199 results match your criteria Hazmat


Assessment of the effectiveness of a course in major chemical incidents for front line health care providers: a pilot study from Saudi Arabia.

BMC Med Educ 2022 May 9;22(1):350. Epub 2022 May 9.

Hail Health Cluster Ministry of Health, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: Mass chemical exposure emergencies are infrequent but can cause injury, illness, or loss of life for large numbers of victims. These emergencies can stretch and challenge the available resources of healthcare systems within the community. Political unrest in the Middle East, including chemical terrorist attacks against civilians in Syria and increasing chemical industry accidents, have highlighted the lack of hospital preparedness for chemical incidents in the region. Read More

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Cookie monster: A case report of a pediatric ingestion of zinc phosphide.

Am J Emerg Med 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine, Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Background: Zinc phosphide is a highly toxic rodenticide that reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form phosphine gas. Ingestion of zinc phosphide can result in consequential toxicity even when ingested in small quantities. Clear guidelines are lacking on appropriate personal protective equipment for providers to avoid additional exposure. Read More

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HMD-Net: A Vehicle Hazmat Marker Detection Benchmark.

Entropy (Basel) 2022 Mar 28;24(4). Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Beijing Key Lab of Traffic Data Analysis and Mining, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China.

Vehicles carrying hazardous material (hazmat) are severe threats to the safety of highway transportation, and a model that can automatically recognize hazmat markers installed or attached on vehicles is essential for intelligent management systems. However, there is still no public dataset for benchmarking the task of hazmat marker detection. To this end, this paper releases a large-scale vehicle hazmat marker dataset named VisInt-VHM, which includes 10,000 images with a total of 20,023 hazmat markers captured under different environmental conditions from a real-world highway. Read More

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Severity Analysis of Hazardous Material Road Transportation Crashes with a Bayesian Network Using Highway Safety Information System Data.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 28;19(7). Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA.

Although crashes involving hazardous materials (HAZMAT) are rare events compared with other types of traffic crashes, they often cause tremendous loss of life and property, as well as severe hazards to the environment and public safety. Using five-year (2013-2017) crash data (N = 1610) from the Highway Safety Information System database, a two-step machine learning-based approach was proposed to investigate and quantify the statistical relationship between three HAZMAT crash severity outcomes (fatal and severe injury, injury, and no injury) and contributing factors, including the driver, road, vehicle, crash, and environmental characteristics. Random forest ranked the importance of risk factors, and then Bayesian networks were developed to provide probabilistic inference. Read More

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Disasters on campus: A cross-sectional survey of college EMS systems' preparedness to respond to mass casualty incidents.

Am J Disaster Med 2022 Fall;14(4):271-295

Chief of Disaster and Operational Medicine Section, Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the training and readiness levels of Collegiate Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers to respond to mass casualty incidents (MCIs).

Methods: An anonymous cross-sectional survey of Collegiate EMS providers was performed.

Participants: Participants were US-based EMS providers affiliated with the National Collegiate Emergency Medical Services Foundation. Read More

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Mindful attention training workshop for firefighters: Design and methodology of a pilot randomized clinical trial.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2022 Jun 6;27:100905. Epub 2022 Mar 6.

Houston Fire Department, 1801 Smith Street, 7th Floor, Houston, TX, 77002, USA.

Mindfulness-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy with regard to diverse psychological symptoms across populations. Few studies have evaluated the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for firefighters. This pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) is designed to determine the preliminary efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel mindfulness-based workshop (entitled "Healthy Action Zone Mindful Attention Training" [HAZMAT]) developed for firefighters (Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT04909216). Read More

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Foresight of the Consequences of the Hazmat Release From an Oil Refinery on the Surrounding Urban Community Following an Earthquake: A Natech Scenario Analysis.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2022 Feb 28:1-10. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Health, Safety and Environment Department, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To analyze the consequences of the Natech scenario of H2S toxic gas release from an oil refinery near Tehran and its effects on surrounding residential areas following an earthquake.

Methods: This research was an applied study. The Natech risk map and the end-point distance of gas release were determined using the Rapid-n software and the Worst-Case Scenario of RMP, respectively. Read More

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February 2022

Do mnemonics help healthcare professionals learn and recall cholinergic toxidromes?

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Feb 28:1-3. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona.

Background: The U.S. National Library of Medicine and Department of Homeland Security assembled subject matter experts (SMEs) for the Toxic Chemical Syndrome Definitions and Nomenclature Workshop. Read More

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February 2022

Availability and use of medications by prehospital providers trained to manage medical complications of patients in hazardous materials incidents.

Am J Disaster Med 2021 Summer;16(3):215-223

Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center, University of Arizona, College of Medicine, Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center, Tucson, Arizona.

Introduction: Little is known about prehospital availability and use of medications to treat patients from hazardous materials (hazmat) medical emergencies. The aim of this study was to identify the availability and frequency of use of medications for patients in hazmat incidents by paramedics with advanced training to care for these patients.

Methods: A prospectively validated survey was distributed to United States paramedics with advanced training in the medical management of patients from hazmat incidents who successfully completed a 16-hour Advanced Hazmat Life Support (AHLS) Provider Course from 1999 to 2017. Read More

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December 2021

Design Optimization of a HAZMAT Multimodal Hub-and-Spoke Network with Detour.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 11 26;18(23). Epub 2021 Nov 26.

School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

The growing transportation risk of hazardous materials (hazmat) is an important threat to public safety. As an efficient and reliable mode of transportation, the multimodal hub-and-spoke transport network helps to achieve economies of scale and reduce costs. Considering the dual goals of risk and cost management of hazmat transportation, a novel optimization model of a multimodal hub-and-spoke network with detour (MHSNWD) for hazmat on the strategic level is designed. Read More

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November 2021

Risk Assessment of Hazmat Road Transportation Considering Environmental Risk under Time-Varying Conditions.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 09 17;18(18). Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Hazardous materials shipments are integral to the development of industrial countries. Significant casualties and severe environmental pollution quickly ensue when accidents occur. Currently, relevant research on risk assessment of hazardous materials' road transportation remains limited when both the population exposure risk and environmental risk are considered, especially in regard to analyzing the differences of accident impacts in different populations and environments. Read More

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September 2021

Biomedical Waste and Solid Waste Management in the Time of COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review of the National and International Scenario and Guidelines.

J Lab Physicians 2021 Jun 28;13(2):175-182. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Microbiology and Biomedical Waste Unit, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital Delhi, New Delhi, India.

Biomedical waste generated during the diagnosis, isolation, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can also be the source of new infections; hence, it needs special consideration. Previous guidelines for the management of biomedical waste need to be revisited as the majority of COVID-19 patients remain asymptomatic and reside in community. Personal protective equipment (PPE) like masks, hazmat suits, gloves, and visors are now being used by the public also. Read More

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National Economic and Environmental Benefit of Reusable Textiles in Cleanroom Industry.

PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 2022 Mar-Apr;76(2):109-119. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Environmental Clarity, Inc., 2505 Fauquier Lane, Reston, VA 20191.

In cleanroom facilities, both disposable and reusable textile garments (coveralls, boots, hoods, and frocks) meet the particulate standards from the most rigorous to the most basic levels. However, the reusables clearly offer two other important benefits, lower annual cost and lower environmental impact. The objectives of this article are to now provide quantitative reusable product benefits on a U. Read More

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Exposure to hazmat road accidents - Toxic release simulation and GIS-based assessment method.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 4;293:112941. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department of Environmental Engineering and Occupational Safety and Health, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, 21000, Novi Sad, Serbia.

Industrial demand has intensified production, utilization, and transport of hazardous materials (hazmat). As the production and use of hazardous materials are frequently carried out at different locations, accidents during the transport of hazmats constantly occur. The most critical points on the hazmat routs within inhabited urban or rural areas are centres where the population with increased vulnerability reside. Read More

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September 2021

The Impact of Personal Protection Equipment on Intubation Times.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Aug 27;36(4):375-379. Epub 2021 May 27.

Kings County Hospital and SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Brooklyn, New YorkUSA.

Introduction: Hazardous material (HAZMAT) protocols require health care providers to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) when caring for contaminated patients. Multiple levels of PPE exist (level D - level A), providing progressively more protection. Emergent endotracheal intubation (ETI) of victims can become complicated by the cumbersome nature of PPE. Read More

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Personal protective equipment use by healthcare workers in intensive care unit during the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: a secondary analysis of the PPE-SAFE survey.

Ther Adv Infect Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;8:2049936121998562. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Surgical, Oncological and Oral Science (Di.Chir.On.S.), University of Palermo, Italy. Departement of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Emergency, Policlinico Paolo Giaccone, Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Italy was the first Western country to be heavily affected by COVID-19. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were exposed to a high risk of occupational infection, partially due to insufficient personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies. This study aimed to describe the practices, availability, training, confidence in PPE use and the adverse effects due to extended PPE use, as reported by HCWs in Italy. Read More

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February 2021

Modelling the daily risk of Ebola in the presence and absence of a potential vaccine.

Infect Dis Model 2020 15;5:905-917. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Mathematics and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Ottawa, 150 Louis-Pasteur Pvt, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5, Canada.

Ebola virus - one of the deadliest viral diseases, with a mortality rate around 90% - damages the immune system and organs, with symptoms including episodic fever, chills, malaise and myalgia. The Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-based candidate vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV) has demonstrated clinical efficacy against Ebola in ring-vaccination clinical trials. In order to evaluate the potential effect of this candidate vaccine, we developed risk equations for the daily risk of Ebola infection both currently and after vaccination. Read More

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October 2020

Statistical modeling of cargo tank truck crashes: Rollover and release of hazardous materials.

J Safety Res 2020 09 29;74:71-79. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Impact Research, LLC, 10480 Little Patuxent Pkwy #1050, Columbia, MD 21044, United States.

Introduction: Cargo Tank Trucks (CTTs) are a primary surface transportation carrier of hazardous materials (hazmat) in the United States and CTT rollover crashes are the leading cause of injuries and fatalities from hazmat transportation incidents. CTTs are susceptible to rollover crashes because of their size, distribution of weight, a higher center of gravity, and the surging and sloshing of liquid cargo during transportation. This study identified and quantified the effects of various factors on the probability of rollover and release of hazmat in traffic crashes where a CTT was involved. Read More

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September 2020

Safety and Efficacy of CarbonCool Half-Body Vest for HAZMAT Decontamination Crews Wearing Personal Protective Equipment: A Pilot Study.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2020 Dec 15;35(6):645-650. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Background: Personal protective equipment (PPE) are essential for medical personnel responding to hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incidents. However, their impermeable design causes increased physiological strain and reduced thermoregulation, limiting work times and causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Use of wearable cooling devices slow heat accumulation and have been shown to reduce thermal and cardiovascular strain in such situations. Read More

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December 2020

Core Competencies of Truck Drivers Responding to Emergencies during Transportation of Hazardous Materials.

J Health Pollut 2020 Sep 25;10(27):200909. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

COMSATS University Islamabad, Attock Campus, Pakistan.

Background: Hazardous material (HAZMAT) transportation drivers are responsible for safe delivery of consignments and face multiple challenges carrying out their duties. Drivers are also the first to respond to emergencies and accidents.

Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to identify the essential competencies needed by HAZMAT transportation drivers to deal with emergencies. Read More

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September 2020

Hazardous materials emergency incidents: public health considerations and implications.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2020 Aug 6;44(4):320-323. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Metropolitan Fire Service, South Australia.

Objective: Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incidents, including the deliberate release of toxic chemicals, can cause a significant drain on resources as well as heightened anxiety in the community. Recent high-profile incidents, including the 2018 illegal waste storage fire in Victoria, Australia, have highlighted the complexity but also the value of multidisciplinary approaches to HAZMAT events. This brief report examines issues from a public health perspective and reflects on the experience of such events in South Australia. Read More

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Risk assessment of water resources pollution from transporting of oil hazardous materials (Sanandaj-Marivan road, Kurdistan Province, Iran).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 30;27(28):35814-35827. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

Water pollution is one of the most important environmental challenges and also one of the main causes of death in the world. Transporting oil products on roads by trucks and their accidents lead to the release of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in water resources pollution. Thus, the main goal of this study is to evaluate the risk assessment of the water resources pollution in the road of Sanandaj to Marivan, Kurdistan province, Iran. Read More

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October 2020

Application of association rules mining algorithm for hazardous materials transportation crashes on expressway.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Jul 19;142:105497. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Transportation Engineering, The University of Seoul, 163 Seoulsiripdae-ro Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02504, South Korea. Electronic address:

Although crashes involving hazardous material (HAZMAT) vehicles on expressways do not occur frequently compared with other types of vehicles, the number of lives lost and social damage is very high when a HAZMAT vehicle-involved crash occurs. Therefore, it is essential to identify the leading causes of crashes involving HAZMAT vehicles and make specific countermeasures to improve the safety of expressways. This study aims to employ the association rules mining (ARM) approach to discover the contributory crash-risk factors of HAZMAT vehicle-involved crashes on expressways. Read More

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Comparing Training Techniques in Personal Protective Equipment Use.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2020 Aug 11;35(4):364-371. Epub 2020 May 11.

SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, New YorkUSA.

Introduction: Physicians' management of hazardous material (HAZMAT) incidents requires personal protective equipment (PPE) utilization to ensure the safety of victims, facilities, and providers; therefore, providing effective and accessible training in its use is crucial. While an emphasis has been placed on the importance of PPE, there is debate about the most effective training methods. Circumstances may not allow for a traditional in-person demonstration; an accessible video training may provide a useful alternative. Read More

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Characteristics, Cause, and Severity Analysis for Hazmat Transportation Risk Management.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 17;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 17.

School of Logistics, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149, China.

The accidents caused by hazardous material during road transportation may result in catastrophic losses of lives and economics, as well as damages to the environment. Regarding the deficiencies in the information systems of hazmat transportation accidents, this study conducts a survey of 371 accidents with consequence Levels II to V involving road transportation in China from 2004-2018. The study proposes a comprehensive analysis framework for understanding the overall status associated with key factors of hazmat transportation in terms of characteristics, cause, and severity. Read More

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Exploring Risk Factors Contributing to the Severity of Hazardous Material Transportation Accidents in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 19;17(4). Epub 2020 Feb 19.

College of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering of the State Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rail Infrastructure Durability and System Safety, Shanghai 201804, China.

With the increasing demand of hazardous material (Hazmat), traffic accidents occurred frequently during Hazmat transportation, which had caused widespread concern in communities. Therefore, a good understanding of Hazmat transportation accident characteristics and contributing factors is of practical importance. In this study, 1721 Hazmat accidents that have occurred during road transportation for the period 2014-2017 in China were examined, and a random-parameters ordered probit model was established to explore the influence of contributing factors on the severity of accidents by accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in the data. Read More

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February 2020

A Review of Data Analytic Applications in Road Traffic Safety. Part 2: Prescriptive Modeling.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Feb 17;20(4). Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Farmer School of Business, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA.

In the first part of the review, we observed that there exists a significant gap between the predictive and prescriptive models pertaining to crash risk prediction and minimization, respectively. In this part, we review and categorize the optimization/ prescriptive analytic models that focus on minimizing crash risk. Although the majority of works in this segment of the literature are related to the hazardous materials (hazmat) trucking problems, we show that (with some exceptions) many can also be utilized in non-hazmat scenarios. Read More

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February 2020

Using tabletop exercises to evaluate nurses' clinical performance of hazardous materials disaster management: A cross-sectional study.

Nurse Educ Today 2020 Apr 30;87:104358. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Nursing, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Hazardous materials (Hazmat) disaster is a specific event with low probability but may be a heavy burden on public health. Competence in Hazmat disaster emergency management is necessary for nurses who care about mass casualties in the first line, especially for nurses in military hospitals. However, less attention has been paid to evaluation of competence of Hazmat disaster emergency responses using tabletop exercises. Read More

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Anhydrous Ammonia Chemical Release - Lake County, Illinois, April 2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jan 31;69(4):109-113. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

On April 25, 2019, a farm tractor towing two 2-ton ammonia tanks on a county road in Lake County, Illinois, experienced a mechanical failure that resulted in the release of anhydrous ammonia, a colorless, pungent, irritating gas that can cause severe respiratory and ocular damage (1). Approximately 80% of anhydrous ammonia produced in the United States is used as a fertilizer in agriculture (1). Eighty-three persons, including first responders, motorists, and neighborhood residents, were evaluated at area hospitals because of exposure to the gas. Read More

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January 2020