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    1 OF 96

    [Hepatic and extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus infection].
    Presse Med 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    CHU Toulouse Purpan, service d'hépato-gastro-entérologie, place du Docteur-Baylac, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France. Electronic address:
    All patients with elevated transaminases in France should be tested for HEV infection. HEV can cause severe hepatitis, in particular in patients with chronic liver disease, pregnant women and the elderly. Extra-hepatic manifestations including a number of neurologic syndromes, thrombopenia and renal injury have been described. Read More

    Zinc: A Potential Antiviral Against Hepatitis E Virus Infection?
    DNA Cell Biol 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    1 Virology Laboratory, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute , NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India .
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. Owing to its feco oral transmission route, sporadic as well as epidemic outbreaks recurrently occur. No specific antiviral therapy is available against the disease caused by HEV. Read More

    Prevalence and genetic features of hepatitis E virus in swine, in Gansu, China.
    Acta Virol 2018 ;62(2):196-201
    The prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in domestic swine threats the public health, due to the risk of zoonotic transmission. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic features of HEV in swine, in Gansu, which is geographically an important province in China. 377 fecal samples were collected from pig farms in Gansu province of China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-PCR. Read More

    Hepatitis E Virus: Still an Enigma in Mexico.
    Ann Hepatol 2018 July - August ,;17(4):544-546
    Immunovirology Unit, Molecular Biology Service, Civil Hospital of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Center University of Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Mexico.
    Based on high seroprevalence, null surveillance, and lack of diagnostics, Mexico is a high-risk region for hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection. However, few local news on infection are available. Clinicians and general population are in need of increasing awareness, and preventive measures should be emphasized. Read More

    Acute hepatitis E superinfection leading to chronic hepatitis B reactivation.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 10;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 10.
    Liver Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
    Reactivation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are many different causes of hepatitis B reactivation. This case describes an Asian woman with stable CHB presenting with significant hepatitis flare with markedly elevated serum aminotransferases and hepatitis B virus DNA level. Read More

    Are French pig farmers and veterinarians knowledgeable about emerging foodborne pathogens? The case of hepatitis E virus.
    Prev Vet Med 2018 Aug 24;156:1-7. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    ANSES, Ploufragan-Plouzané Laboratory, Swine Epidemiology and Welfare Research Unit, Ploufragan, France; Université Bretagne-Loire, Rennes, France. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen mainly transmitted via food in developed countries, and for which domestic pigs are recognised as the main reservoir. To implement an efficient HEV surveillance and control plan in the pig production sector, it is first necessary to assess the level of knowledge of pig-farming main actors about this pathogen. To this aim, an online survey was conducted between September and October 2017 to evaluate pig farmers' and veterinarians' knowledge about HEV epidemiology and its zoonotic potential. Read More

    Evidence of increased Hepatitis E virus exposure in Lao villagers with contact to ruminants.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Jun 10. Epub 2018 Jun 10.
    Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.
    Although pigs are the main reservoir, ruminants have also been shown to be susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV). We investigated zoonotic transmission of HEV in rural settings of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) where humans are in close contacts with ruminants and where pigs are rare. Villagers with (n = 171, risk group) and without (n = 155, control group) cattle were recruited in seven villages in Vientiane Capital. Read More

    Hepatitis E-induced acute-on-chronic liver failure and VI nerve paralysis.
    Liver Int 2018 Jun 9. Epub 2018 Jun 9.
    Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS and CIBEREHD, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    A 65-year-old patient with long-term metabolic syndrome and no relevant alcohol consumption was admitted to the hospital due to jaundice. His electronic record revealed a first suspicion of NAFLD 3 months ago because of slight alterations of LFT (AST 80 IU/L). Actual testing showed an important worsening of all LFT (AST 639 IU/L, ALT 456 IU/L, AP 248 IU/L, GGT 293 IU/L) with TB 23 mg/dl and an INR 1. Read More

    Hepatitis E virus genotypes and subgenotypes causing acute hepatitis, Bulgaria, 2013-2015.
    PLoS One 2018 7;13(6):e0198045. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Viral Hepatitis and Oncovirus and Retrovirus Diseases Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Background: In industrialized areas of the world, including Europe, Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is considered an emerging pathogen. In fact, autochthonous cases caused by HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) are increasingly reported. Several studies described the human HEV-3 subtypes and strains circulating in West Europe countries; in contrast, very little is known about the HEV strains responsible for acute hepatitis E in countries of East Europe/Balkans, such as Bulgaria. Read More

    HEV ORF3 downregulates TLR7 to inhibit the generation of type I interferon via impairment of multiple signaling pathways.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jun 5;8(1):8585. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Chongqing Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Parasitic Diseases,Department of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.
    Hepatitis E is the most common type of acute hepatitis prevalent worldwide. The open reading frame 3 protein of HEV (HEV ORF3) is proposed to create a favorable environment for viral replication and pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which HEV overcomes the effects of host immunity, particularly the role of ORF3, remain to be established. Read More

    Inhibition of Hepatitis E Virus Spread by the Natural Compound Silvestrol.
    Viruses 2018 06 2;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Department of Virology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, 63225 Langen, Germany.
    Every year, there are about 20 Mio hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections and 60,000 deaths that are associated with HEV worldwide. At the present, there exists no specific therapy for HEV. The natural compound silvestrol has a potent antiviral effect against the (-)-strand RNA-virus Ebola virus, and also against the (+)-strand RNA viruses Corona-, Picorna-, and Zika virus. Read More

    Course of HEV viremia and anti-HEV IgM/IgG response in asymptomatic blood donors.
    J Clin Virol 2018 May 29;105:26-30. Epub 2018 May 29.
    I. Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel-Riems, Germany.
    Background: Globally, an estimated 20 million Hepatitis E infections occur every year. The course of viremia and antibody response has been investigated in patients with symptomatic hepatitis E. However, the majority of HEV infections in industrialized countries take a subclinical course. Read More

    Effects of hepatitis E virus infection on interferon production ISG15.
    World J Gastroenterol 2018 May;24(20):2173-2180
    Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei Province, China.
    Aim: To assess the effects of hepatitis E virus (HEV) on the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and determine the underlying mechanisms.

    Methods: We measured the production of interferon (IFN)-alpha and -beta (-α/β) in genotype 3 HEV-infected C3A cells at different time points (0, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 120 h) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression levels of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG)15 in HEV-infected C3A cells at different time points were tested by western blotting. Read More

    Absence of zoonotic hepatitis E virus infection in Flemish dairy cows.
    Int J Food Microbiol 2018 May 9;281:54-59. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Laboratory of Liver Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Recently, infectious HEV particles were discovered in milk and fecal samples of dairy cows in China. Given the recent increase of autochthonous HEV infections in Europe, we wanted to assess whether cows constitute an HEV reservoir in this region and hence may be responsible for the advance of HEV through consumption of cow produce. To verify the zoonotic risk cows potentially pose towards European consumers, we screened >10% of dairy milk farms in Flanders, Belgium for the presence of HEV. Read More

    Be cautious in comparing the seroprevalence of hepatitis E detected at different years in different countries.
    Liver Int 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.
    Horvatits and colleagues comprehensively reviewed the hepatitis E seroprevalence in the Americas and concluded that the risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) exposure is low in many South American countries based on the relatively lower anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence. However, I consider that the comparison of estimated anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence between USA and many South American countries should be cautious. Based on Table 1 of the article, of the 24 seroprevalence in USA, 17 (71%) were reported after 2008 and only 2 (8. Read More

    Hepatitis E virus infection during pregnancy: the overlooked cause of maternal and fetal mortality.
    Infect Disord Drug Targets 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Persian Gulf Tropical Medicine Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr. Iran.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality. Nevertheless, in some geographical locations, especially Egypt, despite having high frequency of HEV seropositivity, HEV infection follows an asymptomatic or mild course during pregnancy. These anomalous observations have distracted attention from the importance of HEV infection in pregnant women. Read More

    Hepatitis E virus-associated cryoglobulinemia in solid-organ-transplant recipients.
    Liver Int 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Department of Nephrology and Organ Transplantation, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France.
    Background & Aims: An association between hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and cryoglobulinemia has been suggested. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of cryoglobulinemia during HEV infection in solid-organ-transplant (SOT) recipients, to describe its outcomes under ribavirin therapy and to evaluate its effects on kidney function and histology.

    Methods: Between November 2005 and June 2016, 128 cases of HEV infection were diagnosed among SOT recipients followed in our institution. Read More

    Detection of bat hepatitis E virus RNA in microbats in Japan.
    Virus Genes 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan.
    Several recent studies have reported that various bat species harbor bat hepatitis E viruses (BatHEV) belonging to the family Hepeviridae, which also contains human hepatitis E virus (HEV). The distribution and ecology of BatHEV are not well known. Here, we collected and screened 81 bat fecal samples from nine bat species in Japan to detect BatHEV RNA by RT-PCR using HEV-specific primers, and detected three positive samples. Read More

    Adaptive Immune Responses in Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's, Columbus, Ohio 43004.
    Both hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) cause self-limited infections in humans that are preventable by vaccination. Progress in characterizing adaptive immune responses against these enteric hepatitis viruses, and how they contribute to resolution of infection or liver injury, has therefore remained largely frozen for the past two decades. How HAV and HEV infections are so effectively controlled by B- and T-cell immunity, and why they do not have the same propensity to persist as HBV and HCV infections, cannot yet be adequately explained. Read More

    Fulminant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in an infant following mother-to-child transmission of an e-minus HBV mutant: Time to relook at HBV prophylaxis in South African infants.
    S Afr Med J 2018 Apr 25;108(5):389-392. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Paediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women is high in South Africa (SA), yet prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) falls short of international recommendations. We describe a 10-week-old infant who developed fulminant hepatic failure following MTCT. The mother was hepatitis e-antibody positive and had a viral load of only 760 IU/mL. Read More

    Surface Functionalization of Hepatitis E Virus Nanoparticles Using Chemical Conjugation Methods.
    J Vis Exp 2018 05 11(135). Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California Davis;
    Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been used as nanocarriers to display foreign epitopes and/or deliver small molecules in the detection and treatment of various diseases. This application relies on genetic modification, self-assembly, and cysteine conjugation to fulfill the tumor-targeting application of recombinant VLPs. Compared with genetic modification alone, chemical conjugation of foreign peptides to VLPs offers a significant advantage because it allows a variety of entities, such as synthetic peptides or oligosaccharides, to be conjugated to the surface of VLPs in a modulated and flexible manner without alteration of the VLP assembly. Read More

    [Current epidemiological status of causes of disease among patients with liver disease hospitalized in Department of Infectious Diseases in a large general hospital within the past 20 years].
    Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2018 Feb;26(2):136-141
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.
    To investigate the causes of disease among patients with liver disease hospitalized in Department of Infectious Diseases in our hospital and the changes in such causes within the past 20 years. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 7570 patients who were admitted to our hospital from January 1995 to December 2015. The chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of constituent ratio. Read More

    Hepatitis E virus epidemiology among HIV-infected women in an urban area in Tanzania.
    Int J Infect Dis 2018 May 24;73:7-9. Epub 2018 May 24.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectives: This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among HIV-infected women during pregnancy and after delivery in a cohort of 200 Tanzanian women.

    Methods: HIV-infected women participating in a study on antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission between 2006 and 2011, were tested retrospectively for anti-HEV immunoglobulin G (IgG) in plasma samples at 9 months post-partum. Anti-HEV IgG-positive patients were tested for anti-HEV IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in samples from enrolment, and seroconverting women were tested for HEV RNA. Read More

    Environmental hepatitis E virus detection supported by serological evidence in the northwest of Argentina.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Instituto de Virología 'Dr. J. M. Vanella', Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, CONICET, Enfermera Gordillo Gómez s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016, Córdoba, Argentina.
    Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Water contamination is a possible source of viral infection. In South America, particularly in Argentina, little is known about environmental HEV circulation, including recreational water. Read More

    Hepatitis E in High-Income Countries: What Do We Know? And What Are the Knowledge Gaps?
    Viruses 2018 05 25;10(6). Epub 2018 May 25.
    EA7310 BIOSCOPE, Laboratoire de Virologie, Université de Corse-Inserm, 20250 Corte, France.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a positive-strand RNA virus transmitted by the fecal⁻oral route. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 infect only humans and cause mainly waterborne outbreaks. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are widely represented in the animal kingdom, and are mainly transmitted as a zoonosis. Read More

    The incubation period of hepatitis E genotype 1: insights from pooled analyses of travellers.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 May 24:1-4. Epub 2018 May 24.
    Blood Borne Virus Unit,National Infection Service, Public Health England,London,UK.
    Hepatitis E virus genotype 1 (HEV G1) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa and Asia. HEV G1's natural history, including the incubation period, remains poorly understood, hindering surveillance efforts and effective control. Using individual-level data from 85 travel-related HEV G1 cases in England and Wales, we estimate the incubation period distribution using survival analysis methods, which allow for appropriate inference when only time ranges, rather than exact times are known for the exposure to HEV and symptom onset. Read More

    Hepatitis E virus in South America: The current scenario.
    Liver Int 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella", Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most frequent causes of acute viral hepatitis of enteric transmission worldwide. In South America the overall epidemiology has been little studied, and the burden of the disease remains largely unknown. A research of all scientific articles about HEV circulation in South America until November 2017 was carried out. Read More

    High seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in the ethnic minority populations in Yunnan, China.
    PLoS One 2018 22;13(5):e0197577. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Research Institutes of Nutrition and Food Science, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is relatively high in the southern regions of China. Yunnan, located in southwestern China, has the highest number of ethnic groups. However, HEV infection in the ethnic population is largely unknown. Read More

    Hepatitis E in Long-Term Travelers from the Netherlands to Subtropical and Tropical Countries, 2008-2011.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Jun;24(6):1055-1060
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis. Virus genotypes 1 and 2 infect humans in developing countries by the fecal-oral route. To assess attack rates and disease incidence for travelers, we prospectively studied 604 long-term travelers to subtropical and tropical countries. Read More

    Case-control study on risk factors for acute hepatitis E in Germany, 2012 to 2014.
    Euro Surveill 2018 May;23(19)
    Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    BackgroundNotified cases of hepatitis E have increased 40-fold in the past 10 years in Germany. Food safety is a major concern as hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA has been detected in ready-to-eat retail-level food products. The objective of this case-control study was to assess risk factors for autochthonous symptomatic hepatitis E and explore reasons for delays in diagnosis. Read More

    A nationwide retrospective study on prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in Italian blood donors.
    Blood Transfus 2018 May 4:1-9. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Italian National Blood Centre, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.
    Background: In Europe, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is mainly a food-borne zoonosis, but it can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. It is usually a mild and self-limited infection. However, immunocompromised persons, who are also those more likely to undergo blood transfusions, may develop chronic hepatitis and often cirrhosis. Read More

    Microfluidic PCR Amplification and MiSeq Amplicon Sequencing Techniques for High-Throughput Detection and Genotyping of Human Pathogenic RNA Viruses in Human Feces, Sewage, and Oysters.
    Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:830. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
    Detection and genotyping of pathogenic RNA viruses in human and environmental samples are useful for monitoring the circulation and prevalence of these pathogens, whereas a conventional PCR assay followed by Sanger sequencing is time-consuming and laborious. The present study aimed to develop a high-throughput detection-and-genotyping tool for 11 human RNA viruses [Aichi virus; astrovirus; enterovirus; norovirus genogroup I (GI), GII, and GIV; hepatitis A virus; hepatitis E virus; rotavirus; sapovirus; and human parechovirus] using a microfluidic device and next-generation sequencer. Microfluidic nested PCR was carried out on a 48. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Roma Settlements: A Comparison with the General Population in Slovakia.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 May 3;15(5). Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 04180 Košice, Slovakia.
    Hepatitis E infection is one of the most frequent causes of acute hepatitis in the world. Currently five human genotypes with different geographical distributions and distinct epidemiologic patterns are identified. In Slovakia, only rare cases of hepatitis E have been reported in past years. Read More

    Evaluation of Heating Conditions for Inactivation of Hepatitis E Virus Genotypes 3 and 4.
    J Food Prot 2018 Jun;81(6):947-952
    2 Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Disease, 4-7-1, Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis throughout the world. HEV genotypes 1 through 4 infect humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 (Gt3 and Gt4) also infect other animals. In developed countries, the main HEV infection route is by foodborne transmission, resulting from the consumption of undercooked meat. Read More

    A Case of Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF) Due to An Uncommon Acute And Chronic Event.
    J Clin Exp Hepatol 2018 Mar 1;8(1):95-97. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Hepatology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Acute on Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF) is an acute worsening of patients with chronic liver disease resulting in liver failure. Usually these patients have cirrhosis as the underlying liver disease with alcohol being the most common etiology. Common hepatitic illnesses causing acute worsening in Indian patients of ACLF include alcoholic hepatitis, acute viral hepatitis related to hepatitis E virus and acute flare in chronic hepatitis B. Read More

    Systematic review and meta-analysis: Development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients with hepatitis e antigen seroconversion.
    J Viral Hepat 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Central Lab, Liver Disease Research Center, the Second People's Hospital of Yunnan Province (The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University), Kunming, China.
    Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is considered to have significantly favourable clinical outcomes for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, inconsistent study results suggest that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still occurs in patients with HBeAg seroconversion. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the incidence of HCC in patients with CHB after HBeAg seroconversion. Read More

    Identification of the Intragenomic Promoter Controlling Hepatitis E Virus Subgenomic RNA Transcription.
    MBio 2018 May 8;9(3). Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Lewis Thomas Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    Approximately 20 million hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur annually in both developing and industrialized countries. Most infections are self-limiting, but they can lead to chronic infections and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients, and death in pregnant women. The mechanisms of HEV replication remain incompletely understood due to scarcity of adequate experimental platforms. Read More

    Foetomaternal outcomes of hepatitis E infection outbreak in North India.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2018 Jan-Mar;36(1):121-123
    Department of Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Hepatitis E infection (HEV) in pregnant females, especially in the third trimester is associated with poor foetomaternal outcomes. However, the mechanisms of severe liver injury remain obscure. In a recent HEV outbreak in North India, six pregnant females were detected to be positive for HEV infection with concomitant hepatitis A infection in three pregnant females. Read More

    Comparison of Dynamic Changes Among Various Prognostic Scores in Viral Hepatitis-Related Acute Liver Failure.
    Ann Hepatol 2018 May-June;17(3):403-412. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Human nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Introduction And Aim: Multiple prognostic scores are available for acute liver failure (ALF). Our objective was to compare the dynamicity of model for end stage liver disease (MELD), MELD-sodium, acute liver failure early dynamic model (ALFED), chronic liver failure (CLIF)-consortium ACLF score and King's College Hospital Criteria (KCH) for predicting outcome in ALF.

    Materials And Methods: All consecutive patients with ALF at a tertiary care centre in India were included. Read More

    Small Animal Models of Hepatitis E Virus Infection.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan.
    Novel hepeviruses have been recovered from many different animal species in recent years, increasing the diversity known to exist among the , which now include two genera, and Multiple viral genotypes in the species are able to replicate and cause acute hepatitis E in humans, and thus represent an important public health problem in industrialized as well as developing countries. Although hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections typically result in acute and self-limited hepatitis, immunocompromised and transplant patients are vulnerable to prolonged infections and to chronic hepatitis. Cell culture systems have been established for several HEV strains and offer new opportunities for the study of HEV biology. Read More

    Natural History, Clinical Manifestations, and Pathogenesis of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 and 2 Infections.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, India.
    Infection with genotype 1 or 2 hepatitis E virus (HEV) results primarily from human-to-human transmission through the fecal-oral route in low-resource countries. It presents primarily as "acute viral hepatitis" syndrome, usually a self-limiting illness. A few cases progress to acute liver failure, a serious illness with high fatality. Read More

    Epidemiology of Genotype 1 and 2 Hepatitis E Virus Infections.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Public Health, Food Studies, and Nutrition, Falk College of Sport and Human Dynamics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 1 and 2 are responsible for the majority of acute viral hepatitis infections in endemic areas in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to frequent sporadic illnesses throughout the year, these viruses often cause large epidemics in association with monsoon rains in Asia or during humanitarian crises in Africa. Clinical hepatitis commonly involves adults more often than young children, with an overall mortality of ∼1%. Read More

    Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital and College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43205.
    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. Read More

    Enterically Transmitted Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis and the Discovery of Hepatitis E Virus.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital and College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43205.
    The recognition of hepatitis E as a discreet disease entity in the late 1970s followed the development of serological tests for hepatitis A and the discovery that large waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in India were not caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). These "enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis" outbreaks had distinctive epidemiologic features, including the highest attack rates among young adults, little secondary household transmission of infection, and severe disease in pregnant women. The responsible agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), was identified several years later in extracts of feces from a self-inoculated virologist. Read More

    Acute and Persistent Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 and 4 Infection: Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Treatment.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Medicine I, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20251, Germany.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 and 4 infections are prevalent in industrialized and high-income countries. Although most HEV gt3 and gt4 infections are clinically silent, acute infection may be symptomatic in some patients. In persons with underlying liver disease and in elderly men, HEV infections may present as acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure. Read More

    Serological and molecular investigation for hepatitis E virus (HEV) in captive non-human primates, Italy.
    Virus Res 2018 06 2;251:17-21. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Teramo, Italy. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of human enterically-transmitted viral hepatitis occurring around the world both as outbreaks and as sporadic cases. Non-human primates (NHPs) have been experimentally infected with HEV, but few studies have been reported about natural infection in wild-living and zoo monkeys. In order to provide a more complete picture on the epidemiology of HEV in NHPs living in controlled environment, we investigated the presence of HEV by screening serologically and molecularly a historical collection of 86 sera from seven different species of primates housed at the Zoological Garden (Bioparco) of Rome, Italy. Read More

    Roles of the genomic sequence surrounding the stem-loop structure in the junction region including the 3' terminus of open reading frame 1 in hepatitis E virus replication.
    J Med Virol 2018 May 2. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a member of the family Hepeviridae, causes both acute and chronic viral hepatitis. We have previously demonstrated that the stem-loop structure in the junction region (JR) of HEV genome plays a critical role in HEV replication. However, the function of the sequence bordering the JR, including the 3' terminus of open reading frame (ORF1), in HEV replication is unknown. Read More

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