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    The risk of herpes zoster in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: Analysis of the Korean National Health Insurance Service - Sample cohort database.
    Mod Rheumatol 2017 May 26:1-6. Epub 2017 May 26.
    c Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine , University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center , Seoul , Republic of Korea.
    Objectives: The aims of our study were to determine whether the use of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitors increase the risk of herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

    Methods: We searched the South Korean National Health Insurance Service - National Sample Cohort Database for relevant patient records between 2002 and 2013. We evaluated the incidence of HZ by categorizing patients into in three treatment groups: disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) nonusers, cDMARD users and TNFα inhibitor users. Read More

    Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.
    Postgrad Med 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    b Department of Family Medicine and Siaal Research Center for Family Medicine and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Sciences , Ben-Gurion University of the Negev , Beer-Sheva , Israel.
    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. Read More

    Cooperation of Oncolytic Herpes Virotherapy and PD-1 Blockade in Murine Rhabdomyosarcoma Models.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 24;7(1):2396. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
    Oncolytic virotherapy is an effective immunotherapeutic approach for cancer treatment via a multistep process including direct tumor cell lysis, induction of cytotoxic or apoptosis-sensitizing cytokines and promotion of antitumor T cell responses. Solid tumors limit the effectiveness of immunotherapeutics in diverse ways such as secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines and expression of immune inhibitory ligands to inhibit antitumor T cell function. Blocking programmed cell death protein (PD)-1 signaling, which mediates T cell suppression via engagement of its inhibitory ligands, PD-L1 or PD-L2, is of particular interest due to recent successes in many types of cancer. Read More

    Bolstering the Number and Function of HSV-1-Specific CD8(+) Effector Memory T Cells and Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells in Latently Infected Trigeminal Ganglia Reduces Recurrent Ocular Herpes Infection and Disease.
    J Immunol 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA 92697;
    HSV type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects >3.72 billion individuals worldwide and can cause potentially blinding recurrent corneal herpetic disease. HSV-1 establishes latency within sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG), and TG-resident CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in preventing its reactivation. Read More

    Structure-Based Mutations in the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B Ectodomain Arm Impart a Slow-Entry Phenotype.
    MBio 2017 May 16;8(3). Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Glycoprotein B (gB) is the conserved herpesvirus fusion protein, and it is required for the entry of herpesviruses. The structure of the postfusion conformation of gB has been solved for several herpesviruses; however, the gB prefusion crystal structure and the details of how the protein refolds from a prefusion to a postfusion form to mediate fusion have not been determined. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we previously reported that three mutations (I671A, H681A, and F683A) in the C-terminal arm of the gB ectodomain greatly reduced cell-cell fusion. Read More

    Migrating microbes: what pathogens can tell us about population movements and human evolution.
    Ann Hum Biol 2017 May 16:1-11. Epub 2017 May 16.
    d Department of Anthropology & Geography, Human Origins and Palaeoenvironmental Research Group (HOPE) , Oxford Brookes University , Oxford , UK.
    Background: The biology of human migration can be observed from the co-evolutionary relationship with infectious diseases. While many pathogens are brief, unpleasant visitors to human bodies, others have the ability to become life-long human passengers. The story of a pathogen's genetic code may, therefore, provide insight into the history of its human host. Read More

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lymphomas, pathology view point.
    Semin Diagn Pathol 2017 Apr 7. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Tübingen, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tübingen and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
    The contribution of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) to the development of specific types of malignant lymphomas occurring in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) setting has been extensively studied since the beginning of the HIV epidemic 35 years ago. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in 1996 has changed dramatically the incidence of HIV-related malignancies. Nevertheless, malignant lymphomas continue to be the major group of malignances observed in HIV infected individuals, and the most common cause of cancer related-deaths. Read More

    Dok-1 and Dok-2 are required to maintain herpes simplex virus 1-specific CD8(+) T cells in a murine model of ocular infection.
    J Virol 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Québec, CANADA
    Dok-1 and Dok-2 negatively regulate responses downstream of several immune receptors in lymphoid and myeloid cells. Recent evidence showed that Dok proteins are essential in the formation of memory CD8(+) T cells to an exogenous epitope expressed by vaccinia virus; however, the importance of Dok-1 and Dok-2 in the control of viral infection is unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of Dok proteins in modulating the immune response against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) in a mouse model of ocular infection. Read More

    Vaccine profile of herpes zoster (HZ/su) subunit vaccine.
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 May 19:1-10. Epub 2017 May 19.
    b Genocea Biosciences, Inc ., Cambridge , MA , USA.
    Introduction: Herpes zoster (HZ) causes an often severe and painful rash in older people and may be complicated by prolonged pain (postherpetic neuralgia; PHN) and by dissemination in immune-compromised patients. HZ results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, often associated with age-related or other causes of decreased T cell immunity. A live attenuated vaccine boosts this immunity and provides partial protection against HZ, but this decreases with age and declines over 8 years. Read More

    Restoring PU.1 induces apoptosis and modulates viral transactivation via interferon-stimulated genes in primary effusion lymphoma.
    Oncogene 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Honjo, Kumamoto, Japan.
    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which is an aggressive subgroup of B-cell lymphoma associated with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus/human herpes virus-8, is refractory to the standard treatment, and exhibits a poor survival. Although PU.1 is downregulated in PEL, the potential role of its reduction remains to be elucidated. Read More

    Herpes zoster vaccine: A health economic evaluation for Switzerland.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 May 8:1-10. Epub 2017 May 8.
    a University of Basel, Institute of Pharmaceutical Medicine (ECPM) , Basel , Switzerland.
    Herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles" results from a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) acquired during primary infection (chickenpox) and surviving in the dorsal root ganglia. In about 20% of cases, a complication occurs, known as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live attenuated vaccine against VZV is available for the prevention of HZ and subsequent PHN. Read More

    Multiple cavities with halo sign in a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis during therapy for drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.
    Respir Med Case Rep 2017 19;21:124-128. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Center for Respiratory Diseases, JCHO Hokkaido Hospital, Japan.
    A 67-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome was admitted for drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) caused by salazosulfapyridine. Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) variant B was strongly positive on peripheral blood. Multiple cavities with ground grass opacities rapidly emerged predominantly in the upper and middle lobes. Read More

    Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage among Adult Populations - United States, 2015.
    MMWR Surveill Summ 2017 May 5;66(11):1-28. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC.
    Problem/condition: Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U. Read More

    CXCL10/CXCR3-Dependent Mobilization of HSV-Specific CD8(+) TEM and CD8(+) TRM Cells within Infected Tissues Allows Efficient Protection Against Recurrent Herpes Infection and Disease.
    J Virol 2017 May 3. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA 92697
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency within the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). HSV-specific memory CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in preventing HSV-1 reactivation from TG and subsequent virus shedding in tears that trigger recurrent corneal herpetic disease. The CXCL10/CXCR3 chemokine pathway promotes T cell immunity to many viral pathogens, but its importance in CD8(+) T cell immunity to recurrent herpes has been poorly elucidated. Read More

    Tofacitinib as Induction and Maintenance Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis.
    N Engl J Med 2017 05;376(18):1723-1736
    From the Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (W.J.S.); Pfizer, Collegeville, PA (C.S., W.N., G.F., N.L., D.Y., D.W., H.Z.); Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (B.E.S.); the Department of Gastroenterology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (G.R.D.); the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (S.V.); Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany (S.S.); the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Department of Gastroenterology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan (S.D.); Robarts Clinical Trials, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London (B.G.F.), and McMaster University, Hamilton (W.R.) - both in Ontario, Canada; Pfizer, Groton, CT (A.M., P.H.); and the Networking Biomedical Research Center on Hepatic and Digestive Diseases (CIBERehd), August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona (J.P.).
    Background: Tofacitinib, an oral, small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor, was shown to have potential efficacy as induction therapy for ulcerative colitis in a phase 2 trial. We further evaluated the efficacy of tofacitinib as induction and maintenance therapy.

    Methods: We conducted three phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of tofacitinib therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis. Read More

    Childhood life events, immune activation and the development of mood and anxiety disorders: the TRAILS study.
    Transl Psychiatry 2017 May 2;7(5):e1112. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center for Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation (ICPE), University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    The experience of childhood life events is associated with higher vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders. One of the pathways suggested to lead to this vulnerability is activation of the immune system. The aim of this study is to find out whether the association between childhood life events and the development of mood and anxiety disorders is predicted by the activation of the immune system. Read More

    Improving adult immunization equity: Where do the published research literature and existing resources lead?
    Vaccine 2017 May 26;35(23):3020-3025. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, United States.
    Evidence suggests that disparities in adult immunization (AI) rates are growing. Providers need adequate patient resources and information about successful interventions to help them engage in effective practices to reduce AI disparities. The primary purposes of this paper were to review and summarize the evidence base regarding interventions to reduce AI disparities and to scan for relevant resources that could support providers in their AI efforts to specifically target disparities. Read More

    Therapeutic vaccination for chronic hepatitis B.
    Curr Opin Virol 2017 Apr 25;23:75-81. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Institute of Virology, Technische Universität München/Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany; German Center for Infection research (DZIF), Munich Partner Site, Germany. Electronic address:
    A therapeutic vaccine is meant to activate the patient's immune system to fight and finally control or ideally eliminate an already established infectious pathogen. Whereas the success of prophylactic vaccination is based on rapid antibody-mediated neutralization of an invading pathogen, control and elimination of persistent viruses such as hepatitis, herpes or papilloma viruses requires multi-specific and polyfunctional effector T cell responses. These are ideally directed against continuously expressed viral antigens to keep the pathogen in check. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of baricitinib in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A 52-week, randomized, single-blind, extension study.
    Mod Rheumatol 2017 Apr 25:1-10. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    c Eli Lilly and Company , Indianapolis , IN , USA.
    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term (64 weeks; 52-week extension of a 12-week study) baricitinib treatment in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate therapy.

    Methods: Patients (N = 145) with active RA were randomized to placebo, 1mg, 2mg, 4mg, or 8mg baricitinib for the first 12 weeks. During the 52-week extension period, patients on 4mg or 8mg baricitinib remained on the same dose and all other patients were re-randomized to 4mg or 8mg baricitinib. Read More

    Herpes B virus replication and viral lesions in the liver of a cynomolgus macaque which died from severe disease with rapid onset.
    J Med Primatol 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Infection Biology Unit, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany.
    Herpes B virus (BV, Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1) infects macaques asymptomatically, with rare exceptions, but can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. Here, we report disseminated BV infection in a cynomolgus macaque that had died within 12 hour after the onset of unspecific symptoms. Multifocal lesions surrounded by viral antigen were detected in liver while other organs remained inconspicuous, indicating that the liver is a major target. Read More

    Cerebrospinal fluid cyto-/chemokine profile during acute herpes simplex virus induced anti-N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis and in chronic neurological sequelae.
    Dev Med Child Neurol 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Neuroimmunology Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Aim: To examine the cytokine/chemokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute herpes simplex virus-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoimmunity and in chronic/relapsing post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) neurological syndromes.

    Method: We measured longitudinal serial CSF cyto-/chemokines (n=34) and a glial marker (calcium-binding astroglial protein, S100B) in one patient during acute HSE and subsequent anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and compared the results with those from two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis without preceding HSE. We also compared cyto-/chemokines in cross-sectional CSF samples from three children with previous HSE who had ongoing chronic or relapsing neurological symptoms (2yr 9 mo-16y after HSE) with those in a group of children having non-inflammatory neurological conditions (n=20). Read More

    Systemic Inflammation and Viral Exposure among Young Mexican American Women: Nativity-Related Differences.
    Ethn Dis 2017 20;27(2):133-142. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Background: Factors contributing to elevated inflammation in racial/ethnic minority populations are not well understood. We examined the association of viral exposure with C-reactive protein (CRP) in young Mexican American women.

    Methods And Results: Participants (N=1,141) were currently non-pregnant women of Mexican background, aged 18-39 years, from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Read More

    The SP100 component of ND10 enhances accumulation of PML and suppresses replication and the assembly of HSV replication compartments.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 May 24;114(19):E3823-E3829. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Marjorie B. Kovler Viral Oncology Laboratories, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637
    Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) bodies are small (0.1-1 μM) nuclear structures containing both constant [e.g. Read More

    Advances in pharmacotherapeutic management of common skin diseases in neonates and infants.
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 2017 May 21;18(7):717-725. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    a Dermatology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine , Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna , Bologna , Italy.
    Introduction: neonatal and infantile skin diseases are frequently encountered in the clinical practice and represent worldwide a socioeconomic issue. They encompass a wide range of acquired or congenital conditions, including infections, vascular lesions and inflammatory diseases and can present with different degrees of severity, leading in some cases to dramatic complications. Areas covered: In this paper we report the most recent evidences on the management of some common skin diseases in neonates and infants. Read More

    A critical appraisal of 'Shingrix', a novel Herpes Zoster Subunit (HZ/Su or GSK1437173A) vaccine for Varicella Zoster Virus.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    c University College London , London , United Kingdom.
    HZ/Su, branded as 'Shingrix', is one of the newest vaccines to be submitted for multi-national regulatory approval. It is targeted to prevent shingles, predominantly affecting the elderly, but a global concern with ageing populations and significant associated morbidity and mortality. A vaccine for shingles has been available for over a decade, however it is contraindicated in specific subgroups of people, and there are added concerns regarding long-term immunogenicity. Read More

    Pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV-1 infection and dyslipidaemia (INTREPID): 12 week and 52 week results of a phase 4, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, superiority trial.
    Lancet HIV 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Background: People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. Read More

    New modified 2-aminobenzimidazole nucleosides: Synthesis and evaluation of their activity against herpes simplex virus type 1.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 Jun 1;27(11):2484-2487. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya St. 16/10, 117997 GSP, Moscow B-437, Russian Federation.
    Using the enzymatic transglycosylation reaction β-d-ribo- and 2'-deoxyribofuranosides of 2-amino-5,6-difluorobenzimidazole nucleosides have been synthesized. 2-Amino-5,6-difluoro-benzimidazole riboside proved to exhibit a selective antiviral activity (selectivity index >32) against a wild strain of the herpes simplex virus type 1, as well as towards virus strains that are resistant to acyclovir, cidofovir, and foscarnet. We believe that this compound might be used for treatment of herpes infections in those cases, when acyclovir is not efficient. Read More

    An overview application of silver nanoparticles in inhibition of herpes simplex virus.
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2017 Apr 12:1-5. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    k Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz , Iran.
    Nanoscale particles and molecules are a potential different for the treatment of disease because they have distinctive biologic property based on their structure and size, which is different from traditional small-molecule drugs. The antimicrobial mechanisms of silver nanoparticles include the formation of free radicals damaging the bacterial membranes, interactions with DNA, adhesion to cell surface altering the membrane properties, and enzyme damage. In this review, we focus on applications of silver nanoparticles in inhibition of herpes simplex virus. Read More

    Enhanced acyclovir delivery using w/o type microemulsion: preclinical assessment of antiviral activity using murine model of zosteriform cutaneous HSV-1 infection.
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2017 Apr 12:1-9. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    a Division of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre of Advanced Studies, Panjab University , Chandigarh , India.
    The present study was aimed to develop and evaluate a microemulsion-based dermal drug delivery of an antiviral agent, acyclovir. A water-in-oil microemulsion was prepared using isopropyl myristate, Tween 20, Span 20, water and dimethylsulphoxide. It was characterized for drug content, stability, globule size, pH, viscosity and ex vivo permeation through mice skin. Read More

    Primary effusion lymphoma: current concepts and management.
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 2017 Apr 8. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    aDepartment of Internal Medicine bDivision of Hematology and Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: To summarize the current epidemiology, management, and outcomes of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and highlight possible future research efforts.

    Recent Findings: Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone-based chemotherapy regimens alone or in combination with immunomodulatory agents (e.g. Read More

    Skin diseases of the vulva: Infectious diseases.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Apr 11:1-9. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    a Department of Dermatology , Bispebjerg Hospital , Copenhagen , Denmark.
    A multitude of infectious diseases of viral (genital herpes, herpes zoster, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum), bacterial (syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, donovanosis, erysipelas, cellulitis and necrotising fasciitis, folliculitis, impetigo, bartholin gland abscess, trichomycosis and erythrasma), fungal (candidiasis and dermatophytosis) and parasitic (pediculosis pubis) origin may affect the vulvar area. Herein, we review the infections and their skin manifestations in the vulvar area. Read More

    HHV8/KSHV-Positive Lymphoproliferative Disorders and the Spectrum of Plasmablastic and Plasma Cell Neoplasms: 2015 SH/EAHP Workshop Report-Part 3.
    Am J Clin Pathol 2017 Feb;147(2):171-187
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Objectives: The 2015 Workshop of the Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology aimed to review immunodeficiency-related lymphoproliferative disorders with plasmablastic and plasma cell differentiation.

    Methods: The workshop panel reviewed human herpes virus 8 (HHV8)/Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated lesions and other lesions exhibiting plasma cell differentiation, including plasmablastic proliferations with features of myeloma/plasmacytoma, plasmablastic neoplasms presenting in extranodal sites and effusion-based lymphomas, and rendered a consensus diagnosis.

    Results: The spectrum of HHV8/KSHV-associated proliferations ranged from multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) to MCD with plasmablastic aggregates to HHV8+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and germinotrophic lymphoproliferative disorder. Read More

    Guanine α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate (G-α-CNP) shows a different inhibitory kinetic profile against the DNA polymerases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses.
    Biochem Pharmacol 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, Synthesis and Solid State Pharmaceutical Centre, University College Cork, Ireland; School of Pharmacy, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, Synthesis and Solid State Pharmaceutical Centre, University College Cork, Ireland.
    α-Carboxy nucleoside phosphonates (α-CNPs) are modified nucleotides that represent a novel class of nucleotide-competing reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NcRTIs). They were designed to act directly against HIV-1 RT without the need for prior activation (phosphorylation). In this respect, they differ from the nucleoside or nucleotide RTIs [N(t)RTIs] that require conversion to their triphosphate forms before being inhibitory to HIV-1 RT. Read More

    Severe hepatocytotoxicity linked to denosumab.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017 Mar;21(1 Suppl):78-85
    Department of Internal Medicine C, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel, Affiliated to The Hebrew University, Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Objective: Denosumab (Prolia, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) is a fully human antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-KB ligand (RANKL). We present a case of submassive hepatic necrosis with evidence implicating cytokine induction resulting from an immune reaction to denosumab.

    Case Report: A 72-year-old lady presented with elevated liver enzymes. Read More

    Immune response of T cells during herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection.
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2017 Apr.;18(4):277-288
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic member of the alphaherpes virus family, is among the most prevalent and successful human pathogens. HSV-1 can cause serious diseases at every stage of life including fatal disseminated disease in newborns, cold sores, eye disease, and fatal encephalitis in adults. HSV-1 infection can trigger rapid immune responses, and efficient inhibition and clearance of HSV-1 infection rely on both the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host. Read More

    Evidence for a Mesothelial Origin of Body Cavity Effusion Lymphomas.
    J Natl Cancer Inst 2017 Sep;109(9)
    Affiliations of authors: Laboratory of Cellular Oncology (DS-M, HQ, HO, GT), HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch (TSU, MNP, KMW, KA, VW, RY), Women's Malignancies Branch (CMA), Laboratory of Pathology (MR), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Viral Oncology Section, AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Leidos Biomedical, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD (VAM, DW).
    Background: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV)-induced lymphoma that typically arises in body cavities of HIV-infected patients. PEL cells are often co-infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). "PEL-like" lymphoma is a KSHV-unrelated lymphoma that arises in body cavities of HIV-negative patients. Read More

    Gene expression analysis of hypersensitivity to mosquito bite, chronic active EBV infection and NK/T-lymphoma/leukemia.
    Leuk Lymphoma 2017 Apr 3:1-12. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    a Department of Pediatrics , Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Okayama , Japan.
    The human herpes virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a known oncogenic virus and plays important roles in life-threatening T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T/NK-cell LPD) such as hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and NK/T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. During the clinical courses of HMB and CAEBV, patients frequently develop malignant lymphomas and the diseases passively progress sequentially. In the present study, gene expression of CD16((-))CD56((+))-, EBV((+)) HMB, CAEBV, NK-lymphoma, and NK-leukemia cell lines, which were established from patients, was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays and compared to that of CD56(bright)CD16(dim/-) NK cells from healthy donors. Read More

    The impact of an immunization check-up at a pharmacist-provided employee health screening.
    J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2017 May - Jun;57(3S):S274-S278. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Objectives: To determine which types of vaccine recommendations were accepted and acted upon by patients after an immunization check-up at a pharmacist-provided employee health screening, and to evaluate if there was a difference between influenza and non-influenza vaccines.

    Design: Retrospective, observational.

    Setting: Supermarket chain. Read More

    Valacyclovir as Initial Treatment for Acute Retinal Necrosis: A Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation Study.
    Curr Eye Res 2017 Mar 30:1-4. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    a Center for Translational Medicine, School of Pharmacy , University of Maryland , Baltimore , Maryland , USA.
    Purpose: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a feared complication of infectious retinitis most commonly caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). We performed a pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation study by integrating the existing understanding of physiology with previously published data to evaluate the vitreal penetration of oral valacyclovir for the treatment of ARN, under various dosing scenarios.

    Method: We compared different oral valacyclovir dosing regimens with intravenous acyclovir. Read More

    Sexually transmitted infections: old foes on the rise.
    Microb Cell 2016 Sep 5;3(9):361-362. Epub 2016 Sep 5.
    Institute of Molecular Biosciences, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, Humboldtstr. 50, 8010 Graz, Austria. ; BioTechMed-Graz, Humboldtstr. 50, 8010 Graz, Austria.
    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are commonly spread via sexual contact. It is estimated that one million STIs are acquired every day worldwide. Besides their impact on sexual, reproductive and neonatal health, they can cause disastrous and life-threatening complications if left untreated. Read More

    Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL34 Protein Regulates the Global Architecture of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Infected Cells.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 26;91(12). Epub 2017 May 26.
    Division of Molecular Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, the CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is redistributed around the nuclear membrane (NM), where it promotes viral de-envelopment during the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids. In this study, we attempted to identify the factor(s) involved in CD98hc accumulation and demonstrated the following: (i) the null mutation of HSV-1 UL34 caused specific dispersion throughout the cytoplasm of CD98hc and the HSV-1 de-envelopment regulators, glycoproteins B and H (gB and gH); (ii) as observed with CD98hc, gB, and gH, wild-type HSV-1 infection caused redistribution of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers calnexin and ERp57 around the NM, whereas the UL34-null mutation caused cytoplasmic dispersion of these markers; (iii) the ER markers colocalized efficiently with CD98hc, gB, and gH in the presence and absence of UL34 in HSV-1-infected cells; (iv) at the ultrastructural level, wild-type HSV-1 infection caused ER compression around the NM, whereas the UL34-null mutation caused cytoplasmic dispersion of the ER; and (v) the UL34-null mutation significantly decreased the colocalization efficiency of lamin protein markers of the NM with CD98hc and gB. Collectively, these results indicate that HSV-1 infection causes redistribution of the ER around the NM, with resulting accumulation of ER-associated CD98hc, gB, and gH around the NM and that UL34 is required for ER redistribution, as well as for efficient recruitment to the NM of the ER-associated de-envelopment factors. Read More

    Dissociation between skin test reactivity and anti-aeroallergen IgE: Determinants among urban Brazilian children.
    PLoS One 2017 28;12(3):e0174089. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Background: The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene. Read More

    Herpes simplex virus-1 and cytomegalovirus DNAs detection in the inner ear of implanted patients with non-congenital infection.
    Acta Otolaryngol 2017 Mar 23:1-6. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    a Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Otorhinolaryngology , Catholic University of Sacred Heart , Rome , Italy.
    Conclusions: The detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) genome in perilymph of patients with negative serology or clinical history for congenital infections supports the hypothesis that Herpesviridae, even after acquired postnatal infections, could remain in latent phase in the spiral ganglion and damage the cochlea by a possible subsequent reactivation. Further studies are needed to identify the markers of such reactivation.

    Objective: To identify the presence of certain viral species in the endolabyrinthic fluid of deaf patients with non-congenital infection. Read More

    Asthma status is an independent risk factor for herpes zoster in children: a population-based cohort study.
    Ann Med 2017 Sep 23;49(6):504-512. Epub 2017 Apr 23.
    e College of Medicine, China Medical University , Taichung , Taiwan.
    Backgrounds: Literatures regarding the effects of childhood asthma on the risk of herpes zoster (HZ) is very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the risks of children developing HZ with asthma.

    Methods: From the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 300,649 patients who had asthma between 2000 and 2007 as an asthma cohort. Read More

    Peptides Derived from Glycoproteins H and B of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Are Capable of Blocking Herpetic Infection in vitro.
    Intervirology 2017 Mar 23;59(5-6):235-242. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Laboratorio de Virología, Departamento de Microbiología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Aims: The aim of this study was to design peptides derived from glycoproteins H (gH) and B (gB) of herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) with the potential to block herpetic infection and to evaluate their ability to inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection in vitro.

    Methods: A library of continuous 15-25 residue stretches (CRSs) located at the surface of gH and gB from HSV-1 and HSV-2 was created. These CRSs were analyzed, and only those that were highly flexible and rich in charged residues were selected for the design of the antiviral peptides (AVPs). Read More

    HSV-1 interaction to 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate in mouse-derived DRG explant and profiles of inflammatory markers during virus infection.
    J Neurovirol 2017 Jun 21;23(3):483-491. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Anatomy, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, 60515, USA.
    The molecular mechanism of herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry and the associated inflammatory response in the nervous system remain poorly understood. Using mouse-derived ex vivo dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant model and single cell neurons (SCNs), in this study, we provided a visual evidence for the expression of heparan sulfate (HS) and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) followed by their interactions with HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein D (gD) during cell entry. Upon heparanase treatment of DRG-derived SCN, a significant inhibition of HSV-1 entry was observed suggesting the involvement of HS role during viral entry. Read More

    Comparison of different methods for extraction of Cinnamomi ramulus: yield, chemical composition and in vitro antiviral activities.
    Nat Prod Res 2017 Mar 21:1-5. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    a Experiment Center for Teaching and Learning , Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Shanghai , China.
    Hydrodistillation (HD), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and reflux extraction (RE) were applied to obtain Cinnamomi ramulus extracts. The yields, chemical compositions and antiviral activities of the extracts were investigated. Extracts were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antiviral activities were evaluated using cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Read More

    Mediastinal syndrome from plasmablastic lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus and human herpes virus 8 negative patient with polycythemia vera: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Mar 21;11(1):75. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Surgical, Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines, University of Palermo, Via Del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy.
    Background: Plasmoblastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, which occurs usually in the jaw of immunocompromised subjects.

    Case Presentation: We describe the occurrence of plasmoblastic lymphoma in the mediastinum and chest wall skin of an human immunodeficiency virus-negative 63-year-old Caucasian man who had had polycytemia vera 7 years before. At admission, the patient showed a superior vena cava syndrome, with persistent dyspnoea, cough, and distension of the jugular veins. Read More

    Interactions of U24 from Roseolovirus with WW domains: canonical vs noncanonical.
    Biochem Cell Biol 2017 Mar 17:1-9. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    a Department of Chemistry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada.
    U24 is a C-terminal membrane-anchored protein found in both human herpes virus type 6 and 7 (HHV-6 and HHV-7), with an N-terminal segment that is rich in prolines (PPxY motif in both HHV-6A and 7; PxxP motif in HHV-6A). Previous work has shown that U24 interacts strongly with Nedd4 WW domains, in particular, hNedd4L-WW3*. It was also shown that this interaction depends strongly on the nature of the amino acids that are upstream from the PY motif in U24. Read More

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