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    Epigenetic Regulation of Viral Biological Processes.
    Viruses 2017 Nov 17;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA.
    It is increasingly clear that DNA viruses exploit cellular epigenetic processes to control their life cycles during infection. This review will address epigenetic regulation in members of the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B, and herpes viruses. For each type of virus, what is known about the roles of DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and regulatory RNA in epigenetic regulation of the virus infection will be discussed. Read More

    Hiv Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    *Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. †Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Norway ‡Department of Behavioural Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Introduction: Limited studies and differential risk behaviours among men who have sex with men(MSM) in Africa calls for population specific studies. We present results from the largest integrated bio-behavioural survey among MSM in Africa to inform programming.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study utilizing respondent driven sampling to recruit MSM aged 18 and above. Read More

    Herpes simplex virus-1 entrapped in Candida albicans biofilm displays decreased sensitivity to antivirals and UVA1 laser treatment.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 14;16(1):72. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Diagnostic, Clinic and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 87, 41125, Modena, Italy.
    Background: Recently, we published data suggesting a mutualistic relationship between HSV-1 and Candida. albicans; in particular: (a) HSV-1 infected macrophages are inhibited in their anti-Candida effector function and (b) Candida biofilm protects HSV-1 from inactivation. The present in vitro study is aimed at testing the effects of Candida biofilm on HSV-1 sensitivity to pharmacological and physical stress, such as antiviral drugs (acyclovir and foscarnet) and laser UVA1 irradiation. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of baricitinib in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Subgroup analyses of four multinational phase 3 randomized trials.
    Mod Rheumatol 2017 Nov 14:1-9. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    g Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine , Keio University School of Medicine , Tokyo , Japan.
    Objectives: To evaluate efficacy/safety of baricitinib for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japanese subpopulations from four phase 3 studies, and assess whether results in these subpopulations are consistent with the overall study populations.

    Methods: Subgroup analyses (394 patients) of four phase 3 randomized controlled trials: RA-BEGIN [no or limited treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)], RA-BEAM [inadequate response (IR) to methotrexate], RA-BUILD [IR to conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs)], and RA-BEACON (IR to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors receiving csDMARDs).

    Results: For American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement (ACR20) response rate, Japanese patients receiving baricitinib 4-mg showed similar improvement compared to methotrexate at Week 24 (72 versus 69%; RA-BEGIN), and greater improvement compared with placebo at Week 12 (67 versus 34%; RA-BEAM). Read More

    [Neonatal herpes: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and management. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF)].
    Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Unité de néonatalogie soins intensifs-pédiatrie de maternité, centre Aliénor d'Aquitaine, groupe hospitalier Pellegrin, centre hospitalier universitaire de Bordeaux, place Amélie-Raba-Léon, 33000 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:
    Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention.

    Methods: Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines.

    Results: Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3). Read More

    [Management of pregnant women with recurrent herpes. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynecologists, Obstetricians (CNGOF)].
    Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Maternité Port-Royal, université Paris Descartes, groupe hospitalier Cochin-Broca-Hôtel-Dieu, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 53, avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France; DHU risques et grossesse, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, 53, avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Objective: To provide guidelines for the management of woman with genital herpes during pregnancy or labor and with known history of genital herpes.

    Methods: MedLine and Cochrane Library databases search and review of the main foreign guidelines.

    Results: Genital herpes ulceration during pregnancy in a woman with history of genital herpes correspond to a recurrence. Read More

    Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Service de gynécologie-obstétrique, CHU de Bordeaux, place Amélie-Raba-Léon, 33000 Bordeaux, France.
    Objective: Identify measures to diagnose, prevent and treat genital herpes infection during pregnancy and childbirth and neonatal infection.

    Methods: Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines.

    Results: Genital herpes lesion is most often due to HSV2 (LE2). Read More

    [Management of pregnant women with first episode of genital herpes. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French college of gynecologists and obstetricians (CNGOF)].
    Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Service de gynécologie obstétrique, hôpitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, avenue Molière, BP 426, 67091 Strasbourg cedex, France; Unité Inserm UMR-S 1121 « Biomatériaux et Bioingénierie », 11, rue Humann, 67000 Strasbourg, France. Electronic address:
    Objective: To provide guidelines for the management of first episode genital herpes during pregnancy and in the immediate postpartum period.

    Methods: MedLine and Cochrane Library databases search and review of the main foreign guidelines.

    Results: In case of first episode genital herpes during pregnancy, antiviral treatment with acyclovir (200mg 5 times daily) or valacyclovir (1000mg twice daily) for 5 to 10 days is recommended (grade C). Read More

    Vaccinations in Older Adults.
    Clin Geriatr Med 2018 Feb 14;34(1):131-143. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, 750 North Lakeshore Drive, 10th Floor, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
    Vaccines are important for preventing infections in adults aged ≥65 years. Older adults are at increased risk for complications from vaccine-preventable illnesses due to age-associated changes in immune function and chronic medical comorbidities. Vaccination rates for older adults remain low despite widely accepted practice guidelines. Read More

    Metagenomic deep sequencing of aqueous fluid detects intraocular lymphomas.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Introduction: Currently, the detection of pathogens or mutations associated with intraocular lymphomas heavily relies on prespecified, directed PCRs. With metagenomic deep sequencing (MDS), an unbiased high-throughput sequencing approach, all pathogens as well as all mutations present in the host's genome can be detected in the same small amount of ocular fluid.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional case series, aqueous fluid samples from two patients were submitted to MDS to identify pathogens as well as common and rare cancer mutations. Read More

    UPLC-PDA-ESI-qTOF-MS profiling and potent anti-HSV-II activity of Eucalyptus sideroxylon leaves.
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Ainy, Cairo, 11562, Egypt. Electronic address:
    Eucalyptus is one of the most important and highly exploited genus in family Myrtaceae. An UPLC/PDA/ESI-qTOF-MS method was adopted to identify Eucalyptus sideroxylon Cunn. ex Woolls leaves phytoconstituents. Read More

    Patterns of Uveitis at Two University-Based Referral Centres in Cape Town, South Africa.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Nov 9:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    d Centre for Evidence Based Health Care , Department of Global Health, University of Stellenbosch , Cape Town , South Africa.
    Purpose: To analyze the pattern of uveitis at two tertiary hospitals in South Africa which has a high prevalence of HIV, TB and syphilis.

    Methods: Data of 198 patients were obtained retrospectively between August 2014 and August 2016, including patient demographics, clinical examination, special investigations and final diagnosis.

    Results: Infectious uveitis was the most common aetiological category (47%), followed by idiopathic (34. Read More

    Recognition and nursing management of sepsis in early infancy.
    Emerg Nurse 2017 Oct;25(6):23-29
    Torbay Hospital, Torquay, Devon, England.
    Neonatal sepsis describes serious bacterial or viral infections that manifest in the first 28 days of life, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Although most babies with early-onset neonatal sepsis are born and managed in hospital, some are born in the community, or discharged early from postnatal wards. Consequently, emergency department (ED) nurses and other healthcare professionals need to be able to identify and treat these infants effectively to improve long-term outcomes. Read More

    Detection of cytomegalovirus, herpes virus simplex, and parvovirus b19 in spontaneous abortion placentas.
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Nov 7:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    a Departament of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine , Federal University of Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brasil.
    Objective: This study aims to investigate the presence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes virus simplex (HSV), and parvovirus B19 (PVB19) in the placental tissue of patients who underwent abortions without an otherwise-defined aetiology.

    Study Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a high-risk obstetric maternity facility at a University Hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from January 2013 to December 2015. We included placenta samples obtained from spontaneous abortions of unknown aetiology. Read More

    The "Topological Train Ride" of a Viral Long Non-Coding RNA.
    RNA Biol 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    b Basic Research Laboratory , National Cancer Institute , Frederick , MD 21702 , USA.
    As the notion of small molecule targeting of regulatory viral and cellular RNAs gathers momentum, understanding their structure, and variations thereof, in the appropriate biological context will play a critical role. This is especially true of the ∼1100-nt polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) long non-coding (lnc) RNA of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), whose interaction with viral and cellular proteins is central to lytic infection. Nuclear accumulation of PAN RNA is mediated via a unique triple helical structure at its 3' terminus (within the expression and nuclear retention element, or ENE) which protects it from deadenylation-dependent decay. Read More

    Synthesis and biological assessment of 3,7-dihydroxytropolones.
    Org Biomol Chem 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Chemistry, Brooklyn College, The City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York, 11210, USA. and PhD Program in Chemistry, The Graduate Center of The City University of New York, New York, New York 10016, USA.
    3,7-Dihydroxytropolones (3,7-dHTs) are highly oxygenated troponoids that have been identified as lead compounds for several human diseases. To date, structure-function studies on these molecules have been limited due to a scarcity of synthetic methods for their preparation. New synthetic strategies towards structurally novel 3,7-dHTs would be valuable in further studying their therapeutic potential. Read More

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Connection between Human Herpes Virus-6A-Induced CD46 Downregulation and Complement Activation?
    Front Immunol 2017 17;8:1314. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    labormedizinisches zentrum Dr Risch, Vaduz, Liechtenstein.
    Viruses are able to interfere with the immune system by docking to receptors on host cells that are important for proper functioning of the immune system. A well-known example is the human immunodeficiency virus that uses CD4 cell surface molecules to enter host lymphocytes and thereby deleteriously destroying the helper cell population of the immune system. A more complicated mechanism is seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) where human herpes virus-6A (HHV-6A) infects astrocytes by docking to the CD46 surface receptor. Read More

    The Role of Fungi in the Etiology of Multiple Sclerosis.
    Front Neurol 2017 16;8:535. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Shipshaw Labs, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Infectious triggers of MS are being actively investigated. Substantial evidence supports the involvement of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), though other viruses, bacteria, protists, and fungi are also being considered. Read More

    A randomized lot-to-lot immunogenicity consistency study of the candidate zoster vaccine HZ/su.
    Vaccine 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Pfizer Inc., 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: The risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ) increases with age and is thought to be associated with a decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults. The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) recombinant subunit vaccine (HZ/su) showed >90% efficacy in the prevention of HZ when administered in adults ≥50 years of age. Here we aim to evaluate immunogenicity consistency of 3 different HZ/su vaccine lots and to assess safety of these lots. Read More

    Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of the Interactions of Amenamevir (ASP2151) with Ketoconazole, Rifampicin, Midazolam, and Warfarin in Healthy Adults.
    Adv Ther 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Introduction: Amenamevir is a nonnucleoside antiherpes virus compound available for treating herpes zoster infections. Four studies aimed to determine any potential interactions between amenamevir and ketoconazole, rifampicin, midazolam, or warfarin in healthy male participants.

    Methods: Two studies were open-label studies that evaluated the effects of multiple doses of ketoconazole (400 mg) and rifampicin (600 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of amenamevir. Read More

    Clinical Profile of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a South Indian Patient Population.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Oct 26:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    c Department of Biostatistics , National Institute of Mental Health Sciences , Bangalore , India.
    Purpose: To analyze and compare the clinical profile of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) patients in a South Indian patient population aged <60 years and ≥60 years and determine the risk factors for recurrence of ocular inflammation.

    Methods: Retrospective study of 249 cases between 2006 and 2016 from two tertiary referral eye centres in south india.

    Results: Out of 249 cases, 189 cases were <60 years (Group 1) and 60 cases were aged ≥60 years (Group2). Read More

    Long-term study (2005-2010) on the vaccination with BoHV-1 glycoprotein E-deleted marker vaccine in selected two dairy herds in Turkey.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Virology, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.
    A follow-up study from 2005 to 2010 was carried out in two herds where eradication programme for the bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) infection depends on the vaccination with inactivated glycoprotein E-deleted vaccine that was started in 2001 following the vaccination with inactivated conventional vaccine between 1999 and 2001. For serological screening, a total of 12,976 sera sampled over several sampling times approximately 6 months of interval during 5 years (2005-2010) were tested for glycoprotein E (gE)- and glycoprotein B-specific antibodies using ELISA. According to the serological evidence, the long-term persistence of BoHV-1 antibodies, success of marker vaccine, first vaccination time of the calves in herds regularly vaccinated, etc. Read More

    An updated review of the JAK1/2 inhibitor (ruxolitininb) in the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.
    Future Oncol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Haematology, Guy's Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT, UK.
    Ruxolitinib (Rux), a JAK1/2 inhibitor, has been approved for patients with myelofibrosis and in polycythemia vera with inadequate response/intolerance to hydroxycarbamide. Studies have demonstrated that Rux improves disease-related symptoms and splenomegaly. A late emerging observation from two Phase III trials was that Rux was associated with survival advantage in comparison with placebo or other available therapies in myelofibrosis. Read More

    Studies with herpes zoster vaccines in immune compromised patients.
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 Dec 7;16(12):1217-1230. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    c Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology , University of Alabama , Birmingham , AL , USA.
    Introduction: The active component of the herpes zoster vaccine (ZVL), licensed for people ≥50 years of age, is a live attenuated varicella-zoster virus. ZVL is contraindicated for immune compromised individuals, with limited regard to the degree of immunosuppression. Areas covered: This review evaluates phase I and II and observational studies for ZVL, and published reports of the off-label use of ZVL, for conditions and therapies for which investigators considered the risk-benefit for using ZVL to be favorable. Read More

    Human Cytomegalovirus vaccine development: Immune responses to look into vaccine strategy.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    a State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics , National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen , China.
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes considerable morbidity and disability in high risk, immunocompromised populations including recipients of solid organ transplants, and fetuses whose immune systems are not yet mature. Vaccines aimed at ameliorating the severity of disease and preventing HCMV infection can be categorized into two main approaches of vaccine design, with one focusing on virus modification and the other on individual antigens. However, no candidates in either class have been successful in achieving durable and protective immunity. Read More

    A Bayesian Stepwise Discriminant Model for Predicting Risk Factors of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: A Case-control Study.
    Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 Oct;130(20):2416-2422
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.
    Background: Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) can lead to serious consequences such as intrauterine infection, prolapse of the umbilical cord, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Genital infection is a very important risk which closely related with PPROM. The preliminary study only made qualitative research on genital infection, but there was no deep and clear judgment about the effects of pathogenic bacteria. Read More

    Varicella and herpes zoster vaccine development: lessons learned.
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 Dec 30;16(12):1191-1201. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    b Division of Infection and Immunity , University College London , London , UK.
    Introduction: Before vaccination, varicella zoster virus (VZV), which is endemic worldwide, led to almost universal infection. This neurotropic virus persists lifelong by establishing latency in sensory ganglia, where its reactivation is controlled by VZV-specific T-cell immunity. Lifetime risk of VZV reactivation (zoster) is around 30%. Read More

    Structural and thermodynamic analyses reveal critical features of glycopeptide recognition by the human PILRα immune cell receptor.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Hokkaido University, Japan;
    Before entering host cells, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) uses its envelope glycoprotein B (gB) to bind paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor α (PILRα) on immune cells. PILRα belongs to the Siglec (sialic acid (SA)-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin)-like family, members of which bind SA. PILRα is the only Siglec member to recognize not only the sialylated O-linked sugar T antigen (sTn) but also its attached peptide region. Read More

    The association between herpes virus infections and functional somatic symptoms in a general population of adolescents. The TRAILS study.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(10):e0185608. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center for Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation (ICPE), Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Background: FSS have been suggested to follow activation of the immune system, triggered by herpes virus infections. The aim of this study was to find out whether herpes virus infections were associated with the experience of FSS in adolescents, and whether this association was mediated by hsCRP, as a general marker of immune activation.

    Methods: This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective population cohort of 2230 adolescents (mean age: 16. Read More

    Tofacitinib for Psoriatic Arthritis in Patients with an Inadequate Response to TNF Inhibitors.
    N Engl J Med 2017 10;377(16):1525-1536
    From the University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto (D.G.); Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH (W.R.); Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil (V.F.A.); Goethe University and Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology Project Group Translational Medicine and Pharmacology (TMP), Frankfurt, Germany (F.B.); Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Instituto de Investigación Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain (R.B.); Specjalistyczne Gabinety Lekarskie DERMED, Lodz, Poland (A.K.); Pfizer, Groton, CT (E.K., C.W., S.M., K.S.K.); and Pfizer, Collegeville, PA (T.H.).
    Background: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is under investigation for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. We evaluated tofacitinib in patients with active psoriatic arthritis who had previously had an inadequate response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors.

    Methods: In this 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 395 patients, in a 2:2:1:1 ratio, to four regimens: 5 mg of tofacitinib administered orally twice daily (132 patients); 10 mg of tofacitinib twice daily (132 patients); placebo, with a switch to 5 mg of tofacitinib twice daily at 3 months (66 patients); or placebo, with a switch to 10 mg of tofacitinib twice daily at 3 months (65 patients). Read More

    Optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting cytomegalovirus infections during clinical trials of recombinant vaccines.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Nov 9;96:99-104. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Sanofi Pasteur, Marcy l'Etoile, France.
    Background: In clinical trials of cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) vaccines, CMV infection is detected by first depleting serum of anti-gB antibodies and then measuring anti-CMV antibodies with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, with confirmation of positive findings by immunoblot.

    Objectives: Identification of CMV immunoantigens for the development of an ELISA that detects specifically CMV infection in clinical samples from individuals immunized with gB vaccines.

    Study Design: Sensitivity and specificity of ELISAs using antigenic regions of CMV proteins UL83/pp65, UL99/pp28, UL44/pp52, UL80a/pp38, UL57, and UL32/pp150 were measured. Read More

    TGF-β Inhibition Improves Oncolytic Herpes Viroimmunotherapy in Murine Models of Rhabdomyosarcoma.
    Mol Ther Oncolytics 2017 Dec 8;7:17-26. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Oncolytic viruses are an emerging class of cancer therapeutics that couple cytotoxicity with the induction of an anti-tumor immune response. Host-virus interactions are complex and modulated by a tumor microenvironment whose immunosuppressive activities can limit the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies. In an effort to improve this aspect of oncolytic virotherapy, we combined the oncolytic herpes virus HSV1716 with the transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGF-βR1) inhibitor A8301 to treat syngeneic models of murine rhabdomyosarcoma. Read More

    Current antiviral drugs and their analysis in biological materials - Part II: Antivirals against hepatitis and HIV viruses.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Jan 8;147:378-399. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University, Akademika Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.
    This review is a Part II of the series aiming to provide comprehensive overview of currently used antiviral drugs and to show modern approaches to their analysis. While in the Part I antivirals against herpes viruses and antivirals against respiratory viruses were addressed, this part concerns antivirals against hepatitis viruses (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many novel antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV have been introduced into the clinical practice over the last decade. Read More

    Review for Disease of the Year: Varicella Zoster Virus-Induced Anterior Uveitis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Oct 12:1-7. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    c Department of Ophthalmology , Bayindir Kavaklidere Hospital , Ankara , Turkey.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced anterior uveitis (AU) may complicate the course of primary varicella infection typically seen in children. In adults, especially with advanced age, VZV AU is more commonly associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) with or without skin rash affecting the distribution of the ophthalmic nerve due to reactivation of the latent VZV in the trigeminal ganglion. While it is typically a mild self-limiting AU in primary infection, HZO AU is often accompanied by keratitis, may have a chronic recurrent course, and lead to sectoral iris atrophy, pupillary distortion, and ocular hypertension. Read More

    Viral Surveillance in Serum Samples From Patients With Acute Liver Failure By Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Oct;65(9):1477-1485
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco (UCSF).
    Background: Twelve percent of all acute liver failure (ALF) cases are of unknown origin, often termed indeterminate. A previously unrecognized hepatotropic virus has been suspected as a potential etiologic agent.

    Methods: We compared the performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) with confirmatory nucleic acid testing (NAT) to routine clinical diagnostic testing in detection of known or novel viruses associated with ALF. Read More

    Translational Implication of Galectin-9 in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Viral Infection.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Oct 8;18(10). Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan 35053, Taiwan.
    The interaction between galectin-9 and its receptor, Tim-3, triggers a series of signaling events that regulate immune responses. The expression of galectin-9 has been shown to be increased in a variety of target cells of many different viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), influenza virus, dengue virus (DENV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This enhanced expression of galectin-9 following viral infection promotes significant changes in the behaviors of the virus-infected cells, and the resulting events tightly correlate with the immunopathogenesis of the viral disease. Read More

    Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso as a Medicinal Plant Species: A Review on Bioactive Components and Pharmacological Properties.
    Pharmacogn Rev 2017 Jul-Sep;11(22):158-166
    Department of Pharmacy, Goel Institute of Pharmacy and Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Operculina turpethum (Linn.) (OT) Silva Manso belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. This review incorporates literature for the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of OT herb. Read More

    Screening, prophylaxis and counselling before the start of biological therapies: A practical approach focused on IBD patients.
    Dig Liver Dis 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Biomedicine, Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; MedInUP, Centre for Drug Discovery and Innovative Medicines, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Gastroenterology Department, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:
    The standard of care in the management of immune-mediated inflammatory conditions relies on immunomodulators, glucocorticoids, and biologicals (including anti-tumour necrosis factor -α and other monoclonal antibodies). These agents have an overall favourable benefit/risk ratio; however, they modulate the immune response as part of their mechanisms of action, and therefore they may increase the risk of developing infections, particularly in older patients or in patients with concomitant corticosteroids. Some of these infections may be preventable by immunization, chemoprophylaxis or counselling. Read More

    Antibody-based immunotherapy of aciclovir resistant ocular herpes simplex virus infections.
    Virology 2017 Dec 3;512:194-200. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Institute for Virology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. Electronic address:
    The increasing incidence of aciclovir- (ACV) resistant strains in patients with ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections is a major health problem in industrialized countries. In the present study, the humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) hu2c targeting the HSV-1/2 glycoprotein B was examined for its efficacy towards ACV-resistant infections of the eye in the mouse model of acute retinal necrosis (ARN). BALB/c mice were infected by microinjection of an ACV-resistant clinical isolate into the anterior eye chamber to induce ARN and systemically treated with mAb hu2c at 24h prior (pre-exposure prophylaxis) or at 24, 40, and 56h after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy). Read More

    Telomere Dynamics in Immune Senescence and Exhaustion Triggered by Chronic Viral Infection.
    Viruses 2017 Oct 5;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Pathology, Center for Viral Pathogenesis, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.
    The progressive loss of immunological memory during aging correlates with a reduced proliferative capacity and shortened telomeres of T cells. Growing evidence suggests that this phenotype is recapitulated during chronic viral infection. The antigenic volume imposed by persistent and latent viruses exposes the immune system to unique challenges that lead to host T-cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired T-cell functions. Read More

    Posterior Scleritis with Choroidal Effusion Secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Oct 5:1-3. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    a Department of Ophthalmology , New York University School of Medicine , New York , New York , USA.
    Purpose: To describe a case of posterior scleritis with serous choroidal detachment that occurred as an acute complication of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO).

    Methods: Retrospective case report.

    Results: A 75-year-old female presented with 3 days of painful, decreased vision in her left eye 1 week after being diagnosed with HZO. Read More

    [Specific immunoglobulins G and M in blood serum in retinoblastoma and 'pseudoretinoblastoma'].
    Vestn Oftalmol 2017 ;133(4):12-16
    Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 14/19 Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya St., Moscow, Russia, 105062.
    Perinatal inflammatory retinal diseases and intrauterine retinal maldevelopments are mistaken for retinoblastoma as often as in 8-16% of cases.

    Aim: To analyze the infectious status in children with retinoblastoma and pseudoretinoblastoma at different ages.

    Material And Methods: A total of 47 retinoblastoma suspects aged 4-69 months were enrolled. Read More

    Monoclonal IgG in MGUS and multiple myeloma targets infectious pathogens.
    JCI Insight 2017 Oct 5;2(19). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    CRCINA, Inserm, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Subsets of mature B cell neoplasms are linked to infection with intracellular pathogens such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or Helicobacter pylori. However, the association between infection and the immunoglobulin-secreting (Ig-secreting) B proliferative disorders remains largely unresolved. We investigated whether the monoclonal IgG (mc IgG) produced by patients diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or multiple myeloma (MM) targets infectious pathogens. Read More

    In-vivo monitoring of infectious diseases in living animals using bioluminescence imaging.
    Virulence 2017 Sep 29. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    a Wellman Center for Photomedicine , Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston , MA , USA.
    Traditional methods of localizing and quantifying the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in living experimental animal models of infections have mostly relied on sacrificing the animals, dissociating the tissue and counting the number of colony forming units. However the discovery of several varieties of the light producing enzyme, luciferase, and the genetic engineering of bacteria, fungi, parasites and mice to make them emit light, either after administration of the luciferase substrate, or in the case of the bacterial lux operon without any exogenous substrate, has provided a new alternative. Dedicated bioluminescence imaging (BLI) cameras can record the light emitted from living animals in real time allowing non-invasive, longitudinal monitoring of the anatomical location and growth of infectious microorganisms as measured by strength of the BLI signal. Read More

    Intraocular Detection of Herpesviruses by xTAG Liquid Chip Technology in Patients with Acute Retinal Necrosis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Sep 29:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    a Ophthalmology Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital , Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences , Beijing , China.
    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the xTAG liquid chip technology (xTAG-LCT) for etiological diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN).

    Methods: Fifteen vitreous and 3 aqueous samples from 18 ARN patients were analyzed by xTAG-LCT and multiplex PCR (mPCR)/quantitative PCR (qPCR).

    Results: xTAG-LCT revealed positive results in 17 of the 18 samples: 10 for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) alone; 5 for VZV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); 1 for herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and EBV; 1 for VZV, HSV-1 and EBV. Read More

    Virus-host interactions: new insights and advancements in drug development against viral pathogens.
    Curr Drug Metab 2017 Sep 24. Epub 2017 Sep 24.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar-125001. India.
    Viruses are the most devastating pathogens of almost all life forms including humans and animals. Viruses can replicate very fast and may affect any metabolic and physiological function of the host cell. Therefore, it has been a challenge to develop a universal and common treatment against viral pathogens, in contrast to bacterial pathogens. Read More

    High rate of serious infection in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients under biologic therapy in a real-life setting.
    Mod Rheumatol 2017 Sep 26:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    a Pediatric Rheumatology Unit, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina , Universidade de Sao Paulo , São Paulo , Brazil.
    Objectives: To assess the rate of serious and/or opportunistic infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients from a single tertiary center under biologic therapy and to identify possible risk factors associated to these complications.

    Methods: A total of 107 JIA patients followed at the biologic therapy center of our tertiary university hospital using a standardized electronic database protocol including demographic data, clinical and laboratorial findings and treatment at baseline and at the moment of infection. Opportunistic infections included tuberculosis, herpes zoster and systemic mycosis. Read More

    Herpes zoster incidence and cost in patients receiving autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplant.
    Curr Med Res Opin 2017 Oct 25:1-9. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    b Center for Observational and Real World Evidence, MRL, Merck & Co., Inc. , Kenilworth , NJ , USA.
    Objective: Among patients receiving autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (Auto-HSCT), this study estimated the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ), compared healthcare costs among patients with and without HZ, and evaluated antiviral prophylaxis (AP) use.

    Research Design And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using data from a large health plan to identify patients ≥18 years with ≥1 claim for an Auto-HSCT procedure during 2006-2011 (n = 2,530). Patients were followed from date of Auto-HSCT until risk-end date, defined as development of HZ, end of enrollment, death, or December 31, 2011. Read More

    Risk and impact of herpes zoster on patients with diabetes: a population-based study, 2009-2014.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    c Vaccine Research. Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de la Comunitat Valenciana, FISABIO-Public Health.
    Aims: This study was designed to assess the impact of diabetes on the risk and severity of herpes zoster (HZ), and the impact of HZ on diabetes. It focused primarily on immunocompetent patients aged ≥ 50 years who would be eligible for preventive vaccination.

    Methods: Using population and healthcare databases of Valencia Region (Spain), a retrospective cohort of all subjects ≥ 50 years was followed up between 2009 and 2014. Read More

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