28,678 results match your criteria Hepatitis A

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Consult Series #56: Hepatitis C in Pregnancy: Updated Guidelines.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

In the United States, it is estimated that 1% to 4% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus, which carries approximately a 5% risk of transmission from mother to infant. Hepatitis C virus can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period, and infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birthweight. The purpose of this document is to discuss the current evidence, provide updated recommendations regarding screening, review treatment, and address management of hepatitis C virus during pregnancy. Read More

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Patterns and association of vaccination among adults with a history of cancer in the USA: a population-based study.

J Comp Eff Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB T4G1Z2, Canada.

To assess the association of vaccination status among adults with history of cancer in a population-based cohort in the USA. National Health Interview Survey datasets (2008-2018) have been accessed and information about the patterns and associations of the following vaccinations were collected (influenza vaccination, pneumococcal vaccination, hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis A vaccination and shingles vaccination). Association of different sociodemographic variables with each of the above types of vaccination was studied through multivariable logistic regression analysis. Read More

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Vaccination and Immunoprotection in People with HIV.

Steven C Johnson

Top Antivir Med 2020 Dec-Jan;28(3):465-468

University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Vaccines play an important role in HIV primary care and are available for several sexually transmitted infections, including those caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human papillomavirus (HPV). HAV vaccination is increasingly important, given recent hepatitis A outbreaks and lack of immunity in many adults. A novel formulation of the hepatitis B vaccine shows promise in increasing rates of seroprotection. Read More

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Detection of Hepatitis A Virus in Strawberries Implicated in an Outbreak in the USA in 1997.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Fera Science Ltd., Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ, UK.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was detected in frozen strawberries which had been implicated in a large outbreak of hepatitis A in 1997. The sample was analysed after over 20 years of storage, following a standard method not available at the time of the outbreak. This is the first study in which the HAV associated with the 1997 outbreak of foodborne hepatitis has finally been detected. Read More

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Epidemiological profile of viral hepatitis infection in the population treated at a reference hospital in Alagoas.

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e238431. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas - UNCISAL, Maceió, AL, Brasil.

Viral hepatitis are widely spread infectious diseases caused by a variety of etiological agents that displays liver tropism as a common characteristic. A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational and retrospective study was conducted through the analysis of viral hepatitis medical records treated and diagnosed from 2010 to 2015. The relationship between the variables were made through the chi-square test. Read More

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[Exhaustion of CD8T Lymphocytes Plays a Critical Role in the Pathogenesis of Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(3):963-968

Department of Hematology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China,E-mail:

Objective: To investigate the changes in function of CD8 T cell subsets, and explore its significance in pathogenesis of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH).

Methods: Flow cytometry was used to detect the expressions of PD-1, TIM-3, and LAG-3, which were the markers of exhausted CD8 T cell, as well as the secretion levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and expression of ΔCD107a after the stimulation; the numbers of effector-memory CD8 T cells, regulatory T cells and double negative T cells were also detected.

Results: The expressions of inhibitory receptors (PD-1, TIM3 and LAG-3) on CD8 T cells of sHLH patients were 40. Read More

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Syphilitic Hepatitis: A Rare Cause of Acute Liver Injury.

Cureus 2021 May 2;13(5):e14800. Epub 2021 May 2.

Gastroenterology, BronxCare Health System, Bronx, USA.

Syphilitic hepatitis represents a rare manifestation of treponemal infection. Diagnosis is achieved with the presence of characteristic syphilitic signs and symptoms along with positive serological markers, characteristic elevated liver enzymes, and no other alternative cause of hepatobiliary insult. Here we detail a case of a patient presenting with recently diagnosed secondary syphilis causing abnormal liver enzymes. Read More

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Preclinical safety assessment of a combined vaccine against Hepatitis a virus and enterovirus 71.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

The Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China. Electronic address:

Since 2007, Hepatitis A (HAV) vaccination has been a part of the National Immunization Program of China. Recognizing enterovirus 71 (EV71) as the most important pathogen in severe hand, foot and mouth disease, an inactivated EV71 vaccine was successfully marketed in 2015. Based on the concept of one vaccine preventing two diseases and owing to similarities in vaccine preparation and the overlap of the eligible population, a combination of the inactivated HAV vaccine and inactivated EV71 vaccine is theoretically feasible and desirable. Read More

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[Vaccination and sleep].

M G Poluektov

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(4. Vyp. 2)

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

The current worldwide pandemic of a new coronavirus infection has posed new challenges for medicine and the human community. In particular, the issue of widespread mass vaccination and improving its effectiveness has become acute. In this regard, the contribution of sleep to innate and acquired immunity has attracted the attention of researchers. Read More

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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among a community-recruited sample of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in the three largest cities in Canada from 2017 to 2019.

Vaccine 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Unity Health Toronto, Canada; University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: In 2015/2016, Canada's largest provinces implemented publicly-funded human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) ≤ 26 years old. We sought to describe HPV vaccine uptake among GBM and determine barriers and facilitators to vaccine initiation with a focus on healthcare access and utilization.

Methods: Engage is a cohort study among GBM aged 16 + years in three Canadian cities recruited from 2017 to 2019 via respondent driven sampling (RDS). Read More

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Development of a Tetraplex qPCR for the Molecular Identification and Quantification of Human Enteric Viruses, NoV and HAV, in Fish Samples.

Microorganisms 2021 May 27;9(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

ITQB NOVA, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal.

Human enteric viruses such as norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are some of the most important causes of foodborne infections worldwide. Usually, infection via fish consumption is not a concern regarding these viruses, since fish are mainly consumed cooked. However, in the last years, raw fish consumption has become increasingly common, especially involving the use of seabass and gilthead seabream in dishes like sushi, sashimi, poke, and carpaccio. Read More

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Aptamer Laden Liquid Crystals Biosensing Platform for the Detection of HIV-1 Glycoprotein-120.

Molecules 2021 May 13;26(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117576, Singapore.

We report a label-free and simple approach for the detection of glycoprotein-120 (gp-120) using an aptamer-based liquid crystals (LCs) biosensing platform. The LCs are supported on the surface of a modified glass slide with a suitable amount of B40t77 aptamer, allowing the LCs to be homeotropically aligned. A pronounced topological change was observed on the surface due to a specific interaction between B40t77 and gp-120, which led to the disruption of the homeotropic alignment of LCs. Read More

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Mechanisms of Hepatocellular Injury in Hepatitis A.

Viruses 2021 May 8;13(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Despite decades of research, the pathogenic mechanisms of hepatitis A remain incompletely understood. As the replication of HAV is noncytopathic in vitro, a widely accepted concept has been that virus-specific cytotoxic T cells are responsible for liver injury. Read More

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Detection of Antibodies against Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) by a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor: A New Diagnosis Tool Based on the Major HAV Capsid Protein VP1 (SPR-HAVP1).

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 3;21(9). Epub 2021 May 3.

Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico em Saúde (CDTS), Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Inovação em Doenças de Populações Negligenciadas (INCT/IDPN), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro CEP 21040-900, Brazil.

Hepatitis A (HA) is an acute human infectious disease caused by a positive single-stranded RNA virus (HAV). It is mainly acquired through the fecal-oral route and is primarily spread by contact between people and exposure to contaminated water and food. Recently, large outbreaks of HA have been reported by low and moderate endemicity countries, emphasizing its importance in public health and the need for rapid and large-scale diagnostic tests to support public health decisions on HA. Read More

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Role of -Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Acute Nonacetaminophen, Nonalcoholic and Nonviral Hepatitis: A Meta-analysis.

J Can Assoc Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 15;4(3):125-130. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: -acetylcysteine (NAC) has been extensively investigated for the use in acetaminophen and alcoholic hepatitis and is indicated in acetaminophen overdose. Studies assessing the effect of NAC on other forms of acute hepatitis in adult patients are limited and therefore here we aimed at evaluating the effect of NAC on survival in nonacetaminophen, nonalcoholic and nonviral hepatitis in adults.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search up to September 2019 was completed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing NAC to placebo in the management of acute nonacetaminophen, nonalcoholic and nonviral hepatitis. Read More

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[Hepatitis A virus cell membrane protein receptor 2 promotes endotoxin tolerance in mouse macrophages].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Apr;33(4):472-477

Department of Emergency Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, Sichuan, China.

Objective: To screen out the potential key genes of endotoxin tolerance (ET), and to provide theoretical and experimental evidence for treatment and prognosis of sepsis.

Methods: (1) Experiment 1 (gene chip and bioinformatics analysis): ET related data set GSE47783 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The data set was obtained from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse macrophages to establish sepsis model (LPS group) and ET model (ET group). Read More

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Intradermal Vaccination: A Potential Tool in the Battle Against the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 20;14:2079-2087. Epub 2021 May 20.

Primary Care Unit ASL RM 1, Rome, Italy.

This narrative review is the final output of an initiative of the SIM (Italian Society of Mesotherapy). A narrative review of scientific literature on the efficacy of fractional intradermal vaccination in comparison with full doses has been conducted for the following pathogens: influenza virus, rabies virus, poliovirus (PV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis bacterias (DTP), human papillomavirus (HPV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JE), meningococcus, varicella zoster virus (VZV) and yellow fever virus. The findings suggest that the use of the intradermal route represents a valid strategy in terms of efficacy and efficiency for influenza, rabies and HBV vaccines. Read More

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Vaccine acceptability, uptake and completion amongst men who have sex with men: A systematic review, meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 24;39(27):3565-3581. Epub 2021 May 24.

Brighton & Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom.

Background: Due to an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been recommended to receive vaccinations against human papillomavirus, meningitis C and hepatitis A/B. This review aimed to compare the rates of vaccine acceptability, uptake and completion, and to identify determinants of vaccine outcomes specific to MSM to inform a theoretical framework.

Methods: In January 2020 four databases were explored to identify vaccination behaviours and associated factors among MSM. Read More

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A rare case of Polyarteritis Nodosa associated with autoimmune hepatitis: a case report.

BMC Rheumatol 2021 May 26;5(1):17. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Medicine, Northwell Health, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY, 11030, USA.

Background: Polyarteritis nodosa is a type of vasculitis affecting medium- and small-sized arteries that has been associated with hepatitis B but does not have an established relationship with autoimmune hepatitis. Here we report the case of an adult patient with autoimmune hepatitis who, shortly after diagnosis, developed life-threatening polyarteritis nodosa.

Case Presentation: A 45-year-old woman was diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis after initially presenting with a two-month history of fatigue, nausea, and anorexia and a three-week history of scleral icterus. Read More

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A Review of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Immunizations for Elderly Adults.

J Prim Care Community Health 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211014071

Howard University College of Pharmacy, Washington, DC, USA.

Vaccine preventable diseases are responsible for a substantial degree of morbidity in the United States as over 18 million annual cases of vaccine preventable disease occur in the U.S. annually. Read More

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Associations Between Environmental and Sociodemographic Data and Hepatitis-A Transmission in Pará State (Brazil).

Geohealth 2021 May 1;5(5):e2020GH000327. Epub 2021 May 1.

National Institute for Space Research (INPE, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais) São Paulo Brazil.

Hepatitis-A is a waterborne infectious disease transmitted by the eponymous hepatitis-A virus (HAV). Due to the disease's sociodemographic and environmental characteristics, this study applied public census and remote sensing data to assess risk factors for hepatitis-A transmission. Municipality-level data were obtained for the state of Pará, Brazil. Read More

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Immune disorders and rheumatologic manifestations of viral hepatitis.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 May;27(18):2073-2089

Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Sechenov University, Moscow 119435, Russia.

Infection with hepatotropic viruses is not limited to the liver and can lead to the development of various immunological disorders (the formation of cryoglobulins, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, autoantibodies specific for autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis, and others), which can manifest as glomerulonephritis, arthritis, uveitis, vasculitis (cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, isolated cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis), and other rheumatologic disorders, and be a trigger for the subsequent development of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis. A further study of the association between autoimmune liver diseases and hepatotropic virus infection would be useful to assess the results of treatment of these associated diseases with antiviral drugs. The relationship of these immune disorders and their manifestations with hepatotropic viruses is best studied for chronic hepatitis B and C. Read More

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Promotion of healthcare personnel vaccinations among newly employed doctors and nurses: Evidence-guided strategy.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 20;39(26):3480-3485. Epub 2021 May 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Healthcare personnel vaccinations are important to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases in hospitals. We evaluated the seroprevalence, vaccination rates, and barriers to vaccination among newly employed nurses and doctors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a university hospital in the Republic of Korea from 2017 to 2020. Read More

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Immunity to hepatitis A virus in liver transplant recipients: a population-based study in Iran.

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Division of Gastroenterology, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada.

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Hepatitis A outbreak associated with consumption of dates, England and Wales, January 2021 to April 2021.

Euro Surveill 2021 May;26(20)

South East and London Field Service, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.

We report a national hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak linked to the consumption of Medjool dates. Twenty-nine cases of three genetically related sequences have been identified. Epidemiological investigations identified a suspected product (adjusted odds ratio: 47. Read More

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Changing Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis A Virus Infection, United States, 1996-2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Jun;27(6):1742-1745

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IA was most common among strains tested in US outbreak investigations and surveillance during 1996-2015. However, HAV genotype IB gained prominence during 2016-2019 person-to-person multistate outbreaks. Detection of previously uncommon strains highlights the changing molecular epidemiology of HAV infection in the United States. Read More

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Cross-sectional study of sexual behaviour and health of gay and bisexual men in suburban Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: contrasts between sex venue and clinic attendees.

Sex Health 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Background: In Australia, men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) have higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and HIV compared with heterosexual men. We compared demographics, behaviour and HIV/STI prevalence for MSM attending a sex-on-premises-venue (SOPV) or the local sexual health clinic (SHC) to determine key differences.

Methods: Men attending a SOPV during onsite HIV/STI screening from November 2015 for 12 months were compared with MSM attending a local SHC for screening. Read More

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Brazilian Protocol for Sexually Transmitted Infections 2020: viral hepatitis.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2021 17;54(suppl 1):e2020834. Epub 2021 May 17.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane, Manaus, AM, Brasil.

This article discusses viral hepatitis, a theme addressed by the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines to Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and, more precisely, by the Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C and Coinfections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Besides the broad spectrum of health impairment, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses also present different transmission forms, whether parenteral, sexual, vertical, or fecal-oral. Among the strategies suggested for the control of viral hepatitis, in addition to behavioral measures, are expanded diagnosis, early vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses, and access to available therapeutic resources. Read More

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Long non-coding RNA AL139002.1 promotes gastric cancer development by sponging microRNA-490-3p to regulate Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 expression.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):1927-1938

Department of Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital; Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology of Zhejiang Province, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China.

Mounting evidence suggests that lncRNA regulates many important diseases. However, the biological role of most lncRNAs in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. In this paper, we determined differential expression of lncRNAs and predicted ceRNA networks in the GC database by bioinformatics analysis and validated in GC cells. Read More

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December 2021