11,977 results match your criteria Health Physics [Journal]


Linear No-threshold (LNT) vs. Hormesis: Paradigms, Assumptions, and Mathematical Conventions that Bias the Conclusions in Favor of LNT and Against hormesis.

Health Phys 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Department of English.

The linear no-threshold assumption misunderstands the complex multiphasic biological response to ionizing radiation, focusing solely on the initial physical radiogenic damage. This misunderstanding is enabled (masked and amplified) by a number of mathematical approaches that bias results in favor of linear no-threshold and away from alternatives, like hormesis, that take biological response into account. Here we explore a number of these mathematical approaches in some detail, including the use of frequentist rather than Bayesian statistical rules and methods. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001033DOI Listing
February 2019

Low-Fidelity Spectral Analysis Utilizing a Binomial Discriminator for Weak-Source Detection Decisions.

Health Phys 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, 1618 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

The identification of radiological sources by analysis of a gamma spectrum usually relies on the location of the set of radionuclide-specific electron energies corresponding to the incident photons interacting by photoelectric absorption in the detection medium. The challenge in low-level detection applications is the identification of these "photopeaks" above the background counts registered in the detector from the natural radiation environment and system noise. For source detection decisions, regions of the gamma spectrum other than at the photopeak energies may provide additional information about the presence of a source and allow for a higher rate of correct identification of a weak source. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001009DOI Listing
February 2019

Radiation Dose Due to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Soils from Varying Geological Environments.

Health Phys 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.

Field radiation monitoring and radionuclide analysis of soils were performed at various geological areas in Taiwan. The field-observed dose rate was 0.031-0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001001DOI Listing
February 2019

Numerical Simulation Based on Individual Voxel Phantoms for a Sophisticated Evaluation of Internal Doses Mainly From 131I in Highly Exposed Workers Involved in the Tepco Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident.

Health Phys 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba, Japan.

As a response to the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, seven TEPCO workers whose exposure doses were expected to be >250 mSv (a tentative dose limit stipulated by the Japanese central authority) attended Japan's National Institute for Radiological Sciences for additional internal dose measurements. The National Institute for Radiological Sciences examination revealed that these workers' internal doses came mainly from their intake of the radionuclide I during emergency operations. In this study, we performed numerical simulations based on individual volume-pixel (voxel) phantoms of six of the seven workers for a more sophisticated evaluation of their internal doses, taking into account the individual thyroid size and other specific parameters. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000995DOI Listing
February 2019

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Indoor Airborne Radon Decay Product Dose Rate and Surface-Deposited Radon Decay Products in Homes.

Health Phys 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.

The temporal variations of the airborne radon decay product dose rate and deposited radon decay product activities, as well as the within-house and house-to-house variations of radon concentrations, were evaluated through repeated field measurements. Long-term average radon and surface-deposited radon decay product concentrations were measured in 76 rooms of 38 houses. Temporal variation of radon, as well as airborne and surface-deposited radon decay products, were measured in 11 of the 38 houses during two different seasons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000970DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Delineating the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Erythropoietic Lineage-Implications for Radiation Biodosimetry.

Health Phys 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Division of Natural Radiation Response Mechanisms, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Timarpur, Delhi, India.

The overall lethality/morbidity of ionizing radiation exposure involves multiple forms of inhibitory or cytotoxic effects that may manifest in different tissues with a varying dose and time response. One of the major systemic effects leading to lethality of radiation includes its suppressive effect on hematopoiesis, which could be observed even at doses as low as 1-2 Gy, whereas effects on gastrointestinal and nervous systems appear at relatively higher doses in the same order. This article reviews the effects of radiation on the three distinct stages of erythropoiesis-formation of erythroid progenitor cells, differentiation of erythroid precursor cells, and terminal maturation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000975DOI Listing
February 2019

Lung and Heart Injury in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Partial-body Irradiation with Minimal Bone Marrow Sparing: Histopathological Evidence of Lung and Heart Injury.

Health Phys 2019 Mar;116(3):383-400

University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD.

Male rhesus macaques were subjected to partial-body irradiation at 10, 11, or 12 Gy with 5% bone marrow protection. Animals were euthanized when dictated by prospectively determined clinical parameters or at approximately 180 d following irradiation. Histological sections of lung and heart were stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as a battery of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000936DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
0.774 Impact Factor

A Comparative Dose-response Relationship Between Sexes for Mortality and Morbidity of Radiation-induced Lung Injury in the Rhesus Macaque.

Health Phys 2019 Mar;116(3):354-365

University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD.

Radiation-induced lung injury is a characteristic, dose- and time-dependent sequela of potentially lethal, delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. Understanding of these delayed effects to include development of medical countermeasures requires well-characterized and validated animal models that mimic the human response to acute radiation and adhere to the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. The objective herein was to establish a nonhuman primate model of whole-thorax lung irradiation in female rhesus macaques. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000925DOI Listing
March 2019
0.774 Impact Factor

Reduction of Operator Hand Exposure in Interventional Radiology with a Novel Finger Sack Using Tungsten-Containing Rubber.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kindai University, Osaka, Japan.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the x-ray shielding ability of a novel tungsten-particle-containing rubber-based finger sack for use in interventional radiology. Shielding rates for the air kerma (mGy m) were measured using a semiconductor dosimeter with and without the finger sack and commercial lead gloves, at a 20 cm distance from the field of view. A C-arm digital angiography system was used with x-ray tube voltages of 60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000992DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Radiation Exposure of Workers and Volunteers in Shelters and Community Reception Centers in the Aftermath of a Nuclear Detonation.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Emergency Management, Radiation and Chemical Branch, Division of Environmental Health Science and Practice, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

After a nuclear detonation, workers and volunteers providing first aid, decontamination, and population monitoring in public shelters and community reception centers will potentially be exposed to radiation from people they are assisting who may be contaminated with radioactive fallout. A state-of-the-art computer-aided design program and radiation transport modeling software were used to estimate external radiation dose to workers in three different exposure scenarios: performing radiation surveys/decontamination, first aid, and triage duties. Calculated dose rates were highest for workers performing radiation surveys due to the relative proximity to the contaminated individual. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000987DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Effect of Sex on Biomarker Response in a Mouse Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

University of Maryland, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baltimore, MD.

Sex is an important confounding variable in biomarker development that must be incorporated into biomarker discovery and validation. Additionally, understanding of sex as a biological variable is essential for effective translation of biomarkers in animal models to human populations. Toward these ends, we conducted high-throughput targeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multiplexed immunoassay analyses using a Luminex-based system in both male and female mice in a model of total-body irradiation at a radiation dose consistent with the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000961DOI Listing
January 2019
0.774 Impact Factor

Characterizing the Natural History of Acute Radiation Syndrome of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Combining High Mass and Spatial Resolution using MALDI-FTICR-MSI.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

University of Maryland, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baltimore, MD.

The acute radiation syndrome of the gastrointestinal tract has been histologically characterized, but the molecular and functional mechanisms that lead to these cellular alterations remain enigmatic. Mass spectrometry imaging is the only technique that enables the simultaneous detection and cellular or regional localization of hundreds of biomolecules in a single experiment. This current study utilized matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging for the molecular characterization of the first natural history study of gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome in the nonhuman primate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000948DOI Listing
January 2019
0.774 Impact Factor

Acute Proteomic Changes in the Lung after WTLI in a Mouse Model: Identification of Potential Initiating Events for Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

University of Maryland, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baltimore, MD.

Radiation-induced lung injury is a delayed effect of acute radiation exposure resulting in pulmonary pneumonitis and fibrosis. Molecular mechanisms that lead to radiation-induced lung injury remain incompletely understood. Using a murine model of whole-thorax lung irradiation, C57BL/6J mice were irradiated at 8, 10, 12, and 14 Gy and assayed at day 1, 3, and 6 postexposure and compared to nonirradiated (sham) controls. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000956DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
0.774 Impact Factor

Proteomic Evaluation of the Acute Radiation Syndrome of the Gastrointestinal Tract in a Murine Total-body Irradiation Model.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

University of Maryland, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baltimore, MD.

Radiation exposure to the gastrointestinal system contributes to the acute radiation syndrome in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Molecular mechanisms that lead to the gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome remain incompletely understood. Using a murine model of total-body irradiation, C57BL/6J male mice were irradiated at 8, 10, 12, and 14 Gy and assayed at day 1, 3, and 6 after exposure and compared to nonirradiated (sham) controls. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000951DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
0.774 Impact Factor

Effects of Diet on Late Radiation Injuries in Rats.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

It has been speculated that the addition of antioxidants to diet could act as either radioprotectors or as mitigators of radiation injury. In preparation for studies of the mitigation efficacy of antioxidants, rats were placed on a modified version of AIN-76A, the diet typically used in such studies. This AIN-76A diet is refined and has no synthetic antioxidants or isoflavones. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000944DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Histopathological Features of the Development of Intestine and Mesenteric Lymph Node Injury in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Partial-body Irradiation with Minimal Bone Marrow Sparing.

Health Phys 2019 Mar;116(3):426-446

University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD.

Male rhesus macaques were subjected to partial-body irradiation at 10, 11, or 12 Gy with 5% bone marrow protection. Animals were euthanized when dictated by prospectively determined clinical parameters or at approximately 180 d following irradiation. Histological sections of jejunum, colon, and mesenteric lymph node were stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as a battery of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362996PMC
March 2019
0.774 Impact Factor

Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure (Deare) in Juvenile and Old Rats: Mitigation by Lisinopril.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226.

Our goal is to develop lisinopril as a mitigator of delayed effects of acute radiation exposure in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases program for radiation countermeasures. Published studies demonstrated mitigation of delayed effects of acute radiation exposure by lisinopril in adult rats. However, juvenile or old rats beyond their reproductive lifespans have never been tested. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000920DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

The Gastrointestinal Subsyndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose-response Relationship With and Without Medical Management.

Health Phys 2019 Mar;116(3):305-338

(in memoriam) Epistem Ltd., Manchester, UK.

Well-characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule. Development of a model for the gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome requires knowledge of the radiation dose-response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the acute and prolonged gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that has been used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality relative to the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome, gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome, and lung injury. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000903DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads
0.774 Impact Factor

Comparison of Organ and Effective Photon Dose Coefficients for Reference Phantoms in Articulated and Upright Postures in Cranial and Caudal Irradiation Geometries.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Center for Nuclear Security Science and Policy Initiatives, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Traditionally, dose estimations have been performed predominantly using anthropomorphic phantoms in an upright posture. However, an exclusively upright posture could reduce accuracy when estimating organ absorbed and effective doses for exposures in realistic postures. In this work, effective dose coefficients were computed using International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103 recommendations for monoenergetic photon plane sources (0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000985DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A Dosimetry Study of Portable X-ray Fluorescence in Vivo Metal Measurements.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

School of Health Sciences, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN.

Portable x-ray fluorescence devices have grown in popularity for possible metal exposure assessment using in vivo measurements of bone and toenail. These measurements are accompanied by a small radiation dose, which is typically assessed by radiation safety committees to be minimal. However, an understanding of precise dose under different instrument conditions is still needed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000971DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The Time Course of Radiation-induced Lung Injury in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Partial-body Irradiation With Minimal Bone Marrow Sparing: Clinical and Radiographic Evidence and the Effect of Neupogen Administration.

Health Phys 2019 Mar;116(3):366-382

Statistician, Rockville, MD.

The primary objectives of two companion manuscripts were to assess the natural history of delayed radiation-induced lung injury in a nonhuman primate model of acute high-dose, partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow sparing, to include the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological evidence and the effect of Neupogen administration on the morbidity and mortality. Nonhuman primates were exposed to 10.0 or 11. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000968DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
0.774 Impact Factor

Targeted Metabolomics Reveals Metabolomic Signatures Correlating Gastrointestinal Tissue to Plasma in a Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

University of Maryland, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baltimore, MD.

High-throughput, targeted metabolomics was used to identify early time-point small intestine and plasma metabolite markers of gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. The small intestine metabolite markers were cross correlated to plasma metabolites in order to identify minimally invasive circulating markers. The radiation exposure covered lethal and sublethal gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000955DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read
0.774 Impact Factor

Radiation Nephropathy in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Partial-Body Irradiation With Minimal Bone Marrow Sparing-Part 2: Histopathology, Mediators, and Mechanisms.

Health Phys 2019 Mar;116(3):409-425

University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD.

Male rhesus macaques were subjected to partial-body irradiation at 10, 11, or 12 Gy with 5% bone marrow protection. Animals were euthanized when dictated by prospectively determined clinical parameters or at approximately 180 d following irradiation. Histological sections of kidney were stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as a battery of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349488PMC
March 2019
0.774 Impact Factor

Cardiac Remodeling and Reversible Pulmonary Hypertension During Pneumonitis in Rats after 13-Gy Partial-Body Irradiation with Minimal Bone Marrow Sparing: Effect of Lisinopril.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Pulmonary Medicine, Department, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Total-body irradiation causes acute and delayed toxicity to hematopoietic, pulmonary, cardiac, gastrointestinal, renal, and other organ systems. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors mitigate many of the delayed injuries to these systems. The purpose of this study was to define echocardiographic features in rats at two times after irradiation, the first before lethal radiation pneumonitis (50 d) and the second after recovery from pneumonitis but before lethal radiation nephropathy (100 d), and to determine the actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004032-900000000-9992
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000919DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Dosimetric Comparison of Four Different Techniques for Supraclavicular Irradiation in 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer.

Health Phys 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Radiation Technology Department, Allied Medical Sciences Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to compare and evaluated the dosimetric characteristics of esophagus, spinal cord, carotid artery, lungs, and brachial plexus in patients with breast cancer undergoing four various techniques of supraclavicular irradiation. By keeping unchanged the breast tangential radiotherapy fields, four different treatment field arrangements were created to irradiate the supraclavicular region as follows: (1) four field (4F; 1 anterior-posterior and 1 posterior-anterior), (2) six field (6F; 2 anterior-posterior and 2 posterior-anterior), (3) five field-1 (5F-1; 2 anterior-posterior and 1 posterior-anterior), and (4) five field-2 (5F-2; 1 anterior-posterior and 2 posterior-anterior). Then, the dosimetric parameters for the above-mentioned organs were evaluated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000991DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Radiation Nephropathy in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Partial-body Irradiation with Minimal Bone Marrow Sparing-Part 1: Acute and Chronic Kidney Injury and the Influence of Neupogen.

Health Phys 2019 Mar;116(3):401-408

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201.

Acute and chronic kidney injury may occur after accidental prompt radiation exposures. We have modeled their occurrence in a nonhuman primate model. Subjects who are exposed to more than 5-Gy prompt irradiation are apt to show blood cell cytopenias and be treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors such as Neupogen® or Neulasta® to mitigate the hematologic injury of the acute radiation syndrome. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000960DOI Listing
March 2019
0.774 Impact Factor

Health Physics Society • 2019 Affiliate Members.

Authors:

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):296

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.HP.0000552865.08887.18DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

NCRP Vision for the Future and Program Area Committee Activities in 2018.

Authors:
John D Boice

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):282-294

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095.

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements' (NCRP) congressional charter aligns with our vision for the future: to improve radiation protection for the public and workers. This vision is embodied within NCRP's ongoing initiatives: preparedness for nuclear terrorism, increasing the number of radiation professionals critically needed for the nation, providing new guidance for comprehensive radiation protection in the United States, addressing the protection issues surrounding the ever-increasing use of ionizing radiation in medicine (the focus of this year's annual meeting), assessing radiation doses to aircrew related to higher altitude and longer flights, providing guidance on emerging radiation issues such as the radioactive waste from hydraulic fracturing, focusing on difficult issues such as high-level waste management, and providing better estimates of radiation risks at low doses within the framework of the Million Person Study of Low-Dose Radiation Health Effects. Cutting-edge initiatives included a reevaluation of the science behind recommendations for lens of the eye dose, recommendations for emergency responders on dosimetry after a major radiological incident, guidance to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration with regard to possible central nervous system effects from galactic cosmic rays (the high-energy, high-mass ions bounding through space), reevaluating the population exposure to medical radiation, and addressing whether the linear no-threshold model is still the best available for purposes of radiation protection (not for risk assessment). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001027DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Radiation Protection Responsibility in Medicine: A Wrap-up.

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):279-281

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

The 54th Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements was held at the Hyatt Regency Bethesda, Maryland, on 5-6 March 2018. This annual meeting, entitled "Radiation Protection Responsibility in Medicine," was the first to deal entirely with radiation protection in medical imaging since the 43rd annual meeting in 2007 ("Advances in Radiation Protection in Medicine"). The 2018 meeting addressed updates for various modalities and included discussion on radiation dose metrics and benefit/risk dialogue. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001031DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Innovations in Computer Technologies Have Impacted Radiation Dosimetry Through Anatomically Realistic Phantoms and Fast Monte Carlo Simulations.

Authors:
X George Xu

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):263-275

JEC 5049, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th St., Troy, NY 12180.

Radiological physics principles have not changed in the past 60 y when computer technologies advanced exponentially. The research field of anatomical modeling for the purpose of radiation dose calculations has experienced an explosion in activity in the past two decades. Such an exciting advancement is due to the feasibility of creating three-dimensional geometric details of the human anatomy from tomographic imaging and of performing Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations on increasingly fast and cheap personal computers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001007DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads
0.774 Impact Factor

Advancing Safety: Role of Equipment Design and Configuration Change in Pediatric Fluoroscopy.

Authors:
Keith J Strauss

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):256-262

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229.

Diagnostic x-ray exams irradiate the patient to produce an x-ray pattern in space, which is captured and processed into a visible image, followed by clinical interpretation. Diagnostic-quality images at a well-managed radiation dose are required. Improvements to image receptors and image processing algorithms have resulted in improved images at reduced dose levels. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001002DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Medical Physics 3.0: Ensuring Quality and Safety in Medical Imaging.

Authors:
Ehsan Samei

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):247-255

Duke Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories (RAI Labs), Departments of Radiology, Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Suite 302, Durham, NC 27710.

Medical imaging often involves radiation and thus radiation protection. Radiation protection in medicine is only one component of the broader calling of health care professionals: fostering human health. As such, radiation risk needs to be put into the context of the larger mandate of improved outcomes in health care. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001022DOI Listing
February 2019

Recent Epidemiologic Studies and the Linear No-Threshold Model For Radiation Protection-Considerations Regarding NCRP Commentary 27.

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):235-246

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Commentary 27 examines recent epidemiologic data primarily from low-dose or low dose-rate studies of low linear-energy-transfer radiation and cancer to assess whether they support the linear no-threshold model as used in radiation protection. The commentary provides a critical review of low-dose or low dose-rate studies, most published within the last 10 y, that are applicable to current occupational, environmental, and medical radiation exposures. The strengths and weaknesses of the epidemiologic methods, dosimetry assessments, and statistical modeling of 29 epidemiologic studies of total solid cancer, leukemia, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer, as well as heritable effects and a few nonmalignant conditions, were evaluated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001015DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

The 42nd Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Radiation Dosimetry Research for Medicine and Protection-A European Journey.

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):222-234

The assessment of doses related to exposures to ionizing radiation is an essential part of all applications of ionizing radiation including radiation medicine, radiation protection, radiation biology, radiation epidemiology, and also industrial uses of radiation. Absorbed dose is generally considered to be the fundamental quantity of radiation dosimetry. It is a metrologically sound quantity for which even primary standards exist for some materials, and it is used routinely in practice. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001023DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Introduction of the 42nd Lauriston S. Taylor Lecturer: Hans-Georg Menzel.

Authors:
R Julian Preston

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):220-221

Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001004DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The 42nd Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture on Radiation Protection and Measurements Presented by Dr. Hans-Georg Menzel.

Authors:
John D Boice

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):218-219

National Council on Radiation, Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001025DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Patient Perspectives on Dialogue and Shared Decision Making.

Authors:
Lawrence T Dauer

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):212-213

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, Box 84, New York, NY 10065.

The fear of radiation on the part of patients and/or clinical staff can hamper adequate shared medical decision making. Typically, one-sided medical radiation risk communication methods with limited effectiveness are employed, such as paternalistic, risk numerology, and quality "assurance" approaches. More study is needed to determine patient preferences and potential fears associated with medical imaging radiation, and the results can provide insights for such discussions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000994DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Communicating Radiation Risk: The Power of Planned, Persuasive Messaging.

Authors:
Jessica S Wieder

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):207-211

US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Every day, health physicists and physicians are expected to communicate effectively with concerned people, but rarely (if ever) are they given training on how to effectively communicate. In an age of social media, this paper presents the relevance of teachings from an ancient Greek philosopher. Aristotle's Rhetoric is still considered one of the most influential works on persuasive messaging. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362361PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Radiation Protection Responsibility in Brachytherapy.

Authors:
Bruce Thomadsen

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):189-204

Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1005 Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705.

Radiation protection in brachytherapy entails protecting members of the public, radiation professionals, and the patient from unnecessary radiation, as well as making sure that the radiation used in the patient's treatment is placed correctly with the correct dose distribution. Protecting members of the public from radiation emanating from brachytherapy sources implanted in a patient was an issue several decades ago, but with modern brachytherapy, the problem has mostly disappeared. The most frequent treatments are either low-dose-rate permanent implants for prostate cancer, or high-dose-rate procedures for gynecological, breast, or skin cancers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001005DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Radiation Oncology-External-Beam Radiation Therapy.

Authors:
Melissa C Martin

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):184-188

Therapy Physics Inc., 2501 Cherry Avenue, Suite 270, Signal Hill, CA 90755.

The application of structural shielding design techniques and goals as outlined in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 151, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities (2005), continues to be the basis for treatment vault design in 2018 with some updated information. Treatment techniques have changed significantly with the dominant usage of intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques today based on concurrent imaging. Some of the developments in linear accelerator technology over the past 15 y include flattening filter-free modes, which enable higher instantaneous dose rates; three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy resulting in potentially higher workloads since healthy tissue is spared; improved intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment delivery systems with lower monitor units per centigray delivered than traditional step and shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy; stereotactic body radiation therapy with higher treatment fractions and increased workloads; and increased use of stereotactic radiosurgery with conventional linear accelerators as well as robotic arm-mounted linear accelerators with higher treatment fractions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004032-201902000-0001
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001034DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Dose Optimization of Hybrid Imaging.

Authors:
Frederic H Fahey

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):179-183

Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.

Hybrid imaging combines the functional and molecular imaging of positron emission computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography with the anatomical information available from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, the clinical utility of positron emission computed tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography has been clearly established in the past 17 y. In addition, the use of positron emission computed tomography/magnetic resonance, which was introduced to the clinic in the past decade, has continued to grow. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004032-201902000-0001
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001006DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Radiopharmaceutical Therapy.

Authors:
George Sgouros

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):175-178

Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, 1550 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21287-0014.

Radiopharmaceutical therapy involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (e.g., nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or that concentrate in tumors through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310043PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Doses, Benefits, Safety, and Risks in Oral and Maxillofacial Diagnostic Imaging.

Authors:
Alan G Lurie

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):163-169

University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Diagnostic Sciences, Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-1605.

Diagnostic imaging is essential in dentistry. Doses range from low to very low, benefits to patients can be immense, and safe techniques are well known but widely ignored. Doses range from very low with properly executed intraoral, cephalometric, and panoramic imaging to higher than multidetector computed tomography with cone-beam computed tomography. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001030DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Computed Tomography Technology-and Dose-in the 21st Century.

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):157-162

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905.

In the last decade or so, a number of disruptive technological advances have taken place in x-ray computed tomography, making possible new clinical applications. Changes in scanner design have included the use of two x-ray sources and two detectors or the use of large detector arrays that provide 16 cm of longitudinal coverage in one gantry rotation. These advances have allowed images of the entire heart to be acquired in just one heartbeat, lowering the effective dose from cardiac computed tomography from ~15 mSv to <1 mSv. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000997DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads