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    Human herpes virus-6 encephalitis causing severe anterograde amnesia associated with rituximab, azathioprine and prednisolone combination therapy for dermatomyositis.
    J Neurovirol 2017 Feb 21. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Neurosciences, North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK.
    Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation is a well-recognised complication following haematological stem cell transplantation, but it is novel in the context of combination immunomodulatory therapy for autoimmune disease. We report a case of severe anterograde amnesia caused by HHV-6 encephalitis in a young female patient on rituximab, azathioprine and prednisolone for dermatomyositis (DM). The use of targeted biologic treatments for systemic autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is increasing, particularly when refractory to conventional management. Read More

    Dendritic cells, macrophages, NK and CD8(+) T lymphocytes play pivotal roles in controlling HSV-1 in the trigeminal ganglia by producing IL1-beta, iNOS and granzyme B.
    Virol J 2017 Feb 21;14(1):37. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Imunologia de Doenças Virais, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Avenida Augusto de Lima 1715, Belo Horizonte, 30190-002, MG, Brazil.
    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cause not only mild symptoms but also blindness and encephalitis. It was previously shown that the immune response against HSV-1 occurs mainly in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and that Toll-like receptors 2 and 9 (TLR2/9) are important in mediating this response. It was also demonstrated that iNOS (nitric oxide synthase) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) play an essential role in the defense against HSV-1 infection. Read More

    The role of age-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Feb;13(2):376-378
    a Department of Health Sciences , University of Genoa , Genoa , Italy.
    Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most frequent complication of herpes zoster and affects up to 30% of patients. Increased age is a well-recognized risk factor, while the role of gender is highly uncertain. Little research has been performed into a possible combined effect of age and sex in post-herpetic neuralgia. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Common Viral Diseases: A Hospital Based Study from Amritsar, India.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Dec 1;10(12):DC15-DC19. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Research Assistant, Department of Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Government Medical College , Amritsar, Punjab, India .
    Introduction: There is a paucity of published data on epidemiology of the viral infections in Punjab, India. The Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (VRDL) located at Government Medical College (GMC), Amritsar conducts the initial diagnosis of common viruses circulating in the region.

    Aim: To report the seroprevalence of various viral diseases in Amritsar and neighboring districts of Punjab along with the demographic and geographical data of the patients. Read More

    HIV and STI s among men who have sex with men in Dodoma municipality, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.
    Sex Transm Infect 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV, STI and related risks among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Dodoma municipality, Tanzania.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling was employed to recruit study participants aged 18 years and above. Data on sociodemographics, HIV/STI knowledge and sexual practices were collected. Read More

    Investigations in GABAA receptor antibody-associated encephalitis.
    Neurology 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    From the Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (M.S., M.P.-P., T.A., M.R.R., F.G., J.D.), University of Barcelona, Spain; University of Lausanne (UNIL) (M.S.), Switzerland; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) (M.P.-P., T.A., M.R.R., J.D., F.G.), Madrid, Spain; Neurology Service (T.A., J.D.), Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain; Neurology Division, Hospital das Clínicas (M.M.S.), São Paulo University, Brazil; Hospital de Base (F.J.C.), Brasília, Brazil; Service of Neurology (M.I.B.A.) and Service of Immunology (M.R.J.B.), University Hospital of Son Espases, Mallorca, Spain; Department of Neurology (L.B., M.G.), Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Pediatric Neurology Section (A.F.), Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins (R.L.C.O.), Lima, Peru; Department of Neurology (M.R.R., J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Service of Neurology (F.G., J.D.), Hospital Clínic; and Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain.
    Objective: To report the clinical features, comorbidities, receptor subunit targets, and outcome in patients with anti-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) encephalitis.

    Methods: Clinical study of 26 patients, including 17 new (April 2013-January 2016) and 9 previously reported patients. Antibodies to α1, β3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAAR were determined using reported techniques. Read More

    Ethnic variation in medical and lifestyle risk factors for B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study among Israelis and Palestinians.
    PLoS One 2017 14;12(2):e0171709. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    School of Public Health, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Organization, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Background: Risk factors for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) have not been assessed among Palestinian Arabs (PA) and Israeli Jews (IJ).

    Methods: In a case-control study we investigated self-reported medical and lifestyle exposures, reporting odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CIs], by ethnicity, for overall B-NHL and subtypes.

    Results: We recruited 823 cases and 808 healthy controls. Read More

    Infectivity inhibition by overlapping synthetic peptides derived from the gH/gL heterodimer of herpes simplex virus type 1.
    J Pept Sci 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples, Italy.
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a human pathogen that infects epithelial cells. The cutaneous lesions, caused by the virus, spread to the nervous system creating several complications. Fusion of host membranes with the viral envelope is mandatory and mediated by a group of glycoproteins conserved in all Herpesviridae subfamilies, such as the glycoproteins B (gB), H (gH), L (gL) and D (gD). Read More

    Participation of 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfates in the protection of macrophages by herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein D and cyclophilin B against apoptosis.
    FEBS Open Bio 2017 Feb 24;7(2):133-148. Epub 2016 Dec 24.
    Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle (UGSF) UMR 8576 CNRS University of Lille France.
    Heparan sulfates (HS) are involved in numerous biological processes, which rely on their ability to interact with a large panel of proteins. Although the reaction of 3-O-sulfation can be catalysed by the largest family of HS sulfotransferases, very few mechanisms have been associated with this modification and to date, only glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 gD) and cyclophilin B (CyPB) have been well-described as ligands for 3-O-sulfated HS. Here, we hypothesized that both ligands could induce the same responses via a mechanism dependent on 3-O-sulfated HS. Read More

    Alliacane sesquiterpenoids from submerged cultures of the basidiomycete Inonotus sp. BCC 22670.
    Phytochemistry 2017 Feb 4. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phaholyothin Road, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.
    Nine alliacane sesquiterpenoids, inonoalliacanes A-I, were isolated from culture broth of the basidiomycete Inonotus sp. BCC 22670. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. Read More

    Seek and destroy: targeted adeno-associated viruses for gene delivery to hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Drug Deliv 2017 Nov;24(1):289-299
    a Gallipoli Medical Research Institute, Greenslopes Private Hospital , Brisbane , QLD , Australia.
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer with high incidence globally. Increasing mortality and morbidity rates combined with limited treatment options available for advanced HCC press for novel and effective treatment modalities. Gene therapy represents one of the most promising therapeutic options. Read More

    Herpesvirus DNA polymerases: Structures, functions and inhibitors.
    Virus Res 2017 Jan 30. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU de Québec and Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:
    Human herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Herpesviridae family. These viruses have the ability to establish lifelong latency into the host and to periodically reactivate. Primary infections and reactivations of herpesviruses cause a large spectrum of diseases and may lead to severe complications in immunocompromised patients. Read More

    Age-related EBV positive clonal B-cell Lymphoid proliferation (EBV+-DLBCL).
    J Clin Exp Dent 2017 Jan 1;9(1):e163-e166. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Associate Prof Oral Medicine, MD, DDS, PhD, Medical School of Athens, NKUA.
    The Ebstein Barr virus(EBV), herpes virus 5 has been associated with lymphoproliferative disordrers. Age-related EBV+ B-LPD is defined as an EBV+ clonal B-cell lymphoid proliferation or EBV+-DLBCL developing in patients over the age of 40 years in the absence of any known immunodeficiency and without an underlying T-cell lymphoma1. We present a case of EBV+ clonal B-cell lymphoid proliferation. Read More

    [Herpes zoster in elderly adults in a community hospital in Buenos Aires. June 2013-May 2014].
    Medicina (B Aires) 2017 ;77(1):24-30
    Sección Geriatría, Servicio de Clínica Médica, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Its main risk factor is increasing age and comorbidities. There are limited data on the characteristics of HZ in South America, especially in the elderly. Read More

    Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2016 Dec;24(4):312-313
    Efstathia Pasmatzi, MD, Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Rio-Patras, Greece;
    Dear Editor, Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute, and self-limiting dermatosis, which is associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7 (1). It predominantly affects individuals of both sexes in their second or third decade of life and is clinically characterized by the occurrence of an initial erythematosquamous plaque followed by the appearance of disseminated similar but smaller lesions one or two weeks later. Several patients develop systemic symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, malaise, headache, fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy that may precede or accompany the eruption; the latter follows the cleavage lines of the trunk creating the configuration of a Christmas tree and spontaneously resolves within 4 to 8 weeks. Read More

    Vesicular Contact Reaction May Progress into Erythema Multiforme.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2016 Dec;24(4):307-309
    Prof. Magdalena Czarnecka-Operacz, MD, PhD, Department of Dermatology, 49 Przybyszewski Str., 60-355 Poznań, Poland.
    Dear Editor, Erythema multiforme is considered an acute skin condition, characterized by a self-limiting and sometimes recurrent course. It is regarded as a type IV hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections, medications, and other various triggers. Allergic contact dermatitis is in turn a delayed type of induced allergy as a result of cutaneous contact with a specific allergen to which the patient develops specific sensitivity. Read More

    Sero-Prevalence of Bloodborne Tumor Viruses (HCV, HBV, HTLV-I and KSHV Infections) and Related Risk Factors among Prisoners in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran, in 2008.
    Hepat Mon 2016 Dec 3;16(12):e31541. Epub 2016 Dec 3.
    Internal Medicine Department, Arash Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Background: Prisoners are at high risk of blood borne and sexually transmitted infections due to their high involvement in risky behaviors. In this descriptive/cross-sectional study, the prevalence, sero-prevalence, and risk factors for bloodborne tumor viruses including HTLV-I, HBV, HCV, and KSHV were evaluated among inmates of two central prisons in the northeast of Iran.

    Methods: Blood samples of 1114 inmates were analyzed for the presence of anti HTLV-I, KSHV, and HCV antibodies and HBsAg by ELISA. Read More

    Misdirection of endosomal trafficking mediated by herpes simplex virus-encoded glycoprotein B.
    FASEB J 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Section of Immunobiology, Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-encoded glycoprotein B (gB) is the most abundant protein in the viral envelope and promotes fusion of the virus with the cellular membrane. In the present study, we found that gB impacts on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II pathway of antigen presentation by fostering homotypic fusion of early endosomes and trapping MHC-II molecules in these altered endosomes. By using an overexpression approach, we demonstrated that transient expression of gB induces giant vesicles of early endosomal origin, which contained Rab5, early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1), large amounts of MHC-II molecules [human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and HLA-DM] but no CD63. Read More

    Phytosterols isolated from Clinacanthus nutans induce immunosuppressive activity in murine cells.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2017 Mar 21;44:203-210. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:
    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a traditional medicinal plant belonging to the Acanthaceae family. Read More

    A new resin glycoside from Calystegia soldanella and its antiviral activity towards herpes.
    Nat Prod Res 2017 Jan 20:1-5. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    c Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Sojo University , Kumamoto , Japan.
    A new resin glycoside, named calysolin XVIII (1), was isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Calystegia soldanella Roem. et Schult. (Convolvulaceae). Read More

    Pattern recognitions receptors in immunodeficiency disorders.
    Eur J Pharmacol 2017 Jan 14. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Mycobacteriology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Read More

    The most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology : Question 1. Could the vertical transmission of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection account for the cause, characteristics, and epidemiology of HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma, non-smoking East Asian female lung adenocarcinoma, and/or East Asian triple-negative breast carcinoma?
    Chin J Cancer 2017 Jan 16;36(1):13. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.
    Specific research foci: (1) Mouse models of gamma-herpes virus-68 (γHV-68) and polyomavirus (PyV) infections during neonatal versus adult life. (2) For human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC)-(a) Asking the question: Is oral sex a powerful carcinogen? (b) Examining the evidence for the vertical transmission of HPV infection. (c) Examining the relationship between HPV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in West European, East European, and East Asian countries. Read More

    An Interleukin 12 Adjuvanted Herpes Simplex Virus 2 DNA Vaccine Is More Protective Than a Glycoprotein D Subunit Vaccine in a High-Dose Murine Challenge Model.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Jan 13. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    1 Profectus Biosciences , Baltimore Maryland.
    Vaccination is a proven intervention against human viral diseases; however, success against Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) remains elusive. Most HSV-2 vaccines tested in humans to date contained just one or two immunogens, such as the virion attachment receptor glycoprotein D (gD) and/or the envelope fusion protein, glycoprotein B (gB). At least three factors may have contributed to the failures of subunit-based HSV-2 vaccines. Read More

    Immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine in adults ≥50 years of age with a prior history of herpes zoster: a phase III, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jan 9. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    c GSK Vaccines , King of Prussia , PA USA.
    This phase III, non-randomized, open-label, multi-center study (NCT01827839) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant subunit herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine (HZ/su) in adults aged ≥50 years with prior physician-documented history of HZ. Participants (stratified by age: 50-59, 60-69 and ≥70 years) received 2 doses of HZ/su 2 months apart and were followed-up for another 12 months. Anti-glycoprotein E (gE) antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before vaccination and 1 month after the second dose (Month 3). Read More

    Diagnostic challenges in vacuolar myelopathy: a didactic case report.
    Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2016 15;2:16020. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Department of Neurology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria; Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg (SCITReCS), Salzburg, Austria.
    Introduction: Because of the diagnostic complexity and potential pitfalls in interpreting test results, HIV-vacuolar myelopathy (HIVM) is far more often diagnosed postmortem than in vivo. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the topic of neuro-AIDS has become increasingly important. This case report covers some of the diagnostic problems encountered in vacuolar myelopathy based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fiber-tracking pictures of the spine in a patient with HIVM, including a 1-year follow-up. Read More

    The impact of direct antiviral agents on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Liver Int 2017 Jan;37 Suppl 1:136-139
    Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Group, Liver Unit, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Direct antiviral agents mark a major progress for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The rate of cure is higher than 90% in most populations and the safety profile is good. However, like any treatment, there are potential unexpected adverse events. Read More

    HPV-Related Knowledge Among Dentists and Dental Hygienists.
    J Cancer Educ 2016 Dec 30. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Department of Health Sciences, James Madison University, 800 S. Main St., Harrisonburg, VA, 22807, USA.
    Dental providers, such as dentists and dental hygienists, play an important role in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer prevention. Dental professional organizations recommend dental providers educate patients about HPV and oral cancers. The objective of this study was to assess HPV knowledge among dental providers. Read More

    Subtypes and Risk Behaviors Among Incident HIV Cases in the Bangkok Men Who Have Sex with Men Cohort Study, Thailand, 2006-2014.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jan 27. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    2 Thailand Ministry of Public Health-U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration , Nonthaburi, Thailand .
    HIV-1 incidence and prevalence remain high among men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender women (TGW), in Thailand. To examine the link between epidemiologic factors and HIV-1 subtype transmission among Thai MSM, we compared covariates of infection with HIV CRF01_AE and other HIV strains among participants in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study (BMCS). The BMCS was an observational cohort study of Thai MSM and TGW with up to 60 months of follow-up at 4 monthly intervals. Read More

    Vaccination of rhesus macaques with the live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine VC2 stimulates the proliferation of mucosal T cells and germinal center responses resulting in sustained production of highly neutralizing antibodies.
    Vaccine 2017 Jan 22;35(4):536-543. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences and Division of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, United States. Electronic address:
    We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain with mutations in glycoprotein K (gK) and the membrane protein UL20 is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. To better understand the immune response generated by vaccination with VC2, we tested its ability to elicit immune responses in rhesus macaques. Vaccinated animals showed no signs of disease and developed increasing HSV-1 and HSV-2 reactive IgG1 after two booster vaccinations, while IgG subtypes IgG2 and IgG3 remained at low to undetectable levels. Read More

    Comparison of Antibody Responses Induced by RV144, VAX003, and VAX004 Vaccination Regimens.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jan 30. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    1 Department of Retrovirology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) , Bangkok, Thailand .
    The RV144 prime-boost regimen demonstrated efficacy against HIV acquisition while VAX003 and VAX004 did not. Although these trials differed by risk groups, immunization regimens, and immunogens, antibody responses may have contributed to the differences observed in vaccine efficacy. We assessed HIV-specific IgG, both total and subclass, and IgA binding to HIV envelope (Env): gp120 proteins and Cyclic V2 (CycV2) and CycV3 peptides and gp70 V1 V2 scaffolds in these 3 HIV vaccine trials. Read More

    Mildly Acidic pH Triggers an Irreversible Conformational Change in the Fusion Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B and Inactivation of Viral Entry.
    J Virol 2017 Mar 14;91(5). Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry into a subset of cells requires endocytosis and endosomal low pH. Preexposure of isolated virions to mildly acidic pH of 5 to 6 partially inactivates HSV infectivity in an irreversible manner. Acid inactivation is a hallmark of viruses that enter via low-pH pathways; this occurs by pretriggering conformational changes essential for fusion. Read More

    Ocrelizumab versus Placebo in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
    N Engl J Med 2017 01 21;376(3):209-220. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    From Hospital Vall d'Hebron University, Barcelona (X.M.); University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (S.L.H.), and Genentech, South San Francisco (D.M., H.G., P.C.) - both in California; University Hospital Basel, University of Basel (L.K.), and F. Hoffmann-La Roche (A.S., P.F., S.B., N.M.), Basel, Switzerland; McGill University (D.L.A., A.B.-O.) and NeuroRx Research (D.L.A.), Montreal, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver (A.T.) - both in Canada; University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan (G.C.); University Hospital of Strasbourg, Clinical Investigation Center (INSERM Unité 1434), Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France (J.S.); Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (G.G.); Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf (H.-P.H.), and Technical University of Munich and Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology, Munich (B.H.) - both in Germany; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (F.L.); University of Miami, Miami (K.W.R.); Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland (K.S.); and McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (J.S.W.).
    Background An evolving understanding of the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis suggests that depleting B cells could be useful for treatment. We studied ocrelizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively depletes CD20-expressing B cells, in the primary progressive form of the disease. Methods In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 732 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis in a 2:1 ratio to receive intravenous ocrelizumab (600 mg) or placebo every 24 weeks for at least 120 weeks and until a prespecified number of confirmed disability progression events had occurred. Read More

    Extreme lymphocytosis with myelomonocytic morphology in a horse with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
    Vet Clin Pathol 2016 Dec 21. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Department of Pathology, University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA, USA.
    An 11-year-old, 443-kg Haflinger mare was presented to the North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 2-week history of lethargy and a 3-day duration of anorexia, pyrexia, tachycardia, and ventral edema. Severe pitting edema, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and a caudal abdominal mass were noted on physical examination. An extreme leukocytosis (154. Read More

    The paradoxical changes of membrane and soluble herpes virus entry mediator in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Dec 16. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Background & Aim: The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) network has become new directions in targeting novel checkpoint inhibitors for cancer therapy. However, the changes of membrane-bound HVEM (mHVEM) and soluble HVEM (sHVEM) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not fully understood. This study aims to study the changes of mHVEM and sHVEM in HCC patients. Read More

    Prevalence and Predictors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Selected Sexually Transmitted Infections Among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A New Focus to Get to Zero.
    Sex Transm Dis 2017 Feb;44(2):79-84
    From the *Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; †Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Norway; ‡National AIDS Control Programme, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare; and §Department of Behavioral Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Background: Previous studies in Tanzania indicated that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) could be as high as 40%. We aim to provide data on the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection among PWIDs to inform national plans to get to zero.

    Materials And Methods: Respondent-driven sampling was used to collect drug use, and sexual practices data among PWIDs aged 15 years and older. Read More

    Distribution of cellular HSV-1 receptor expression in human brain.
    J Neurovirol 2016 Dec 15. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SB, UK.
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus linked to a range of acute and chronic neurological disorders affecting distinct regions of the brain. Unusually, HSV-1 entry into cells requires the interaction of viral proteins glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) with distinct cellular receptor proteins. Several different gD and gB receptors have been identified, including TNFRSF14/HVEM and PVRL1/nectin 1 as gD receptors and PILRA, MAG, and MYH9 as gB receptors. Read More

    Thymidine Kinase-Negative Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Can Efficiently Establish Persistent Infection in Neural Tissues of Nude Mice.
    J Virol 2017 Feb 31;91(4). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neural tissues of immunocompetent mice but persists in both peripheral and neural tissues of lymphocyte-deficient mice. Thymidine kinase (TK) is believed to be essential for HSV-1 to persist in neural tissues of immunocompromised mice, because infectious virus of a mutant with defects in both TK and UL24 is detected only in peripheral tissues, but not in neural tissues, of severe combined immunodeficiency mice (T. Valyi-Nagy, R. Read More

    Immunization in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases.
    Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2016 Oct 23;30(5):946-963. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Joint Rheumatology Program, Clinical Immunology-Rheumatology Unit, 2nd Department of Medicine and Laboratory, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Hippokration General Hospital, 114 Vass. Sophias Ave., 115 27, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:
    Immunization represents the most efficient and simplest intervention to prevent certain viral and bacterial infections in the general population as well as in the vulnerable population of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases treated with immunosuppressives. Here, we present an updated review of literature data regarding the safety and efficacy of immunizations against different pathogens in rheumatic patients treated with conventional immunosuppressives or the newer biologic agents while at the same time we provide practical guidance for the appropriate vaccine administration in this patient population. Read More

    Profile of patients with uveitis referred to a multidisciplinary unit in northern Spain.
    Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2016 Dec 7. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Institut Clinic d́Oftalmologia, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Cataluña, España.
    Objective: To describe the main characteristics of a cohort of patients with uveitis referred to a multidisciplinary unit in northern Spain.

    Material And Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients evaluated in the Multidisciplinary Unit of the Navarra Hospital Complex from the period January 2010 until March 2015. An analysis was performed on the demographic characteristics, origin, types of uveitis, laterality, and aetiology. Read More

    Repression of telomerase gene promoter requires human-specific genomic context and is mediated by multiple HDAC1-containing corepressor complexes.
    FASEB J 2016 Dec 9. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University College of Pharmacy, Spokane, Washington, USA;
    The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene is repressed in most somatic cells, whereas the expression of the mouse mTert gene is widely detected. To understand the mechanisms of this human-specific repression, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) reporters using human and mouse genomic DNAs encompassing the TERT genes and neighboring loci. Upon chromosomal integration, the hTERT, but not the mTert, reporter was stringently repressed in telomerase-negative human cells in a histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent manner, replicating the expression of their respective endogenous genes. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of a Herpes Zoster subunit vaccine in Japanese population aged ≥50 years when administered subcutaneously vs. intramuscularly.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2016 Dec 9:1-5. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    a GSK Vaccines , Rockville , MD , USA.
    The impact of alternate routes of vaccine administration, subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM), on the safety and immunogenicity of herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su) was assessed in Japanese adults aged ≥ 50 y. During this phase III open-label study, 60 subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive HZ/su through SC or IM routes in a 0, 2 month schedule. Vaccine response rates (VRRs) and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE)-specific antibodies were determined by ELISA. Read More

    Three cases of mumps virus and enterovirus coinfection in children with enteroviral meningitis.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Dec;95(49):e5610
    aHealth Research Institute, Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center bVirology Department, Faculty of Medicine cCellular and Molecular Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science, Ahvaz dMicrobilogy Department, Urmia University of Medical Science, Urmia eNarges Genetic Laboratory fAboozar Children's Hospital gFaculty of Medicine hRazi Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Several viruses are responsible for aseptic meningitis; however, in the region of Southwest Iran, the role played by each virus is still not very well known. The aim of this study is to determine the relative frequencies of mumps virus, herpes viruses, and enteroviruses, as well as coinfections among them, in patients with aseptic meningitis.In this cross-sectional study, samples of cerebrospinal fluid were collected between December 2012 and December 2013 from patients under 14 years, who were hospitalized in Abuzar Children's Hospital in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran (the only children's hospital in Khuzestan province and Southwest Iran). Read More

    Sexually Transmitted Infections: Recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
    Am Fam Physician 2016 Dec;94(11):907-915
    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD, USA.
    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued recommendations on behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and recommendations about screening for individual STIs. Read More

    Recognition and management of sepsis in early infancy.
    Nurs Child Young People 2016 Dec;28(10):36-45
    Torbay Hospital, Torquay.
    Serious bacterial and viral infections occurring in early infancy are important factors affecting morbidity and mortality. Recognition of sepsis by healthcare professionals is vital and allows initiation of appropriate early treatment which can be life-saving and improve outcomes for these infants greatly. This article outlines the leading causes of sepsis, for example, group B Streptococcus (GBS), Escherichia coli and herpes simplex virus. Read More

    Prevention of Herpes Zoster and its complications: From clinical evidence to real life experience.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Feb 7;13(2):391-398. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    e University Tor Vergata , Rome , Italy.
    Herpes zoster (HZ) is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash with unilateral distribution, which can also result in severe complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. The estimate incidence in Europe ranges between 2.0 and 4. Read More

    Clinical and economic impact of herpes zoster vaccination in elderly in Italy.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Feb 7;13(2):405-411. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    a Department of Health Sciences , University of Florence , Florence , Italy.
    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a very relevant pathology among elderly people (≥ 60 years of age), with a considerable disease burden and loss of quality of life. In the last years a new vaccine against HZ became available in Italy. Therefore, the Italian decision makers are now confronted with the decision whether that vaccination should be implemented. Read More

    Incidence of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Italy: Results from a 3-years population-based study.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Feb 7;13(2):399-404. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    a Department of Health Sciences , University of Genoa , Genoa , Italy.
    Herpes Zoster (HZ) and its main complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), represent important public health issues because of their relevant burden among older adults. However, data on the epidemiology of HZ and PHN in Italy are very limited. A population-based study was performed by seeking for cases of HZ and PHN, occurred in the period 2013-2015, in the clinical charts of 56 General Practitioners working in 4 Italian Regions (Liguria, Puglia, Toscana and Veneto). Read More

    Age-related changes in the gene expression profile of antigen-specific mouse CD8+ T cells can be partially reversed by blockade of the BTLA/CD160 pathways during vaccination.
    Aging (Albany NY) 2016 Nov;8(12):3272-3297
    Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    We analyzed gene expression profiles of young and aged mouse CD8(+) T cells specific for the nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A/PR8/34 virus. CD8(+) T cells were stimulated either by the NP antigen expressed in its native form or fused into the herpes virus (HSV)-1 glycoprotein D (gD) protein, which blocks signaling through the immunoinhibitory B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 pathways. We show that NP-specific CD8(+) T cells from aged mice exhibit numerous differences in gene expression compared to NP-specific CD8(+) T cells from young mice, including a significant reduction of expression in genes involved in T cell receptor (TcR) and CD28 signaling. Read More

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