorly understood, especially at the individual level. In this study, zebrafish was employed as the infection model to explore the pathogenesis of SVCV. Read More

    New prodrugs of two pyrimidine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: Synthesis and antiviral activity.
    Bioorg Med Chem 2017 Sep 6;25(17):4637-4648. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, Box 1043, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:
    New 2,4-diamino-6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethoxy]pyrimidine (PMEO-DAPy) and 1-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-5-azacytosine (PME-5-azaC) prodrugs were prepared with a pro-moiety consisting of carbonyloxymethyl esters (POM, POC), alkoxyalkyl esters, amino acid phosphoramidates and/or tyrosine. The activity of the prodrugs was evaluated in vitro against different virus families. None of the synthesized prodrugs demonstrated activity against RNA viruses but some of them proved active against herpesviruses [including herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)]. Read More

    MiR-199a Inhibits Secondary Envelopment of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Through the Downregulation of Cdc42-specific GTPase Activating Protein Localized in Golgi Apparatus.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 27;7(1):6650. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Division of Host-Parasite Interaction, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 1088639, Japan.
    Because several studies have shown that exogenous miR-199a has antiviral effects against various viruses, including herpesviruses, we examined how miR-199a exerts its antiviral effects using epithelial tumour cell lines infected with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). We found that both miR-199a-5p and -3p impair the secondary envelopment of HSV-1 by suppressing their common target, ARHGAP21, a Golgi-localized GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42. We further found that the trans-cisternae of the Golgi apparatus are a potential membrane compartment for secondary envelopment. Read More

    Progressive hippocampal sclerosis after viral encephalitis: Potential role of NMDA receptor antibodies.
    Seizure 2017 Jul 19;51:6-8. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Krankenhaus Mara, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Purpose: Survivors of viral encephalitis can develop refractory epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. Both the initial infectious insult and the secondary effects of recurrent seizures have been implicated in chronic disease progression. Recently, post-infectious autoimmunity, involved in acute relapses, has also been proposed as a pathomechanism for chronic disease progression. Read More

    A model of genital herpes simplex virus Type 1 infection in Rhesus Macaques.
    J Med Primatol 2017 Aug;46(4):121-128
    Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Although HSV-2 is the major cause of genital lesions, HSV-1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries.

    Methods: Three healthy SHIV-SF162P3-infected Indian rhesus macaques were inoculated with 4×10(8) pfu of HSV-1 twice, with the second inoculation performed after the vaginal mucosa was gently abraded with a cytobrush.

    Results: HSV-1 DNA was detected in vaginal swabs 5 days after the second but not the first inoculation in all three macaques. Read More

    A domain of Herpes simplex virus pUL33 required to release monomeric viral genomes from cleaved concatameric DNA.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
    Monomeric herpesvirus DNA is cleaved from concatamers and inserted into preformed capsids through the actions of the viral terminase. The terminase of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is composed of three subunits encoded by UL15, UL28, and UL33. The UL33 encoded protein (pUL33) interacts with pUL28 but its precise role in the DNA cleavage and packaging reaction is unclear. Read More

    Rubella, herpes simplex virus type 2 and preeclampsia.
    Virol J 2017 Jul 26;14(1):142. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, P. O. Box 102, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Background: Preeclampsia is a major health problem. Although, the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, there are recent studies on association between infections and preeclampsia.

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal seropositivity of rubella, Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and preeclampsia. Read More

    Seminal vesicle fluid increases the efficacy of intravaginal HSV-2 vaccination.
    Mucosal Immunol 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Retrovirus y SIDA (INBIRS), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Once considered merely as a vehicle for spermatozoa, it is now clear that seminal plasma (SP) induces a variety of biological actions on the female reproductive tissues able to modulate the immune response against paternal antigens. To our knowledge, the influence of SP on the immune response against sexually transmitted pathogens has not been yet evaluated. We here analyzed whether the seminal vesicle fluid (SVF), which contributes almost 60% of the SP volume in mice, could modulate the immune response against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Read More

    Expression of IFN-Inducible Genes with Antiviral Function OAS1 and MX1 in Health and under Conditions of Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection.
    Bull Exp Biol Med 2017 Jul 25;163(3):370-373. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.
    We studied the expression of IFN-inducible genes OAS1 and Mx1 in lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients suffering from recurrent Herpes simplex infections in comparison with healthy people. To induce the expression of the studied genes, blood mononuclears were incubated with recombinant IFN-α2b in concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 U/ml for 3 h and then the content of the studied transcripts was evaluated. Relative expression of OAS1 and Mx1 in patients with recurrent forms of Herpes simplex both during the acute stage and clinical remission did not differ significantly from that in healthy people after stimulation with IFN-α2b in a concentration of 1 U/ml and in higher concentrations (10 and 100 U/ml). Read More

    The UL8 subunit of the helicase/primase complex of herpes simplex virus promotes DNA annealing and has a high affinity for replication forks.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States.
    During lytic infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA is replicated by a mechanism involving DNA recombination. For instance, replication of the HSV-1 genome produces X- and Y-branched structures, reminiscent of recombination intermediates. HSV-1's replication machinery includes a trimeric helicase/primase is composed of helicase (UL5) and primase (UL52) subunits and a third subunit, UL8. Read More

    Cdk9 and Spt5 are specifically required for expression of Herpes simplex virus 1 replication-dependent late genes.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden
    DNA replication greatly enhances expression of the Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) γ2 late genes by still unknown mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that 5,6-dichloro-1-β--D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of CDK9, suppresses expression of γ2 late genes with an IC50 of 5 μM, which is at least ten times lower than the IC50 required for inhibition of expression of early genes. The effect of DRB could not be explained by inhibition of DNA replication per se or loading of RNA polymerase II to late promoters and subsequent reduction of transcription. Read More

    Short term exercise training enhances cell-mediated responses to HSV-1 vaccine in mice.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Jul 21;110:457-463. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Immunology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 69 Pasteur Ave, P.O.Box: 13185-1183, Tehran, Iran; Recombinant Vaccine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Exercise (with appropriate intensity and duration) is a natural modulator of immune responses and may be useful to increase the vaccine response towards antigen. According to the fact that rural area responding butter than urbon area to vaccine protocol, this study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that short term exercise training as an adjuvant for antigen such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in animal models. Mice with/without access to short term exercise training were immunized intramuscularly with inactivated KOS strain of HSV-1. Read More

    Unrecognized viral infections and chromosome abnormalities as a cause of fetal death - examination with fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction.
    APMIS 2017 Sep 24;125(9):826-832. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Fifteen to 50% of fetal deaths remain unexplained after post-mortem examination depending on inclusion criteria and classification systems. Our aim was to examine a selection of unexplained fetal deaths in order to investigate whether any common chromosome aberrations or viral infections were present. Reports from 351 fetal autopsies performed at the Department of Pathology and Medical Genetics at St. Read More

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