27,007 results match your criteria Hepatitis A


Estimating human-to-human transmissibility of hepatitis A virus in an outbreak at an elementary school in China, 2011.

PLoS One 2018 24;13(9):e0204201. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Chemical and Environmental Effects Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.

Hepatitis A is caused by hepatitis A virus and occurs worldwide. Estimating the transmissibility, which is usually characterized by the basic reproductive number R0, the mean number of secondary infectious cases generated by a single primary infectious case introduced into a totally susceptible population, provides crucial information for the effort required to stop infection spreading. Hepatitis A virus is usually transmitted indirectly through contaminated food and environment. Read More

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September 2018

Key Characteristics of Foods with an Elevated Risk for Viral Enteropathogen Contamination.

J Appl Microbiol 2018 Sep 23. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Department of Food Science, Fayetteville, AR, 72704.

Viral enteropathogens are one of the leading causative agents of foodborne illnesses in both the United States and the European Union. While human noroviruses (hNoV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) cause the vast majority of outbreaks and illnesses, there are handful of human enteric viruses that contribute to sporadic outbreaks worldwide including astrovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and Aichi virus. In addition, Hepatitis E virus is increasingly being recognized as an emerging zoonotic threat within the food supply. Read More

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September 2018

[Epidemics of Hepatitis A and opportunities for vaccination: a focus on the category of men who practice sex with men (MSM)].

Ig Sanita Pubbl 2018 May-Jun;74(3):295-304

Dipartimento di Biomedicina e Prevenzione, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italia.

Hepatitis A is an infectious disease caused by a virus (HAV), which is highly contagious and widespread all over the world. In industrialized countries, Hepatitis A is commonly considered a disease with an important socio-economic impact, as the clinical disease affects mostly young adults. After the development of a specific anti-HAV vaccine, a reduction in the incidence of Hepatitis A was observed, with a subsequent change in the prevalence of HAV. Read More

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September 2018

Redundant late domain functions of tandem VP2 YPXL motifs in nonlytic cellular egress of quasi-enveloped hepatitis A virus.

J Virol 2018 Sep 19. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

The quasi-envelopment of hepatitis A virus (HAV) capsids in exosome-like virions (eHAV) is an important but incompletely understood aspect of the hepatovirus life cycle. This process is driven by recruitment of newly assembled capsids to endosomal vesicles into which they bud to form multi-vesicular bodies with intraluminal vesicles that are later released at the plasma membrane as eHAV. The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are key to this process, as is the ESCRT-III associated protein, ALIX, which also contributes to membrane budding of conventional enveloped viruses. Read More

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September 2018

Usability of the international HAVNet hepatitis A virus database for geographical annotation, backtracing and outbreak detection.

Euro Surveill 2018 Sep;23(37)

The members of the HAVNet network are acknowledged at the end of the article.

BackgroundHAVNet is an international laboratory network sharing sequences and corresponding metadata on hepatitis A virus in an online database. We give an overview of the epidemiological and genetic data and assess the usability of the present dataset for geographical annotation, backtracing and outbreak detection. A descriptive analysis was performed on the timeliness, completeness, epidemiological data and geographic coverage of the dataset. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Somalia: Systematic review and meta-analysis study.

World J Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;24(34):3927-3957

Center For the study of the Liver, Department of Hospital Medicine, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow 117198, Russia.

Aim: To provide a clear understanding of viral hepatitis epidemiology and their clinical burdens in Somalia.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted as Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search of published studies on viral hepatitis was performed from 1977-2016 in PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, World Health Organization African and the Africa Journals Online databases, as well as on the Ministry of Health website. Read More

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September 2018

Viability RT-qPCR to Distinguish Between HEV and HAV With Intact and Altered Capsids.

Front Microbiol 2018 24;9:1973. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Preservation and Food Safety Technologies, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Valencia, Spain.

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen showing a considerable increase in the number of reported cases in Europe mainly related to the ingestion of contaminated food. As with other relevant viral foodborne pathogens, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard for HEV detection in clinical, food, and environmental samples, but these procedures cannot discriminate between inactivated and potentially infectious viruses. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a viability PCR method to discriminate between native, heat-, and high-pressure processing (HPP)-treated HEV using the hepatitis A virus (HAV) as a cultivable surrogate. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Hepatitis A Virus, Hepatitis E Virus, and Rotavirus in Foods of Animal Origin Traded at the Borders of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

Food Environ Virol 2018 Sep 11. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão. Avenida Eliseu Maciel, SN, Capão do Leão, RS, CEP 96010900, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E (HEV), and rotavirus (RV) in fresh and processed meat traded on the border of Brazil with Argentina and Uruguay. In total, 159 samples of raw and processed foods of animal origin were collected in Paso de los Libres, Argentina (n = 53 raw meat, n = 24 processed meat) and Rivera, Uruguay (n = 55 raw meat, n = 18 processed meat), or were seized by the Brazilian International Agricultural Surveillance System-VIGIAGRO (Brazil-Argentina border) (n = 8 raw meat, n = 1 bush meat). All samples were tested for the presence of HAV, HEV, and RV genomes. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

A Q-Probes Study Involving Utilization of Free Prostate-Specific Antigen, Factor V Leiden, and Hepatitis A Serology Tests.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2018 Sep 11. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

From Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Southern Arizona VA Healthcare System, and the Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, Tucson (Dr Schifman); the Department of Pathology, University of West Virginia, and Clinical Laboratories, West Virginia University Hospital, Morgantown (Dr Perrotta); and Biostatistics (Ms Souers) and Surveys-Cytopathology (Ms Blond), College of American Pathologists, Northfield, Illinois.

Context: - Managing the utilization of laboratory tests is an important quality improvement activity that adds value to health care.

Objective: - To examine utilization of 3 laboratory tests and identify factors that impact performance.

Design: - Test utilization performance was evaluated by determining the frequency with which appropriate preconditions for testing were met. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Illness among US resident student travellers after return to the USA: a GeoSentinel analysis, 2007-17.

J Travel Med 2018 Jan;25(1)

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The number of US students studying abroad more than tripled during the past 20 years. As study abroad programmes' destinations diversify, students increasingly travel to resource-limited countries, placing them at risk for infectious diseases. Data describing infections acquired by US students while travelling internationally are limited. Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

Transcriptomic Characterization of a Chicken Embryo Model Infected With Duck Hepatitis A Virus Type 1.

Front Immunol 2018 24;9:1845. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu City, China.

Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is one of the most common and lethal pathogens in young ducklings. Live-attenuated DHAV vaccine (CH60 strain) developed by passaging in chicken embryos provided effective immune protection for ducklings. However, the accurate mechanism for such adaption in chicken embryos is not fully revealed. Read More

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A Novel Model to Predict 1-Month Risk of Transplant or Death in Hepatitis A-Related Acute Liver Failure.

Hepatology 2018 Sep 8. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Acute liver failure (ALF) caused by hepatitis A is a rare but fatal disease. Here, we developed a model to predict outcome in patients with ALF caused by hepatitis A. The derivation set consisted of 294 patients diagnosed with hepatitis A-related ALF from Korea, and a validation set of 56 patients from Japan, India, and United Kingdom. Read More

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September 2018
10 Reads

Serosurveillance of First-Year Military Personnel for Hepatitis A and B.

Am J Public Health 2018 Sep;108(S3):S204-S206

Michael P. Broderick, is with the Henry M. Jackson Foundation, San Diego, CA. Saleem Kamili, Noele P. Nelson, Natasha Khudyakov, and Thao Le are with the Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA. Dennis J. Faix is with the Deployment Health Research Department, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego. Sandra Romero-Steiner is with the Office for Science and Public Health Practice, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC.

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September 2018

In pursuit of control and elimination: update on hepatitis A and B epidemiology and prevention strategies.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Oct;30(5):689-697

Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review describes the impact of recommendations for routine immunization of infants and children against hepatitis A and hepatitis B, the changing epidemiology of these infections, and the remaining challenges to controlling or eliminating these diseases in the United States.

Recent Findings: Rates of hepatitis A and B have significantly declined because of childhood vaccination programs and long-term protection provided by infant immunization. However, hepatitis A immunization rates remain lower than other vaccines, and outbreaks continue to occur in part due to a growing number of susceptible adults. Read More

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October 2018

PD-1+ TIM-3+ T cells in malignant ascites predict prognosis of gastrointestinal cancer.

Cancer Sci 2018 Sep;109(9):2986-2992

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

The liquid biopsy of ascites fluid could be an excellent source of tumor and microenvironment for the study of prognostic biomarkers because of its accessibility. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can predict prognosis in multiple malignancies, including the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors, a breakthrough cancer therapy. However, TILs' profiles from malignant ascites have not been extensively studied. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Ginseng-Related Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2018 May-Aug;12(2):439-446. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

GI Department, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Affiliate of the Mount Sinai Hospital, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Ginseng is commonly used as a medicinal herb for memory and concentration and general well-being. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the most challenging disorders and trending events in the United States which are related to body building and weight loss supplements. Currently, herbal and dietary supplementation is the second most common cause of DILI. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

[Infectious diseases related to water in Peru].

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2018 Apr-Jun;35(2):309-316

Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú.

The growth of the world population has increased the demand for water. On the other hand, climate change shows us that the water sources that were previously safe are not anymore. There are inequalities between urban and rural areas, thus 96% of the urban world population uses drinking water sources compared to 84% of the rural population, while 82% of the urban population versus 51% of the rural population use sanitation facilities. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Based on Laboratory Surveillance Data-India, 2014-2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 4. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Division of Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

Hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses (HAV and HEV) are the most common etiologies of viral hepatitis in India. To better understand the epidemiology of these infections, laboratory surveillance data generated during 2014-2017, by a network of 51 virology laboratories, were analyzed. Among 24,000 patients tested for both HAV and HEV, 3,017 (12. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for Viral Agents of Diarrhea with the Capacity to Genotype Rotavirus.

Sci Rep 2018 Sep 4;8(1):13215. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Rotavirus and noroviruses are major causes of diarrhea. Variable rotavirus vaccination efficacy in Africa and Asia is multifactorial, including the diversity of circulating strains and viral co-infection. We describe a multiplexed assay that detects and genotypes viruses from stool specimens. Read More

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September 2018

Direct and Indirect Effects on Viral Translation and RNA Replication Are Required for AUF1 Restriction of Enterovirus Infections in Human Cells.

MBio 2018 Sep 4;9(5). Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California, USA

The cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1 acts as a restriction factor during infection by picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and human rhinovirus. AUF1 relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during infection by these viruses due to the disruption of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by viral proteinases. Previous studies have demonstrated that AUF1 binds to poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA during infection, with binding shown to occur within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the 5' noncoding region (NCR) or the 3' NCR, respectively. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Changes in hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence in medical students in Bangkok, Thailand, from 1981 to 2016.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Sep 3;11(1):640. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG in Thai medical students in 2016 compared with the previous data and to demonstrate the cross-effective strategy to screen HAV seropositivity.

Results: Sera from 176 first-year medical students (age 19.07 ± 0. Read More

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September 2018

[Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with acute hepatitis A-A case report and literature review].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Aug 31. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Neurology, Brain Attack Center, Ota Memorial Hospital.

A 44-year-old female developed acute hepatitis A (HA) 5 weeks after ingesting raw oysters. She developed ascending motor weakness, bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy, and bulbar symptoms. A diagnosis of demyelinating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) was made on the basis of her clinical manifestations and the results of a nerve conduction study. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Detection of Subgenotype IA and IIIA Hepatitis A Viruses  in Rivers Flowing through Metro Manila, the Philippines.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2018 Aug 31. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a common infectious etiology of acute hepatitis worldwide. The Philippines remains highly endemic for hepatitis A, but there is still lack of information about HAV in the Philippines. To understand the contamination of environment water with HAV in the Philippines, we performed detection and genetic analyses of HAV RNA using samples from the river water. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads
1.20 Impact Factor

Induction and Suppression of Innate Antiviral Responses by Hepatitis A Virus.

Front Microbiol 2018 17;9:1865. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

College of Life Science and Engineering, Northwest Minzu University, Engineering & Technology Research Center for Animal Cell, Lanzhou, China.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) belongs to the family . It is the pathogen of acute viral hepatitis caused by fecal-oral transmission. RNA viruses are sensed by pathogen-associated pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads
3.94 Impact Factor

Hepatitis viruses in Kathmandu, Nepal: hospital-based study.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Aug 30;11(1):627. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

MB Kedia Dental College Private Limited, Birgunj, Nepal.

Objective: The objective of this study was to see the aetiology and outcome of sporadic acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Results: Among 210 patients, 94 (45%) were male and 116 (55%) were female. Mean age was 30 years. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Viral hepatitis A - seroprevalence and vaccine coverage rate in the South Moravian Region.

Authors:
V Ovesná R Ciupek

Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2018 ;67(1):12-17

Aim: To map the current seroprevalence of antibodies and vaccine coverage against viral hepatitis A (VHA) in the general population of the South Moravian Region (SMR).

Material And Methods: During the VHA outbreak in 2016, nearly 3500 persons were investigated epidemiologically by the Regional Public Health Authority of the SMR within the anti-epidemic measures. The data collected were, among others, basic personal data and information whether the person has been vaccinated against VHA. Read More

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January 2018

Association of Urinary Biomarkers of Kidney Injury with Estimated GFR Decline in HIV-Infected Individuals following Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Initiation.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Sep 28;13(9):1321-1329. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Medicine, Kidney Health Research Collaborative, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California;

Background And Objectives: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir) is associated with elevated concentrations of biomarkers of kidney damage and dysfunction in individuals with HIV. The relationship of these kidney biomarkers with longitudinal kidney function decline is unknown.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: We evaluated associations of 14 urinary biomarkers of kidney injury with changes in eGFR among 198 men and women with HIV who initiated tenofovir between 2009 and 2015 in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and Women's Interagency HIV Study. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

A Validated Score Predicts Acute Kidney Injury and Survival in Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis: A Multicentric International Prospective Cohort Study.

Liver Transpl 2018 Aug 28. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background And Rationale: Identifying patients at high risk for AKI during hospitalization among patients admitted with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH0 is an unmet clinical need.

Methods: We performed a multicentric prospective cohort study using data from four different cohorts on well-characterized patients hospitalized with severe AH.

Results: Data collected on 773 AH patients from four cohorts across the globe was randomly split into test (n=390) and validation (n=383) cohorts. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation complicating hepatitis A.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 Jul-Aug;29(4):1007-1009

Department of Medicine, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

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August 2018
4 Reads

Translation of Hepatitis A Virus IRES Is Upregulated by a Hepatic Cell-Specific Factor.

Front Genet 2018 10;9:307. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kindai University, Osaka, Japan.

Many viruses strongly prefer to infect certain cell types, a phenomenon known as "tropism." Understanding tropism's molecular basis is important for the design of vaccines and antiviral therapy. A common mechanism involves viral protein interactions with cell-specific surface receptors, but intracellular mechanisms involving translation have also been described. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Association Between Expression Level of PD1 by Tumor-Infiltrating CD8 T Cells and Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Gastroenterology 2018 Aug 23. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; Biomedical Science and Engineering Interdisciplinary Program, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: T-cell exhaustion, or an impaired capacity to secrete cytokines and proliferate with overexpression of immune checkpoint receptors, occurs during chronic viral infections but has also been observed in tumors, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). We investigated features of exhaustion in CD8 T cells isolated from HCC specimens.

Methods: We obtained HCC specimens, along with adjacent non-tumor tissues and blood samples, from 90 patients who underwent surgical resection at Asan Medical Center (in Seoul, Korea) from April 2016 through April 2018. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads
16.72 Impact Factor

Efficacy of High-Dose, Rapid, Hepatitis A and B Vaccination Schedules in Patients With Cirrhosis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Aug 23. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Flinders Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

Patients with cirrhosis have increased morbidity from hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, and vaccination against these infections is an important standard of care. However, vaccination in patients with cirrhosis is hindered by immune dysfunction and there is limited high-quality literature available. The aim of this work therefore was to compare immune responses of standard dose (SD) with high-dose accelerated (HDA) vaccination in cirrhotic patients. Read More

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Usefulness of a systematic approach at listing for vaccine prevention in solid organ transplantation candidates.

Am J Transplant 2018 Aug 24. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Center for Vaccinology and Neonatal Immunology Department of Pediatrics and Pathology-Immunology, Medical Faculty and University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland.

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) candidates may not be immune against potentially vaccine-preventable diseases because of insufficient immunizations and/or limited vaccine responses. We evaluated the impact of a systematic vaccinology workup at listing including 1) pneumococcal ± influenza immunization, 2) serology-based vaccine recommendations against measles, varicella, hepatitis B, hepatitis A and tetanus and 3) the documentation of vaccines and serologies in a national electronic immunization registry (www.myvaccines. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Development of a method for direct extraction of viral RNA from bivalve mollusks.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2018 Aug 24. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.

The detection of foodborne viruses in bivalve mollusks is a challenging procedure in relation to low virus concentration and to the presence of significant RT-PCR inhibitors. The aim of this study was the development of an efficient direct extraction method for foodborne viral RNA from bivalve mollusks. Using Mengovirus as a surrogate for foodborne viruses, five extraction methods based on RNA release by Trizol were compared on clams and oysters. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Aluminum in vaccines: Does it create a safety problem?

Vaccine 2018 09 20;36(39):5825-5831. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

For almost a century, aluminum (Al) in the form of Al oxyhydroxide (a crystalline compound), Al hydroxyphosphate (an amorphous Al phosphate hydroxide), Al phosphate, and Al potassium sulfate has been used to improve the immunogenicity of vaccines. Al is currently included in vaccines against tetanus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Official health authorities consider the inclusion of Al in most of the presently recommended vaccines to be extremely effective and sufficiently safe. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Hepatitis A outbreak disproportionately affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) in the European Union and European Economic Area, June 2016 to May 2017.

Euro Surveill 2018 Aug;23(33)

The Members of the European Hepatitis A Outbreak Investigation Team have been listed at the end of this article.

Between 1 June 2016 and 31 May 2017, 17 European Union (EU) and European Economic Area countries reported 4,096 cases associated with a multi-country hepatitis A (HA) outbreak. Molecular analysis identified three co-circulating hepatitis A virus (HAV) strains of genotype IA: VRD_521_2016, V16-25801 and RIVM-HAV16-090. We categorised cases as confirmed, probable or possible, according to the EU outbreak case definitions. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads

A Rare Presentation of Epstein-Barr Virus-induced Hepatitis With an Interesting Twist: A Case Report Involving a Clinical Pearl.

Cureus 2018 Jun 14;10(6):e2808. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Internal Medicine, Palisades Medical Center, New Jersey, USA.

An Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection generally presents with the classic infectious mononucleosis symptomatology-sore throat, lymph node enlargement, and fatigue. However, there are cases in which induced hepatitis does occur. The liver enzymes leaked during the acute damage would be apparent in the serum as an elevation of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase. Read More

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June 2018
5 Reads

Inhibitory effect of Japanese rice-koji miso extracts on hepatitis A virus replication in association with the elevation of glucose-regulated protein 78 expression.

Int J Med Sci 2018 30;15(11):1153-1159. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is one of the major causes of acute hepatitis and acute liver failure in developing and developed countries. Although effective vaccines for HAV infection are available, outbreaks of HAV infection still cause deaths, even in developed countries. One approach to control HAV infection is prevention through diet, which can inhibit HAV propagation and replication. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

Safety and immunogenicity of an upper-range release titer measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in children vaccinated at 12 to 15 months of age: a phase III, randomized study.

Authors:

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Aug 17:1-11. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

The titer of live attenuated viral vaccines, such as MMR vaccines, varies between batches and over the shelf-life of a batch, with the highest titer expected at batch release. As higher titers may theoretically lead to increased reactogenicity, we compared the safety profile of an upper-range release titer MMR-RIT lot with commercial MMR II lots in a phase III, randomized, controlled study (NCT02184572). We vaccinated 1736 children with MMR-RIT (N = 1164) or MMR II (N = 572), both administered as first doses with varicella, hepatitis A, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines at 12-15 months of age. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

In-hospital post-transplant acute hepatitis A viral (HAV) infection in a liver transplant recipient who was HAV seropositive pre-transplant.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2018 Aug 14. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Division of Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia and the Liver Transplant Program, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.

Acute hepatitis A viral (HAV) infection is rare in the liver transplant population due to recommended pre-transplant vaccinations. We report a case of acute hepatitis A infection in a liver transplant recipient. This individual had immunity to hepatitis A with protective IgG antibodies and presented with abnormal liver biochemistry in the post-transplant in-patient setting. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Factors associated with poor adherence to vaccination against hepatitis viruses, streptococcus pneumoniae and seasonal influenza in HIV-infected adults.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Aug 15. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

a 1st Department of Internal Medicine , AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University Medical School , Thessaloniki , Greece.

Introduction: Vaccination against various pathogens is recommended for HIV positive adults. There are not sufficient data either on vaccination coverage of HIV positive adults or the risk factors associated with poor adherence to routine vaccination.

Patients-methods: During the period 2004-2014 vaccination coverage of a group of HIV infected adults against hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), seasonal influenza virus and pneumococcal disease was recorded. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Biochemical efficacy of tioguanine in autoimmune hepatitis: a retrospective review of practice in the Netherlands.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Oct 15;48(7):761-767. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Azathioprine (AZA) and mercaptopurine (MP) are the cornerstone of steroid-sparing strategies in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Up to 20% of patients do not tolerate or respond to these regimens.

Aim: To evaluate retrospectively the tolerability and efficacy of tioguanine (thioguanine) (TG) therapy in selected patients with AIH and AIH variant syndromes. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

A Multicenter Study Into Causes of Severe Acute Liver Injury.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Aug 10. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

The differential diagnosis of an increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level of ≥1000 IU/L often is stated to include 3 main etiologies: ischemic hepatitis, acute viral hepatitis (typically hepatitis A and hepatitis B), and drug-induced (more specifically, acetaminophen/paracetamol) liver injury (DILI). Unfortunately, there are a paucity of studies examining the most common causes of acute liver injury (ALI) and those that have been published have been small, single-center, or examined less severe increases in ALT or AST levels. We conducted a multicenter study of all patients with an ALT and/or AST level ≥1000 IU/L. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Innocent spectators, helping hands or a fifth column? Acute hepatitis A infection reveals important insights into bystander T cells.

Hepatology 2018 Aug 13. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Kim and colleagues studied a large cohort of adults with acute symptomatic HAV infection. They found pervasive and profound CD8 T cell activation in the blood of these patients, together with increased T cell proliferation and expression of cytotoxic molecules in a substantial proportion and often the majority of circulating CD8 T cells. The degree of overall activation, proliferation and cytotoxic capacity was tightly correlated with liver damage, as measured by ALT serum levels. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads

Brucellosis as the Cause of Non-Viral Bacterial Hepatitis: A Case Report.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2018 Jul 17;6(7):1260-1262. Epub 2018 May 17.

Bingöl State Hospital, Radiology Department, Turkey.

Background: Brucellosis can lead to different clinical pictures such as hepatomegaly, granulomatous liver disease, hepatic abscess, and it can cause mild hepatic transaminase elevation in the laboratory investigations.

Case Report: We found out that the etiologic agent was Brucella in our two cases admitted with acute hepatitis presentation in the investigations conducted. Liver transaminases were as follows for case 1 and case 2; AST: 306/187U/L, ALT: 368/312U/L, ALP: 355/264U/L, GGT: 116/197U/L, LDH: 887/549U/L, respectively. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Morbidity profile and sociodemographic characteristics of unaccompanied refugee minors seen by paediatric practices between October 2014 and February 2016 in Bavaria, Germany.

BMC Public Health 2018 Aug 7;18(1):983. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Centre of the University of Munich (LMU), Munich, Germany.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the morbidity profile and the sociodemographic characteristics of unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) arriving in the region of Bavaria, Germany, between October 2014 and February 2016.

Methods: The retrospective cross sectional study included 154 unaccompanied refugee minors between 10 and 18 years of age. The data was derived from medical data records of their routine first medical examination in two paediatric practices and one collective housing for refugees in the region of Bavaria, Germany. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Molecular characterization of hepatitis A virus from children hospitalized at a tertiary care centre in northwest India.

Indian J Med Res 2018 05;147(5):507-512

School of Life & Basic Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, India.

Background & Objectives: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a major cause of childhood hepatitis, prevalent worldwide. HAV is classified into seven genotypes I-VII; genotypes III and I are the most common among humans. The present work was carried out to identify the genotypes prevalent in children suspected to have acute viral hepatitis (AVH), hospitalized at a tertiary care centre in northwest India. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Hepatitis A in Switzerland: An analysis of 29 years of surveillance data and contemporary challenges.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Aug 2. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Federal Office of Public Health, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatitis A (HA) incidence declined in most European countries in the past decades. We analysed HA notification data for Switzerland of 29 years looking for disease- and notification system-related factors possibly contributing to observed trends.

Method: Notification data were descriptively analysed using five time intervals (1988-1993, 1994-1999, 2000-2005, 2006-2011, 2012-2016); and notification rates were calculated. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Incompatible Translation Drives a Convergent Evolution and Viral Attenuation During the Development of Live Attenuated Vaccine.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 18;8:249. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Live attenuated vaccines are widely used to protect humans or animals from pathogen infections. We have previously developed a chicken embryo-attenuated Duck Hepatitis A Virus genotype 1 (DHAV-1) vaccine (CH60 strain). This study aims to understand the mechanisms that drive a virulent strain to an attenuated virus. Read More

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July 2018
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