3,120 results match your criteria Hepatitis D


Viral hepatitis: Past, present, and future.

World J Gastroenterol 2022 Apr;28(14):1405-1429

Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Center for Liver Diseases, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, United States.

Each hepatitis virus-Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G-poses a distinct scenario to the patient and clinician alike. Since the discovery of each virus, extensive knowledge regarding epidemiology, virologic properties, and the natural clinical and immunologic history of acute and chronic infections has been generated. Basic discoveries about host immunologic responses to acute and chronic viral infections, combined with virologic data, has led to vaccines to prevent Hepatitis A, B, and E and highly efficacious antivirals for Hepatitis B and C. Read More

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Different evolutionary dynamics of hepatitis B virus genotypes A and D, and hepatitis D virus genotypes 1 and 2 in an endemic area of Yakutia, Russia.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 May 12;22(1):452. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Viral Hepatitis, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Moscow, Russia, 125993.

Background: The geographic distribution of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis D virus (HDV) genotypes is uneven. We reconstructed the temporal evolution of HBV and HDV in Yakutia, one of the regions of Russia most affected by HBV and HDV, in an attempt to understand the possible mechanisms that led to unusual for Russia pattern of viral genotypes and to identify current distribution trends.

Methods: HBV and HDV genotypes were determined in sera collected in 2018-2019 in Yakutia from randomly selected 140 patients with HBV monoinfection and 59 patients with HBV/HDV. Read More

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Response-guided long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis D patients with bulevirtide-Results of A "real world" Study.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Bulevirtide (BLV) blocks the uptake of the hepatitis D virus (HDV) into hepatocytes via the sodium/bile acid cotransporter NTCP. BLV was conditionally approved by the EMA but real-life data on BLV efficacy are limited.

Methods: Patients were treated with BLV monotherapy. Read More

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Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis B, C, and D in Kazakhstan.

ScientificWorldJournal 2022 22;2022:9102565. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

S.D. Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

Background: Viral hepatitis is a major burden for the healthcare system worldwide. Up to date, a comprehensive analysis of the prevalence of viral hepatitis in Kazakhstan and Central Asia has not been carried out yet. Our epidemiological study aimed at investigating the frequency and spread of viral hepatitis B, C, and D depending on age and sex in Kazakhstan (5-year period). Read More

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Multiple Regions Drive Hepatitis Delta Virus Proliferation and Are Therapeutic Targets.

Front Microbiol 2022 6;13:838382. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Gene Therapy Laboratory, Center for Pathogen Biology and Infectious Diseases, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is the smallest mammalian single-stranded RNA virus. It requires host cells and hepatitis B virus (HBV) to complete its unique life cycle. The present review summarizes the specific regions on hepatitis D antigen (HDAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) that drive HDV to utilize host cell machinery system to produce three types of RNA and two forms of HDAg, and hijack HBsAg for its secretion and entry. Read More

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Fungal Secondary Metabolite Exophillic Acid Selectively Inhibits the Entry of Hepatitis B and D Viruses.

Viruses 2022 Apr 6;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.

Current anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drugs are suppressive but not curative for HBV infection, so there is considerable demand for the development of new anti-HBV agents. In this study, we found that fungus-derived exophillic acid inhibits HBV infection with a 50% maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) of 1.1 µM and a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC) of >30 µM in primary human hepatocytes. Read More

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IFITM3 Interacts with the HBV/HDV Receptor NTCP and Modulates Virus Entry and Infection.

Viruses 2022 Mar 30;14(4). Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

The Na/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP, gene symbol ) is both a physiological bile acid transporter and the high-affinity hepatic receptor for the hepatitis B and D viruses (HBV/HDV). Virus entry via endocytosis of the virus/NTCP complex involves co-factors, but this process is not fully understood. As part of the innate immunity, interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM) 1-3 have been characterized as virus entry-restricting factors for many viruses. Read More

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Clinical Application of Droplet Digital PCR for Hepatitis Delta Virus Quantification.

Biomedicines 2022 Mar 29;10(4). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, 10100 Turin, Italy.

Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a novel developed PCR technology providing the absolute quantification of target nucleic acid molecules without the need for a standard curve and regardless PCR amplification efficiency. Our aim was to develop a ddPCR assay for Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV)-RNA viremia quantification and then evaluate its performance in relation to real-time PCR methods. Primers and probe were designed from conserved regions of HDV genome to detect all the 8 HDV genotypes; the World Health Organization (WHO)-HDV international standard was used to calculate the conversion factor transforming results from copies/mL to IU/mL. Read More

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Entry Inhibitors of Hepatitis B and D Viruses.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1366:199-205

Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology (MOE/NHC/CAMS), School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) cause acute and chronic infections. The latter poses a serious public health threat as it is the major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver failure, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In nature, HBV and HDV have a narrow host range and highly hepatotropic, only infecting the hepatocytes of humans and a few primates. Read More

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Viral Hepatitis, Cholesterol Metabolism, and Cholesterol-Lowering Natural Compounds.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 31;23(7). Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 97004, Taiwan.

Hepatitis is defined as inflammation of the liver; it can be acute or chronic. In chronic cases, the prolonged inflammation gradually damages the liver, resulting in liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sometimes liver failure or cancer. Hepatitis is often caused by viral infections. Read More

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Liver Transplantation in Hepatitis B/Hepatitis D (Delta) Virus Coinfected Recipients.

Transplantation 2022 Apr 11. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Gastrohepatology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Hepatitis D is caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV); it is the most severe form of viral hepatitis in humans, running an accelerated course to cirrhosis. There is no efficacious therapy, and liver transplantation provides the only therapeutic option for terminal HDV disease. However, HDV infection is prevalent in poor countries of the world with no access to liver transplant programs; liver grafting has been performed in high-income countries, where the prevalence of the infection has much diminished as a secondary effect of hepatitis B virus vaccination, and the demand for liver transplantation outlives in aging cirrhotics who acquired hepatitis D decades ago. Read More

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Association of acute hepatitis B and acute myopathy: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Apr 9;16(1):143. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Islamic Azad University of Medical Sciences, Zargandeh st, Khaghani st, Shariati, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Hepatitis B virus infection is a global public health problem. Although hepatitis B virus primarily affects hepatocytes, it sometimes develops disease manifestations outside the liver, such as myopathy, which is commonly caused by chronic hepatitis B.

Case Presentation: This case report describes a 57-year-old Iranian woman admitted to the hospital with jaundice, fever, body itching, abdominal pain, progressive muscle weakness, icteric sclera, right upper quadrant pain, and decreased muscle force. Read More

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HBsAg isoform dynamics during NAP-based therapy of HBeAg-negative chronic HBV and HBV/HDV infection.

Hepatol Commun 2022 Apr 2. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Replicor Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Nucleic acid polymers block the assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) subviral particles, effectively preventing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) replenishment in the circulation. Nucleic acid polymer (NAP)-based combination therapy of HBV infection or HBV/hepatitis D virus (HDV) co-infection is accompanied by HBsAg clearance and seroconversion, HDV-RNA clearance in co-infection, and persistent functional cure of HBV (HBsAg < 0.05 IU/ml, HBV-DNA target not dected, normal alanine aminotransferase) and persistent clearance of HDV RNA. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of hepatitis D virus infection in Canada.

JHEP Rep 2022 May 22;4(5):100461. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background & Aims: HDV affects 4.5-13% of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients globally, yet the prevalence of HDV infection in Canada is unknown. To investigate the prevalence, genotype, demographics, and clinical characteristics of HDV in Canada, we conducted a retrospective analysis of (1) HDV antibody and RNA positivity among referred specimens, and (2) a cross-sectional subset study of 135 HDV seropositive +/-RNA (HDV+) patients compared with 5,132 HBV mono-infected patients in the Canadian HBV Network. Read More

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Therapy of Chronic Viral Hepatitis: The Light at the End of the Tunnel?

Biomedicines 2022 Feb 24;10(3). Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Gastro-Hepatoloy Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Chronic viral hepatitis determines significant morbidity and mortality globally and is caused by three main etiological actors (Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Hepatitis D Virus) with different replicative cycles and biological behaviors. Thus, therapies change according to the different characteristics of the viruses. In chronic hepatitis B, long term suppressive treatments with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues have had a dramatic impact on the evolution of liver disease and liver-related complications. Read More

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February 2022

Hepatocellular carcinoma: The virus or the liver?

Liver Int 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Health Sciences, General Hospital of Athens "Laiko", Athens, Greece.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major public health problem being one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses have been classified as oncoviruses and are responsible for the majority of HCC cases, while the role of hepatitis D virus (HDV) in liver carcinogenesis has not been elucidated. HDV/HBV coinfection is related to more severe liver damage than HBV mono-infection and recent studies suggest that HDV/HBV patients are at increased risk of developing HCC compared to HBV mono-infected patients. Read More

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[Treatment of parenterally transmittable viral hepatitis].

Internist (Berl) 2022 Apr 18;63(4):388-396. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Medizinische Klinik II, St. Josefs-Hospital Wiesbaden, Beethovenstr. 20, 65189, Wiesbaden, Deutschland.

The parenterally transmittable hepatitides B, D and C and their complications are a problem worldwide and also in Germany that should not be underestimated. Due to the estimated high gray area, a broad distribution, particularly by drug abuse, increasing prevalence due to immigration and a pandemic-related delay in the diagnostics, the identification of affected persons and therefore potentially infectious patients represents a great challenge for the healthcare system. Highly effective treatment concepts with practically no side effects and a tablet ingestion once daily are available for hepatitis B and also hepatitis C. Read More

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Cardiovascular disease risk in liver transplant recipients transplanted due to chronic viral hepatitis.

PLoS One 2022 16;17(3):e0265178. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Mental Health and Public Medicine - Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation, mostly in patients transplanted for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity and diabetes. Few data exist on cardiovascular diseases among patients transplanted for viral hepatitis.

Objective: Our aim is to clarify the cardiovascular risk and subclinical vascular damage among liver transplant recipients for chronic viral hepatitis (i. Read More

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Endemicity and genetic diversity of Hepatitis delta virus among Pygmies in Cameroon, Central Africa.

BMC Res Notes 2022 Mar 3;15(1):87. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Virology Service, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, BP 1274, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Objective: A single study conducted about three decades ago on hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection among Baka pygmies in Cameroon reported a very high anti-HDV antibodies prevalence of 46%, but HDV genetic diversity has not been studied in this population. The genetic diversity of strains from endemic ancient populations may help to understand the origin and evolutionary history of viruses. This study aimed to investigate the HDV seroprevalence and the genetic diversity in three remote Cameroonian Pygmies with chronic HBV infection. Read More

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Assessing the clinical severity of the Omicron variant in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, using the diagnostic PCR proxy marker of RdRp target delay to distinguish between Omicron and Delta infections - a survival analysis.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 May 27;118:150-154. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa; National Health Laboratory Service, South Africa; Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: At present, it is unclear whether the extent of reduced risk of severe disease seen with SARS-Cov-2 Omicron variant infection is caused by a decrease in variant virulence or by higher levels of population immunity.

Methods: RdRp target delay (RTD) in the Seegene Allplex 2019-nCoV PCR assay is a proxy marker for the Delta variant. The absence of this proxy marker in the transition period was used to identify suspected Omicron infections. Read More

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Hepatitis D: advances and challenges.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2022 Feb 28. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Postgraduate School Molecular Medicine, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Biobank, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan 650032, China Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan 650031, China Biomedical Research Center, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730030, China.

Abstract: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis with rapid progression to cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although discovered >40 years ago, little attention has been paid to this pathogen from both scientific and public communities. However, effectively combating hepatitis D requires advanced scientific knowledge and joint efforts from multi-stakeholders. Read More

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February 2022

Combination of Novel Therapies for HDV.

Viruses 2022 01 28;14(2). Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine-Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Treatment options for HDV have been limited to interferon alfa-based therapies with its poor efficacy to side effects ratio. Several novel therapies have now advanced into the clinic. As they each have a different mechanism of action, there is the potential for combination therapy. Read More

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January 2022

Inspecting the Ribozyme Region of Hepatitis Delta Virus Genotype 1: Conservation and Variability.

Viruses 2022 01 22;14(2). Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Liver Pathology Unit, Departments of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) genome has an autocatalytic region called the ribozyme, which is essential for viral replication. The aim of this study was to use next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze the ribozyme quasispecies (QS) in order to study its evolution and identify highly conserved regions potentially suitable for a gene-silencing strategy. HDV RNA was extracted from 2 longitudinal samples of chronic HDV patients and the ribozyme (nucleotide, nt 688-771) was analyzed using NGS. Read More

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January 2022

Adaptive Immune Responses, Immune Escape and Immune-Mediated Pathogenesis during HDV Infection.

Viruses 2022 01 20;14(2). Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Medicine II (Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endocrinology and Infectious Diseases), Freiburg University Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg, Germany.

The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the smallest known human virus, yet it causes great harm to patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). As a satellite virus of HBV, HDV requires the surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg) for sufficient viral packaging and spread. The special circumstance of co-infection, albeit only one partner depends on the other, raises many virological, immunological, and pathophysiological questions. Read More

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January 2022

Effectiveness of mRNA-1273 against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and Delta variants.

Nat Med 2022 May 21;28(5):1063-1071. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1. Read More

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[Hepatitis D screening is important in the Czech Republic as well].

Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek 2021 Sep;27(3):98-103

Clinic of infectious diseases, The University Hospital Brno, Brno, Czech Republic, e-mail:

Only patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can contract hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection, either simultaneously (co-infection) or as a superinfection in those already infected with HBV. The routes of HDV transmission are contaminated needles or transfusion; sexual and vertical transmissions are relatively rare. Chronic hepatitis D is the most serious form of chronic viral hepatitis due to more rapid progression to decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Read More

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September 2021

Inducers of the NF-κB pathways impair hepatitis delta virus replication and strongly decrease progeny infectivity .

JHEP Rep 2022 Mar 14;4(3):100415. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

CIRI - Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Inserm, U1111, CNRS, UMR5308, ENS Lyon, Lyon, 69007, France.

Background & Aims: HDV superinfection of chronically HBV-infected patients is the most aggressive form of chronic viral hepatitis, with an accelerated progression towards fibrosis/cirrhosis and increased risk of liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. While HDV infection is not susceptible to available direct anti-HBV drugs, suboptimal responses are obtained with interferon-α-based therapies, and the number of investigational drugs remains limited. We therefore analyzed the effect of several innate immune stimulators on HDV replication in infected hepatocytes. Read More

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Viral hepatitis in 2021: The challenges remaining and how we should tackle them.

World J Gastroenterol 2022 Jan;28(1):76-95

Liver Unit, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle NE77DN, United Kingdom.

Viral hepatitis results in 1.4 million deaths annually. The World Health Organization (WHO) set an ambitious target to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030, but significant challenges remain. Read More

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January 2022

Chronic hepatitis D-What is changing?

J Viral Hepat 2022 04 19;29(4):240-251. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is a chronic viral disease of the liver that is still largely considered to be incurable due to lack of effective treatment options. Without treatment, the risk for the development of advanced liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is significantly high. Currently, new therapeutic options are emerging out of ongoing phase 3 clinical trials, promising a new hope of cure for this devastating liver infection. Read More

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Establishment of monoclonal antibodies broadly neutralize infection of hepatitis B virus.

Microbiol Immunol 2022 Apr 23;66(4):179-192. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Center for Infectious Disease Education and Research, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Antibodies against hepatitis B virus S protein can protect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Therefore, hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG), which contains HBsAb, is used clinically as a therapy for HBV infection. In this study, a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize multiple HBV genotypes was obtained. Read More

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