119,512 results match your criteria Hepatitis Viral


Serum progranulin levels in pediatric patients with Gaucher disease; relation to disease severity and liver stiffness by transient elastography.

Liver Int 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Non-invasive screening for liver fibrosis using transient elastography (TE) could be of value in the management of Gaucher disease (GD). Progranulin (PGRN) is a novel disease modifier in GD and an independent marker of liver fibrosis.

Objectives: We determined PGRN levels in pediatric patients with GD and assessed its role as a potential marker for disease severity and relation to liver stiffness by TE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14598DOI Listing

Genetic variants in IL4RA, IL6 and IL12B genes and susceptibility to hepatitis B and C virus infections among Iraqi patients.

J Med Virol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Tropical-Biological Research Unit, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are common causative pathogens of viral hepatitis. Progression of both infections is determined by virus- and host-related factors. Cytokines are important host-genetic factors that may have a predisposing role in HBV and HCV infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26297DOI Listing

Substance use patterns and health profiles among US adults who use opioids, methamphetamine, or both, 2015-2018.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Jul 2;214:108162. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, 701 Park Ave., Suite PP7.700, Minneapolis, MN, 55415, USA; Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Hennepin Healthcare, 716 S 7thSt, Minneapolis, MN, 55415, USA.

Background: Methamphetamine use, with and without opioids, has increased substantially, but little is known about the sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, or health profiles of individuals who use methamphetamine. To design effective public health interventions, health care professionals and policymakers need data describing individuals who are using methamphetamine in the midst of the opioid crisis.

Methods: We used 2015-2018 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and included non-elderly adults aged 18-64 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108162DOI Listing

An Optimised Direct Lysis Method for Viral RNA Extraction and Detection of Foodborne Viruses on Fruits and Vegetables.

Food Environ Virol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division for Microbiology and Production, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 204, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

Detection of norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) on fruits and vegetables using current standard methodologies can be inefficient. Method optimisation focussing on ease, rapidity and increased viral RNA recovery is needed for efficient reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR detection of viruses. A simple and quick direct lysis method for RNA extraction was optimised (method A) to achieve increased viral RNA recovery and minimised RT-qPCR inhibition by increasing the volume of lysis buffer and inclusion of pectinase, Plant RNA Isolation Aid and OneStep PCR Inhibitor Removal Kit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09437-xDOI Listing

Evaluation of Rapid Testing Algorithms for Venue-based Anonymous HIV Testing among Non-HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS), 2017.

J Community Health 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, 3033, USA.

HIV rapid testing algorithms (RTAs) using any two orthogonal rapid tests (RTs) allow for on-site confirmation of infection. RTs vary in performance characteristics therefore the selection of RTs in an algorithm may affect identification of infection, particularly if acute. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) assessed RTAs among men who have sex with men recruited using anonymous venue-based sampling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00871-3DOI Listing

A bioinformatics investigation into molecular mechanism of Yinzhihuang granules for treating hepatitis B by network pharmacology and molecular docking verification.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 10;10(1):11448. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100102, China.

Yinzhihuang granules (YZHG) is a patented Chinese medicine for the treatment of hepatitis B. This study aimed to investigate the intrinsic mechanisms of YZHG in the treatment of hepatitis B and to provide new evidence and insights for its clinical application. The chemical compounds of YZHG were searched in the CNKI and PUBMED databases, and their putative targets were then predicted through a search of the SuperPred and Swiss Target Prediction databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68224-7DOI Listing

A nationwide cross-sectional survey on hepatitis B and C screening among workers in Japan.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 10;10(1):11435. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Hepatitis Information Centre, Research Centre for Hepatitis and Immunology, National Centre for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba, Japan.

In Japan, there is no publicly funded screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (using HBs antigen and HCV antibody, respectively) among workers, and workplace health programmes play a crucial role in reducing viral hepatitis-related deaths. The national number of hepatitis screening tests conducted in the workplace is unknown. To provide baseline data for policy formulation, we conducted a nationwide survey to estimate these parameters using data from approximately 10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68021-2DOI Listing

Extracellular vesicles secreted by HBV-infected cells modulate HBV persistence in hydrodynamic HBV transfection mouse model.

J Biol Chem 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Tokai University, Japan.

Hepatitis B, a viral infection that affects the liver, is thought to affect over 257 million people worldwide, and long-term infection can lead to life-threatening issues such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. Chronic hepatitis B develops by the interaction between Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and host immune response. However, questions of how HBV-infected cells thwart immune system defenses remain unanswered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.014317DOI Listing

Unusual Case of Granuloma Annulare Associated with Diabetes Mellitus.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2020 Jul;28(1):45-46

Associate Professor Suzana Ljubojević Hadžavdić, MD, PhD, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Šalata 4, 10000 Zagreb , Croatia;

Dear Editor, Granuloma annulare (GA) is an asymptomatic, chronic, and relatively common granulomatous skin condition which presents with annular papules usually slowly progressing into plaques on the extremities and the trunk. It usually presents with non-scaly, erythematous, annular plaques on the distal extremity (1,2). The pathogenesis of GA is still unknown, although a variety of possible factors contributing the disease have been reported, including drugs (3), insect bites, sun exposure, trauma, vaccinations, and viral infections (e. Read More

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Phosphorylation of the Arginine-Rich C-Terminal Domains of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Protein as a Fine Regulator of the Interaction between HBc and Nucleic Acid.

Viruses 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Morphogenèse et Antigénicité du VIH et des Virus des Hépatites, Inserm-U1259 MAVIVH, Hôpital Bretonneau, 10 boulevard Tonnellé-BP 3223, CEDEX 1, 37032 Tours, France.

The morphogenesis of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) viral particles is nucleated by the oligomerization of HBc protein molecules, resulting in the formation of an icosahedral capsid shell containing the replication-competent nucleoprotein complex made of the viral polymerase and the pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA). HBc is a phospho-protein containing two distinct domains acting together throughout the viral replication cycle. The N-terminal domain, (residues 1-140), shown to self-assemble, is linked by a short flexible domain to the basic C-terminal domain (residues 150-183) that interacts with nucleic acids (NAs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070738DOI Listing

Epidemiological Impact of Novel Preventive and Therapeutic HSV-2 Vaccination in the United States: Mathematical Modeling Analyses.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;8(3). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha 24144, Qatar.

This study aims to inform herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaccine development, licensure, and implementation by delineating the population-level impact of vaccination. Mathematical models were constructed to describe the transmission dynamics in presence of prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines assuming 50% efficacy, with application to the United States. Catch-up prophylactic vaccination will reduce, by 2050, annual number of new infections by 58%, incidence rate by 60%, seroprevalence by 21%, and avert yearly as much as 350,000 infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030366DOI Listing

Variable Clinical Course of Lichen Planus following Hepatitis C Cure with Direct-Acting Antivirals: A Case Series and Literature Review.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

University of California, San Francisco Department of Dermatology, San Francisco, CA 94115. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.05.159DOI Listing

Persistent Infection with a Rabbit Hepatitis E Virus Created by a Reverse Genetics System.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Gakuen 4-7-1, Musashi-murayama, Tokyo, 208-0011, Japan.

Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a novel zoonotic infectious agent. Although a cell culture system to grow the virus has been established, there is currently no reverse genetics system for generating the virus. In this study, capped genomic rabbit HEV RNAs generated by in vitro transcription were transfected into PLC/PRF/5 cells, and the recovered viruses were subsequently passaged in the cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13723DOI Listing

Equine pegiviruses cause persistent infection of bone marrow and are not associated with hepatitis.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Jul 10;16(7):e1008677. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Copenhagen Hepatitis C Program (CO-HEP), Department of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre Hospital and Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Pegiviruses frequently cause persistent infection (as defined by >6 months), but unlike most other Flaviviridae members, no apparent clinical disease. Human pegivirus (HPgV, previously GBV-C) is detectable in 1-4% of healthy individuals and another 5-13% are seropositive. Some evidence for infection of bone marrow and spleen exists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008677DOI Listing

Hepatitis C virus genotype/subtype distribution and evolution among Chinese blood donors: Revealing recent viral expansion.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(7):e0235612. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States of America.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) distribution in China shows significant geographical and demographic difference. As a routinely tested virus in Chinese blood bank systems, rare molecular epidemiology research in blood donors is reported. Our purpose is to investigate the HCV GT/subtypes distribution, phylogenetic analysis and population genetics in Chinese blood donors. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235612PLOS

Trends in Women With an HIV Diagnosis at Delivery Hospitalization in the United States, 2006-2014.

Public Health Rep 2020 Jul 10:33354920935074. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

1242 National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objectives: The risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission can be reduced to ≤0.5% if the mother's HIV status is known before delivery. This study describes 2006-2014 trends in diagnosed HIV infection documented on delivery discharge records and associated sociodemographic characteristics among women who gave birth in US hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354920935074DOI Listing

Hepatitis A vaccination.

Authors:
Li Zhang

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jul 10:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Academy of Preventive Medicine, Shandong University , Jinan, China.

Hepatitis A is an important public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) was first licensed in 1992. Both inactivated HepA (HepA-I) and live attenuated HepA (HepA-L) are highly immunogenic and well tolerated, and immune protection postvaccination can persist for at least 20 y. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1769389DOI Listing

CDC's Community-Based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project: Perspectives for Researchers, Implementers and Funders.

AIDS Behav 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Behavioral interventions have been a crucial tool for the prevention of HIV transmission since early in the epidemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has provided funding for evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) at health departments and community-based organizations (CBOs) since 2004. From 2006 to 2015, CDC funded 25 CBOs to evaluate one or more of seven EBIs designed to prevent HIV through the Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project (CBOP) as implemented outside of a research setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02970-7DOI Listing

Genetic contribution of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 polymorphisms to liver fibrosis progression in patients with HCV infection.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Translational Immunology Laboratory, Health Research Institute of the Principality of Asturias (ISPA), Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.

The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase ERAP1 regulates innate and adaptive immune responses, trimming peptides and loading onto HLA class I molecules. Coding single nucleotide polymorphisms within ERAP1 are associated with autoimmune diseases, viral infections, and cancer development. Our purpose was to analyze the influence of ERAP1 variants on fibrogenesis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-020-01948-1DOI Listing

Circulating biomarkers for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2020 29;13:1756284820931734. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Wytemaweg 80, Rotterdam, 3015 CE, the Netherlands.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is estimated to be the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. HCC patients face a dismal prognosis because symptoms usually appear in an advanced stage of disease. The detection of early stage HCC allows for curative surgical treatment and therefore saves lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756284820931734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325534PMC

In vitro inhibition effects of hepatitis B virus by dandelion and taraxasterol.

Infect Agent Cancer 2020 6;15:44. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes hepatitis, which progresses to fatal liver diseases and remains a global health problem. Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B are unable to cure hepatitis. Thus, new antiviral drugs must be developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-020-00309-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336670PMC

Liver transplant immunosuppression during the covid-19 pandemic.

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Unidad de Hepatitis Víricas y Unidad de Trasplante Hepático, Servicio de Hepatología, Hospital Clínic. Universitat de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERehd, Barcelona, España. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 infection has produced a pandemic with serious consequences for our health care system. Although liver transplant patients represent only a minority of the population, the hepatologists who follow these patients have tried to coordinate efforts to produce a protocol the management of immunosuppression during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although there are no solid studies to support general recommendations, experiences with other viral infections (hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus) suggest that management of immunosuppression without mycophenolate mofetil or m-Tor inhibitors (drugs that are also associated with leukopenia and lymphopenia) may be beneficial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gastrohep.2020.06.003DOI Listing

A review of Saurauia roxburghii Wall. (Actinidiacaea) as a traditional medicinal plant, its phytochemical study and therapeutic potential.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Molecular Modeling Drug-design and Discovery Laboratory, Pharmacology Research Division, BCSIR Laboratories Chattogram, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chattogram. Bangladesh.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Saurauia roxburghii Wall. is an interesting plant, found growing chiefly along the eastern and south-eastern countries of Asia. The various ethnic groups of these regions use the plant as a medication for relieving a wide spectrum of diseases and conditions, including indigestion, boils, fever, gout, piles, eczema, asthma, ulcers, bronchitis, epilepsy, and hepatitis B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557520666200709175138DOI Listing

Mortality from liver diseases attributable to hepatitis B and C in the EU/EEA - descriptive analysis and estimation of 2015 baseline.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2020 Sep 17;52(9):625-637. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

European Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control, Solna, Sweden.

WHO has set target to reduce mortality attributable to hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by 65% by 2030, with 2015 as baseline. We aimed to describe the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) baseline mortality from liver diseases, as defined by WHO Core-10 indicator through ICD-10 codes, and estimate mortality attributable to HBV and HCV. Age-standardised mortality rates per 100,000 for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, ICD-10 C22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2020.1766104DOI Listing
September 2020

Safety and therapeutic effects of anti-fibrotic Traditional Chinese Medicine Fuzheng Huayu on persistent advanced stage fibrosis following 2 years entecavir treatment: Study protocol for a single arm clinical objective performance criteria trial.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2020 Sep 23;19:100601. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

ZhangHeng Rd, NO.528, PuDong New Area, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important etiology for chronic hepatitis globally, and especially so in China. HBV infection can lead to the development of cirrhosis through the pathological process of liver fibrosis. The effective suppression of HBV replication with NAs or interferon-alpha can histologically regress the fibrotic pathological process, but there remain patients who have achieved anti-viral responses and normalization of serum liver tests, but not liver fibrosis regression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2020.100601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334581PMC
September 2020

Hepatitis C virus NS3-4A protease regulates the lipid environment for RNA replication by cleaving host enzyme 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase.

J Biol Chem 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Blavatnik Institute, United States.

Many RNA viruses create specialized membranes for genome replication by manipulating host lipid metabolism and trafficking, but in most cases, we do not know the molecular mechanisms responsible or how specific lipids may impact the associated membrane and viral process.  For example, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes a specific, large-fold increase in the steady-state abundance of intracellular desmosterol, an immediate precursor of cholesterol, resulting in increased fluidity of the membrane where HCV RNA replication occurs. Here, we establish the mechanism responsible for HCV's effect on intracellular desmosterol, whereby the HCV NS3-4A protease controls activity of 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24), the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.013455DOI Listing

Aflatoxin B exposure and liver cirrhosis in Guatemala: a case-control study.

BMJ Open Gastroenterol 2020 Jul;7(1)

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Objective: In Guatemala, cirrhosis is among the 10 leading causes of death, and mortality rates have increased lately. The reasons for this heavy burden of disease are not clear as the prevalence of prominent risk factors, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and heavy alcohol consumption, appears to be low. Aflatoxin B (AFB) exposure, however, appears to be high, and thus could be associated with the high burden of cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2020-000380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7342465PMC

Epidemiological Characteristics of Notifiable Infectious Diseases among Foreign Cases in China, 2004-2017.

Biomed Environ Sci 2020 Jun;33(6):421-430

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

Objective: We aimed to assess the features of notifiable infectious diseases found commonly in foreign nationals in China between 2004 and 2017 to improve public health policy and responses for infectious diseases.

Methods: We performed a descriptive study of notifiable infectious diseases among foreigners reported from 2004 to 2017 in China using data from the Chinese National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System (NNIDRIS). Demographic, temporal-spatial distribution were described and analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2020.057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347353PMC

In Silico Prediction of Human Leukocytes Antigen (HLA) Class II Binding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Peptides in Botswana.

Viruses 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Research Laboratory, Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone 0000, Botswana.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the primary cause of liver-related malignancies worldwide, and there is no effective cure for chronic HBV infection (CHB) currently. Strong immunological responses induced by T cells are associated with HBV clearance during acute infection; however, the repertoire of epitopes () presented by major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) to elicit these responses in various African populations is not well understood. In silico approaches were used to map and investigate 15-mers HBV peptides restricted to 9 HLA class II alleles with high population coverage in Botswana. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070731DOI Listing

The liver fibrosis niche: Novel insights into the interplay between fibrosis-composing mesenchymal cells, immune cells, endothelial cells, and extracellular matrix.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 5:111556. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Liver fibrosis is a hepatic wound-healing response caused by chronic liver diseases that include viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and cholestatic liver disease. Liver fibrosis eventually progresses to cirrhosis that is histologically characterized by an abnormal liver architecture that includes distortion of liver parenchyma, formation of regenerative nodules, and a massive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite intensive investigations into the underlying mechanisms of liver fibrosis, developments of anti-fibrotic therapies for liver fibrosis are still unsatisfactory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111556DOI Listing

Trends in CD4 and viral load testing 2005 to 2018: multi-cohort study of people living with HIV in Southern Africa.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jul;23(7):e25546

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a CD4 cell count before starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) to detect advanced HIV disease, and routine viral load (VL) testing following ART initiation to detect treatment failure. Donor support for CD4 testing has declined to prioritize access to VL monitoring. We examined trends in CD4 and VL testing among adults (≥15 years of age) starting ART in Southern Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25546DOI Listing

Nucleic Acid Testing for Diagnosis of Perinatally-Acquired Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Early Infancy.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital - The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Most U.S. children with perinatal hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure fail to receive the recommended anti-HCV antibody test at age ≥18 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa949DOI Listing

First molecular characterization of the hepatitis E virus in humans in Cameroon: Confirmation of the HEV outbreak in Touboro, North-Cameroon.

J Med Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Virology, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major causative agent of acute viral hepatitis in many regions of the world including Africa. In Cameroon, there is no published molecular study on HEV in humans. However, based on serological assays, the first outbreak of HEV was detected in North-Cameroon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26277DOI Listing

Switching from TDF to TAF in HIV/HBV co-infected individuals with renal dysfunction - a prospective cohort study.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Whereas tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) can lead to renal adverse events, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has a more favorable renal safety profile. However, the impact of replacing TDF with TAF on renal function and liver parameters among HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infected individuals with renal dysfunction remains unclear.

Methods: We included all participants from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study with an HIV/HBV-coinfection who switched from TDF to TAF and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <90 mL/min/1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002429DOI Listing

Universal hepatitis A vaccination in Brazil: analysis of vaccination coverage and incidence five years after program implementation.

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2020 6;23:e200073. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil.

Introduction: In 2014, Brazil introduced a universal immunization program against the hepatitis A virus (HAV) for children in the second year of life, using a single dose of inactivated virus vaccine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vaccination coverage (VC) against HAV in Brazil, against the incidence of cases reported five years after the implementation of the program.

Methodology: Secondary data were obtained by searching free access electronic sites of the Ministry of Health, Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde - DATASUS), for incidence analysis and VC from 2014 to 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720200073DOI Listing

Combination of pegylated-interferon-alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment enhances the activity of natural killer cells in nucleos(t)ide analogue experienced chronic hepatitis B patients.

Clin Exp Immunol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute for Viral Hepatitis, The Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Chinese Ministry of Education, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background & Aims: A combination of pegylated interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α) and nucleos(t)ides analogue (NA) therapy can effectively reduce hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), especially in NA-experienced chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, the immune mechanism of this therapy is unclear.

Methods: 40 NA-experienced CHB patients were enrolled in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13486DOI Listing

Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) to HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) at baseline of treatment in thalassemia patients: a referral center study.

Arch Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Patients with thalassemia major are at high risk of hepatitis C through blood transfusion from donors infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The use of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy against such HCV infections has increased in different populations. However, resistant viral variants can affect treatment outcomes, and therefore improved surveillance strategies are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04728-xDOI Listing

Comparison of methods and characterization of small RNAs from plasma extracellular vesicles of HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 7;10(1):11140. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Unit of Viral Infection and Immunity, National Center for Microbiology, Institute of Health Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda- Pozuelo, Km 2.2, Majadahonda, 28220, Madrid, Spain.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hijack the host exosomal machinery as an additional mechanism of infection and evasion of the immune system, modifying the small RNA (smRNA) cargo during infection. We characterized the surface epitopes of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from plasma HIV/HCV-coinfected patients and their smRNA cargo profile, by comparing different isolation procedures. Six EVs isolation procedures were compared: ultracentrifugation, and five different polyethylene glycol-based methods (commercial, combined with a column purification step and two custom); and two RNA commercial kits (phenol and non-phenol based) were used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67935-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341746PMC

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 4 in an Indian child: presentation, initial course and novel compound heterozygous mutation.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jul 6;13(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Pediatric Gasteroenterology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India.

A 15-year-old boy who had a history of on and off pruritus and jaundice since many years found to have a novel mutation in TJP2 gene. On examination, he had clubbing, splenomegaly, grade 3 oesophageal varices and short stature. Investigation revealed direct hyperbirubinemia with elevated liver enzymes with normal gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-234193DOI Listing

Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection After Kidney Transplantation With or Without Direct-Acting Antivirals in a Real-Life Setting: A French Multicenter Experience.

Transplant Proc 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Nephrology and Clinical Immunology, CHU Tours, Tours, France.

Purpose: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are frequently infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), which can increase the risk of graft loss. Active HCV infections among KTRs are associated with shorter survival times. The emergence of very efficient interferon-free treatments (direct-acting antivirals [DAAs]) has revolutionized prognoses for chronic viral hepatitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.06.005DOI Listing

Hepatitis C Virus Influences HIV-1 Viral Splicing in Coinfected Patients.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 3;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratory of Reference and Research on Viral Hepatitis, National Center of Microbiology, Institute of Health Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) influences HIV reservoir size. However, it is unknown whether this coinfection also induces a higher provirus transcription. Viral transcription is promoted by synergy between cellular factors such as NF-κB and the viral regulator Tat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072091DOI Listing

Origin, HDV genotype and persistent viremia determine outcome and treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis Delta.

J Hepatol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

AP-HP, Hôpital Avicenne, Laboratoire de microbiologie Clinique, Université Paris 13, Centre national de référence des hépatites B, C et Delta, Bobigny, Inserm U955, équipe 18, Université Paris-Est, Créteil.

Background/aims: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection causes severe chronic liver disease in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected individuals. Factors associated with poor prognosis are largely unknown.

Methods: The French National Reference Centre for HDV performed a nationwide retrospective study on 1112 HDV-infected patients, collecting epidemiological, clinical, virological and histological data from the initial referral to the last recorded follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.06.038DOI Listing

Identifying gaps across the cascade of care for the prevention of HBV mother-to-child transmission in Burkina Faso: findings from the real world.

Liver Int 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Pathogenesis and Control of Chronic Infections, INSERM/EFS, University of Montpellier, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is a challenge for controlling the hepatitis B epidemic. In Sub-Saharan countries, pilot interventions including the screening of pregnant women for HBsAg, implementation of anti-HBV therapy and infant immunization within 24 hours of life are initiated and need to be evaluated.This pilot study aimed to describe the cascade of care for hepatitis B PMTCT in a real life situation, and to identify socio-demographic factors associated with adequate management of pregnant women and infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14592DOI Listing

Trends in Indicators of Injection Drug Use, Indian Health Service, 2010-2014: A Study of Health Care Encounter Data.

Public Health Rep 2020 Jul 7:33354920937284. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV transmission in the United States may increase as a result of increasing rates of opioid use disorder (OUD) and associated injection drug use (IDU). Epidemiologic trends among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons are not well known.

Methods: We analyzed 2010-2014 Indian Health Service data on health care encounters to assess regional and temporal trends in IDU indicators among adults aged ≥18 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354920937284DOI Listing
July 2020
1.644 Impact Factor

Controversial: Early Innate Responses to Hepatitis B Virus Infection, an Explanation for Viral Persistence?

Virol Sin 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute of Virology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147, Essen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00235-0DOI Listing

A systems biology-driven approach to construct a comprehensive protein interaction network of influenza A virus with its host.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 6;20(1):480. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China.

Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a serious public health problem not only in South East Asia but also in European and African countries. Scientists are using network biology to dig deep into the essential host factors responsible for regulation of virus infections. Researchers can explore the virus invasion into the host cells by studying the virus-host relationship based on their protein-protein interaction network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05214-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339526PMC

Hepatitis C virus vaccine design: focus on the humoral immune response.

J Biomed Sci 2020 Jul 6;27(1):78. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Unidad de Infección Viral e Inmunidad, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Campus Majadahonda), Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo, Km 2.2;Majadahonda, 28220, Madrid, Spain.

Despite the recent development of safe and highly effective direct-acting antivirals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a significant health problem. In 2016, the World Health Organization set out to reduce the rate of new HCV infections by 90% by 2030. Still, global control of the virus does not seem to be achievable in the absence of an effective vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12929-020-00669-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338099PMC

Changes in miR-122 and Cholesterol Expression in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients after PegIFN-Alpha/Ribavirin Treatment.

Pathogens 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Lodz, 90-419 Lodz, Poland.

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known as a main etiological cause of chronic hepatitis. HCV infection disturbs cholesterol metabolism of the host, which is frequently observed in patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The course of viral infections remains under strict control of microRNA (miRNA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060514DOI Listing