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    Transmission of hepatitis E virus with plasma exchange in kidney-transplant recipients: a retrospective cohort study.
    Transplantation 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France Institut Pasteur, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (Inserm), Unité 1223 - Paris, France.
    Background: After observing a case of plasma exchange-mediated HEV infections in a kidney transplant recipient, we investigated the relationship between plasma exchange and HEV infection after kidney transplantation.

    Methods: A cohort of 263 patients who underwent kidney transplantation from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2012 was screened for HEV markers, including anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies and HEV RNA, on 3 consecutive blood samples: 1 before, 1 a mean (SD) of 9.5 (9) months and 1 a mean (SD) of 18. Read More

    Evaluation of candidate genes associated with hepatitis A and E virus infection in Chinese Han population.
    Virol J 2018 Mar 20;15(1):47. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Disease, Medical College of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, 215123, China.
    Background: Recent GWAS-associated studies reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1, TGFβ1, XRCC1 genes were associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and variants of APOA4 and APOE genes were associated with and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in US population. However, the associations of these loci with HAV or HEV infection in Chinese Han population remain unclear.

    Methods: A total of 3082 Chinese Han persons were included in this study. Read More

    Backyard pigs are a reservoir of zoonotic hepatitis E virus in southern Brazil.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Laboratório de Virologia, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, CEP 91-540-000, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis worldwide. There is no seroprevalence study in backyard farms, which are characterized by suboptimal hygienic conditions in Brazil. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence and genetic diversity of HEV in backyard pigs in Brazil. Read More

    Absence of chronic hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients: Report from a hyperendemic region.
    Indian J Gastroenterol 2018 Mar 19. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Department of HPB Surgery, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, D-1, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, 110 070, India.
    Most cases of chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in solid organ transplant recipients are attributable to genotype 3. Although India is hyperendemic for HEV genotype 1, chronic infection in transplant patients has not been reported. In this study, 30 liver transplant recipients were followed up by systematic testing for various markers of HEV (IgM, IgG, HEV-Ag, and RNA) on blood and stool samples obtained pre-transplant, and then at 3 and 6 months post-transplant to look for HEV exposure and persistence. Read More

    HEV positive blood donations represent a relevant infection risk for immunosuppressed recipients.
    J Hepatol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    I. Medical Clinic and Polyclinic, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel-Riems, Germany.
    Background: Routine Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) testing of blood products has recently been implemented in Great-Britain and the Netherlands. The relevance of transfusion-transmitted HEV infections is still controversially discussed in Europe.

    Methods: All blood donations at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf were prospectively tested for HEV-RNA by pooled PCR from October 2016 to May 2017. Read More

    Clinical course of sporadic acute hepatitis E in a hepatitis B virus endemic region.
    Int J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Division of Liver Diseases, Jinan Infectious Disease Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China. Electronic address:
    Objectives: In China, the epidemic pattern of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has changed from waterborne outbreaks to foodborne sporadic cases. However, the clinical course of sporadic acute hepatitis E has not been well defined.

    Methods: Consecutive AHE inpatients who were admitted to the Jinan Infectious Disease Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, between January 2003 and December 2014 were evaluated and followed. Read More

    Pathological Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings in Patients with Neuralgic Amyotrophy and Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    There is growing evidence that hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can present with extrahepatic manifestations including neurological disorders. Among these, neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) has been reported to occur in some industrialized countries. We investigated 35 patients with NA and a control group for markers of HEV infection. Read More

    Hepatitis E: Update on Prevention and Control.
    Biomed Res Int 2018 9;2018:5769201. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Laboratório de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico em Virologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Read More

    Characterization of capsid protein (p495) of hepatitis E virus expressed in Escherichia coli and assembling into particles in vitro.
    Vaccine 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Disease, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is associated with acute hepatitis disease. Numerous truncated HEV capsid proteins have been successfully expressed using different expression systems. Among these, p495, a protein truncated at its N- and C-termini by 111 and 54 amino acids (aa), respectively (HEV ORF2 aa 112-606) can self-assemble into T = 1 virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed by insect cells. Read More

    Positive regulation of hepatitis E virus replication by microRNA-122.
    J Virol 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Hepatitis Division, National Institute of Virology, Microbial Containment Complex, Pune, India
    Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. Read More

    Exposure to hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and Borrelia spp. infections in forest rangers from a single forest district in western Poland.
    Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hepatology and Acquired Immunodeficiencies, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.
    Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging problem in developed countries. At least 2 zoonotic genotypes of the virus (HEV-3 and HEV-4) infect human beings. There are some data suggesting that forest rangers (FRs) can be at a higher risk of contact with HEV. Read More

    Expression profiles of host immune response-related genes against HEV genotype 3 and genotype 1 infections in rhesus macaques.
    J Viral Hepat 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Comparative Medicine Branch, Division of Scientific Resources, NCEZID, CDC, Atlanta, GA.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt) 3 infection is food-borne causing sporadic infections in older individuals and gt1 infection is water-borne, often causing epidemics affecting primarily young adults. Although HEV infection causes self-limited disease, gt3 induces chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Hepatic host gene expression against gt3 infection remains unknown. Read More

    Immunization against Hepatitis E.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea.
    Soon after the 1991 molecular cloning of hepatitis E virus (HEV), recombinant viral capsid antigens were expressed and tested in nonhuman primates for protection against liver disease and infection. Two genotype 1 subunit vaccine candidates entered clinical development: a 56 kDA vaccine expressed in insect cells and HEV 239 vaccine expressed inBoth were highly protective against hepatitis E and acceptably safe. The HEV 239 vaccine was approved in China in 2011, but it is not yet prequalified by the World Health Organization, a necessary step for introduction into those low- and middle-income countries where the disease burden is highest. Read More

    Classification and Genomic Diversity of Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom.
    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are significant human pathogens and are responsible for a substantial proportion of cases of severe acute hepatitis worldwide. Genetically, both viruses are heterogeneous and are classified into several genotypes that differ in their geographical distribution and risk group association. There is, however, little evidence that variants of HAV or HEV differ antigenically or in their propensity to cause severe disease. Read More

    Hepatitis E Virus Genome Structure and Replication Strategy.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) possesses many of the features of other positive-stranded RNA viruses but also adds HEV-specific nuances, making its virus-host interactions unique. Slow virus replication kinetics and fastidious growth conditions, coupled with the historical lack of an efficient cell culture system to propagate the virus, have left many gaps in our understanding of its structure and replication cycle. Recent advances in culturing selected strains of HEV and resolving the 3D structure of the viral capsid are filling in knowledge gaps, but HEV remains an extremely understudied pathogen. Read More

    Transmission and Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 and 4 Infections.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Virology, Hepatitis E Virus National Reference Centre, Toulouse University Hospital, 31059 Toulouse, France.
    Following the introduction of robust serological and molecular tools, our understanding of the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) has improved considerably in recent years. Current thinking suggests that consumption of pork meat products is the key route of infection in humans, but it is certainly not the only one. Other routes of infection include environmental spread, contaminated water, and via the human blood supply. Read More

    Prevalence of HAV Ab, HEV (IgG), HSV2 IgG, and Syphilis Among Sheltered Homeless Adults in Tehran, 2012.
    Int J Health Policy Manag 2017 Jul 8;7(3):225-230. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: This study investigated the prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) and syphilis among homeless in the city of Tehran.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 596 homeless were recruited in Tehran. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to study demographic data. Read More

    Disparities in detection of antibodies against hepatitis E virus in US blood donor samples using commercial assays.
    Transfusion 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    American Red Cross, Gaithersburg, Maryland.
    Background: Reported hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody assay performance characteristics are variable. Using a subset of surplus US blood donation samples, we compared assays for detecting anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (Ig)M and IgG or total anti-HEV antibodies.

    Study Design And Methods: Samples from 5040 random blood donations, all HEV-RNA negative, collected primarily in the midwestern United States in 2015 were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG or total anti-HEV using assays manufactured by Diagnostic Systems, Wantai, and MP Biomedicals. Read More

    Vaccine Development against Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Open Questions and Remaining Challenges.
    Front Microbiol 2018 19;9:266. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E outbreaks worldwide. Since the discovery of HEV as a zoonotic agent, this virus has been isolated from a variety of hosts with an ever-expanding host range. Recently, a subunit HEV vaccine developed for the prevention of human disease was approved in China, but is not yet available to the rest of the world. Read More

    Development and evaluation of a rapid point-of-care test for detecting the hepatitis E virus antigen.
    Clin Biochem 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, PR China.
    Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV)-caused acute viral hepatitis is a major threat to public health worldwide. Recently, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit detecting the HEV antigen was reported to have good concordance with the HEV RNA load and showed good clinical performance. But the ELISA kits can barely satisfy the needs of community clinics. Read More

    Comprehensive Molecular Approach for Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Variants.
    J Clin Microbiol 2018 Mar 7. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Division of Viral Gastroenteritis, Hepatitis Pathogens and Enteroviruses, Department of Infectious Diseases, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
    Autochthonous Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infections in industrialized countries are more frequent than previously assumed. HEV-3 is zoonotic and the causal pathogen of chronic hepatitis E. According to the latest classification of the family, 10 HEV-3 designated subtypes (HEV-3a to HEV-3j) and 7 unassigned HEV-3 subtypes are proposed. Read More

    Hepatitis E Virus: Isolation, Propagation, and Quantification.
    Curr Protoc Microbiol 2018 Feb 22;48:15L.1.1-15L.1.15. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Molecular Virology Laboratory, VA-MD College of Veterinary Medicine and Maryland Pathogen Research Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) predominantly causes acute liver disease in humans and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. HEV infection in pregnant women can result in grave consequences, with up to 30% fatality. The HEV strains infecting humans mainly belong to four genotypes. Read More

    Establishment of a Competitive Binding Assay Identifying the Different Characteristics of Neutralizing Epitopes of Hepatitis E Virus.
    Intervirology 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Aims: To confirm the different characteristics of genotype-specific and common neutralizing epitopes of hepatitis E virus (HEV).

    Methods: A competitive binding assay was established with known genotype-common neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 3G1 and 5G5 as well as genotype-specific neutralizing mAbs 2B1 and 4C5. HEV ORF2 recombinant p166W01 derived from genotype 1 and p166Chn derived from genotype 4 were used as coated antigens, to determine whether the mAbs recognize independent, similar, or overlapping epitopes. Read More

    Chronic hepatitis E in a heart transplant patient: sofosbuvir and ribavirin regimen not fully effective.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    APHP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Unité Médicale de Transplantation Hépatique, Hépato-Gastro-Enterologie, UPMC Paris VI, Boulevard de l'Hôpital, Paris, France.
    Hepatitis E Virus can induce chronic infections in the case of immunosuppression, which are sometimes not cured with ribavirin. Furthermore, Sofosbuvir is a highly potent inhibitor of Hepatitis C virus polymerase and was shown to inhibit Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) genotype 3 replication in vitro.We report here the outcome of sofosbuvir/ribavirin therapy on a chronic HEV infection in a heart transplant recipient non responder to ribavirin. Read More

    Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Why is the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) Still Used 25 Years After Its Launch?
    Drug Saf 2018 Mar 3. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Klinikum Hanau, Hanau, Germany.
    Launched in 1993 and partially based on the results of an international consensus meeting organized under the auspices of the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) is the most used causality assessment tool worldwide for the diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury (HILI) in a large number of epidemiological studies, case reports, and case series. The 25-year experience of RUCAM use confirmed that the success was due to its objective, standardized, and liver-injury-specific approach structured with defined key elements derived from a series of DILI cases with positive rechallenge. Using this series, the validation procedure avoided arbitrary definitions and confirmed scores to key items. Read More

    Chevrier's Field Mouse (Apodemus chevrieri) and Père David's Vole (Eothenomys melanogaster) in China Carry Orthohepeviruses that form Two Putative Novel Genotypes Within the Species Orthohepevirus C.
    Virol Sin 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430070, China.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the prototype of the family Hepeviridae and the causative agent of common acute viral hepatitis. Genetically diverse HEV-related viruses have been detected in a variety of mammals and some of them may have zoonotic potential. In this study, we tested 278 specimens collected from seven wild small mammal species in Yunnan province, China, for the presence and prevalence of orthohepevirus by broad-spectrum reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Read More

    Prevalence, morbidity, and therapy of hepatitis E virus infection in pediatric renal allograft recipients.
    Pediatr Nephrol 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Pediatrics I, University Children's Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in immunocompromised patients such as solid organ transplant recipients may bear a high risk of becoming a chronic infection with progression to liver cirrhosis. So far, data on HEV infection in pediatric renal transplant recipients are limited.

    Methods: This single-center cohort study investigated period prevalence, morbidity, and treatment of HEV infection in 90 pediatric renal allograft recipients aged 9. Read More

    Dosing ribavirin in hepatitis E-infected solid organ transplant recipients.
    Pharmacol Res 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Organ Transplantation, CHU Rangueil, INSERM U1043, IFR-BMT, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. Genotypes 1 and 2 (GT1 and GT2) are mainly present in developing countries, while GT3 and GT4 are prevalent in developed and high-income countries. In the majority of cases, HEV causes a self-limiting hepatitis. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of a Swiss Hepatitis E Virus Isolate from the Liver of a Fattening Pig.
    Genome Announc 2018 Mar 1;6(9). Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Institute of Virology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    We present here the full-length genome sequence of a hepatitis E genotype 3 virus (HEV-3) isolate, CH_VW117, from the liver of a healthy fattening pig collected at the slaughter level. Sequence analysis implies that this strain belongs to the newly proposed HEV subtype 3s. Read More

    Detection of Genotype 1a and 1f of Hepatitis E Virus in Patients Treated at Tertiary Care Hospitals in Central India.
    Intervirology 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Background And Aims: An acute hepatitis, caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a significant global health concern, especially in developing countries. HEV has 1 serotype and 8 genotypes, which are further divided into subtypes. Despite the availability of sporadic cases and outbreak data from India, specific information regarding HEV epidemiological data is lacking from central India. Read More

    Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in chronic hepatitis C in Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Medicina, Divisão de Doenças Infecciosas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Background And Aims: Hepatitis E virus infection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease is associated with liver decompensation and increased lethality. The seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Brazil is unknown. This study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C and to describe associated risk factors. Read More

    Molecular and serological infection marker screening in blood donors indicates high endemicity of hepatitis E virus in Poland.
    Transfusion 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Background: Until now, markers of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection have not been studied in blood donors throughout Poland, and no acute case of HEV infection has been closely documented or confirmed by HEV RNA detection. The prevalence of HEV infection markers, including HEV RNA in Polish blood donors and virus genotypes was investigated.

    Study Design And Methods: In total, 12,664 individual donations from 22 Polish blood transfusion centers were tested for HEV RNA by transcription-mediated amplification. Read More

    Screening of Ready-to-Eat Meat Products for Hepatitis E Virus in Switzerland.
    Food Environ Virol 2018 Feb 28. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Risk Assessment Division, Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO, Schwarzenburgstrasse 155, Bern, 3003, Switzerland.
    Seroprevalence data for pig herds suggested that there must be a relevant reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Switzerland. To know more about the viral presence in ready-to-eat meat products, we screened pork liver sausages and raw meat sausages from the Swiss retail market for the presence of HEV. Testing was performed with a detection method where the virus extraction step was optimized. Read More

    Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen following hepatitis E exacerbation on chronic hepatitis E and B dual infection in a renal transplant recipient: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2018 Feb 28;12(1):50. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Background: Hepatitis E virus infection usually causes an acute and self-resolving hepatitis. In areas where chronic hepatitis B virus infection is prevalent, acute hepatitis E virus superinfection on chronic hepatitis B virus infection occurs sporadically. In recent years, however, chronic hepatitis E virus infection has been recognized in patients under immunosuppressant therapy. Read More

    Adult-Onset Still Disease and Macrophage Activation Syndrome Following Chikungunya and Hepatitis E Coinfection.
    J Clin Rheumatol 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Allergy Immunology Unit Department of Pediatrics Advanced Pediatrics Center Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, India Department of Virology Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, India Department of Hematology Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, India Department of Virology Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, India.

    Laboratory challenges in the diagnosis of hepatitis E virus.
    J Med Microbiol 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    1​Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus that is an important cause of both acute and chronic hepatitis worldwide. To date, there are eight HEV genotypes that can infect mammals. HEV-1 and HEV-2 infect exclusively humans, while HEV-3 and HEV-4 infect humans and various animals, mainly pigs and deer. Read More

    Prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in wild boars from Spain: a possible seasonal pattern?
    BMC Vet Res 2018 Feb 27;14(1):54. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Infectious Diseases Unit. Instituto Maimonides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía de Córdoba. Universidad de Córdoba, 2° Floor. Box 134.Avenida Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004, Córdoba, Spain.
    Background: It has been shown that wildlife can serve as natural reservoirs of hepatitis E virus (HEV). The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is probably the main natural reservoir of HEV and could therefore represent an important route of transmission in Europe, especially in regions where game meat is widely consumed. We evaluated the prevalence of HEV infection in wild boar in the south of Spain, with the aim of identifying associated risk factors. Read More

    Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy in Association with Hepatitis E.
    Front Neurol 2018 9;9:62. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation Unit, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute peripheral neuropathy that develops as a result of post-infectious immune-mediated nerve injury. It can be classified into classic and variant GBS. Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is a subtype of GBS with the key clinical features of pure motor weakness, areflexia, absence of sensory symptoms, and lack of neurophysiologic evidence of demyelination. Read More

    Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus in pigs, wild boars, roe deer, red deer and moose in Lithuania.
    Acta Vet Scand 2018 Feb 23;60(1):13. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilzes str. 18, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the major causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of HEV genotype 3 has been associated with domestic pigs and wild boar. Controversial data are available on the circulation of the virus in animals that are used for human consumption, and to date, no gold standard has yet been defined for the diagnosis of HEV-associated hepatitis. Read More

    Monitoring human enteric viruses in wastewater and relevance to infections encountered in the clinical setting: a one-year experiment in central France, 2014 to 2015.
    Euro Surveill 2018 Feb;23(7)
    CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre National de Référence Entérovirus et parechovirus - Laboratoire Associé, Laboratoire de Virologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    BackgroundHuman enteric viruses are resistant in the environment and transmitted via the faecal-oral route. Viral shedding in wastewater gives the opportunity to track emerging pathogens and study the epidemiology of enteric infectious diseases in the community.The aim of this study was to monitor the circulation of enteric viruses in the population of the Clermont-Ferrand area (France) by analysis of urban wastewaters. Read More

    An analysis of two open reading frames (ORF3 and ORF4) of rat hepatitis E virus genome using its infectious cDNA clones with mutations in ORF3 or ORF4.
    Virus Res 2018 Feb 19;249:16-30. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Division of Virology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke-Shi, Tochigi-Ken 329-0498, Japan. Electronic address:
    Rat hepatitis E virus (ratHEV) genome has four open reading frames (ORFs: ORF1, ORF2, ORF3 and ORF4). The functions of ORF3 and ORF4 are unknown. An infectious cDNA clone (pUC-ratELOMB-131L_wt, wt) and its derivatives including ORF3-defective (ΔORF3) and ORF4-defective (ΔORF4) mutants, were constructed and their full-length RNA transcripts transfected into PLC/PRF/5 cells. Read More

    Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 Cases Imported to Portugal from India, 2016.
    Ann Hepatol 2018 Mar;17(2):335-338
    Universidade do Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Laboratório de Microbiologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia.
    Hepatitis E in industrialized countries is mainly associated with genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) and normally causes a sporadic self-limiting disease in immunocompetent individuals. Unlike genotype 3, genotypes 1 and 2 circulate in developing countries, produce severe disease and occur in the epidemic form. Hepatitis E occurring in travellers returning from endemic areas in developing countries is not a novel epidemiological occurrence, however the vast majority of cases remain to be genetically studied. Read More

    Hepatitis E virus - key points for the clinical haematologist.
    Br J Haematol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Consultant Clinical Microbiologist, National Virus Reference Laboratory, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift in our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Once classically described as an acute hepatitis associated with waterborne outbreaks in areas of poor sanitation, HEV is now recognised to be endemic in Europe and is probably zoonotic in origin. Evidence for transfusion-transmitted HEV has prompted the introduction of blood donor screening in a number of countries, but the risk to the haematology patient from food sources remains. Read More

    Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Chronic Hepatitis E Infection in German Renal Transplant Recipients With Elevated Liver Enzymes.
    Transplant Direct 2018 Feb 2;4(2):e341. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Elevated liver enzymes are frequently observed in renal transplant recipients and warrant further exploration. In immunosuppressed patients, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection may cause chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and extrahepatic manifestations such as renal injury.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study investigating the prevalence, clinical correlates, and outcome of chronic HEV infection in a cohort of renal transplant recipients with elevated liver enzymes. Read More

    Hepatitis E virus infection in HIV-infected patients: A large cohort study in Yunnan province, China.
    J Med Virol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Yunnan Institute of Digestive Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in immunocompromised patients often results in distinct outcome, compared to the infection in general population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, potential risk factors, and clinical features of HEV infection among HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Yunnan province, China. A total of 770 HIV-infected patients between May 2015 and February 2016 were enrolled in Yunnan, China. Read More

    Proposal for a new subtype of the zoonotic genotype 3 Hepatitis E virus: HEV-3l.
    Virus Res 2018 Mar 13;248:1-4. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.
    The near-complete genomic sequences of two hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains, detected from feces of infected pigs, were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis and p-distance comparisons of the complete coding regions showed a close relationship to the French swine strain FR-SHEV3c-like detected in 2006 (p-distance value 0.101), belonging to HEV-3 but not assigned to any known subtype. Read More

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