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    1 OF 535

    Albendazole Induced Recurrent Acute Toxic Hepatitis: A Case Report.
    Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2017 Apr-Jun;80(2):309-311
    Inonu University, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology, Malatya, Turkey.
    Introduction: Drug induced acute toxic hepatitis can be idiosyncratic. Albendazole, a widely used broad spectrum antiparasitic drug is generally accepted as a safe drug. It may cause asymptomatic transient liver enzyme abnormalities but acute toxic hepatitis is very rare. Read More

    Frequency and Factors Associated with Adult Immunization in Patients Visiting Family Medicine Clinics at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Karachi.
    Cureus 2018 Jan 17;10(1):e2083. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Family Medicine, The Aga Khan University.
    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with adult immunization in patients visiting family medicine clinics at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2014 to March 2015 in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants more than 18 years were invited to participate in the study. Read More

    Evaluation of candidate genes associated with hepatitis A and E virus infection in Chinese Han population.
    Virol J 2018 Mar 20;15(1):47. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Disease, Medical College of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, 215123, China.
    Background: Recent GWAS-associated studies reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1, TGFβ1, XRCC1 genes were associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and variants of APOA4 and APOE genes were associated with and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in US population. However, the associations of these loci with HAV or HEV infection in Chinese Han population remain unclear.

    Methods: A total of 3082 Chinese Han persons were included in this study. Read More

    Clinical features of acute human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan: A multicenter study.
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:
    Background/purpose: Acute HIV infection is characterized by a high concentration of HIV RNA in the plasma and rapid depletion of the CD4 cell count. This multicenter, retrospective observational study aimed to characterize the manifestations of acuteHIV infection in Taiwan.

    Methods: Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2016, all patients aged 20 years or greater who presented with acute HIV infection were included. Read More

    A community clinic's response to a hepatitis A outbreak.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Family Health Centers of San Diego, San Diego, CA. Electronic address:
    The current hepatitis A outbreak in San Diego County, largely among homeless individuals and illicit drug users, prompted a community clinic to vaccinate at-risk patients. The clinic marshaled the efforts of multiple departments to educate and vaccinate 7,521 adults in 7 months. Strong support from executive leaders, coordinated efforts from various departments, and leveraged relationships with other community organizations and public health officials are key factors of a strong response to a public health concern. Read More

    CD4Foxp3CD25Tregs characterize liver tissue specimens of patients suffering from drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis: A clinical-pathological study.
    Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Hepatic-Biliary-Pancreatic Medicine, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China . Electronic address:
    Background: The diagnosis of drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DIAIH) and its differentiation from idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is challenging. This study aimed to differentiate DIAIH from AIH by comparing the biochemical changes, histological features, and frequencies of CD4Foxp3CD25regulatory T cells (Tregs) in liver tissues or peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Methods: A total of 15 DIAIH patients and 24 AIH patients who underwent liver biopsies at initial presentation were enrolled in this study. Read More

    Outcomes, Approaches, and Challenges to Developing and Passing a Countywide Mandatory Vaccination Policy: St. Louis County's Experience with Hepatitis A Vaccine for Food Service Personnel.
    AIMS Public Health 2016 15;3(1):116-130. Epub 2016 Mar 15.
    Department of Health Management and Policy, Saint Louis University, College for Public Health & Social Justice, USA.
    In the early 1990s, St. Louis County had multiple foodservice worker-related hepatitis A outbreaks uncontrolled by standard outbreak interventions. Restaurant interest groups and the general public applied political pressure to local public health officials for more stringent interventions, including a mandatory vaccination policy. Read More

    The Role of the WI-38 Cell Strain in Saving Lives and Reducing Morbidity.
    AIMS Public Health 2017 2;4(2):127-138. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    University of California at San Francisco, USA.
    The modern success story of vaccinations involves a historical chain of events that transformed the discovery that vaccines worked, to administering them to the population. We estimate the number of lives saved and morbidity reduction associated with the discovery of the first human cell strain used for the production of licensed human virus vaccines, known as WI-38. The diseases studied include poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (chicken pox), herpes zoster, adenovirus, rabies and Hepatitis A. Read More

    A case of acute hepatitis A infection in an HIV-positive patient despite complete hepatitis A vaccination.
    Infection 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Division of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Rostock Medical School, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057, Rostock, Germany.
    Background: Vaccination against hepatitis A virus infection is recommended for men who have sex with men and other risk groups. The protection offered by the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is comparable to that offered by the monovalent hepatitis A vaccine.

    Case: A 38-year-old HIV-positive patient presented with right upper abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Read More

    [Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;21:36].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 19;28:159. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Service d'Anesthésie-Réanimation du CHU Hédi Chaker de Sfax, Tunisie.
    Axillary block is an easy and recommended technique in children. Its use in children with acute hepatitis A is not risk free especially when associated with sedation using remifentanil and propofol. Similarly, the presence of a single hydatid cyst allows general anesthesia with mono-pulmonary ventilation. Read More

    Identification of the cellular components involved in de novo immune hepatitis: a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis.
    J Transl Med 2018 Mar 13;16(1):62. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Immunology, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/University of Seville, Avda. Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Seville, Spain.
    Background: Diagnosis of de novo immune hepatitis (dnIH) after liver transplantation relies on biopsy findings, with an abundance of plasma cells (PCs) in the inflammatory infiltrates a hallmark of the disease. Very little is known about what other types of immune cells exist in the infiltrates mainly located in the portal areas of the liver tissue.

    Methods: We analyzed the composition of T cells, B cells, PCs, and macrophages in the liver biopsies of 12 patients with dnIH, 9 of them obtained at the time of diagnosis. Read More

    Exposure to hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and Borrelia spp. infections in forest rangers from a single forest district in western Poland.
    Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hepatology and Acquired Immunodeficiencies, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.
    Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging problem in developed countries. At least 2 zoonotic genotypes of the virus (HEV-3 and HEV-4) infect human beings. There are some data suggesting that forest rangers (FRs) can be at a higher risk of contact with HEV. Read More

    Classification and Genomic Diversity of Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom.
    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are significant human pathogens and are responsible for a substantial proportion of cases of severe acute hepatitis worldwide. Genetically, both viruses are heterogeneous and are classified into several genotypes that differ in their geographical distribution and risk group association. There is, however, little evidence that variants of HAV or HEV differ antigenically or in their propensity to cause severe disease. Read More

    Hepatitis A Virus Codon Usage: Implications for Translation Kinetics and Capsid Folding.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Enteric Virus Laboratory, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, School of Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Codon usage bias is universal to all genomes. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) codon usage is highly biased and deoptimized with respect to its host. Accordingly, HAV is unable to induce cellular translational shutoff and its internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is inefficient. Read More

    Post stem cell transplantation revaccination: A survey of the current practices in India.
    Vaccine 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Electronic address:
    Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are more susceptible to infections from vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) than the general population. Indian stem cell transplant registry (ISCTR) post-BMT vaccination guidelines were formulated in 2015. The objective of the survey was to assess the compliance to these guidelines among transplant physicians in India. Read More

    Outbreak of acute hepatitis A in the health area served by the Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria (HUVV): a change in epidemiology.
    Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    UGC Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Victoria.
    In 2016, an outbreak of hepatitis A was identified in the Malaga province among patients with specific epidemiological characteristics, which were predominantly males. This is a report of 51 subjects with acute hepatitis A and a mean age of 35.7 years, 90% were male and 55% of cases were men who had had sex with other men within the last two months. Read More

    Hepatitis A outbreak in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Brescia (Northern Italy), July 2016-July 2017.
    Infez Med 2018 Mar;26(1):46-51
    University Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia and Spedali Civili General Hospital, Brescia, Italy.
    Since June 2016, an outbreak of hepatitis A has been reported in Europe. Here we report the HAV outbreak in Brescia (Northern Italy) from July 2016 to July 2017. We actively recorded all HAV cases defined by detection of HAV IgM antibodies in serum. Read More

    Prevalence of HAV Ab, HEV (IgG), HSV2 IgG, and Syphilis Among Sheltered Homeless Adults in Tehran, 2012.
    Int J Health Policy Manag 2017 Jul 8;7(3):225-230. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: This study investigated the prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) and syphilis among homeless in the city of Tehran.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 596 homeless were recruited in Tehran. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to study demographic data. Read More

    Association of Toll-like receptor 4 with hepatitis A virus infection in Assam.
    Acta Virol 2018 ;62(1):58-62
    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) which causes liver disease is recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through the viral nucleic acid, initiating the host defense response. The study aims to analyze the role of TLR4 rs11536889 polymorphism in the pathogenesis of hepatitis A cases from Assam. There was significant correlation between TLR4 SNP G/C (rs11536889) and between acute viral hepatitis (AVH) A cases and controls. Read More

    Public health impact and cost effectiveness of routine childhood vaccination for hepatitis a in Jordan: a dynamic model approach.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 03 7;18(1):119. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.
    Background: As the socioeconomic conditions in Jordan have improved over recent decades the disease and economic burden of Hepatitis A has increased. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential health and economic impact of a two-dose hepatitis A vaccine program covering one-year old children in Jordan.

    Methods: We adapted an age-structured population model of hepatitis A transmission dynamics to project the epidemiologic and economic impact of vaccinating one-year old children for 50 years in Jordan. Read More

    Histologic Characterization of Kratom Use-Associated Liver Injury.
    Gastroenterology Res 2018 Feb 23;11(1):79-82. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    Kratom is an herbal product derived from the leaves of Southeast Asiantrees. It has traditionally been used by indigenous people to relieve fatigue and manage pain, diarrhea, or opioid withdrawal. The use of kratom has become more commonplace in the United States for similar purposes. Read More

    Hepatitis A outbreak since November 2016 affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chile connected to the current outbreak in MSM in Europe, situation up to October 2017.
    Euro Surveill 2018 Mar;23(9)
    Departamento de Gastroenterología. Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    A hepatitis A outbreak has occurred in Chile since November 2016. Men are predominantly affected, with a large proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM). We describe 12 consecutive unrelated confirmed cases who presented at our healthcare institution in Santiago Metropolitan Area. Read More

    Pathology and images of radiation-induced hepatitis: a review article.
    Jpn J Radiol 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8641, Japan.
    Recent advances in highly conformal radiotherapies greatly extend the indications for radiotherapy of liver tumors. However, because of poor tolerance to hepatic radiation, estimation of the intensity of irradiation of the liver is important, particularly for a cirrhotic liver. Knowledge of radiation-induced hepatitis is important for understanding how to optimize hepatic radiation therapy. Read More

    The genetic diversity of hepatitis A genotype I in Bulgaria.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Jan;97(3):e9632
    Unit of Clinical Laboratory Science, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome.
    The purpose of this study was to analyze sequences of hepatitis A virus (HAV) Ia and Ib genotypes from Bulgarian patients to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HAV genotype I during the years 2012 to 2014. Around 105 serum samples were collected by the Department of Virology of the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Bulgaria. The sequenced region encompassed the VP1/2A region of HAV genome. Read More

    Choledochal Cyst And Biliary Stone.
    J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2018 Jan-Mar;30(1):127-129
    Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh-Saudi Arabia.
    Choledochal cyst is not an uncommonly seen entity in children. Presentation may be varied and at different age groups. Abnormal pancreaticobiliary junction is usually a phenomenon in acquired type of choledochal cyst. Read More

    Using Routine Data Sources to Feed an Immunization Information System for High-Risk Patients-A Pilot Study.
    Front Public Health 2018 16;6:37. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.
    Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases among high-risk patients are a public health priority in high-income countries. Most national immunization programs have included vaccination recommendations for these population groups but they remain hard-to-reach and coverage data are poorly available. In a pilot study, we developed and tested an automated approach for identifying individuals with underlying medical conditions to feed an immunization information system (IIS). Read More

    Characteristics of health problems in returned overseas travelers at a tertiary teaching hospital in a suburban area in Japan.
    J Infect Chemother 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan.
    Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). Read More

    Globalization and the Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A Virus.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030.
    Increased economic interdependence, social integration, and other aspects of globalization are contributing to significant changes in hepatitis A epidemiology. Globally, the incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is decreasing, the age at midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) is increasing, and the proportion of symptomatic cases is increasing as the average age at infection increases. In low-income countries, HAV remains endemic but improved water and sanitation systems are reducing transmission rates among young children. Read More

    Are cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation protected against vaccine-preventable diseases?
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    AP-HP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service d'Hépato-gastroentérologie, Unité Médicale de Transplantation Hépatique, 75013 Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, INSERM, UMR_S 938/CDR Saint-Antoine & Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), F-75012 Paris, France.
    Cirrhotic patients are immunocompromised and have an increased risk of infection with higher morbidity and mortality. Few data are available regarding the protection and vaccination of patients awaiting liver transplantation. In our center, 222 patients were questioned about their history of previous diseases and vaccinations. Read More

    [Hepatitis A in Iceland].
    Laeknabladid 2018 Mars;104(3):127-131
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
    Introduction: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) epidemics occurred repeatedly in Iceland in the early 20th century, but since then few cases have been reported and no epidemics since 1952. The latest Icelandic studies on HAV from around 1990 showed low incidence of infection and de-- creasing prevalence of antibodies. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, clinical presentation and origin of HAV, abroad or in Iceland. Read More

    Transfusion transmission of hepatitis A virus with fecal shedding in a previously hepatitis A vaccinated recipient.
    J Infect Chemother 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    We describe a rare case of hepatitis A virus (HAV) replication in feces despite presence of hepatitis A antibodies in an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient after transfusion with HAV contaminated platelets. The patient has been vaccinated against HAV years before the AML diagnosis. Transient infection and reshedding should thus be considered in antibody-positive hematological patients. Read More

    Viral outbreaks linked to fresh produce consumption: a systematic review.
    J Appl Microbiol 2018 Apr;124(4):932-942
    Environmental Microbiology Unit, Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.
    Aims: Α systematic review to investigate fresh produce-borne viral outbreaks, to record the outbreak distribution worldwide and to analyse the implication of different types of fresh produce and viral types as well.

    Methods And Results: Four databases (PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Eurosurveillance Journal and Spingerlink electronic journal) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED-mail) were searched up to 2016. One hundred and fifty-two viral outbreaks linked to fresh produce consumption were identified. Read More

    Ethnic differences in infectious burden and the association with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 22;18(1):276. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ, J2-209, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: The burden of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol and hypertension, is unequally distributed across ethnic groups. Recent findings suggest an association of infectious burden (IB) and metabolic risk factors, but data from ethnic groups are scarce. Therefore, we investigated ethnic differences in IB and its association with metabolic risk factors. Read More

    Monitoring human enteric viruses in wastewater and relevance to infections encountered in the clinical setting: a one-year experiment in central France, 2014 to 2015.
    Euro Surveill 2018 Feb;23(7)
    CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre National de Référence Entérovirus et parechovirus - Laboratoire Associé, Laboratoire de Virologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    BackgroundHuman enteric viruses are resistant in the environment and transmitted via the faecal-oral route. Viral shedding in wastewater gives the opportunity to track emerging pathogens and study the epidemiology of enteric infectious diseases in the community.The aim of this study was to monitor the circulation of enteric viruses in the population of the Clermont-Ferrand area (France) by analysis of urban wastewaters. Read More

    Hepatitis A Virus Disinfection in Water by Solar Photo-Fenton Systems.
    Food Environ Virol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, CIBUS-Facultad de Biología, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of solar photo-Fenton systems for the inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in water. The effect of solar irradiance, dark- Fenton reaction and three different reactant concentrations (2.5/5, 5/10 and 10/20 mg/L of Fe/HO) on the photo-Fenton process were tested in glass bottle reactors (200 mL) during 6 h under natural sunlight. Read More

    Seropositive rate of the anti-hepatitis A immunoglobulin G antibody in maintenance hemodialysis subjects from two hospitals in Korea.
    Korean J Intern Med 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Background/aims: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a self-limiting infectious disease, but 1% of subjects develop fulminant hepatitis. The prevalence of the anti-HAV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in hemodialysis subjects in Korea remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the seropositive rate of anti-HAV antibody among hemodialysis subjects in two hospitals according to age group. Read More

    Immunity against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adult asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2016.
    Vaccine 2018 Mar 14;36(12):1664-1672. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Read More

    Long-term observation of acute-onset autoimmune hepatitis presenting clinically and radiologically as acute hepatitis.
    Hepatol Int 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.
    Background: There is yet no gold standard for the diagnosis of acute-onset autoimmune hepatitis (A-AIH), especially histologically acute AIH. As a result, long-term observation of A-AIH has been difficult and the nature is not well known. We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological features of A-AIH over a long prospective follow-up period. Read More

    Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among adolescents (13-17 years) in the United States, 2008-2016.
    Vaccine 2018 Mar 12;36(12):1650-1659. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States.
    Background: The hepatitis A (HepA) vaccine was recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) incrementally from 1996 to 1999. In 2006, HepA vaccine was recommended (1) universally for children aged 12-23 months, (2) for persons who are at increased risk for infection, or (3) for any person wishing to obtain immunity. Catch-up vaccination can be considered. Read More

    HEV and HAV seroprevalence in men that have sex with men (MSM): an update from Milan, Italy.
    J Med Virol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Virology Unit, Fondazione Ca'Granda, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, IT.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a feco-orally transmitted pathogen and one of the most common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Recent studies in developed countries suggested that a direct human-to-human contact such as for sexually transmitted diseases may play a significant role in the HEV spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HEV and HAV in a group of MSM, including subjects HIV and Treponema infected, in Milan, Italy. Read More

    Seropositivity of Hepatitis A in Children Aged 7-14 Years in Diyarbakir Province Center.
    Med Sci Monit 2018 Feb 15;24:936-943. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyrabkır, Turkey.
    BACKGROUND Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a common morbidity in society, and mortality is more common in older ages. It is important to identify the prevalence in the population, the development of primary protection methods, and vaccination policies. This study aimed to identify anti-HAV seropositivity in children in 3 different schools in Diyarbakır, Turkey, to evaluate the risk factors influencing prevalence, and thus to develop strategies to prevent infection. Read More

    Natural History, Clinical Manifestations, and Pathogenesis of Hepatitis A.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seongnam, Gyeonggido 13620, Republic of Korea.
    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted by the fecal-oral route and is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis. The clinical manifestations of HAV infection range from asymptomatic infection to acute liver failure (ALF), but do not include progression to chronic hepatitis. Risk factors for severe acute hepatitis A are older age (>40 years) and preexisting liver disease. Read More

    HAVCR1 (CD365) and its mouse ortholog are functional hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptors that mediate HAV infection.
    J Virol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
    The Hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), classified as CD365, was initially discovered as a HAV cellular receptor using an expression cloning strategy. Due to the lack of HAV receptor-negative replication-competent cells, it was not possible to fully prove that HAVCR1 was a functional HAV receptor. However, biochemistry, classical virology, and epidemiology studies further supported the functional role of HAVCR1 as a HAV receptor. Read More

    Duck hepatitis A virus structural proteins expressed in insect cells self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in ducklings.
    Vet Microbiol 2018 Feb 26;215:23-28. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Jiangsu Agri-animal Husbandry Vocational College, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High-Tech Research and Development of Veterinary Biopharmaceuticals, Taizhou, 225300, China. Electronic address:
    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a non-enveloped ssRNA virus, can cause a highly contagious disease in young ducklings. The three capsid proteins of VP0, VP1 and VP3 are translated within a single large open reading frame (ORF) and hydrolyzed by protease 3CD. However, little is known on whether the recombinant viral structural proteins (VPs) expressed in insect cells could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) and whether these VLPs could induce protective immunity in young ducklings. Read More

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