114,473 results match your criteria Hepatitis Viral


The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α-specific agonist Am80 (tamibarotene) and other RAR agonists potently inhibit hepatitis B virus transcription from cccDNA.

Antiviral Res 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany), Center for Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Heidelberg, TTU Hepatitis, Germany. Electronic address:

Chronic infection with the human Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health problem. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a satellite of HBV that uses HBV envelope proteins for cell egress and entry. Using infection systems encoding the HBV/HDV receptor human sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), we screened 1181 FDA-approved drugs applying markers for interference for HBV and HDV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Tuberculosis - United States, 2018.

Am J Transplant 2019 May;19(5):1582-1588

Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15384DOI Listing

miR-146a-5p Enhances Hepatitis B Virus Replication Through Autophagy to Promote Aggravation of Chronic Hepatitis B.

IUBMB Life 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Key Laboratory of Hunan Viral Hepatitis, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which miR-146a-5p mediated autophagy and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of miR-146a-5p and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and HBV DNA and RNA. The protein expression levels of XIAP, IκB-α, murine double minute 2 oncoprotein (MDM2) and p53, the phosphorylation of p65, and the conversion of light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II were detected by Western blotting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2044DOI Listing

Perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in Lao PDR: A prospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215011. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD, France), PHPT, Changklan, Muang, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main cause of new infections worldwide. We aimed at assessing the percentage of infants successfully immunized in two major hospitals in Vientiane, Lao PDR where HB immune globulin (HBIg) is not available.

Methods: We studied a prospective cohort of chronically HBV infected pregnant women and their infants until 6 months post-partum from January 2015 to March 2017. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215011PLOS
April 2019
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Evaluation of Inactivating Norovirus, Hepatitis A, and on Raspberries by Sanitizer Spray.

J Food Prot 2019 Apr 24:869-877. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Illinois Institute of Technology, Institute for Food Safety and Health, 6502 South Archer Road, Bedford Park, Illinois 60501, USA.

Highlights: Chlorine and PAA spray reduced MNV and from raspberries by <1.0 log. Residual PAA on raspberries further reduced MNV and during postspray frozen storage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-18-415DOI Listing

Nevirapine in HIV maintenance therapy - can "old drugs" survive in current HIV management?

Swiss Med Wkly 2019 Apr 24;149:w20053. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Cantonal Hospital St.Gallen, Department of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, St. Gallen, Switzerland / Children's Hospital of Eastern Switzerland, Department of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Aims Of The Study: Nevirapine has an exceptional record for long-term tolerability with few side effects in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Owing to relatively frequent hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) (15–25%) in the first 3 months after treatment initiation (especially in patients with a high CD4 count (>250/µl in women, >400/µl in men)), it is being used less and less. However, the rate of adverse events is lower when patients are already under suppressive cART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2019.20053DOI Listing

Low rate of early vertical transmission of HIV supports the feasibility of effective implementation of the national PMTCT guidelines in routine practice of referral hospitals in Cameroon.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2019 Apr 24:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

l Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Pédiatrie Générale , Hôpital Robert Debré , Paris , France.

Background: Vertical (VT) transmission of HIV remains a public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa.

Objective: To investigate the VT rate and factors associated with transmission in routine practice in three referral hospitals in Cameroon.

Methods: All HIV-infected mothers who delivered in maternity wards or sought paediatric services during the first postnatal week from November 2007 to October 2010 were invited to participate in the ANRS-Pediacam cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20469047.2019.1585136DOI Listing

Viral infection in primary antibody deficiency syndromes.

Rev Med Virol 2019 Apr 24:e2049. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, Royal Free Campus, University College, London, UK.

Patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) are at increased risk of severe and invasive infection. Viral infection in these populations has been of increasing interest as evidence mounts that viruses contribute significant morbidity and mortality: this is mediated both directly and via aberrant immune responses. We explain the importance of the humoral immune system in defence against viral pathogens before highlighting several significant viral syndromes in patients with antibody deficiency. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/rmv.2049
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2049DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effect of a Community-Level HIV Prevention Intervention on Psychosocial Determinants of HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (YBMSM).

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

In contrast to intervention studies that assess psychosocial factors only as mediators or moderators of HIV risk, the present study assessed the effects of an Mpowerment-based community-level intervention on psychosocial determinants (e.g., depressive symptoms, sexual stigma) of HIV risk behavior among young black MSM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02499-4DOI Listing

Dynamic Expression Pattern of SERPINA1 Gene from Duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

Biomed Res Int 2019 19;2019:1321287. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics & Breeding and Molecular Design of Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China.

SERPINA1 is a member of serine protease inhibitors and is increasingly considered to be a regulator of innate immunity in human and animals. However, the expression and function of SERPINA1 gene in immune defense against viral infection remain unknown in ducks. The full-length cDNA sequence was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1321287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444226PMC

Profile of HBV Integration in the Plasma DNA of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.

Curr Genomics 2019 Jan;20(1):61-68

1Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong272067, China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Birth Defect Research and Transformation of Shandong Province, Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong272067, China; 3Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen518055, China; 4Shenzhen Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Shenzhen Blood Center, Shenzhen518002, China; 5Center for Data Driven Discovery in Biomedicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA19104, USA; 6BGI College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen518083, China.

Background: Hepatitis B Viral (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Mounting evidence had provided that the HBV integration might be a critical con-tributor of HCC carcinogenesis.

Objective And Methods: To explore the profile of HBV integration in the plasma DNA, the method of next-generation sequencing, HBV capture and bioinformatics had been employed to screen for HBV in-tegration sites in the plasma samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389202919666181002144336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446477PMC
January 2019

Disease burden of liver cancer in China from 1997 to 2016: an observational study based on the Global Burden of Diseases.

BMJ Open 2019 Apr 23;9(4):e025613. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: To evaluate the trends in disease burden and the epidemiological features of liver cancer in China while identifying potential strategies to lower the disease burden.

Design: Observational study based on the Global Burden of Diseases.

Participants: Data were publicly available and de-identified and individuals were not involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025613DOI Listing

The normal tissue complication probability model-based approach considering uncertainties for the selective use of radiation modality in primary liver cancer patients.

Radiother Oncol 2019 Mar 19;135:100-106. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Global Station for Quantum Biomedical Science and Engineering, Global Institute for Cooperative Research and Education, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To predict the probability of radiation-induced liver toxicity (RILT) and implement the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model-based approach considering confidence intervals (CIs) to select patients for new treatment techniques, such as proton beam therapy, based on a certain NTCP reduction (ΔNTCP) threshold for primary liver cancer patients.

Methods And Materials: Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grade ≥2 RILT was scored. The Lyman NTCP models predicting the probability of CTCAE grade ≥2 RILT as a function of the fraction-size adjusted mean liver dose (MLD), using reference fraction size = 2 Gy/fraction and α/β ratio = 2 Gy, were fitted using the maximum likelihood method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Analysis of serum Haptoglobin using glycoproteomics and lectin immunoassay in liver diseases in Hepatitis B virus infection.

Clin Chim Acta 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Transfusion Transmitted Diseases Department, National Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), 13th Floor, New Multi-storeyed Bldg, KEM Hospital Campus, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is major cause in Asia-Pacific countries. Its early detection is of paramount importance using a marker having both sensitivity and specificity. The present study promises diagnostic and prognostic markers by the identification of site specific glycoforms on Haptoglobin (Hp) using LC-MS/MS and lectin ELISA in liver diseased conditions in HBV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2019.04.072DOI Listing

HBcrAg to detect HBV reactivation in heart transplant recipients with past HBV infection: a pilot study.

Clin Transplant 2019 Apr 23:e13574. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Internal Medicine, University of Campania "L. Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been proposed as a new marker of HBV replication. We analyzed HBcrAg dynamics in 15 heart transplant recipients with active or prior HBV infection and correlated it with quantitative (QT)-HBsAg and HBV-DNA pre- and post-transplant. Serum HBcrAg was detected in HBsAg/HBV-DNA-positive subjects but not in recipients with past HBV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.13574DOI Listing

Real World Effectiveness of Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir in 573 Direct-Acting Antiviral Experienced Hepatitis C Patients.

J Viral Hepat 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Veterans Affairs, Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir (SOF/VEL/VOX) provides a needed hepatitis C virus (HCV) antiviral option for direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-experienced patients. We evaluated the effectiveness of SOF/VEL/VOX for 12 weeks in DAA-experienced patients with genotype 1-4 treated in clinical practice. In this observational cohort analysis from the Veterans Affairs' Clinical Case Registry, 573 DAA-experienced patients initiating SOF/VEL/VOX were included: 490 genotype 1, 20 genotype 2, 51 genotype 3, and 12 genotype 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13115DOI Listing

[Viral Hepatitis B: clinical, paraclinical and evolutionary features within the Hepatogastroenterology Department at the Aristide Le Dantec Hospital: about 728 cases].

Pan Afr Med J 2018 3;31:82. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Service d'Hépato-gastro-entérologie, Hôpital Aristide Le Dantec, Dakar, Sénégal.

Viral Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa accounting for approximately 65 million of chronic carriers and 56.000 deaths per year. Our study aims to investigate the epidemiological paraclinical, therapeutic and evolutionary features of viral hepatitis B in patients followed up in our Department and to describe their serological profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.82.14725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461970PMC
October 2018

Awareness and knowledge of hepatitis C among health care providers and the public: A scoping review.

Authors:
S Ha K Timmerman

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Jul 5;44(7-8):157-165. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Background: The Global Viral Hepatitis Strategy aims to eliminate hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be difficult to detect as infection can remain asymptomatic for decades. Individuals are often neither offered nor seek testing until symptoms develop. Read More

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July 2018
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Contact tracing for hepatitis C: The case for novel screening strategies as we strive for viral elimination.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

NYU School of Medicine, United States.

Contact tracing has been a key element of the public health response to infectious diseases for decades. These practices have been powerful in slowing the spread of tuberculosis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Despite success in other contexts, contact tracing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has historically been considered infeasible because of a long asymptomatic period, which often makes it difficult to pinpoint the time of acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Treatment of Viral Infections During Pregnancy.

Clin Perinatol 2019 Jun 28;46(2):235-256. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Magee-Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

Viral infections are common complications of pregnancy. Although some infections have maternal sequelae, many viral infections can be perinatally transmitted to cause congenital or chronic infection in fetuses or infants. Treatments of such infections are geared toward reducing maternal symptoms and complications and toward preventing maternal-to-child transmission of viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2019.02.009DOI Listing

Activity of Selected Nucleoside Analogue ProTides against Zika Virus in Human Neural Stem Cells.

Viruses 2019 Apr 20;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging flavivirus that causes neurodevelopmental impairment to fetuses and has been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome continues to threaten global health due to the absence of targeted prophylaxis or treatment. Nucleoside analogues are good examples of efficient anti-viral inhibitors, and prodrug strategies using phosphate masking groups (ProTides) have been employed to improve the bioavailability of ribonucleoside analogues. Here, we synthesized and tested a small library of 13 ProTides against ZIKV in human neural stem cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11040365DOI Listing

Off-therapy precipitous HBsAg decline predicts HBsAg loss after finite entecavir therapy in HBeAg-negative patients.

J Viral Hepat 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Cessation of nucleos(t)ide analogue (Nuc) therapy in HBeAg-negative patients may increase HBsAg loss rate in patients with sustained remission (SR) and non-retreated clinical relapsers (CR). To investigate and compare the HBsAg kinetics from end of treatment (EOT) to HBsAg loss in these patients, serial serum samples after EOT from 36 SR and 12 CR with HBsAg loss (study group) and an 1:1 matched control who remained HBsAg seropositive (control group) were assayed retrospectively for quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg). The results showed that study group SR and CR had comparable EOT features except the SR which had lower EOT qHBsAg (67. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13114DOI Listing

In Vitro Resistance Profile of Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Velpatasvir in Genotypes 1 to 6.

J Viral Hepat 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Gilead Sciences, Foster City, California, USA.

Velpatasvir is a pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor which is used with sofosbuvir for treatment of infection with HCV genotypes 1 to 6. In vitro resistance studies were performed to characterize NS5A changes that might also confer reduced velpatasvir susceptibility in vivo. Resistance selection studies using HCV replicon cells for subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a identified NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at nine positions, most often 28M/S/T, 31F/I/M/P/V and 93D/H/N/S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13116DOI Listing

Postvaccination Fever Response Rates in Children Derived Using the Fever Coach Mobile App: A Retrospective Observational Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 Apr 22;7(4):e12223. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Biomedical Systems Informatics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Postvaccination fever is a mild adverse event that naturally improves without complications, but is highly prevalent and can be accompanied by febrile convulsions in some cases. These adverse effects may cause parents to delay or avoid vaccinating their children.

Objective: This study aimed to identify postvaccination fever patterns and the ability of antipyretics to affect changes in these patterns from data collected from a mobile app named Fever Coach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12223DOI Listing

A novel hepatitis B virus recombinant genotype D4/E identified in a South African population.

Heliyon 2019 Apr 6;5(4):e01477. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

HIV and Hepatitis Research Unit, Department of Virology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University and National Health Laboratory Services, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Genetic diversity is a characteristic trait of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and has been associated with different clinical outcomes. In South Africa, HBV infection is a major public health concern. Most HBV infections are caused by genotype A strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453802PMC

[An unusual cause of jaundice].

Pan Afr Med J 2018 2;31:72. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie de l'Hôpital Aritide Le Dantec, Dakar, Sénégal.

Hepatic impairment is common during hyperthyroidism. It is most often asymptomatic. Hyperthyroidism revealed by jaundice has been rarely described in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.72.16967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457717PMC
October 2018

A case-control study of risk factors for hepatitis B infection: A regional report among Isfahanian adults.

J Res Med Sci 2019 25;24:22. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Hepatitis B is one of the major causes of mortality among viral diseases. To reduce morbidity rate and increase knowledge of people about potential risk factors, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B among the general population and the risk factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Isfahan, Iran.

Materials And Methods: In a case-control study, 314 HBV-infected patients and 557 healthy participants were recruited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_761_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450138PMC

Discovery of hit molecules targeting allosteric site of hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2019 Apr 21:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

b Excelra Knowledge Solutions Pvt Ltd , NSL-SEZ , Uppal, Hyderabad - 500 039 , India.

Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) plays a key role in viral amplification and is an attractive and most explored target for discovery of new therapeutic agents for Hepatitis C. Though safe and effective NS5B inhibitors were launched in 2013 (Sovaldi) and 2014 (Harvoni, Viekira Pak), the high price tags of these medications limit their use among poor people in developing countries. Hence, still there exists a need for cost-effective and short duration anti-HCV agents especially those targeting niche patient population who were non-respondent to earlier therapies or with comorbid conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2019.1608864DOI Listing

[Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infection according to the data on fetal outcomes in Moscow in 2015-2017].

Arkh Patol 2019 ;81(2):29-35

Department of Pathological Anatomy, A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: To elucidate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infection among the people who died in Moscow in 2015-2017, by studying the primary medical records of a representative sample of fatal outcomes, followed by the mathematical extrapolation of the data obtained to the total number of all deaths.

Material And Methods: The 2015-2017 primary medical documentations from 8 therapeutic-and-preventive establishments with morbid anatomy units in the administrative districts and from 2 infectious diseases hospitals of the Moscow Healthcare Department were studied. The sample of those who died was 11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/patol20198102129DOI Listing
January 2019

[Methodology of the 2nd seroprevalence study in Spain].

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2019 Apr 22;93. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Subdirección General de Promoción de la Salud y Vigilancia en Salud Pública. Dirección General de Salud Pública, Calidad e Innovación. Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social. Madrid. España.

Seroprevalence studies are designed in population samples to assess the level and distribution of immunity induced by natural infection of certain infectious agents or by immunization against them. The purpose of the 2nd Seroprevalence Study in Spain is to assess the prevalence and distribution of immune status against vaccine-preventable diseases and generated by natural infection by other microorganisms. Pathologies specifically included in the study are: poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, rubella, mumps, varicella, invasive meningococcal disease by serogroup C, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis E, hepatitis C and HIV. Read More

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Influenza and pertussis vaccination of women during pregnancy in Victoria, 2015-2017.

Med J Aust 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.

Objectives: To assess variations by time of year and hospital in the uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccinations by pregnant women in Victoria; to identify factors associated with vaccination uptake.

Design, Setting: Retrospective analysis of data in the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection (VPDC), a population surveillance system for obstetric conditions, procedures, and pregnancy and birth outcomes.

Participants: Women whose pregnancies ended in a live or stillbirth during July 2015 - June 2017. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.5694/mja2.50125
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50125DOI Listing
April 2019
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Missing the Match Might Not Cost You the Game: Primer-Template Mismatches Studied in Different Hepatitis A Virus Variants.

Food Environ Virol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Foodborne Viruses, National Food Agency, Hamnesplanaden 5, 453 23, Uppsala, Sweden.

Mismatches between template sequences and reverse transcription (RT) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers can lead to underestimation or false negative results during detection and quantification of sequence-diverse viruses. We performed an in silico inclusivity analysis of a widely used RT-PCR assay for detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food, described in ISO 15216-1. One of the most common mismatches found was a single G (primer) to U (template) mismatch located at the terminal 3'-end of the reverse primer region. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12560-019-09387-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-019-09387-zDOI Listing
April 2019
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Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells and Infected Cells Form an Interferogenic Synapse Required for Antiviral Responses.

Cell Host Microbe 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

CIRI, Inserm, U1111, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Univ Lyon, Lyon F-69007, France. Electronic address:

Type I interferon (IFN-I) is critical for antiviral defense, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a predominant source of IFN-I during virus infection. pDC-mediated antiviral responses are stimulated upon physical contact with infected cells, during which immunostimulatory viral RNA is transferred to pDCs, leading to IFN production via the nucleic acid sensor TLR7. Using dengue, hepatitis C, and Zika viruses, we demonstrate that the contact site of pDCs with infected cells is a specialized platform we term the interferogenic synapse, which enables viral RNA transfer and antiviral responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.03.005DOI Listing

Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among HIV-1 infected ART-naïve individuals in Kumasi, Ghana.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215377. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: The study assessed the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection paradigm among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients attending a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Also, the immunological and virological characterisation of these viruses, prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was investigated.

Method: A total of 400 HIV infected (HIV type-1) treatment naïve subjects ≥18 years were enrolled and tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215377PLOS
April 2019
3.234 Impact Factor

Evaluation of Three Rapid Screening Tests for Detection of Hepatitis C Antibodies on Mass Scale.

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2019 ;29(1):25-28

Department of Biotechnology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading health problem across the globe. Only 20% of HCV positive individuals know their positive disease status. Effective HCV screening tests are required to screen both general and high-risk populations and identify the silent cases of HCV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2018025062DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Study of hepatitis E virus ORF2 antigen kinetics in human-liver chimeric mice and its impact on HEV diagnosis.

J Infect Dis 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Laboratory of Liver Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Hepatitis E virus infection (HEV) is an emerging problem in developed countries. Diagnosis of HEV infection is based on the detection of HEV-specific antibodies, viral RNA and/or antigens (Ag). Humanized mice were previously reported as a model for the study of HEV infection, but published data was focused on the quantification of viral RNA. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz171DOI Listing
April 2019
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Toward DNA-Based T-Cell Mediated Vaccines to Target HIV-1 and Hepatitis C Virus: Approaches to Elicit Localized Immunity for Protection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 3;9:91. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Virology Laboratory, Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research, Discipline of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major contributors to the global disease burden with many experts recognizing the requirement of an effective vaccine to bring a durable end to these viral epidemics. The most promising vaccine candidates that have advanced into pre-clinical models and the clinic to eliminate or provide protection against these chronic viruses are viral vectors [e.g. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456646PMC
April 2019
8 Reads

Safety and Efficacy of Sofosbuvir with Ribavirin® in Hepatitis C, Genotype 3 Patients with Cirrhosis: A Real-world Experience.

Cureus 2019 Feb 4;11(2):e4012. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Internal Medicine, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of cirrhosis. The advent of Directly Acting Antivirals (DAAs) like Sofosbuvir (SOF) has dramatized the treatment and is the cornerstone for the treatment of HCV. Most trials have been conducted in HCV genotype 1 (GT-1) and data for Interferon-free regimen in genotype 3 (GT-3) is limited especially in cirrhotic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450597PMC
February 2019
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Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections among people who inject drugs in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 18;9(1):6292. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Injection drug use (IDU) is one of the most significant risk factors for viral hepatitis (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. This study assessed seroprevalence rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kuwait. We conducted a cross-sectional study from April to September 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42810-wDOI Listing

Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of IFIT5 in tissues of ducklings infected with virulent duck hepatitis A virus type 3.

Res Vet Sci 2019 Apr 8;124:256-262. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, Heilongjiang Province, PR China; Northeastern Science Inspection Station, China Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Pathogen Biology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are a family of proteins strongly induced downstream of type I interferon signaling. The function of IFITs has been investigated extensively in mammals. IFIT5 is the sole protein in this family found in birds and little information is available about the function of avian IFIT5. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00345288183132
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Hepatitis B e antigen induces the expansion of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells to dampen T-cell function in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

PLoS Pathog 2019 04 18;15(4):e1007690. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with functionally impaired virus-specific T cell responses. Although the myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to play a critical role in impairing antiviral T cell responses, viral factors responsible for the expansion of MDSCs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain obscure. In order to elucidate the mechanism of monocytic MDSCs (mMDSCs) expansion and T cell function suppression during persistent HBV infection, we analyzed the circulation frequency of mMDSCs in 164 CHB patients and 70 healthy donors, and found that the proportion of mMDSCs in HBeAg (+) CHB patients was significantly increased compared to that in HBeAg (-) patients, which positively correlated with the level of HBeAg. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007690
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007690DOI Listing
April 2019
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Isolation, identification and attenuation of a pathogenic duck hepatitis virus type 1 in China, and complete genomic sequence comparison between the embryo-passaged, attenuated derivatives and their parent.

Authors:
X Liu X Kong

Pol J Vet Sci 2019 Mar;22(1):163-171

Division of Avian Infectious Diseases, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Haping Road 678, Harbin 150001, PR China.

Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is an acute and fatal disease of young ducklings characterized by rapid transmission and damages. The most important agent of DVH is duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV-1). The effective control of DVH was achieved by active immunization of 1-day-old duck- lings with an attenuated DHV-1 virus vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24425/pjvs.2018.125614DOI Listing
March 2019
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TNRC6 proteins modulate hepatitis C virus replication by spatially regulating the binding of miR-122/Ago2 complexes to viral RNA.

Nucleic Acids Res 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

The liver-specific microRNA, miR-122, is an essential host factor for replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). miR-122 stabilizes the positive-strand HCV RNA genome and promotes its synthesis by binding two sites (S1 and S2) near its 5' end in association with Ago2. Ago2 is essential for both host factor activities, but whether other host proteins are involved is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkz278DOI Listing
April 2019
9.112 Impact Factor

Monoclonal antibodies point to Achilles' heel in picornavirus capsid.

Authors:
Mihnea Bostina

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 17;17(4):e3000232. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Otago Micro and Nano Imaging, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Picornaviruses are small, icosahedral, nonenveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that form one of the largest and most important viral families. Numerous Picornaviridae members pose serious health or agricultural threats, causing diseases such as poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, or foot-and-mouth disease. The antigenic characterization of picornavirus capsids plays an important role in understanding the mechanism of viral neutralization and the conformational changes associated with genome release, and it can point to regions which can be targeted by small-molecule compounds to be developed as antiviral inhibitors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000232DOI Listing
April 2019
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TIPE2 as a potential therapeutic target in chronic viral hepatitis.

Expert Opin Ther Targets 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

a Department of Hepatology , Qilu Hospital of Shandong University , Jinan , China.

Introduction: Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein-8 like-2 (TIPE2) is a novel negative regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses by binding to caspase-8. The binding of TIPE2 and caspase-8 can inhibit the activity of activating protein-1(AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), ultimately promoting Fas-induced apoptosis in immune cells. Therefore, TIPE2-caspase-8-NF-κB signaling might serve as a biomarker and a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14728222.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14728222.2019.1608948DOI Listing
April 2019
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Augmenter of liver regeneration protects the kidney from ischaemia-reperfusion injury in ferroptosis.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe clinical condition with high morbidity and mortality. Ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury remains the major cause of AKI in the clinic. Ferroptosis is a recently discovered form of programmed cell death (PCD) that is characterized by iron-dependent accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcmm.14302
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14302DOI Listing
April 2019
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Influence of male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on the reproductive outcomes in serodiscordant couples: a case-control study.

Andrology 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background: Nowadays, serodiscordant couples (SDCs) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected men have the chance to conceive safely, giving birth with a minimum risk of cross-infection.

Objective: To assess the impact of male HIV and HCV infection on the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcomes in SDCs, with HIV or HCV seropositive men and negative partners.

Materials And Methods: Of 153 couples: 24 in Group 1 (HIV-seropositive men), 60 in Group 2 (HCV-seropositive men) and 69 in Group 3 (controls). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/andr.12623DOI Listing
April 2019
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High Serum Interleukin-34 Level is a Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Non-viral Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Hepatol Res 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Gastroenterology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Aims: We aimed to investigate the impact of interleukin (IL)-34 and YKL-40, regulators of hepatic fibrosis and tumor growth, on the prognosis of patients with non-viral hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: We enrolled 159 non-viral HCC patients (age, 70.8 ± 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hepr.13350DOI Listing
April 2019
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A fatal hepatitis A virus with dengue fever co-infection.

Authors:
Gassem Gohal

IDCases 2019 12;15:e00522. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

We report the first pediatric fatal case of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and dengue virus (DENV) co-infection. A 4-year-old boy who had a partial recovery of HAV infection but with subsequent DENV infection; the condition was complicated by acute fulminant hepatic failure, and death. The risk of DENV co-infection should be considered as cause of acute fulminant hepatic failure in pre-existing Hepatitis A infection. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22142509193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2019.e00522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441740PMC
March 2019
3 Reads