99,277 results match your criteria Hepatitis B


Efficacy of an Inhibitor of Hepatitis B Virus Expression in Combination With Entecavir and Interferon-α in Woodchucks Chronically Infected With Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus.

Hepatol Commun 2020 Jun 22;4(6):916-931. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development Roche Innovation Center Basel Basel Switzerland.

RG7834 is a small-molecule inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene expression that significantly reduces the levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA in a humanized liver HBV mouse model. In the current study, we evaluated the potency of RG7834 in the woodchuck model of chronic HBV infection, alone and in combination with entecavir (ETV) and/or woodchuck interferon-α (wIFN-α). RG7834 reduced woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) surface antigen (WHsAg) by a mean of 2. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262289PMC

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Alcoholic Liver Disease are Major Drivers of Liver Mortality in the United States.

Hepatol Commun 2020 Jun 4;4(6):890-903. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Betty and Guy Beatty Center for Integrated Research Inova Health System Falls Church VA.

In the United States, chronic viral hepatitis B and C (CHB and CHC), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are the main causes of liver deaths attributable to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis. Our aim was to assess the changes in the rates of mortality and years of potential life lost (YLL) for HCC and cirrhosis due to different liver diseases. We used multiple-cause mortality data (2007-2017) from the National Center for Health Statistics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262283PMC

SARS-CoV-2 and the Liver: Considerations in Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infections.

Authors:
K Rajender Reddy

Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) 2020 May 21;15(5):191-194. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine Philadelphia PA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cld.970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242007PMC

Effect of IL-18 on intrauterine infection of HBV in mice on cell molecular level.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 21;27(6):1685-1690. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Obstetrical Department, Hanzhong Central Hospital of Shaanxi Province, Hanzhong 723000, China.

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of IL-18 on intrauterine infection of HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) in mice based on cellular and molecular level, and to analyze its mechanism, as well as the relationship between IL-18 and intrauterine infection of HBV.

Methods: Pregnant rats are taken as the study subjects and divided into two groups according to infection and non-infection, namely the study group and the control group. Firstly, the peripheral blood of rats and the blood of newborn mice are collected for the determination of hepatitis B in two-and-a-half pairs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254044PMC

Nonsurgical management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a clinical practice guideline.

Curr Oncol 2020 Apr 1;27(2):e106-e114. Epub 2020 May 1.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON.

Background: Practice guidelines based on a systematic review of the literature regarding the nonsurgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) in North America are lacking. Resection and transplantation are the foundations for cure of hcc; however, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, precluding those curative treatments. A number of local or regional therapies are used and are followed by systemic therapy for advanced or progressive disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/co.27.5891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253733PMC

Risk factors for hepatitis B and C among healthy population: a community-based survey from four districts of Southern Italy.

Infez Med 2020 Jun;28(2):223-226

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, "Magna Graecia" University, Catanzaro, Italy.

In Southern Italy, viral hepatitis B and C still represent an important public health problem, with a serious social impact, and significant economic consequences. The objective of our community-based study was to assess the prevalence of risk factors and access to the test for viral hepatitis to get information for guiding prevention and screening strategies in our setting. The study was conducted among population of four selected districts in Southern Italy during May 2019. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Reversal of Epigenetic Silencing Allows Robust HIV-1 Replication in the Absence of Integrase Function.

mBio 2020 Jun 2;11(3). Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA

Integration of the proviral DNA intermediate into the host cell genome normally represents an essential step in the retroviral life cycle. While the reason(s) for this requirement remains unclear, it is known that unintegrated proviral DNA is epigenetically silenced. Here, we demonstrate that human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) mutants lacking a functional integrase (IN) can mount a robust, spreading infection in cells expressing the Tax transcription factor encoded by human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01038-20DOI Listing

Prevalence and Trends in Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States, 2015-2018.

NCHS Data Brief 2020 Mar(361):1-8

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a type of viral hepatitis transmitted through sexual contact, contaminated blood, or from an infected mother to her newborn (1). HBV may cause a liver infection that is acute or short-term, but may also cause chronic or long-term infection. Vaccination was targeted to high-risk groups in 1982, and universal vaccination of newborns was recommended beginning in 1991 in the United States (2). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Prevalence and associated factors of Treponema pallidum infection in a rural area of southwestern China.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 1;20(1):824. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Fudan University School of Public Health, Building 8, 130 Dong'an Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Epidemiological data on Treponema pallidum infection are scarce from the southwestern region of China. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and determinants of T. pallidum infection in the region. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08952-7DOI Listing

[Diagnostic accuracy of liver and spleen stiffness by two dimensional shear wave elastography for portal hypertension in hepatitis B-related cirrhosis].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2020 Jun;100(21):1654-1657

Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032, China.

To assess the diagnostic accuracy of liver and spleen stiffness measured by two dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) in hepatitis B-related cirrhosis. The clinical data of fifty-eight hepatitis B-related cirrhosis patients were collected in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University from September 2017 to April 2018. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to assess the relationship between liver/spleen stiffness (L-SWE and S-SWE) and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), as well as the comparison with serological model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112137-20191029-02340DOI Listing

The Hepatitis B Virus Pre-Core Protein p22 Activates Wnt Signaling.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 May 31;12(6). Epub 2020 May 31.

The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3000, Australia.

An emerging theme for Wnt-addicted cancers is that the pathway is regulated at multiple steps via various mechanisms. Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for liver cancer, as is deregulated Wnt signaling, however, the interaction between these two causes is poorly understood. To investigate this interaction, we screened the effect of the various HBV proteins for their effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and identified the pre-core protein p22 as a novel and potent activator of TCF/β-catenin transcription. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061435DOI Listing

Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Universal or Selective?

Cancers (Basel) 2020 May 31;12(6). Epub 2020 May 31.

Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, IRCCS-Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most frequent primary liver cancer, is the sixth most common cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and accounts globally for about 800,000 deaths/year. Early detection of HCC is of pivotal importance as it is associated with improved survival and the ability to apply curative treatments. Chronic liver diseases, and in particular cirrhosis, are the main risk factors for HCC, but the etiology of liver disease is rapidly changing due to improvements in the prevention and treatment of HBV (Hepatitis B virus) and HCV (Hepatitis C virus) infections and to the rising incidence of the metabolic syndrome, of which non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a manifestation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061422DOI Listing

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Global Prevalence of HBsAg and HIV and HCV Antibodies among People Who Inject Drugs and Female Sex Workers.

Pathogens 2020 May 31;9(6). Epub 2020 May 31.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj 6617713446, Iran.

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and their co-infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) and female sex workers (FSWs). Data sources were searched from January 2008 to October 2018 in different databases. Data were analyzed in Stata 16 software using the Metaprop command. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060432DOI Listing

Hepatitis B Virus DNA is a Substrate for the cGAS/STING Pathway but is not Sensed in Infected Hepatocytes.

Viruses 2020 May 29;12(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Hepatitis B virus HBV) chronic infection is a critical risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. The innate immune response to HBV infection is a matter of debate. In particular, viral escape mechanisms are poorly understood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060592DOI Listing

In vitro transcribed MRNA for expression of designer nucleases: advantages as a novel therapeutic for the management of chronic HBV infection.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Wits/SAMRC Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Electronic address:

Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a significant worldwide medical problem. While diseases caused by HIV infection, tuberculosis and malaria are on the decline, new cases of chronic hepatitis B are on the rise. Because often fatal complications of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are associated with chronic hepatitis B, the need for a cure is as urgent as ever. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2020.05.010DOI Listing

A pharmacokinetic study to guide dosing of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate during different modalities of renal replacement therapy.

Clin Biochem 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Gastroenterology and hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, Belgium.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2020.05.015DOI Listing

(Iso)Quinoline-Artemisinin Hybrids via Click Chemistry: Highly Potent Agents against Viruses.

Chemistry 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Institut für Organische Chemie, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Department Chemie und Pharmazie, Henkestrasse 42, 91054, Erlangen, GERMANY.

Viral infections cause life-threatening diseases in millions of people worldwide every year and there is urgent need for new effective antiviral drugs. Hybridization of two chemically diverse compounds into a new bioactive effector product is a successful concept to improve the hybrid drug's properties compared to its parent compounds. In this study, (iso)quinoline-artemisinin hybrids, obtained via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) or organocatalyzed click reactions (in organic solvents or in the presence of water), were analyzed in vitro for the first time for their inhibitory activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), as compared with their parent compounds and the reference drug ganciclovir. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202001803DOI Listing

Care Quality and Outcomes among U.S. Veterans with Chronic Hepatitis B in the Hepatitis C Direct Acting Antiviral Era.

J Viral Hepat 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Gastroenterology Section, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Adherence to guideline-recommended hepatitis B virus (HBV) care is suboptimal. We hypothesized that national hepatitis C eradication efforts during the era from 2015-2017 would improve the quality of care for cHBV given increased recognition and specialty referrals for liver disease. The study described herein is a retrospective cohort study of veterans with at least one positive HBsAg (HBsAg+) result from January 1, 2003 to December 31st, 2017 using the VA Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) analyzed by era (2003-2004, 2005-2009, 2010-2014, 2015-2017). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13340DOI Listing

Nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (NRPTPs) gene family associates with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese hepatitis B virus-related subjects.

Mol Carcinog 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (NRPTPs) are reported to be associated with several human cancers, but their roles in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Here, we integrated bioinformatics tools, population association analyses, and biological assays to systematically screen for potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 17 NRPTPs genes and evaluate the effects of candidate SNPs on the risk of HCC or persistent HBV infection. A total of 790 HBV-related HCC cases and 1454 cancer-free controls were enrolled. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.23228DOI Listing

Proportion and Characterization of Co-infections of HIV and Hepatitis C or Hepatitis B among People with HIV in Alabama, 2007-2016.

South Med J 2020 Jun;113(6):298-304

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, and the Alabama Department of Public Health, Montgomery.

Objectives: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of other infections, including viral hepatitis, which can complicate the treatment and progression of the disease. We sought to characterize Alabama cases of HIV co-infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus.

Methods: Using surveillance data, we defined co-infection as a person identified as having hepatitis C or hepatitis B and HIV during 2007-2016. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000001104DOI Listing

A novel vaccine candidate based on chimeric virus-like particle displaying multiple conserved epitope peptides induced neutralizing antibodies against EBV infection.

Theranostics 2020 27;10(13):5704-5718. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Department of Experimental Research, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China.

: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative pathogen for infectious mononucleosis and many kinds of malignancies including several lymphomas such as Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma and NK/T cell lymphoma as well as carcinomas such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBV-GC). However, to date no available prophylactic vaccine was launched to the market for clinical use. : To develop a novel vaccine candidate to prevent EBV infection and diseases, we designed chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) based on the hepatitis B core antigen (HBc149). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.42494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255000PMC

Prevalence of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States.

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, New York University Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection represents a major global health problem, affecting an estimated 257-291 million persons worldwide and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality because of clinical complications, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite existing resources for vaccination, screening, and treatment, the burden of chronic HBV remains significant within the United States (US). Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) have articulated formal hepatitis elimination plans, although an updated assessment of the epidemiology and prevalence of chronic HBV is needed to inform these initiatives. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000651DOI Listing

Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Clin Med 2020 May 28;9(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan.

It is unclear whether the link between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is mediated by common risk factors. We aimed to elucidate the association between NAFLD and CKD using propensity score (PS)-matched analysis. We assessed 3725 Japanese individuals, excluding those with hepatitis B or C infection and men and women who consumed >30 and >20 g/day of alcohol, respectively. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061635DOI Listing

Oxidative Stress Management in Chronic Liver Diseases and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Nutrients 2020 May 28;12(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

Chronic viral hepatitis B and C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been widely acknowledged to be the leading causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As anti-viral treatment progresses, the impact of NAFLD is increasing. NAFLD can coexist with chronic viral hepatitis and exacerbate its progression. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12061576DOI Listing

Efficacy of telbivudine and entecavir against virus reactivation in HBeAg-patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(22):e20330

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei City.

The renal protective effect of telbivudine (LdT) was verified by a previous meta-analysis. It was left unclear, however if this effect offsets the associated risk of virological breakthrough in hepatitis B e-antigen-negative (HBeAg-) patients receiving chemotherapy (C/T).Records of 260 HBeAg-, non-cirrhotic cancer patients undergoing systemic C/T with prophylactic LdT or entecavir (ETV) were retrospectively investigated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020330DOI Listing

Immunostaining of galactose-deficient IgA1 by KM55 is not specific for immunoglobulin A nephropathy.

Clin Immunol 2020 May 29:108483. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Hunan Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Blood Purification, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN nephropathy, IgAN) is named for the renal pathological features of IgA-dominant immunoglobulin deposition. IgA deposits, however, may also occur in other diseases, from liver disease and inflammation to chronic infections and tumors. Now increasing studies have suggested that galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108483DOI Listing

Beyond HIV infection: neglected and varied impacts of CCR5 and CCR5Δ32 on viral diseases.

Virus Res 2020 May 29:198040. Epub 2020 May 29.

Laboratório de Imunobiologia e Imunogenética, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Núcleo de Bioinformática do Laboratório de Imunobiologia e Imunogenética, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

The interactions between chemokine receptors and their ligands may affect susceptibility to infectious diseases as well as their clinical manifestations. These interactions mediate both the traffic of inflammatory cells and virus-associated immune responses. In the context of viral infections, the human C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) receives great attention from the scientific community due to its role as an HIV-1 co-receptor. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260533PMC

Xiaoyaosan decoction alleviated rat liver fibrosis via the TGFβ/Smad and Akt/FoxO3 signaling pathways based on network pharmacology and transcriptomic analysis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 May 29:113021. Epub 2020 May 29.

Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine Complexity System, Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Medicine Research, University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Liver fibrosis is an outcome of many chronic liver diseases and often results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and even hepatocarcinoma. Xiaoyaosan decoction (XYS) as a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is used to liver fibrosis in clinical practice while its mechanism is unclear.

Aim Of The Study: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrosis effect of XYS and to explore the molecular mechanisms by combining network pharmacology and transcriptomic technologies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113021DOI Listing

Host-Viral Infection Maps Reveal Signatures of Severe COVID-19 Patients.

Cell 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Electronic address:

Viruses are a constant threat to global health as highlighted by the current COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, lack of data underlying how the human host interacts with viruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 virus, limits effective therapeutic intervention. We introduce Viral-Track, a computational method that globally scans unmapped single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data for the presence of viral RNA, enabling transcriptional cell sorting of infected versus bystander cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205692PMC

Hepatitis B virus infection and the risk of cancer among the Chinese population.

Int J Cancer 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Infectious Disease, Jiangsu Province Hospital and Nanjing Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing, China.

The relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and non-hepatocellular cancers remains inconclusive. This large case-control study aimed to assess the associations between HBV infection status and multiple cancers. Cases (N = 50 392) and controls (N = 11 361) were consecutively recruited from 2008 to 2016 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33130DOI Listing

Expanding Antiviral Prophylaxis During Pregnancy to Prevent Perinatal Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Cost-effectiveness Study.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 May 21;7(5):ofaa137. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Medical Decision and Economic Group, Department of Pharmacy, Ren Ji Hospital, South Campus, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) cannot be completely prevented by the administration of active-passive immunoprophylaxis in pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels <10 copies/mL. This study will assess the economic outcomes of expanding antiviral prophylaxis in pregnant women with HBV DNA levels <10 copies/mL.

Methods: A decision model was adopted to measure the economic outcomes of expanded antiviral prophylaxis at different cutoff values of HBV DNA in HBsAg(+) pregnant women in the context of the United States and China. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246348PMC

Validation of Whole Blood Rapid Diagnosis Test for Hepatitis B.

Ann Glob Health 2020 May 21;86(1):53. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, NL.

We recently published a report validating point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for the diagnosis of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in serum. In the current report, we validated a whole-blood RDT for HBsAg in the form of a test-strip. The test was validated in 55 HBV positive individuals across all genotypes other than F, and in 20 HBV negative individuals in the Netherlands. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/aogh.2866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243833PMC

Hepatitis D infection: from initial discovery to current investigational therapies.

Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2019 Aug 23;7(4):231-245. Epub 2019 Jun 23.

Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Hepatitis D is the most severe form of viral hepatitis associated with a more rapid progression to cirrhosis and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality compared with hepatitis B mono-infection. Although once thought of as a disappearing disease, hepatitis D is now becoming recognized as a serious worldwide issue due to improvement in diagnostic testing and immigration from endemic countries. Despite these concerns, there is currently only one accepted medical therapy (pegylated-interferon-α) for the treatment of hepatitis D with less than desirable efficacy and significant side effects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gastro/goz023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691517PMC

Pathogenetic Mechanisms of T Cell Dysfunction in Chronic HBV Infection and Related Therapeutic Approaches.

Front Immunol 2020 12;11:849. Epub 2020 May 12.

Laboratory of Viral Immunopathology, Unit of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy.

A great effort of research has been devoted in the last few years to developing new anti-HBV therapies of finite duration that also provide effective sustained control of virus replication and antigen production. Among the potential therapeutic strategies, immune-modulation represents a promising option to cure HBV infection and the adaptive immune response is a rational target for novel therapeutic interventions, in consideration of the key role played by T cells in the control of virus infections. HBV-specific T cells are severely dysfunctional in chronic HBV infection as a result of several inhibitory mechanisms which are simultaneously active within the chronically inflamed liver. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235343PMC

Hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation: An old tale or a clear and present danger?

World J Gastroenterol 2020 May;26(18):2166-2176

Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit, University of Tor Vergata, Rome 00133, Italy.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) has been described more than 50 years ago. Similarly, to other clinical conditions, in which impairment of host immune defense favors viral replication, early reports described in details recurrence and reactivation of HBV in liver transplant recipients. The evidence of a possible, severe, clinical evolution of HBV reappearance in a significant percentage of these patients, allowed to consider, for some years, HBV positivity a contraindication for LT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i18.2166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235198PMC

HIV Co-Infection with Hepatitis B and C and Liver Function in Children and Adolescents on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Tertiary Health Institution in Abuja.

West Afr J Med 2020 Jul-Aug;37(3):260-267

Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Abuja/University of Abuja Teaching Hospital,Gwagwalada Abuja.

Background: HIV has direct and indirect effects on the liver, just as hepatitis B and C viral infections are both hepatotropic viruses. Co-infection is an emerging clinical problem among HIV infected individuals, therefore its prevalence and impact on hepatic functions in children requires evaluation.

Methods: A cross sectional hospital-based study was conducted among HIV infected children and adolescents aged 2 months to 18 years on antiretroviral therapy at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital from October 2017 to March 2018. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

HBV-specific CD8 T cells present higher TNFα expression but lower cytotoxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Clin Exp Immunol 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Infection Control Center, Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi, Shandong, China.

TNFα is largely regarded as a proinflammatory cytokine, but several recent researches demonstrated that TNFα could possess immunoregulatory roles with potential to suppress antitumor immunity. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and HBV-specific CD8 T cells could exert antitumor roles in HCC patients. Here, we found that HBV-specific CD8 T cells, both in the peripheral blood and in the tumor microenvironment, were more enriched with TNFα-expressing cells than IFNγ-expressing cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13470DOI Listing

Prediagnostic serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and primary liver cancer: A case-control study nested within two prospective cohorts.

Environ Res 2020 May 20;187:109690. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in electrical equipment and a range of construction materials. Although banned in the United States and most of Europe in the 1970s, they are highly persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate. Whether PCBs are associated with liver cancer risk at general population levels is unknown. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109690DOI Listing

Clinical characteristics of chronic hepatitis B cured by peginterferon in combination with nucleotide analogs.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Hepatology and Cancer Biotherapy Ward, Beijing You-An Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cured by antiviral therapy.

Methods: Forty-two patients with CHB were enrolled. All patients had been treated with peginterferon (Peg-IFN) in combination with nucleoside analogue (NA) therapy for variable amounts of time, and all had been successfully cured of the disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.041DOI Listing

Cytosolic delivery of HBsAg and enhanced cellular immunity by pH-responsive liposome.

J Control Release 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China; Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, Nanjing 211816, PR China. Electronic address:

It remains a major challenge to prime the cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) response for the treatment of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Inspired by an important natural biological behavior, membrane fusion, we constructed a pH-responsive nanocarrier (HBsAg&CpG@Lip) with a membrane fusion capacity for HBsAg intracellular delivery and subsequent process of CTLs. In the in vitro experiments, HBsAg&CpG@Lip greatly promoted the cellular uptake of HBsAg and the activation of BMDCs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.05.042DOI Listing

Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and immunity to measles, rubella, tetanus and diphtheria among schoolchildren aged 6-7 years old in the Solomon Islands, 2016.

Vaccine 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Global Immunization Division, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States.

The Western Pacific Region (WPR) established a goal to decrease chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children to <1% and to achieve ≥95% hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) and ≥95% three-dose (HepB3) coverage by 2017. In 2016, we conducted a national serosurvey in the Solomon Islands among 6-7-year-old school children to assess progress towards the control goal and immunity to measles, rubella, tetanus and diphtheria. Eighty schools were selected systematically proportional to their 6-7-year-old population; all 6-7-year-olds were enrolled. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.029DOI Listing

Association Between Seroclearance of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Chronic HBV Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Senior Biostatistician, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the desired endpoint of treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, according to guidelines. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the strength of association between HBsAg seroclearance and long-term clinical outcomes.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for articles that assessed HBsAg status and reported the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver decompensation, liver transplantation, and/or all-cause mortality during follow up. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.05.041DOI Listing

Early and Late Recurrence of Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Oncologist 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: Survival after liver resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor because of a high incidence of recurrence. We sought to investigate risk factors, patterns, and long-term prognosis among patients with early and late recurrence after liver resection for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC.

Methods: Data of consecutive patients undergoing curative resection for HBV-associated HCC were analyzed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0944DOI Listing

Plasma perfusion combined with plasma exchange in chronic hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure patients.

Hepatol Int 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department and Institute of Infectious Disease, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095, Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei Province, China.

Background And Aims: Artificial liver support systems (ALSS) have been shown to significantly reduce mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, the characteristics of patients who would benefit most from ALSS treatment are poorly understood. This study aimed to delineate the indicators for ALSS and evaluate the effectiveness of plasma perfusion combined with plasma exchange (PP + PE) in patients with hepatitis B virus-related ACLF (HBV-ACLF). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-020-10053-xDOI Listing
May 2020
2.468 Impact Factor

The roles of programmed death ligand 1 in virus-associated cancers.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 May 26:104368. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a surface glycoprotein that induces T-cell anergy or apoptosis by binding to PD-1 on activated T and B cells. It is also known as a cluster of differentiation 274 (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1). Suppressing the adaptive arm of the immune system is the critical role of PD-L1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104368DOI Listing

MicroRNA-98-5p Inhibits Tumorigenesis of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Targeting NF-κB-Inducing Kinase.

Yonsei Med J 2020 Jun;61(6):460-470

Department of Infectious Diseases, Zaozhuang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Zaozhuang, China.

Purpose: MicroRNAs play key regulatory roles in the tumorigenesis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC). This study aimed to explore the regulatory effects of microRNA-98-5p (miR-98-5p) on the proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of HBV-HCC cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms involving nuclear factor-κB-inducing kinase (NIK).

Materials And Methods: The expressions of miR-98-5p and NIK in HBV-HCC tissues and cells, and the level of HBV DNA in HBV-HCC cells were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2020.61.6.460DOI Listing

Cross-sectional study of drug utilisation in a Chinese neonatal unit.

J Int Med Res 2020 May;48(5):300060520914197

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: This study aimed to describe drug utilisation in a large Chinese neonatal unit and to compare the findings with those from other countries.

Methods: Data were collected from electronic medical records. Prescription drugs were defined as the number of unique medication names for each patient. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520914197DOI Listing
May 2020
1.095 Impact Factor

The evolution and clinical impact of hepatitis B virus genome diversity.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Royal Melbourne Hospital, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

The global burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is enormous, with 257 million persons chronically infected, resulting in more than 880,000 deaths per year worldwide. HBV exists as nine different genotypes, which differ in disease progression, natural history and response to therapy. HBV is an ancient virus, with the latest reports greatly expanding the host range of the Hepadnaviridae (to include fish and reptiles) and casting new light on the origins and evolution of this viral family. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41575-020-0296-6DOI Listing