Curr Rheumatol Rep 2020 Jul 22;22(9):51. Epub 2020 Jul 22.
First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Joint Rheumatology program, Medical School, 'Laiko' Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 17 Agiou Thoma Street., 11527, Athens, Greece.
Purpose Of The Review: To review the available evidence on the management of a variety of non-criteria manifestations in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), including valvular disease, alveolar hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, APS nephropathy, skin ulcers, livedo reticularis, cognitive dysfunction, and epilepsy.
Recent Findings: Current treatment relies on low-level evidence and mainly on expert consensus due to the rarity and the heterogeneity of non-criteria APS manifestations and the diversity in management approaches. Conventional anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet APS treatment do not adequately control most of non-criteria manifestations. Read More