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    Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses.
    Viruses 2018 Apr 18;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. Read More

    Combined Infection of Human Herpes Viruses: A Risk Factor for Subsequent Colectomy in Ulcerative Colitis.
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Background: Little is known about the prevalence and pathogenicity of human herpes viruses except for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human herpes viruses on colonic mucosa in patients with IBD and assess the long-term outcomes in these patients.

    Methods: We examined the colonic mucosal specimens from 66 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 54 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and 29 healthy patients to identify the 6 most common types of human herpes virus, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Read More

    Questioning the Extreme Neurovirulence of Monkey B Virus .
    Adv Virol 2018 13;2018:5248420. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Anthropology and Center for Studies in Ecology and Demography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
    Monkey B virus ( 1; BV) occurs naturally in macaques of the genus which includes rhesus and long-tailed (cynomolgus) monkeys that are widely used in biomedical research. BV is closely related to the human herpes simplex viruses (HSV), and BV infections in its natural macaque host are quite similar to HSV infections in humans. Zoonotic BV is extremely rare, having been diagnosed in only a handful of North American facilities with the last documented case occurring in 1998. Read More

    Safety and Efficacy of Different Systemic Treatment Modalities for Acute Pain of Herpes Zoster: A Pilot Study.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2018 Mar-Apr;9(2):101-104
    Department of Dermatology, AVBRH, JNMC, DMIMS, Wardha (Meghe), Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Herpes zoster is a viral infection of skin caused by Varicella Zoster virus. The most important symptom for which the patient seeks medical advice is pain, which is perceived before the development of rash and lasts even after its resolution. The pain during the first 30 days after onset of herpes zoster is known as acute herpetic neuralgia. Read More

    Bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a hepatitis B virus endemic area: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(15):e0377
    Department of Pathology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea.
    Introduction: Bullous pemphigoid is a type of acute or chronic autoimmune disease that involves subepidermal skin lesions with bulla formation. Although viral infections, such as, human herpes virus (HHV), human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-6, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), are known factors of bullous pemphigoid, HCV infection has only been rarely associated factor, especially in HBV endemic area. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to erythematous bulla of onset 3 months before presentation affecting his entire body. Read More

    Herpesvirus Infection in Infants with Gastroschisis.
    Epidemiology 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Background: Gastroschisis is a congenital malformation that has been shown to be more common in younger mothers and appears to be increasing in prevalence in the United States and elsewhere. Epidemiologic data suggest a potential role of infection and recent studies report an association between maternal antibodies to human herpesviruses (HHV) and development of gastroschisis.

    Methods: In this study we examined newborn bloodspots from 50 children with gastroschisis and 50 healthy controls using a highly sensitive digital droplet polymerase chain reaction assay covering eight human herpesviruses (Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2, Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4), cytomegalovirus (HHV-5), HHV-6A/B, HHV-7, and HHV-8), to examine the presence of herpesvirus DNA at birth, which would suggest in utero infection. Read More

    Bovine herpes virus type-4 infection among postpartum dairy cows in California: risk factors and phylogenetic analysis.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 10:1-9. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System,University of California,School of Veterinary Medicine,Thurman Lab,Davis,CA 95616,USA.
    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine herpes virus type-4 (BoHV-4) infection and describe the genetic characteristics and predominant genotypes of the virus in Yolo and Tulare counties, California. A cross-sectional study involving multi-stage sampling technique was used. One hundred and forty-eight post-partum cows were enrolled from 11 dairy farms. Read More

    Granulysin as a novel factor for the prognosis of the clinical course of chickenpox.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 10:1-4. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Burch University Sarajevo,Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    Granulysin is a recently discovered cytolytic protein of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Studies of healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent varicella-zoster infections demonstrate the importance of virus-specific cellular immunity in controlling viral replication, but also some studies presented granulysin as a molecule that can play a role in chickenpox immunopathogenesis. This study investigated possible correlation between serum granulysin levels and clinical course of chickenpox. Read More

    Biological treatment for psoriasis and the risk of herpes zoster: Results from the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry (PSOLAR).
    J Dermatolog Treat 2018 Apr 5:1-20. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    h Siaal Research Center for Family Medicine and Primary Care , Faculty of Health Sciences; Ben-Gurion University of the Negev , Beer Sheva , Israel.
    Purpose: To describe the risk of herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with psoriasis and its relation to non-biologic systemic therapies or biologic treatment.

    Materials And Methods: Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry (PSOLAR) is an international, prospective, registry that follows adult patients with psoriasis eligible to receive non-biologic systemic therapies or biologic therapies. Mutually exclusive therapy cohorts were defined. Read More

    Functional relevance of the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of the pseudorabies virus glycoprotein H for membrane fusion.
    J Virol 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany
    Herpesvirus membrane fusion depends on the core fusion machinery comprising glycoproteins (g)B and gH/gL. Although gB structurally resembles autonomous class III fusion proteins, it strictly depends on gH/gL to drive membrane fusion. Whether the gH/gL complex needs to be membrane-anchored to fulfill its function and which role the gH cytoplasmic (CD) and transmembrane domains (TMD) play in fusion is unclear. Read More

    Imaging, Tracking and Computational Analyses of Virus Entry and Egress with the Cytoskeleton.
    Viruses 2018 03 31;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Department of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Viruses have a dual nature: particles are “passive substances” lacking chemical energy transformation, whereas infected cells are “active substances” turning-over energy. How passive viral substances convert to active substances, comprising viral replication and assembly compartments has been of intense interest to virologists, cell and molecular biologists and immunologists. Infection starts with virus entry into a susceptible cell and delivers the viral genome to the replication site. Read More

    Understanding Primate Herpesviruses.
    J Emerg Dis Virol 2017 Mar 31;3(1). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Anthropology and Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, Washington, USA.
    Viruses related to the herpes simplex viruses of humans are present in all nonhuman primate (NHP) species tested and cross species transmission has been documented. The herpesvirus present in macaques, Herpes B virus (BV) rarely causes disease in its natural macaque host. However, when transmitted to a nonnative host, BV has occasionally caused severe and even fatal disease if not treated immediately. Read More

    Membrane-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein B Promotes Cell Adhesion and Inhibits Migration of Cells via Upregulating IL-1β and TNF-α.
    Intervirology 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.
    Objectives: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) glycoprotein B (gB) is expressed on the viral envelope as well as on the cytoplasmic membrane of infected cells. In the current study, we aimed to decipher the impact of membrane-associated gB on adhesion and migration of cells via modulating the expression of cytokines.

    Methods: A combination of polymerase chain reaction array, cell adhesion assay, and wound-healing migration assay was conducted to study the influence of the gB-induced cytokines on cell adhesion and migration. Read More

    Effect of a Histone Demethylase Inhibitor on Equine Herpesvirus-1 Activity .
    Front Vet Sci 2018 12;5:34. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Equine Immunology Laboratory, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a ubiquitous and highly contagious pathogen that causes a range of disease severities with outbreaks of notable economic impact. Given the limitations in immune protection of current vaccines and the limited effectiveness of antiviral drugs on EHV-1 infections , improved treatment measures are needed to control disease. The use of drugs that alter the epigenetic state of herpes simplex virus genome has been shown to limit viral primary infection and reactivation both and . Read More

    Kinetic Modeling of Virus Growth in Cells.
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2018 Jun 28;82(2). Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
    When a virus infects a host cell, it hijacks the biosynthetic capacity of the cell to produce virus progeny, a process that may take less than an hour or more than a week. The overall time required for a virus to reproduce depends collectively on the rates of multiple steps in the infection process, including initial binding of the virus particle to the surface of the cell, virus internalization and release of the viral genome within the cell, decoding of the genome to make viral proteins, replication of the genome, assembly of progeny virus particles, and release of these particles into the extracellular environment. For a large number of virus types, much has been learned about the molecular mechanisms and rates of the various steps. Read More

    Mechanism of activation of the BNLF2a immune evasion gene of Epstein-Barr virus by Zta.
    J Gen Virol 2018 Mar 26. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, UK.
    The human gamma herpes virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exploits multiple routes to evade the cellular immune response. During the EBV lytic replication cycle, viral proteins are expressed that provide excellent targets for recognition by cytotoxic T cells. This is countered by the viral BNLF2a gene. Read More

    Post-licensure safety surveillance of zoster vaccine live (Zostavax®) in the United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2006-2015.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Mar 26:1-23. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    a Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , United States.
    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus in latently infected individuals. Live-attenuated HZ vaccine (zoster vaccine live, ZVL) is approved in the United States for persons aged ≥50 years and recommended by the CDC for persons ≥60 years.

    Methods: We analyzed U. Read More

    HLA typing using genome wide data reveals susceptibility types for infections in a psychiatric disease enriched sample.
    Brain Behav Immun 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Dept. of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: The infections Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), cytomegalovirus, and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV1) are common persistent infections that have been associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC, termed HLA in humans) region has been implicated in these infections and these mental illnesses. Read More

    Prevention and management of genital herpes simplex infection during pregnancy and delivery: Guidelines from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF).
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Mar 9;224:93-101. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Objective: Identify measures to diagnose, prevent, and treat genital herpes infection during pregnancy and childbirth as well as neonatal herpes infection.

    Materials And Methods: Bibliographic search from the Medline and Cochrane Library databases and review of international clinical practice guidelines.

    Results: Genital herpes lesions are most often due to HSV-2 (LE2). Read More

    Management of herpes zoster (shingles) during pregnancy.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Mar 22:1-8. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    a Medical College of Georgia , Augusta University , Augusta , GA , USA.
    An infection with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster (HZ). Although rare, the development of HZ does occur during pregnancy. Maternal HZ does not result in increased foetal mortality, and the passage of VZV to the foetus rarely occurs. Read More

    Detection of the incidence of infections and acute biochemical changes in Diffuses Large B-Cell Lymphoma patients treated with Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone (CHOP) with and without Rituximab.
    Curr Drug Saf 2018 03 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    National Institute of Blood Diseases and Bone marrow Transplantation Karachi, Pakistan
    Aim And Objectives: Acute biochemical changes, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and frequency of infections are common in diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma patients undergoing Cyclophosphamide, hydroxyrubicin, Oncovin (Vincristine) Prednisolone (CHOP) and Rituximab plus CHOP chemo cycles. Eventually, it leads to prolong hospital stay and suspending the next chemotherapy cycles. Changes in biochemical profile and immunosuppressant effects correlated with dose intensity ratio, the findings of this study will be helpful in choices for the physician to discontinue therapy or delaying treatment. Read More

    Sleep EEG of Microcephaly in Zika Outbreak.
    Neurodiagn J 2018 ;58(1):11-29
    j School of Medicine , State University of São Paulo Julio de Mesquita Filho , Botucatu , São Paulo , Brazil.
    Microcephaly (MC), previously considered rare, is now a health emergency of international concern because of the devastating Zika virus pandemic outbreak of 2015. The authors describe the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in sleep EEG of epileptic children who were born with microcephaly in areas of Brazil with active Zika virus transmission between 2014 and 2017. The authors reviewed EEGs from 23 children. Read More

    [The efficacy of ultrasound-guided spinal nerve posterior ramus pulsed radiofrequency treatment for aged lower back post-herpetic neuralgia].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Mar;98(10):733-737
    Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China.
    To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided spinal nerve posterior ramus pulsed radiofrequency treatment of lower back post-herpetic neuralgia. One hundred and twenty-eight cases of lower back or anterior abdominal wall acute post-herpetic neuralgia patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups. Read More

    A new naphthoquinone analogue and antiviral constituents from the root of Rhinacanthus nasutus.
    Nat Prod Res 2018 Mar 21:1-7. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    b College of Pharmacy , Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University , Incheon , Korea.
    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (Acanthaceae) is known as traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal and herpes virus infections. A new naphthoquinone racemate, rhinacasutone (1) together with seven known compounds, rhinacanthone (2), rhinacanthins C, D, N, Q, and E (3-7), and heliobuphthalmin (8) were isolated from root of R. Read More

    Behavioral, Psychological, Gender, and Health Service to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection among Young Adult Mexican-American Women Living in a Disadvantaged Community.
    Behav Med 2018 Mar 20:1-24. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    e Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work , University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is among the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Despite this, there has been limited research on the correlates to HSV-2 among disadvantaged and marginalized women, particularly among Latinas. Data for the present analysis include 125 young adult Mexican-American women enrolled in a longitudinal study in a disadvantaged urban community in San Antonio, Texas. Read More

    Immunopathology of Virus-Induced Anterior Uveitis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 15;26(3):338-346. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    g Department of Viroscience , Erasmus MC , Rotterdam , The Netherlands.
    Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. Read More

    Nucleoside analogs as a rich source of antiviral agents active against arthropod-borne flaviviruses.
    Antivir Chem Chemother 2018 Jan-Dec;26:2040206618761299
    1 Department of Virology, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Nucleoside analogs represent the largest class of small molecule-based antivirals, which currently form the backbone of chemotherapy of chronic infections caused by HIV, hepatitis B or C viruses, and herpes viruses. High antiviral potency and favorable pharmacokinetics parameters make some nucleoside analogs suitable also for the treatment of acute infections caused by other medically important RNA and DNA viruses. This review summarizes available information on antiviral research of nucleoside analogs against arthropod-borne members of the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae, being primarily focused on description of nucleoside inhibitors of flaviviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, methyltransferase, and helicase/NTPase. Read More

    Identification of broadly reactive epitopes targeting major glycoproteins of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2 - An immunoinformatics analysis.
    Infect Genet Evol 2018 Mar 7;61:24-35. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Department of Virology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, Punjab 160012, India. Electronic address:
    Infections due to both HSV-1 and HSV-2 constitute an enormous health burden worldwide. Development of vaccine against herpes infections is a WHO supported public health priority. The viral glycoproteins have always been the major hotspots for vaccine designing. Read More

    CRISPR/Cas9 and Genome Editing for Viral Disease-Is Resistance Futile?
    ACS Infect Dis 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division , Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center , 1100 Fairview Avenue North , Seattle , Washington 98109 , United States.
    Chronic viral infections remain a major public health issue affecting millions of people worldwide. Highly active antiviral treatments have significantly improved prognosis and infection-related morbidity and mortality but have failed to eliminate persistent viral forms. Therefore, new strategies to either eradicate or control these viral reservoirs are paramount to allow patients to stop antiretroviral therapy and realize a cure. Read More

    Reversibility of peripheral blood leukocyte phenotypic and functional changes after exposure to and withdrawal from tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, in healthy volunteers.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Jun 5;191:10-20. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Pfizer Inc, 235 E 42(nd) Street, New York, NY 10017, USA. Electronic address:
    This study evaluated the short-term effects of tofacitinib treatment on peripheral blood leukocyte phenotype and function, and the reversibility of any such effects following treatment withdrawal in healthy volunteers. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive subjects received oral tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily for 4 weeks and were followed for 4 weeks after drug withdrawal. There were slight increases in total lymphocyte and total T-cell counts during tofacitinib treatment, and B-cell counts increased by up to 26%. Read More

    Effusion-based lymphoma with morphological regression but with clonal genetic features after aspiration.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Effusion-based lymphoma (EBL) is a rare but distinct entity of large B-cell lymphoma in effusion without association with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8). Spontaneous regression after pleurocentesis has been observed; but to our knowledge, there are no reports on the morphological and molecular features of subsequent aspirations in regressing cases. Here, we report the case of a 92-year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who presented with right pleural effusion. Read More

    EBV-positive PEL-like lymphoma that developed in the course of antisynthetase syndrome treated with tacrolimus.
    Int J Hematol 2018 Mar 7. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Internal Medicine Department, Okayama Rousai Hospital, 1-10-25 Chikko, Midori-machi, Minamiku, Okayama city, Okayama, 702-8055, Japan.
    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare type of extranodal lymphoma, typically of a B-cell origin, which presents as lymphomatous effusion with no nodal enlargement or tumor masses. The development PEL is universally associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection. Cases of HHV-8-negative primary lymphomatous effusion have recently been reported and referred to as HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphoma. Read More

    Role of microvesicles in the spread of Herpes simplex virus type 1 in oligodendrocytic cells.
    J Virol 2018 Mar 7. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Biología Molecular, Edificio de Biología, Darwin 2, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic pathogen that can infect many types of cells and establishes latent infections in neurons of sensory ganglia. In some cases, the virus spreads into the CNS causing encephalitis or meningitis. Cells infected with several different types of viruses may secrete microvesicles containing viral proteins and RNAs. Read More

    Adhesion, proliferation, and apoptosis in different molecular portraits of breast cancer treated with silver nanoparticles and its pathway-network analysis.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2018 22;13:1081-1095. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Laboratory of Immunology and Institute of Experimental and Clinical Therapeutics, Department of Physiology, University Center of Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
    Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted considerable attention due to the variety of their applications in medicine and other sciences. AgNPs have been used in vitro for treatment of various diseases, such as hepatitis B and herpes simplex infections as well as colon, cervical, and lung cancers. In this study, we assessed the effect on proliferation, adhesion, and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines of different molecular profiles (MCF7, HCC1954, and HCC70) exposed to AgNPs (2-9 nm). Read More

    Assessing the health status of farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) through histological, microbiological and biomarker analyses.
    J Invertebr Pathol 2018 Mar 6;153:165-179. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padua, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
    The Gulf of La Spezia (northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) is a commercially important area both as a shipping port and for mussel farming. Recently, there has been increased concern over environmental disturbances caused by anthropogenic activities such as ship traffic and dredging and the effects they have on the health of farmed mussels. This paper reports the results of microbiological and histological analyses, as well as of measurement of several biomarkers which were performed to assess the health status of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from four rearing sites in the Gulf of La Spezia. Read More

    Trends in herpes zoster epidemiology in Germany based on primary care sentinel surveillance data, 2005-2016.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Mar 2:1-8. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    a Robert Koch Institute, Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Immunization Unit , Berlin , Germany.
    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster-virus (VZV). Childhood varicella vaccination, as recommended in Germany in 2004, may reduce the risk of HZ in vaccinated children but also virus circulation and thus the booster possibility of latent infected persons. In this context we analyzed age-specific trends in HZ epidemiology in Germany using data on HZ-associated outpatient consultations in participating sentinel sites and HZ-associated cases in all hospitals since 2005. Read More

    The amphibian antimicrobial peptide temporin B inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Laboratory affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Rome, Italy
    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is widespread in the population and in most cases its infection is asymptomatic. The currently available anti-HSV-1 drugs are acyclovir and its derivatives, although long-term therapy with these agents can lead to drug resistance. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-herpetic compounds deserves additional effort. Read More

    Ethnic differences in infectious burden and the association with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 22;18(1):276. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ, J2-209, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: The burden of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol and hypertension, is unequally distributed across ethnic groups. Recent findings suggest an association of infectious burden (IB) and metabolic risk factors, but data from ethnic groups are scarce. Therefore, we investigated ethnic differences in IB and its association with metabolic risk factors. Read More

    Systematic review: non A-E, seronegative or indeterminate hepatitis; what is this deadly disease?
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 21;47(8):1079-1091. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Hepatology and Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Background: A significant proportion of cases of acute liver failure (ALF) do not have an identifiable cause; so called "non A-E," "non A, non B, non C," "seronegative" or "indeterminate" hepatitis. However, this entity is clinically not well described.

    Aim: To collate the known incidence and outcomes in indeterminate hepatitis. Read More

    Persistence of immune response to an adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit vaccine for up to year nine in older adults.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Feb 20:1-8. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    b Clinical R&D, GSK , Wavre , Belgium.
    Background: In adults aged ≥60 years, two doses of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su; 50 µg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E [gE] and AS01 Adjuvant System) elicited humoral and cell-mediated immune responses persisting for at least six years. We assessed immunogenicity nine years post-initial vaccination.

    Methods: This open extension study (NCT02735915) followed 70 participants who received two HZ/su doses in the initial trial (NCT00434577). Read More

    Sexually transmitted infections and immune activation among HIV-infected but virally suppressed youth on antiretroviral therapy.
    J Clin Virol 2018 May 7;102:7-11. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Duke University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 133 MSRB I, DUMC Box 2644, Durham, NC, 27710, United States.
    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with chronic immune activation, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase immune activation.

    Objectives: Because HIV-infected youth are at high risk of STIs and little is known about the impact of STIs on immune activation in HIV-infected youth, we conducted an exploratory study examining the association between STIs and systemic inflammation and immune activation among HIV-infected adolescents.

    Study Design: Forty-nine behaviorally infected U. Read More

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis: diagnostic and treatment challenges in a clinical case.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2018 15;60:e3. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Biomedicina, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
    This clinical case presents a patient with a raised and ulcerative lesion with erythematous edges in the mouth, on the lower lip that was unsuccessfully treated as herpes labialis. Clinical data and laboratory tests (Montenegro skin test, indirect immunofluorescence, direct parasite search and polymerase chain reaction) led to the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) sp. Treatment with pentavalent antimonial (Glucantime®) for 120 days was not effective and administration of amphotericin B for 30 days resulted in wound healing. Read More

    In vitro anti-influenza virus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb.
    J Int Med Res 2018 Apr 14;46(4):1380-1390. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    4 Department of Genomics Research, R&D Solutions, Elsevier Inc., Rockville, MD, USA.
    Objective To investigate the in vitro antivirus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb (TFTLR). Methods Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell lines were used to test the antivirus effect of TFTLR on nine virus subtypes: four H1N1, one H3N2, and four other subtypes prevalent in North China. Tamiflu, Ribavirin and Lianhua Qingwen were used as active comparators. Read More

    Laser Adjuvant-Assisted Peptide Vaccine Promotes Skin Mobilization of Dendritic Cells and Enhances Protective CD8 T and T Cell Responses against Herpesvirus Infection and Disease.
    J Virol 2018 04 28;92(8). Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, California, USA
    There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines against widespread viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), that infect a large proportion of the world human population. In the present study, we investigated the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a laser adjuvant-assisted peptide (LAP) vaccine in the B6 mouse model of genital herpes. This LAP vaccine and its laser-free peptide (LFP) vaccine analog contain the immunodominant HSV-2 glycoprotein B CD8 T cell epitope (HSV-gB) covalently linked with the promiscuous glycoprotein D CD4 T helper cell epitope (HSV-gD). Read More

    Design of miRNA sponges for MDV-1 as a therapeutic strategy against lymphomas.
    Oncotarget 2018 Jan 17;9(3):3842-3852. Epub 2017 Dec 17.
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China.
    Lymphomas are solid-type tumors containing lymphoid cells. Some of latent herpesvirus infections established in B and/or T-lymphocytes could result in the formation of lymphomas. Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) is an avian herpes virus causing to lymphoproliferative tumors in birds, known as Marek's disease (MD). Read More

    Talimogene laherparepvec: First in class oncolytic virotherapy.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Apr 22;14(4):839-846. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    b Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham , AL , USA.
    Oncolytic viruses represent a novel drug class in which native or modified viruses mediate tumor regression through selective replication within and lysis of tumor cells as well as induction of systemic antitumor immunity capable of eradicating tumor at distant, uninjected sites. Talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) is a type I herpes simplex virus genetically modified to preferentially replicate in tumor cells, enhance antigen loading of MHC class I molecules and express granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to increase tumor-antigen presentation by dendritic cells. It is presently the only oncolytic virus approved by the FDA with an indication for advanced melanoma based upon improved durable response rate in a randomized, phase III trial. Read More

    Guillain-Barré syndrome following varicella-zoster virus infection.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Mar 6;37(3):511-518. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Departments of Neurology and Immunology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    We describe the frequency, clinical features, and electrophysiological and immunological phenotypes of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) patients treated at a single institution in Bangladesh who had preceding chicken pox (primary Varicella-zoster virus [VZV] infection) within 4 weeks of GBS onset. A literature review of GBS cases preceding VZV infection is also provided. Diagnosis of GBS was based on the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for GBS. Read More

    Anti-infective potential of catechins and their derivatives against viral hepatitis.
    Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2018 Jan 29;7(1):37-42. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Global Medical Science, Health & Wellness College, Sungshin University, Seoul, Korea.
    Polyphenols including catechins from green tea () have been reported to have anti-infective activities against a broad spectrum of viruses and other pathogens. During the last two decades, antiviral activities of catechins with different modes of action have been demonstrated on diverse families of viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus, Herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, hepatitis B and C virus. In this study, we focused on the antiviral properties of catechins and their derivatives against viral hepatitis which have become a key public health issue due to their serious impact on human health with liver diseases. Read More

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