129,254 results match your criteria Hepatitis Viral


[Vaccination Gaps of Employees in Institutions of Preschool Childcare before Introduction of the Measles Protection Act].

Gesundheitswesen 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Institut und Poliklinik für Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Aim Of The Study: The measles protection act and the updated recommendations of the permanent commission of vaccination (STIKO) include the obligatory proof of a double vaccination against measles for employees (born after 1970) in childcare. In addition, the standard and professional recommendations for vaccinations should be respected. A retrolective evaluation of vaccination gaps of employees in institutions for preschool childcare was performed. Read More

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Early IFNβ secretion determines variable downstream IL-12p70 responses upon TLR4 activation.

Cell Rep 2022 Jun;39(13):110989

Translational Immunology Unit, Institut Pasteur, Université Paris Cité, 75015 Paris, France; Cytometry and Biomarkers UTechS, CRT, Institut Pasteur, Université Paris Cité, 75015 Paris, France. Electronic address:

The interleukin-12 (IL-12) family comprises the only heterodimeric cytokines mediating diverse functional effects. We previously reported a striking bimodal IL-12p70 response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in healthy donors. Herein, we demonstrate that interferon β (IFNβ) is a major upstream determinant of IL-12p70 production, which is also associated with numbers and activation of circulating monocytes. Read More

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Antivirals for adult patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection: A randomized, Phase II/III, multicenter, placebo-controlled, adaptive study, with multiple arms and stages. COALITION COVID-19 BRAZIL IX - REVOLUTIOn: protocol and statistical analysis plan.

Rev Bras Ter Intensiva 2022 Jan-Mar;34(1):44-55

Centro Internacional de Pesquisa, Hospital Alemão Oswaldo Cruz - São Paulo (SP), Brasil.

Repurposed drugs are important in resource-limited settings because the interventions are more rapidly available, have already been tested safely in other populations and are inexpensive. Repurposed drugs are an effective solution, especially for emerging diseases such as COVID-19. The REVOLUTIOn trial has the objective of evaluating three repurposed antiviral drugs, atazanavir, daclatasvir and sofosbuvir, already used for HIV- and hepatitis C virus-infected patients in a randomized, placebo-controlled, adaptive, multiarm, multistage study. Read More

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November 2021

Myocardial perfusion reserve in patients with chronic hepatitis C before and after Direct Acting Antiviral treatment - a pilot study.

Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-2650, Hvidovre, Denmark.

Introduction: Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease which may be due to inflammation and endothelial dysfunction caused by the chronic infection. In this prospective pilot study,, we assessed, for the first time among patients with CHC the myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) by Rubidium-82 ( Rb) positron emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) before and after Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) treatment and compared them with biomarkers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

Methods: We included 10 patients with CHC who received 8 or 12 weeks of DAA treatment. Read More

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Determinants and reasons for switching anti-retroviral regimen among HIV-infected youth in a large township of South Africa (2002-2019).

AIDS Res Ther 2022 Jun 28;19(1):32. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Department of Medicine and Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: There are limited data exploring antiretroviral therapy (ART) changes and time to change among South Africa young people living with HIV/AIDS.

Objective: We describe the time to first drug switch, which includes ART regimen change (three drug switch) and substitutions (single drug switch). We describe common reasons for ART switch among young people aged 10 to 24 years in South Africa. Read More

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[Research progress of mixed vaccination strategy against coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)].

Authors:
Z W Chen P Hu

Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2022 Jul;61(7):816-821

Department of Infectious Diseases, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Institute for Viral Hepatitis of Chongqing Medical University, the Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400010, China.

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[Clinical trials considerations for patients with immune-tolerant phase chronic hepatitis B].

Authors:
S N Zuo J Z Zhao

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2022 May;30(5):559-563

Center of Drug Evaluation, National Medical Products Administration, Beijing 100022, China.

Most patients with early stage chronic hepatitis B virus infection are in the immune-tolerant phase. Therefore, previously been generally believed that there is no disease progression or liver injury-related events, and poor antiviral efficacy in patients with immune-tolerant phase. With that in mind, antiviral therapy is generally not recommended in current domestic and foreign guidelines. Read More

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[Expert consensus on measurement and clinical application of serum HBV RNA in patients with chronic HBV infection].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2022 May;30(5):505-512

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing 100044, China Department of Microbiology & Infectious Disease Center, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China.

Since the discovery of circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis B in 1996, a growing number of studies have focused on clarifying the biological characteristics and clinical application value of serum HBV RNA. This consensus mainly summarizes the research progress of serum HBV RNA existing profiles, quantitative detection methods, and current clinical applications. In order to better apply this indicator for the clinical management of patients with chronic HBV infection, recommendations on quantitative detection target regions, detection results, and clinical applications are put forward. Read More

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[An overview of the global epidemic of severe acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in children].

Authors:
T Li H Zhuang

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2022 May;30(5):466-469

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China.

In April 2022, the United Kingdom was the first to report 74 cases of severe acute hepatitis in children monitored across different parts of the country. Hepatitis A to E viruses were not the common infectious etiological agents. As a result, the World Health Organization is closely monitoring reports of its unknown etiology and high severity incidence, and has warned that more cases are likely to come. Read More

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Acute portal venous thrombosis as an extrahepatic manifestation of acute hepatitis A infection.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jun 28;15(6). Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA.

Among the many potential causes and risk factors for acute portal venous thrombosis, viral hepatitis has been regarded as a rare associated condition. We present the first case in the literature of a 30-year-old previously healthy male who presented with acute portal venous thrombosis associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, describing the probable pathophysiology mechanism, work-up and treatment pursued. We encourage that hepatitis A serological markers should be routinely included in the investigation for acute portal venous thrombosis of unknown aetiology, in unvaccinated patients with risk factors of a recent HAV exposure. Read More

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Methods in HIV-Related Intersectional Stigma Research: Core Elements and Opportunities.

Am J Public Health 2022 Jun;112(S4):S413-S419

Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of studying and addressing intersectional stigma within the field of HIV. Yet, researchers have, arguably, struggled to operationalize intersectional stigma. To ensure that future research and methodological innovation is guided by frameworks from which this area of inquiry has arisen, we propose a series of core elements for future HIV-related intersectional stigma research. Read More

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US Government Health Agencies' Efforts to Address HIV-Related Intersectional Stigma.

Am J Public Health 2022 Jun;112(S4):S401-S404

Paul A. Gaist and Amber Wilson are with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of AIDS Research in Rockville, MD. Gregory L. Greenwood is with the National Institute of Mental Health, Division of AIDS Research, NIH, Rockville. Antigone Dempsey is with the HIV/AIDS Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Rockville. Timothy P. Harrison is with the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Washington, DC. Richard T. Haverkate is with the Indian Health Service, Rockville. Linda J. Koenig is with the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA. Donna Hubbard McCree is with the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, Atlanta. John Palmieri is with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville. At the time this article was developed, Harold J. Phillips was with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, and at the time the article was completed, he was with the Executive Office of the President, White House Office of National AIDS Policy, Washington, DC. Note. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the US government.

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Virus-Like Particle-Templated Silica-Adjuvanted Nanovaccines with Enhanced Humoral and Cellular Immunity.

ACS Nano 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 2 Linggong Road, 116024, Dalian, China.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are self-assembled viral proteins that represent a superior form of antigens in vaccine formulations. To enhance immunogenicity, adjuvants, especially the aluminum salts (Alum), are essentially formulated in VLP vaccines. However, Alum only induce biased humoral immune responses that limits further applications of VLP-based vaccines. Read More

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Regional Differences in Mortality Rates and Characteristics of Decedents With Hepatitis B Listed as a Cause of Death, United States, 2000-2019.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2219170. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: US hepatitis B mortality has been described nationally, but examination subnationally may identify differences in mortality rates and decedent characteristics, including birthplace.

Objective: To examine characteristics of decedents with hepatitis B-listed deaths during 2010 to 2019 and compare age-adjusted hepatitis B-listed death rates during 2010 to 2019 vs 2000 to 2009.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study used Multiple Cause of Death data from 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC) from 2000 to 2019 to assess characteristics of US residents with hepatitis B listed as an underlying cause of death (UCOD) or contributing cause of death on death certificates. Read More

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[Sustained virologic response in patients with hepatitis C and chronic kidney disease].

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2022 May 2;60(3):283-288. Epub 2022 May 2.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital General de Zona No. 2, Servicio de Medicina Interna. Tlalnepantla, Estado de México, México.

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection compared to the general population, and they also present higher morbidity and mortality if they are not treated. Current treatment is based on different direct-acting antiviral (DAA) schemes, which are available in the Mexican health system. However, the efficacy and safety of DAA treatment in patients with CKD on hemodialysis and HCV infection are unknown in Mexican population. Read More

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The predictive value of macaque models of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2022 Jul;17(4):179-185

Division of HIV Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We review macaque models for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention and highlight their role in advancing currently approved and novel PrEP agents.

Recent Findings: The development of the repeat low dose simian HIV (SHIV) challenge models represented a significant advancement in preclinical PrEP modeling that has allowed the investigation of PrEP under conditions that better mimic HIV exposures in humans. These models incorporate relevant drug pharmacology to inform drug correlates of PrEP protection. Read More

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Adenoviral infection in 5 red-tailed hawks and a broad-winged hawk.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2022 Jun 27:10406387221105240. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

The Raptor Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Adenoviral infections among raptors are best described in falcons and are characterized most commonly by necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis; only one case has been reported in a hawk. Five red-tailed hawks () and a broad-winged hawk () had an adenoviral infection based on history, histopathology, negative-stain electron microscopy, and PCR. All birds had acute onset of illness resulting in death; 3 had evidence of a concurrent bacterial infection. Read More

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A chimeric MERS-CoV virus-like particle vaccine protects mice against MERS-CoV challenge.

Virol J 2022 Jun 27;19(1):112. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Laboratory of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea.

Background: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease in humans, with a case fatality rate of approximately 35%, thus posing a considerable threat to public health. The lack of approved vaccines or antivirals currently constitutes a barrier in controlling disease outbreaks and spread.

Methods: In this study, using a mammalian expression system, which is advantageous for maintaining correct protein glycosylation patterns, we constructed chimeric MERS-CoV virus-like particles (VLPs) and determined their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice. Read More

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Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 mediates cell cycle arrest in the S phase.

Virol J 2022 Jun 27;19(1):111. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Background: Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is one of the most serious pathogens endangering the duck industry. However, there are few studies on the regulation of the cell cycle by DHAV-1.

Methods: In this study, flow cytometry was applied to analyze the effect of DHAV-1 infection on the cell cycle of duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Read More

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Fabrication of avidin-stabilized gold nanoclusters with dual emissions and their application in biosensing.

J Nanobiotechnology 2022 Jun 27;20(1):306. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ministry of Education), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute for Viral Hepatitis, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, 1 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters (Prot-Au NCs) have been widely used in biosensing and cell imaging owing to their excellent optical properties and low biotoxicity. However, several Prot-Au NCs reported in the literature do not retain the biological role of the protein, which greatly limits their ability to directly detect biomarkers. This study demonstrated for the first time the successful synthesis of dual-function avidin-stabilized gold nanoclusters (Av-Au NCs) using a one-pot method. Read More

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Expression of HLA and Autoimmune Pathway Genes in Liver Biopsies of Young Subjects with Autoimmune Hepatitis Type 1.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Objective: to test the hypothesis that autoimmune hepatitis (AIH type I) in young subjects is due to genetic differences in proinflammatory genes responding to viral triggers in patients and controls.

Methods: intrahepatic gene expression was compared between AIH type I (n=24, age 9-30 years) patients (hereafter referred to as the AIH group) and controls (n=21, age 4 -25 years). RNA sequencing was performed on cDNA libraries made from total RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsy samples. Read More

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Benchmarking and Assessment of Eight Genome Assemblers on Viral Next-Generation Sequencing Data, Including the SARS-CoV-2.

OMICS 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Virology Unit and Bioinformatics Centre, Institute of Microbial Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Chandigarh, India.

Viral genomics has become crucial in clinical diagnostics and ecology, not to mention to stem the COVID-19 pandemic. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is pivotal in gaining an improved understanding of viral evolution, genomic epidemiology, infectious outbreaks, pathobiology, clinical management, and vaccine development. Genome assembly is one of the crucial steps in WGS data analyses. Read More

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Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence is associated with neurodegenerative disorders in older people with dementia: a case-control study.

J Infect Dis 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Unidad de Infección Viral e Inmunidad, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain.

In this case-control study, we evaluated the association between serum antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV) and central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) in older people with dementia. The presence of anti-HEV antibodies was related to a higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of having CNS-NDs by neuropathological diagnosis (aOR = 2.13; p = 0. Read More

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Plasma Virome Reveals Blooms and Transmission of Anellovirus in Intravenous Drug Users with HIV-1, HCV, and/or HBV Infections.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jun 27:e0144722. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Shanghai Clinical Research Center for Infectious Disease (HIV/AIDS), Shanghai Public Health Clinical Centergrid.470110.3, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Intravenous drug users (IDUs) are a high-risk group for HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, which are the leading causes of death in IDUs. However, the plasma virome of IDUs and how it is influenced by above viral infections remain unclear. Using viral metagenomics, we determined the plasma virome of IDUs and its association with HIV-1, HCV, and/or HBV infections. Read More

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Reverse Genetics to Engineer Positive-sense RNA Virus Variants.

J Vis Exp 2022 Jun 9(184). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Virology Section, Department of Life Sciences, Shiv Nadar University;

The lack of a convenient method for the iterative generation of diverse full-length viral variants has impeded the study of directed evolution in RNA viruses. By integrating a full RNA genome error-prone PCR and reverse genetics, random genome-wide substitution mutagenesis can be induced. We have developed a method using this technique to synthesize diverse libraries to identify viral mutants with phenotypes of interest. Read More

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Increased Level of Tim-3PD-1CD4T Cells With Altered Function Might Be Associated With Lower Extremity Arteriosclerosis Obliterans.

Front Immunol 2022 10;13:871362. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, China.

Lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans (LEASO) is a vascular disease that may result in adult limb loss worldwide. CD4T cell-mediated immunity plays a significant role in LEASO. The T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) and inhibitory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) are well-known immune checkpoints that play crucial roles in regulating CD4T cell activation or tolerance. Read More

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Attenuated Duck Hepatitis A Virus Infection Is Associated With High mRNA Maintenance in Duckling Liver m6A Modification.

Front Immunol 2022 9;13:839677. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Host translation is generally modulated by viral infection, including (DHAV) infection. Previously, we reported that cellular protein synthesis in a cell model of duck embryo fibroblasts is significantly inhibited by DHAV infection but not viral proteins, suggesting that an important viral-host interaction occurs at the translational level. In this study, we aim to further understand the impact of DHAV virulence on cellular N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification, which is essential to a wide variety of RNA biological processes, such as mRNA stabilization and translation. Read More

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Phylogenetic signature and prevalence of natural resistance-associated substitutions for hepatitis C virus genotypes 3a and 3b in southwestern China.

J Virus Erad 2022 Jun 15;8(2):100071. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute for Viral Hepatitis, The Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Patients infected with hepatitis C (HCV) genotype (GT) 3, especially GT3b, are still difficult to cure. GT3b is more common than GT3a in southwestern China. Here we aimed to investigate the prevalence of naturally occurring RASs in HCV GT3 in southwestern China and performed phylogenetic analysis. Read More

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A Comprehensive Analysis of HAVCR1 as a Prognostic and Diagnostic Marker for Pan-Cancer.

Front Genet 2022 8;13:904114. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor (HAVCR1) is a type-1 integral membrane glycoprotein that plays a key role in immunity and renal regeneration and is abnormally expressed in various tumor types. Nonetheless, the function of HAVCR1 in pan-cancer remains unknown. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the expression and promoter methylation level of HAVCR1 and assessed the immune cell infiltration, correlation between stromal and immune cell admixture, CD (Cluster of Differentiation) and HAVCR1 expression and prognostic value of HAVCR1 mRNA expression in Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) and Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD). Read More

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Vaccination barriers and opportunities at syringe services programs in the United States, June-August 2021-A cross-sectional survey.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Jun 16;237:109540. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Background: Syringe services programs (SSPs) are an important venue for reaching people who inject drugs (PWID) to offer preventive services; however, not all SSPs offer vaccinations. We aimed to describe barriers and opportunities for SSPs to offer vaccinations.

Methods: During June-August 2021, we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of SSP providers in the United States. Read More

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