28,096 results match your criteria Hepatitis A


The impact of vaccination efforts on the spatiotemporal patterns of the hepatitis A outbreak in Michigan, 2016-18.

Epidemiology 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Background: The U.S. is currently experiencing the largest hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak since the introduction of a vaccine in 1996. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001218DOI Listing

The Practice Guideline for Vaccinating Korean Patients with Autoimmune Inflammatory Rheumatic Disease.

Infect Chemother 2020 Jun;52(2):252-280

Department of Rheumatology, Chonnam National University Medical School & Hospital, Gwangju, Korea.

To develop a clinical practice guideline for vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIIRD), the Korean College of Rheumatology and the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases developed a clinical practice guideline according to the clinical practice guideline development manual. Since vaccination is unlikely to cause AIIRD or worsen disease activities, required vaccinations are recommended. Once patients are diagnosed with AIIRD, treatment strategies should be established and, at the same time, monitor their vaccination history. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2020.52.2.252DOI Listing

Use of Molecular Epidemiology to Inform Response to a Hepatitis A Outbreak - Los Angeles County, California, October 2018-April 2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jul 3;69(26):820-824. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Los Angeles County comprises 4,058 square miles and is home to approximately 10 million residents (1), an estimated 59,000 (0.6%) of whom experience homelessness on a given night (2). In late 2018, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH) was notified of a case of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a person experiencing homelessness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6926a3DOI Listing

Prevention of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2020.

MMWR Recomm Rep 2020 Jul 3;69(5):1-38. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

HEPATITIS A IS A VACCINE-PREVENTABLE, COMMUNICABLE DISEASE OF THE LIVER CAUSED BY THE HEPATITIS A VIRUS (HAV). THE INFECTION IS TRANSMITTED VIA THE FECAL-ORAL ROUTE, USUALLY FROM DIRECT PERSON-TO-PERSON CONTACT OR CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED FOOD OR WATER. HEPATITIS A IS AN ACUTE, SELF-LIMITED DISEASE THAT DOES NOT RESULT IN CHRONIC INFECTION. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6905a1DOI Listing

The Potential of Plant-made Vaccines to Fight Picornavirus.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Laboratorio de Biofarmacéuticos recombinantes, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico; Sección de Biotecnología, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias de la Salud y Biomedicina, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí , San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

Introduction: Several are pathogens that generate serious problems for human and animal health worldwide. Vaccination is an attractive approach to fight against picornaviruses. In this regard, the development of low-cost vaccines is a priority to ensure coverage; especially in developing and low-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2020.1791090DOI Listing

Sustained Remission After Treatment Withdrawal in Autoimmune Hepatitis: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Reims University Hospital, 51092, Reims, France.

Background: In patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), relapse rates between 25 and 100% after treatment withdrawal have been reported. The optimal strategy for immunosuppressive treatment withdrawal is controversial.

Aim: To identify the predictive factors of histological remission and to assess the relapse rate after treatment withdrawal in AIH patients with prolonged biochemical response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06444-7DOI Listing

Pleural Effusion Associated with Anicteric Hepatitis A Virus Infection - Unusual Manifestation of a Common Disease: A Case Report.

Pediatric Health Med Ther 2020 16;11:189-192. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia.

Background: Hepatitis A infection is common in children and often presents with mild hepatic disease. The clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus are usually related to liver damage but sometimes extrahepatic manifestations may occur.

Case Presentation: We present a case of four-year- and eight-month-old male child with anicteric hepatitis A infection associated with a pleural effusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S251393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305842PMC

Evidence of possible vertical transmission of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in ducks.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian, 271018, China.

Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) causes a highly contagious and acute disease in ducklings younger than 3 weeks of age and spreads rapidly by horizontal transmission to all susceptible ducklings in the flock. To date, there is no evidence of vertical transmission of DHAV-1. In a previous study, we identified a novel DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) isolate that could infect adult ducks and induce laying drop. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13708DOI Listing

Sofosbuvir Thio-analogues: Synthesis and Antiviral Evaluation of the First Novel Pyridine- and Pyrimidine-Based Thioglycoside Phosphoramidates.

ACS Omega 2020 Jun 9;5(24):14645-14655. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Cairo 11795, Egypt.

The synthesis and antiviral screening of the first reported series of pyridine- and pyrimidine-based thioglycoside phosphoramidates are herein reported. They were prepared through two synthetic steps: The first step is via coupling of mercapto-derivatized heterocyclic bases with the appropriate α-bromo per-acetylated sugars. The second one is the hydrolysis of the acetate esters under basic conditions that were consequently conjugated with the phosphoramidating reagent to afford the desired thioglycoside protides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c01364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315579PMC

Contamination of Clams with Human Norovirus and a Novel Hepatitis A Virus in Cameroon.

Food Environ Virol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Laboratoire de Microbiologie, LSEM/SG2M, IFREMER, 44300, Nantes, France.

Shellfish constitute an important protein source but may be contaminated by viruses from various origins. A study performed on clams collected in Cameroon showed a high prevalence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus. After sequencing, the hepatitis A virus showed similarities with the genotype V simian strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09432-2DOI Listing

Vaccination rates for Syrian population under temporary protection in Turkey.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2020 Jun;28(2):130-134

Directorate General of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to gather information on demographic and health indicators, primarily vaccination status, of Syrians under temporary protection in five provinces of Turkey and to develop infrastructure for vaccination planning.

Methods: The population under study consists of 89,986 Syrian children, 0-4 years of age, residing in Ankara, Mersin, Gaziantep, Izmir, and Bursa. Initially, we planned to evaluate 2,339 children, although a total of 2,827 children were evaluated by the end of the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a5543DOI Listing
June 2020
0.798 Impact Factor

Editorial: gut microbiota profile in patients with autoimmune hepatitis-a clue for adjunctive probiotic therapy?

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jul;52(2):392-394

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15795DOI Listing
July 2020
5.727 Impact Factor

Editorial: gut microbiota profile in patients with autoimmune hepatitis-a clue for adjunctive probiotic therapy? Authors' reply.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jul;52(2):394-395

1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15819DOI Listing

Changing epidemiology of Hepatitis A in China: evidence from three national serological surveys and the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System.

Hepatology 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

China has conducted surveillance for hepatitis A since 1990, and was highly-to-intermediately endemic in 1992 when a Chinese hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) was licensed and introduced as a family-pay vaccine. In 2008, HepA was introduced into the Expanded Program on Immunization as a free childhood vaccine. Three nationally-representative surveys, conducted in 1992, 2006, and 2014, assessed hepatitis B serology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31429DOI Listing

A somatic coliphage threshold approach to improve the management of activated sludge wastewater treatment plant effluents in resource-limited regions.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Health Sciences Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA)), Universidad de Costa Rica, Montes de Oca, Costa Rica.

Effective wastewater management is crucial to ensure the safety of water reuse projects and effluent discharge into surface waters. Multiple studies have demonstrated that municipal wastewater treatment with conventional activated sludge processes is inefficient for the removal of the wide spectrum of viruses in sewage. In this study, a well-accepted statistical approach was used to investigate the relationship between viral indicators and human enteric viruses during wastewater treatment in a resource-limited region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00616-20DOI Listing

Cocaine-induced acute hepatitis: A diagnosis not to forget.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Poitiers University Hospital, 2, rue de la Milétrie, 86021 Poitiers, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Factors associated with hepatitis A virus infection among HIV-positive patients before and after implementation of a hepatitis A virus vaccination program at a medical centre in central Taiwan.

Sex Health 2020 Jun;17(3):239-246

Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Road, Taichung 40201, Taiwan; and Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Road, Taichung 40201, Taiwan; and Corresponding author. Email:

Background Taiwan government has promoted the administration of a hepatitis A vaccine at public expense for high-risk groups as a preventive measure after the outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections in 2015. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of such vaccination policy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Methods: From January 2016 to July 2017, we enrolled 658 HIV-positive male participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH19029DOI Listing

Estimated Additional Number of Adults in HIV Care Who have an Indication for Hepatitis A Vaccination Following 2020 US Guideline Update.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002426DOI Listing

Public Health Role of Academic Medical Center in Community Outbreak of Hepatitis A, San Diego County, California, USA, 2016-2018.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Jul;26(7):1374-1381

During 2016-2018, San Diego County, California, USA, experienced one of the largest hepatitis A outbreaks in the United States in 2 decades. In close partnership with local healthcare systems, San Diego County Public Health led a public health response to the outbreak that focused on a 3-pronged strategy to vaccinate, sanitize, and educate. Healthcare systems administered nearly half of the vaccinations delivered in San Diego County. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.191352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323565PMC

First evidence for continuous circulation of hepatitis A virus subgenotype IIA in Central Africa.

J Viral Hepat 2020 Jun 21. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Although a high seroprevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been estimated in Central Africa, the current status of both HAV infections and seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies remains unclear due to a paucity of surveillance data available. We conducted a serological survey during 2015-2017 in Gabon, Central Africa, and confirmed a high seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in all age groups. To identify the currently circulating HAV strains and to reveal the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of the virus, we conducted molecular surveillance in a total of 1007 patients presenting febrile illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13348DOI Listing

Vaccination coverage rates of military personnel worldwide: a systematic review of the literature.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Occupational Medicine, Otto-Von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

Objectives: Due to the professionally specific risk of infection in the armed forces, recommendations for vaccination are usually adapted for soldiers and are subject to special regulations. Little data is available on scientifically measured vaccination coverage of soldiers.

Methods: A systematic literature research was carried out in the PubMed database using the search terms "army" or "military" or "Bundeswehr" and "vaccination" or "vaccine". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-020-01559-wDOI Listing

Hepatitis A takes hold in the community.

Authors:

Nursing 2020 Jul;50(7):28-29

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NURSE.0000682092.83443.77DOI Listing

Hepatitis A takes hold in the community.

Authors:
Elizabeth Heavey

Nursing 2020 Jul;50(7):24-28

Elizabeth Heavey is graduate program director and professor of nursing at The College at Brockport, State University of New York in Brockport, N.Y., and a member of the Nursing2020 editorial board.

In 2016, large outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection began to occur among high-risk individuals, including those with a history of drug use and those experiencing homelessness. This article focusses on HAV infection among high-risk individuals in the community, including those experiencing homelessness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NURSE.0000668424.98515.8bDOI Listing

Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A, B, C, D and E virus infections in the general population of Peru: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(6):e0234273. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Peru.

Background: Viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, C, D and E) remains a public health problem in Peru, with a high disease burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of viral hepatitis at a national level, and none reported for over two decades. In this study, the prevalence rates of hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D (HDV) and E virus (HEV) infections in the Peruvian population were determined to provide updated baseline data that would help guide the development of strategies aimed at reducing the transmission of viral hepatitis in Peru. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234273PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295187PMC

Exosome mimicry by a HAVCR1-NPC1 pathway of endosomal fusion mediates hepatitis A virus infection.

Nat Microbiol 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Office of Blood Research and Review, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Cell-to-cell communication by exosomes controls normal and pathogenic processes. Viruses can spread in exosomes and thereby avoid immune recognition. While biogenesis, binding and uptake of exosomes are well characterized, delivery of exosome cargo into the cytoplasm is poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0740-yDOI Listing

Application of median lethal concentration (LC) of pathogenic microorganisms and their antigens in vaccine development.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Jun 15;13(1):289. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue, Nigeria.

Objective: Lack of ideal mathematical models to qualify and quantify both pathogenicity, and virulence is a dreadful setback in development of new antimicrobials and vaccines against resistance pathogenic microorganisms. Hence, the modified arithmetical formula of Reed and Muench has been integrated with other formulas and used to determine bacterial colony forming unit/viral concentration, virulence and immunogenicity.

Results: Microorganisms' antigens tested are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice and rat, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii in fish, New Castle Disease virus in chicken, Sheep Pox virus, Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus and Hepatitis A virus in vitro, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05126-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294769PMC

Immunogenicity of the hepatitis A vaccine 20 years after infant immunization.

Vaccine 2020 Jul 10;38(32):4940-4943. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK, United States; Liver Disease and Hepatitis Program, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, United States.

To determine the duration of immunity provided by the Hepatitis A vaccination (HepA), we evaluated a cohort of participants in Alaska 20 years after being immunized as infants. At recruitment, participants received two doses of inactivated HepA vaccine on one of three schedules. We conducted hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV) testing for participants at the 20-year time-point. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.069DOI Listing

Ongoing transmission of Entamoeba histolytica among newly diagnosed people living with HIV in Taiwan, 2009-2018.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 12;14(6):e0008400. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Recent outbreaks of enterically transmitted infections, including acute hepatitis A and shigellosis, have raised the concerns of increasing Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Taiwan. This study investigated the prevalence of EHI, its temporal trends, and associated factors among newly diagnosed PLWH in Taiwan. Medical records of newly diagnosed PLWH at six medical centers in Taiwan between 2009 and 2018 were reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314233PMC

Identification and genome characterization of a novel picornavirus from ducks in China.

Arch Virol 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Poultry Diseases Diagnosis and Immunology, Jinan, 250023, Shandong, China.

A novel picornavirus, referred to as Duck/FC22/China/2017, was isolated from breeding ducks in China and genetically characterized by conducting metagenomics studies. The complete genome consists of a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA made up of 7448 nucleotides (nt) and follows the common picornavirus genome layout: 5' UTR-VP0-VP3-VP1-2A-2B-2C-3A-3B-3C-3D-3' UTR. A typical type-IV internal ribosomal entry site and a conserved 'barbell-like' structure were identified in the 5' UTR and 3' UTR, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04691-7DOI Listing

Whole Genome Sequencing of Hepatitis A Virus Using a PCR-Free Single-Molecule Nanopore Sequencing Approach.

Front Microbiol 2020 25;11:874. Epub 2020 May 25.

International Centre of Excellence for Aquatic Animal Health, Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Weymouth, Dorset, United Kingdom.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common causes of acute viral hepatitis in humans. Although HAV has a relatively small genome, there are several factors limiting whole genome sequencing such as PCR amplification artefacts and ambiguities in assembly. The recently developed Oxford Nanopore technologies (ONT) allows single-molecule sequencing of long-size fragments of DNA or RNA using PCR-free strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261825PMC

Factors associated with anti-hepatitis A virus immunoglobulin G seropositivity among Korean workers: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2020 Jun 7;10(6):e036727. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Objectives: Hepatitis A incidence in Korea has dramatically increased in recent years. Individuals in their twenties and thirties, who account for majority of the workforce in Korea, are particularly susceptible to infection owing to a low seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) immunoglobulin G (IgG). This study aimed to identify behavioural and occupational factors related to anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282336PMC

Liver transplant for alcoholic hepatitis: a current clinical overview.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Jun 8:1-10. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Gastroenterology Hepatopancreatology, and Digestive Oncology, C.U.B. Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre De Bruxelles , Brussels, Belgium.

Introduction: Current management of severe alcoholic hepatitis is based on corticosteroid therapy and abstinence from alcohol. As liver transplantation is lifesaving in alcoholic hepatitis patients at high risk of early death, refractory alcoholic hepatitis has become a new indication for liver transplantation in highly selected non-responders to corticosteroids.

Areas Covered: This review summarizes the conditions under which liver transplantation may be considered, the available data on liver transplantation for refractory alcoholic hepatitis and explores the ethical considerations surrounding the use of liver transplantation in these patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2020.1775579DOI Listing

Human Gene Sequences in SARS-CoV-2 and Other Viruses.

In Vivo 2020 Jun;34(3 Suppl):1633-1636

Severn Health Solutions, Severna Park, MD, U.S.A.

In a previous study, we identified a 117 base severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequence in the human genome with 94.6% identity. The sequence was in chromosome 1p within an intronic region of the netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.11954DOI Listing

New Jersey Healthcare Providers Can Help Address Hepatitis A Outbreak.

MD Advis Fall 2019;12(4):25-26

RN, BSN, MA.

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Development and evaluation of an indirect ELISA based on recombinant structural protein VP2 to detect antibodies against duck hepatitis A virus.

J Virol Methods 2020 May 30;282:113903. Epub 2020 May 30.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan 611130, PR China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan 611130, PR China; Avian Disease Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan 611130, PR China.

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) based on the VP2 protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3) was established in this study. The optimal dilutions of antigen, serum and goat anti-duck IgG conjugate were 1:1600 (2.23 μg/mL), 1:160 and 1:2000, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113903DOI Listing
May 2020
1.883 Impact Factor

Hepatitis A infections from food.

J Appl Microbiol 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Preservation and Food Safety Technologies, IATA-CSIC, Valencia, Spain.

Food contaminated by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is responsible of the 2-7% of all HAV outbreaks worldwide. This review provides a description of the HAV characteristics, its infectivity and epidemiological features. In addition, this review compiles existing original papers reporting HAV prevalence, viral titres in foodstuffs and the risk associated with food contamination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jam.14727DOI Listing

High expression of immune checkpoints is associated with the TIL load, mutation rate and patient survival in colorectal cancer.

Int J Oncol 2020 Jul 8;57(1):237-248. Epub 2020 May 8.

College of Medicine, Member of QU Health, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713 Doha, Qatar.

Adoptive cell therapy with the use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is a very promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, within the tumor microenvironment, co‑inhibitory immune checkpoints can inactivate TILs. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the TIL load, the mutation rate and the clinical outcome in the immune landscape of patients with CRC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2020.5062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252459PMC

Giant Cell Hepatitis - A Rare Association with Connective Tissue Disease.

Mediterr J Rheumatol 2019 Dec 31;30(4):224-227. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Rheumatology Department, Luton & Dunstable University Hospital, Luton, United Kingdom.

A 68-year-old gentleman presented to hepatology department with asymptomatic year-long history of stably deranged liver function tests. His peak alkaline phosphatase (ALP), was 828 with alanine transaminase (ALT) of 141. Full liver workup was negative; hence, a liver biopsy was organised, which confirmed giant cell hepatitis (GCH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31138/mjr.30.4.224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241662PMC
December 2019

Molecular characterization of hepatitis A virus circulating in Uttar Pradesh, India: A hospital-based study.

Indian J Med Res 2020 04;151(4):375-379

Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background & Objectives: Hepatitis A is prevalent worldwide and is among the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in India. Major geographical differences in endemicity of hepatitis A are closely related to hygienic and sanitary conditions and other indicators of the level of socio-economic development. The present study was aimed to know the seropositivity prevalence and predominant circulating strain of HAV in a north India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_429_18DOI Listing

HAV detection from milk-based products containing soft fruits: Comparison between four different extraction methods.

Int J Food Microbiol 2020 Sep 15;328:108661. Epub 2020 May 15.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Torino, Italy.

Virus detection in food requires appropriate elution and concentration techniques which need to be adapted for different food matrices. ISO/TS-15216-1:2017 and ISO/TS-15216-2:2019 describe standard methods for hepatitis A virus (HAV) research in some food only. Milk-based products containing one or more types of fruit are not covered by ISO procedures, even though they can be contaminated by fruit added to these products or by the food handlers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108661DOI Listing
September 2020

Gangliosides are essential endosomal receptors for quasi-enveloped and naked hepatitis A virus.

Nat Microbiol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of positive-strand RNA viruses that includes numerous human and veterinary pathogens. Among these, hepatitis A virus (HAV), a common cause of acute hepatitis in humans, is unique in that it is hepatotropic and is released from hepatocytes without lysis in small vesicles that resemble exosomes. These quasi-enveloped virions are infectious and are the only form of virus that can be detected in the blood during acute infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0727-8DOI Listing

Sexual behaviour and poor hygiene are related to recent hepatitis a virus community outbreaks.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2020 Jun;112(6):448-455

Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, España.

Objectives: there has been a global increase in the incidence of hepatitis A infection. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of the increase in our region and the degree of adherence to the recommended hygienic measures after discharge from hospital.

Methods: demographic, clinical and biochemical variables were collected from patients with acute hepatitis A in our health area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17235/reed.2020.6687/2019DOI Listing

Vaccine Hesitancy as a Challenge or Vaccine Confidence as an Opportunity for Childhood Immunisation in India.

Infect Dis Ther 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Private Practitioner, 4-Kabir Marg, Lucknow, India.

Vaccines have contributed substantially to decreasing the morbidity and mortality rates of many infectious diseases worldwide. Despite this achievement, an increasing number of parents have adopted hesitant behaviours towards vaccines, delaying or even refusing their administration to children. This has implications not only on individuals but also society in the form of outbreaks for e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-020-00302-9DOI Listing

Development of a live attenuated duck hepatitis A virus type 3 vaccine (strain SD70).

Vaccine 2020 Jun 20;38(30):4695-4703. Epub 2020 May 20.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China; Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3) is an important pathogen that causes substantial losses in the Chinese duck industry. DHAV-3 is highly fatal to ducklings and there is no licensed vaccine in China available to reduce DHAV-3 infection. Our goal was to develop a live attenuated vaccine candidate against DHAV-3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.030DOI Listing

Prolonged cholestasis after acute viral hepatitis: successfully treated with oral steroid.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 May 21;13(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Cholestasis is a rare distinct complication of hepatitis A infection. Usually it runs a long indolent course with significant pruritus and malabsorption lasting for few months. A 9-year-old boy presented with yellowish discolouration of eye for 1 month. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-234430DOI Listing

A systematic review of chlorine-based surface disinfection efficacy to inform recommendations for low-resource outbreak settings.

Am J Infect Control 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA.

Background: Infectious diseases can be transmitted via fomites (contaminated surfaces/objects); disinfection can interrupt this transmission route. However, disinfection guidelines for low-resource outbreak settings are inconsistent and not evidence-based.

Methods: A systematic review of surface disinfection efficacy studies was conducted to inform low-resource outbreak guideline development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2020.05.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236738PMC

Notes from the Field: Assessing the Role of Food Handlers in Hepatitis A Virus Transmission - Multiple States, 2016-2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 May 22;69(20):636-637. Epub 2020 May 22.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6920a4DOI Listing

Currently circulating genotypes of hepatitis E virus in India, 2014-2018.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2019 Oct-Dec;37(4):563-568

Manipal Institute of Virology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Purpose: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen causing acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Clinical manifestations often occur in young adults with an increased mortality rate among pregnant women. HEV genotypes 1 and 4 are mainly reported among humans and swines, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_449DOI Listing

Toxicity of Organic Solvent in a Young Painter Presenting as Transient Hepatitis: A Case Report.

Indian J Occup Environ Med 2020 Jan-Apr;24(1):33-35. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Dr BSA Medical College and Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Organic solvents widely used in paint manufacturing, painting, and shoemaking industries may be associated with hepatotoxicity. We present a case report of a patient with prolonged occupational exposure to organic solvents who developed transient hepatitis. Monitoring contact to these chemicals and early identification of biological markers of occupational exposure should be done. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_61_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227743PMC

Emerging and Reemerging Sexually Transmitted Infections.

N Engl J Med 2020 05;382(21):2023-2032

From the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, and the Department of Microbiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital (D.A.W.), and Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, and Central Clinical School, Monash University (M.Y.C.) - all in Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1907194DOI Listing