12,017 results match your criteria Health Physics [Journal]


Multiple Facets of the Poisson Distribution Applicable to Health Physics Measurements.

Authors:
Alan L Justus

Health Phys 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.

This paper discusses several ways to view the standard Poisson distribution as applied to health physics scaler counts. The intent is not so much to present calculational details but rather to present some underlying concepts. Examples are provided that illustrate the various concepts for several types of specific measurements. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001013DOI Listing

Effects of 90Sr on Tree Swallow Nestlings Near Groundwater Contaminant Plumes.

Health Phys 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada.

Discharge of groundwater contaminant plumes has created elevated concentrations of Sr in some aquatic sediments at Chalk River Laboratories. Tree swallows (Tachycenita bicolor) feed and supply their nestlings almost exclusively with airborne insects that developed as larvae in aquatic sediments. To monitor the uptake and test for potential detriment due to Sr in a terrestrial animal, we measured the gross beta concentrations in the bone of 12-d-old tree swallow nestlings in areas having sediments with elevated levels of gross beta (Sr and Y) and in several control areas where sediment gross beta was primarily due to naturally occurring K. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004032-900000000-0000
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001076DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Enhancements in the Techa River Dosimetry System: TRDS-2016D Code for reconstruction Of Deterministic Estimates of Dose From Environmental Exposures.

Health Phys 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Emeritus, Department of Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Waterborne releases to the Techa River from the Mayak plutonium facility in Russia during 1949-1956 resulted in significant doses to persons living downstream. The dosimetry system Techa River Dosimetry System-2016D has been developed, which provides individual doses of external and internal exposure for the members of the Techa River cohort and other persons who were exposed to releases of radioactive material to the Southern Urals. The results of computation of individual doses absorbed in red bone marrow and extraskeletal tissues for the Techa River cohort members (29,647 persons) are presented, which are based on residence histories on the contaminated Techa River and the East Urals Radioactive Trace, which was formed in 1957 as a result of the Kyshtym Accident. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001067DOI Listing

Radiation Monitoring of an Isolation Room for 131I Therapy After the Patients Were Released.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Radioisotope Medicine, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University.

Purpose: This study was performed to obtain a better understanding of the radiation environment in an I isolation room after the release of patients with metastasis from thyroid cancer that were treated with I doses ranging from 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) to 5.5 GBq (150 mCi) because there have not been any previous studies regarding the ambient radiation levels encountered in I isolation rooms after patients are released. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001063DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Internal Dose Assessment after 131I-Iodide Misadministration in a Patient With Incompletely Blocked Thyroid Uptake: Personalized Internal Dose Assessment by Estimating Individual-Specific Biokinetics.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):760-770

National Radiation Emergency Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In July 2017, a medical accident occurred in South Korea, in which I-iodide solution was misadministered to the wrong patient. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection provided internal dose coefficients for iodine for blocked thyroid, they were not reliable enough for determining the dose to the patient (whose thyroid uptake was incompletely blocked) due to a discrepancy in biokinetics. Therefore, a personalized dose assessment was performed to derive the individual-specific dose coefficients for the patient. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001019DOI Listing

The Effects of Radiation and Emitted Light Transport on the Positional Response of 11 cm × 42.5 cm × 5.5 cm NaI(Tl) Detectors.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Experiments were performed with 30 11 cm × 42.5 cm × 5.5 cm NaI(Tl) detectors to better understand their positional response. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001051DOI Listing
March 2019
0.774 Impact Factor

A Comparative Study of Radon Levels in Federal Buildings and Residential Homes in Canada.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Shortly after revision of the Canadian radon guideline from 800 to 200 Bq m, Health Canada established the Federal Building Testing Program in 2007 to demonstrate federal leadership in raising awareness about radon risk and the need for testing. By the end of 2017, more than 7,600 federal workplaces had been tested for radon. As is the case in all radon surveys, radon levels vary widely; federal building results ranged from below the detection limit to more than 2,500 Bq m in a few rooms of a few buildings. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001057DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Counting Efficiencies Determined by Monte Carlo Methods for in Vivo Measurement of 131I Activity in Thyroid.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

National Radiation Emergency Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The counting efficiencies obtained using a physical neck phantom are typically used in the measurement of I activity in the thyroid. It is well known, however, that the geometrical discrepancies between the physical neck phantom and the anatomy of the subject can significantly influence the counting efficiencies. Thus, it is necessary to consider the anatomical characteristics of individuals if we need to accurately determine the activity of I in the thyroid. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001070DOI Listing

Thyroid Function in Health Care Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Occupational Medicine and Medicine Divisions, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY.

Objectives: To analyze possible alterations of thyroid function related to dosimetric values in health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation.

Materials And Methods: Forty-six health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation at a tertiary hospital previously exposed to ionizing radiation were included in the study. Age, sex, history of thyroid diseases, thyroid hormones, work post, service, dosimetric values of previous year, and 5 y period were considered. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004032-900000000-9989
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001071DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Identification of Cofilin-1 and Destrin as Potential Early-warning Biomarkers for Gamma Radiation in Mouse Liver Tissues.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):749-759

Key Discipline Laboratory for National Defense for Biotechnology in Uranium Mining and Hydrometallurgy, University of South China.

Gamma radiation causes cell injury and leads to an increased risk of cancer, so it is of practical significance to identify biomarkers for gamma radiation. We used proteomic analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins in liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice treated with gamma radiation from Cs for 360 d. We confirmed obvious pathological changes in mouse liver tissues after irradiation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001012DOI Listing

HEALTH PHYSICS SOCIETY • 2019 AFFILIATE MEMBERS.

Authors:

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):748

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.HP.0000554826.52026.e6DOI Listing

Thorax CT Dose Reduction Based on Patient Features: Effect of Patient Characteristics on Image Quality and Effective Dose.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):736-745

Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Cukurova University, ADANA, Turkey.

Computed tomography (CT) radiation dose reduction is vital without compromising image quality. The aim was to determine the effects of patient characteristics on the received radiation dose and image quality in chest CT examinations and to be able to predict dose and image quality prior to scanning. Consecutive 230 patients underwent routine chest CT examinations were included. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001008DOI Listing

An Overview of Analytical Methods for in Vitro Bioassay of Actinides.

Authors:
P Thakur A L Ward

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):694-714

US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office.

The bioassay of urine and fecal samples has been used since the 1940s to determine an individual's uptake of uranium and actinide elements such as americium and plutonium. Over the years, several analytical separation methods and techniques have been employed for these types of analyses. Analytical separations, ranging from solvent extraction and anion exchange to chromatography, and analytical techniques, ranging from autoradiography to kinetic phosphorescence to fission-track analysis and high-resolution solid-state alpha spectroscopy, have been used at one time or another. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000982DOI Listing

Spectrum and Yield to Dose Conversion Coefficients for Beta Skin Doses Linked to the Q System.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):607-618

Radiation Protection Group, European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva, Switzerland.

Monte Carlo simulations are a state-of-the-art method to calculate dose coefficients and could be used with the Q system for radioactive material packaging. These simulations often take a long time to converge with sufficient precision. Furthermore, if multiple sources have to be taken into account, many weeks of calculations may be needed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004032-201905000-0000
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000986DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Determination of Whole-Body and Lens Dose Conversion Factors for Japanese Field Mice, Apodemus Speciosus.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):577-581

Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University.

The 11 March 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan resulted in widespread radioactive contamination within the 20 km evacuation zone. Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) living within the contaminated region received radiation doses from external environmental contamination as well as internally deposited radionuclides. Cataract formation in the lens of eyes of these mice is a possible deterministic effect of ionizing radiation; however, determination of actual doses is difficult. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001035DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

An Alternative Approach to Estimating Instrument Decision Thresholds for Clearance of Personal Property From Accelerator Facilities.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Environment Safety and Health Directorate, Radiological Control Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000.

Personal property exposed to particle beams and stray radiation at high-energy particle accelerators may contain induced volumetric radioactivity. At both the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Collider-Accelerator and National Synchrotron Light Source II Facilities this radioactivity contains both gamma-emitting and beta-emitting radionuclides. The US Department of Energy (US DOE) recently published Technical Standard 6004-2016. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001061DOI Listing

RADIATION BIOLOGY AND ITS ROLE IN THE CANADIAN RADIATION PROTECTION FRAMEWORK.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario.

The linear no-threshold (linear-non-threshold) model is a dose-response model that has long served as the foundation of the international radiation protection framework, which includes the Canadian regulatory framework. Its purpose is to inform the choice of appropriate dose limits and subsequent as low as reasonably achievable requirements, social and economic factors taken into account. The linear no-threshold model assumes that the risk of developing cancer increases proportionately with increasing radiation dose. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001060DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Demonstrating Compliance with Proposed Reduced Lens of Eye Dose Limits in Nuclear Medicine Settings.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

HSC Section of Nuclear Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Based on ongoing research on ionizing radiation thresholds for cataracts, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has proposed new guidelines lowering the annual occupational lens of eye dose limit from 150 mSv to 20 mSv. The International Atomic Energy Agency has operationalized these new guidelines. Subsequently, national/regional radiation protection regulators are reviewing their lens of eye dose limits with an aim of moving towards the proposed new limits, resulting in licensees having to demonstrate compliance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001059DOI Listing

MONITORING AND DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN FOLLOWING A RADIATION EMERGENCY-PART II: CALIBRATION FACTORS FOR THYROID MONITORING.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Nuclear Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Past radiological and nuclear accidents have demonstrated that monitoring a large number of children following a radiological and nuclear emergency can be challenging, in accommodating their needs as well as adapting monitoring protocols and applying age-specific biokinetics to account for various ages and body sizes. This paper presents the derived calibration factors for thyroid monitoring of children of all ages recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection using four selected detectors at given times following a short-term (acute) intake of I by inhalation. These calibration factors were derived by Monte Carlo simulations using the models of various detectors and pediatric voxel phantoms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001058DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Dose Reconstruction Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Dosimetry on Tooth Enamel From Wild Boar Living in the Fukushima Exclusion Zone.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):799-806

Colorado State University Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, MRB Building, 1618 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

The goal of the study was to establish characteristics of Japanese wild boar tooth enamel in the dose region of 0.25-2.0 Gy and to reconstruct external absorbed doses to wild boar native to the Fukushima exclusion zone using electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001040DOI Listing

Biota Dose Assessment of Small Rodents Sampled Near Breccia Pipe Uranium Mines in the Grand Canyon Watershed.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC.

The biotic exposure and uptake of radionuclides and potential health effects due to breccia pipe uranium mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. This paper describes the use of the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model to assess exposure of small rodents (n = 11) sampled at three uranium mine sites in different stages of ore production (active and postproduction). Rodent tissue and soil concentrations of naturally occurring uranium (U, U, and U), thorium (Th, Th, and Th), and radium (Ra) radioisotopes were used in the dose model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004032-900000000-9990
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001041DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Study of Primordial 226Ra, 228Ra, and 40K Concentrations in Dietary Palm Dates and Concomitant Radiological Risk.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):789-798

Centre for Biomedical Physics, School of Healthcare and Medical Sciences, Sunway University, Selangor, Malaysia.

The presence of natural radionuclides in the food chain point to a need to assess concentration levels and concomitant radiological risk. Highly popular and forming a staple part of the diet in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and West Asia, palm dates growing naturally there have even greater marketability than simple satisfaction of domestic demand, the palm dates representing a valuable export item. Accurate knowledge of the levels of natural radioactivity in the fruit is thus of importance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001042DOI Listing

Development of the Environmental Radiation Survey Program and Its Application to In Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):840-851

Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057, Republic of Korea.

An environmental radiation survey using a gamma-ray spectrometer is used to rapidly detect radioactive contamination over a wide area of ground that was released from nuclear events. For the successful application of a gamma-ray spectrometer to the calculation of the radioactivity concentration in the ground and the dose rate at 1 m above the ground, it is necessary to build a calibration procedure to obtain the counting efficiency at the in situ measurement, which means in situ calibration factor to report the calculation results from the measured net count rate according to the diverse detection geometries. This study is focused on the development of a program to calculate the in situ calibration factor and report the survey results in the environmental radiation surveys using three kinds of gamma-ray spectrometers, which have been widely used in the field of in situ measurements: a coaxial HPGe detector, cylindrical NaI(Tl), and rectangular NaI(Tl). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001043DOI Listing

Intercomparison of Commercially Available Active Radon Measurement Devices in a Discovered Radon Chamber.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):852-861

Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104.

An unventilated 70 m underground space, with 2.1 m high ceilings and an inner set of concrete walls to damp vibrations, was discovered to have relatively stable radon levels of ~1,080 Bq m over a 1-y period. The addition of radium sources was not required to achieve high and somewhat variable radon levels, as these arise naturally in the space. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001047DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read
0.774 Impact Factor

Influences of Aerosol Density and Shape Factor on the Assessment of Internal Exposure to 239Pu.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an, China.

Internal exposure due to inhalation of aerosols depends on the ratio of aerodynamic shape factor (χ) to aerosol mass density (ρ). Inhaled aerosol parameters may differ from the default ρ and χ values provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, which are adopted for the assessment of internal exposures. This paper focuses on the influences of χ/ρ on the assessment of internal exposure to Pu for reference workers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001052DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

NCRP Report 181, Evaluation of the Relative Effectiveness of Low-energy Photons and Electrons in Inducing Cancer in Humans: A Critique and Alternative Analysis.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):817-827

Oak Ridge Center for Risk Analysis, Inc., 102 Donner Drive, Oak Ridge, TN 37830.

A recent report from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of low-energy photons and electrons, relative to higher-energy photons, in inducing cancer in humans. The objective of that evaluation was to develop subjective probability distributions of an uncertain quantity, denoted by ρ, to represent ranges of credible values of the effectiveness of five groups of low-energy radiations (L): photons at about 1.5 keV; 15 to 30 keV photons; 40 to 60 keV photons; >60 to 150 keV photons; and electrons from beta decay of tritium (H). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001011DOI Listing

Emissions From Smart Meters and Other Residential Radiofrequency Sources.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):776-788

Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/IMEC, Ghent, Belgium.

The advent of the Internet of things comes with a huge increase in wirelessly communicating devices in our environment. For example, smart energy-consumption meters are being widely deployed in residences from which they communicate their state using radiofrequency networks. Accurate characterization of the radiofrequency emissions from emerging residential wireless solutions is important to inform the public about the potential impact on their exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001032DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Dose-response Analysis in the Presence of Shared and Unshared Uncertainties of the Dose Values.

Authors:
Eduard Hofer

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):637-646

Mathematician, retired.

The dose values used in dose-response analyses are often the result of a computer model. Epistemic uncertainties of the model application make it necessary to perform an uncertainty analysis. Such uncertainties are model parameters, model formulations, and input data subject to either classical or Berkson additive or multiplicative measurement error. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000993DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Optimization of Spectral String Data Analysis Using a Binomial Discriminator for Weak-source Detection Decisions.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Operational health physics applications, such as radiological and nuclear monitoring and detection for homeland security or radiation protection purposes, generate time sequences of independent individual measurement data. Statistical algorithms have been developed that use the analysis of patterns in the data strings to enhance the test statistic for the decision on the absence or presence of a radiation source. These hypothesis test procedures have been applied to spectral data and have been optimized for the highest rate of correct identification of a weak Cs source at constant false positive detection rates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001046DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Risk Communication Strategies for Possible Health Risks From Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) Emission by Telecommunication Structures.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):835-839

English Department, Faculty of Languages & Linguistics, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

There is widespread anxiety and speculation about RF-EMF emissions by telecommunication base stations and structures, as it is perceived by some to be unsafe and a threat to public health. Scientists, medical experts, politicians, journalists, and mobile telecommunication company specialists are involved in an active debate on whether people are immune to RF or if we are gambling with our future. Interviews with 31 individuals from 7 stakeholder groups in Malaysia reveal that the residents' main concerns are that the telecommunication companies do not follow guidelines and as a result the telecommunication structures are constructed close to their homes, which they perceive as a threat to public health. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001037DOI Listing

210Po in Pacific Salmon from the West Coast of Canada and its Contribution to Dose by Ingestion.

Health Phys 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

In response to public concern in Canada regarding health impacts attributable to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, oceanic seawater samples from the north Pacific and Arctic oceans, coastal seawater samples from 16 locations along the British Columbia coastline, and seafood samples (salmon, steelhead trout, and shellfish) from British Columbia coastal waters were collected and analyzed. This paper reports radiological analysis results of Pacific salmon samples (Oncorhynchus species) obtained from summer 2013 to fall 2016. While radioactive cesium from the Fukushima disaster was not detectable in most salmon samples, naturally occurring Po was measured in almost all individual samples in varying activity concentrations, from below the detection limit of 0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001029DOI Listing

A Simple Method to Screen for Radiostrontium in Water by Ion Exchange Chromatography.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):771-775

Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control.

Radiostrontium isotopes (Sr, Sr, and Sr) are major fission by-products in nuclear reactors, in radiological events, and in environmental radioactive contamination. A method to analyze Sr and Sr in water has been developed using gradient elution with dilute hydrochloric acid and cation exchange resin, followed by carbonate precipitation. Counting was done on a gas proportional counter. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001020DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Computation Speeds and Memory Requirements of Mesh-Type ICRP Reference Computational Phantoms in Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):664-676

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Recently, Task Group 103 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection completed the development of new adult male and female mesh-type reference computational phantoms, which are planned for use in future International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficient calculations. In the present study, the performance of major Monte Carlo particle transport codes, i.e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000999DOI Listing

Radiological Risks From Potential Exposure of the Population to Radiation From Orphan Radioactive Sources.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):715-719

1st Department of Surgery, Laiko University Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece.

People in their everyday lives are exposed to radiation. Natural radiation is emitted from space, subsoil, and various materials which contain radioactive materials. Humans are also exposed to radiation from medical and industrial applications that use radioactive sources with artificial radioactive materials. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001003DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

HEALTH PHYSICS SOCIETY • 2019 AFFILIATE MEMBERS.

Authors:

Health Phys 2019 Apr;116(4):576

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.HP.0000554197.84774.28DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Lifelong Residual bone Marrow Damage in Murine Survivors of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (H-ARS): A Compilation of Studies Comprising the Indiana University Experience.

Health Phys 2019 Apr;116(4):546-557

Indiana University, School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Accurate analyses of the delayed effects of acute radiation exposure in survivors of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome are hampered by low numbers of mice for examination due to high lethality from the acute syndrome, increased morbidity and mortality in survivors, high cost of husbandry for long-term studies, biological variability, and inconsistencies of models from different laboratories complicating meta-analyses. To address this, a compilation of 38 similar hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome studies conducted over a 7-y period in the authors' laboratory, comprising more than 1,500 irradiated young adult C57BL/6 mice and almost 600 day-30 survivors, was assessed for hematopoietic delayed effects of acute radiation exposure at various times up to 30 mo of age. Significant loss of long-term repopulating potential of phenotypically defined primitive hematopoietic stem cells was documented in hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome survivors, as well as significant decreases in all hematopoietic lineages in peripheral blood, prominent myeloid skew, significantly decreased bone marrow cellularity, and numbers of lineage-negative Sca-1+ cKit+ CD150+ cells (KSL CD150+; the phenotype known to be enriched for hematopoietic stem cells), and increased cycling of KSL CD150+ cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388630PMC
April 2019
0.774 Impact Factor

Linear No-threshold (LNT) vs. Hormesis: Paradigms, Assumptions, and Mathematical Conventions that Bias the Conclusions in Favor of LNT and Against hormesis.

Health Phys 2019 Jun;116(6):807-816

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Department of English.

The linear no-threshold assumption misunderstands the complex multiphasic biological response to ionizing radiation, focusing solely on the initial physical radiogenic damage. This misunderstanding is enabled (masked and amplified) by a number of mathematical approaches that bias results in favor of linear no-threshold and away from alternatives, like hormesis, that take biological response into account. Here we explore a number of these mathematical approaches in some detail, including the use of frequentist rather than Bayesian statistical rules and methods. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001033DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Low-Fidelity Spectral Analysis Utilizing a Binomial Discriminator for Weak-Source Detection Decisions.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):727-735

Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, 1618 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

The identification of radiological sources by analysis of a gamma spectrum usually relies on the location of the set of radionuclide-specific electron energies corresponding to the incident photons interacting by photoelectric absorption in the detection medium. The challenge in low-level detection applications is the identification of these "photopeaks" above the background counts registered in the detector from the natural radiation environment and system noise. For source detection decisions, regions of the gamma spectrum other than at the photopeak energies may provide additional information about the presence of a source and allow for a higher rate of correct identification of a weak source. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001009DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Radiation Dose Due to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Soils from Varying Geological Environments.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):657-663

Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.

Field radiation monitoring and radionuclide analysis of soils were performed at various geological areas in Taiwan. The field-observed dose rate was 0.031-0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001001DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Numerical Simulation Based on Individual Voxel Phantoms for a Sophisticated Evaluation of Internal Doses Mainly From 131I in Highly Exposed Workers Involved in the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):647-656

National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba, Japan.

As a response to the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, seven TEPCO workers whose exposure doses were expected to be >250 mSv (a tentative dose limit stipulated by the Japanese central authority) attended Japan's National Institute for Radiological Sciences for additional internal dose measurements. The National Institute for Radiological Sciences examination revealed that these workers' internal doses came mainly from their intake of the radionuclide I during emergency operations. In this study, we performed numerical simulations based on individual volume-pixel (voxel) phantoms of six of the seven workers for a more sophisticated evaluation of their internal doses, taking into account the individual thyroid size and other specific parameters. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000995DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Indoor Airborne Radon Decay Product Dose Rate and Surface-Deposited Radon Decay Products in Homes.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):582-589

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.

The temporal variations of the airborne radon decay product dose rate and deposited radon decay product activities, as well as the within-house and house-to-house variations of radon concentrations, were evaluated through repeated field measurements. Long-term average radon and surface-deposited radon decay product concentrations were measured in 76 rooms of 38 houses. Temporal variation of radon, as well as airborne and surface-deposited radon decay products, were measured in 11 of the 38 houses during two different seasons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000970DOI Listing
May 2019
5 Reads

Delineating the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Erythropoietic Lineage-Implications for Radiation Biodosimetry.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):677-693

Division of Natural Radiation Response Mechanisms, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Timarpur, Delhi, India.

The overall lethality/morbidity of ionizing radiation exposure involves multiple forms of inhibitory or cytotoxic effects that may manifest in different tissues with a varying dose and time response. One of the major systemic effects leading to lethality of radiation includes its suppressive effect on hematopoiesis, which could be observed even at doses as low as 1-2 Gy, whereas effects on gastrointestinal and nervous systems appear at relatively higher doses in the same order. This article reviews the effects of radiation on the three distinct stages of erythropoiesis-formation of erythroid progenitor cells, differentiation of erythroid precursor cells, and terminal maturation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000975DOI Listing

Lung and Heart Injury in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Partial-body Irradiation with Minimal Bone Marrow Sparing: Histopathological Evidence of Lung and Heart Injury.

Health Phys 2019 Mar;116(3):383-400

University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD.

Male rhesus macaques were subjected to partial-body irradiation at 10, 11, or 12 Gy with 5% bone marrow protection. Animals were euthanized when dictated by prospectively determined clinical parameters or at approximately 180 d following irradiation. Histological sections of lung and heart were stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as a battery of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381599PMC
March 2019
3 Reads
0.774 Impact Factor

A Comparative Dose-response Relationship Between Sexes for Mortality and Morbidity of Radiation-induced Lung Injury in the Rhesus Macaque.

Health Phys 2019 Mar;116(3):354-365

University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD.

Radiation-induced lung injury is a characteristic, dose- and time-dependent sequela of potentially lethal, delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. Understanding of these delayed effects to include development of medical countermeasures requires well-characterized and validated animal models that mimic the human response to acute radiation and adhere to the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. The objective herein was to establish a nonhuman primate model of whole-thorax lung irradiation in female rhesus macaques. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000925DOI Listing
March 2019
0.774 Impact Factor

Reduction of Operator Hand Exposure in Interventional Radiology With a Novel Finger Sack Using Tungsten-containing Rubber.

Health Phys 2019 May;116(5):625-630

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kindai University, Osaka, Japan.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the x-ray shielding ability of a novel tungsten-particle-containing rubber-based finger sack for use in interventional radiology. Shielding rates for the air kerma (mGy m) were measured using a semiconductor dosimeter with and without the finger sack and commercial lead gloves, at a 20 cm distance from the field of view. A C-arm digital angiography system was used with x-ray tube voltages of 60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000992DOI Listing
May 2019
10 Reads