225,568 results match your criteria Harvard heart letter : from Harvard Medical School[Journal]


Network localization of heterogeneous neuroimaging findings.

Brain 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Studies of the same disease often implicate different brain regions, contributing to a perceived reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging. Here, we leverage the normative human brain connectome to test whether seemingly heterogeneous neuroimaging findings localize to connected brain networks. We use neurodegenerative disease, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, as our example as it is one of the diseases that has been studied the most using neuroimaging. Read More

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December 2018

Work Loss Before and After Diagnosis of Crohn's Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The aim of this study was to examine work loss in patients with Crohn's disease.

Methods: Using nationwide registers, we identified incident patients with Crohn's disease (2007-2010) and population comparator subjects without inflammatory bowel disease, matched by age, sex, calendar year, health care region, and education level. We assessed the number of lost workdays due to sick leave and disability pension from 5 years before to 5 years after first diagnosis of Crohn's disease or end of follow-up (September 30, 2015). Read More

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December 2018
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CRISPR-C: circularization of genes and chromosome by CRISPR in human cells.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec;46(22):e131

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) and ring chromosomes are genetic alterations found in humans with genetic disorders. However, there is a lack of genetic engineering tools to recapitulate and study the biogenesis of eccDNAs. Here, we created a dual-fluorescence biosensor cassette, which upon the delivery of pairs of CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNAs, CRISPR-C, allows us to study the biogenesis of a specific fluorophore expressing eccDNA in human cells. Read More

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December 2018

Field evaluation of sequential hand wipes for flame retardant exposure in an electronics recycling facility.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 5;219:472-481. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

College of William & Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Department Aquatic Health Sciences, Gloucester Point, VA, USA.

Flame retardants have been associated with endocrine disorders, thyroid disruption, reproductive toxicity, and immunological interference. Through dismantling and recycling electronics and electric products, flame retardants can be released into the air and settle on work surfaces which may lead to dermal exposure. Hand wipe sampling is commonly used to evaluate dermal exposure. Read More

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December 2018

Subtypes of aggression in intermittent explosive disorder.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Oct 19;109:164-172. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, United States.

Research in aggression has distinguished two major subtypes of aggressive behavior: hostile and instrumental. Previous research has examined these subtypes in healthy individuals and forensic samples but not in intermittent explosive disorder (IED), a disorder characterized by recurrent and severe aggressive behavior. We examined aggression subtypes in individuals with IED, healthy subjects, and psychiatric control subjects. Read More

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October 2018

What factors influence ultra-processed food purchase and consumption in households with children? A comparison between participants and non-participants of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).

Appetite 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Ultra-processed foods are industrially formulated products that are convenient, highly-palatable, and contain few whole ingredients. While popular among US households regardless of SES, these foods constitute a relatively large proportion of grocery spending among low-income households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Little is understood about the perceived factors influencing selection and consumption of these foods, particularly among households with children participating in SNAP. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a Health-Related Quality of Life (QoL) instrument for Patients with Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) living in the United States.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

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December 2018

Organoid Modeling of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1972-1988.e16

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

In vitro cancer cultures, including three-dimensional organoids, typically contain exclusively neoplastic epithelium but require artificial reconstitution to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment (TME). The co-culture of primary tumor epithelia with endogenous, syngeneic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a cohesive unit has been particularly elusive. Here, an air-liquid interface (ALI) method propagated patient-derived organoids (PDOs) from >100 human biopsies or mouse tumors in syngeneic immunocompetent hosts as tumor epithelia with native embedded immune cells (T, B, NK, macrophages). Read More

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December 2018

Multisensory Logic of Infant-Directed Aggression by Males.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1827-1841.e17

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Newborn mice emit signals that promote parenting from mothers and fathers but trigger aggressive responses from virgin males. Although pup-directed attacks by males require vomeronasal function, the specific infant cues that elicit this behavior are unknown. We developed a behavioral paradigm based on reconstituted pup cues and showed that discrete infant morphological features combined with salivary chemosignals elicit robust male aggression. Read More

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December 2018

Irisin Mediates Effects on Bone and Fat via αV Integrin Receptors.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1756-1768.e17

Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Irisin is secreted by muscle, increases with exercise, and mediates certain favorable effects of physical activity. In particular, irisin has been shown to have beneficial effects in adipose tissues, brain, and bone. However, the skeletal response to exercise is less clear, and the receptor for irisin has not been identified. Read More

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December 2018

Progesterone for Preterm Birth Prevention: The Importance of Informed Consent.

Authors:
Adam C Urato

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Chief, Maternal-Fetal Medicine, MetroWest Medical Center, Framingham, MA. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Risk Factors for Severe Dry Eye Disease: Crowdsourced Research Using DryEyeRhythm.

Ophthalmology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Japan.

This large-scale crowdsourced study using the iPhone application DryEyeRhythm identified the risk factors for severe dry eye disease-type symptoms, which included female sex, collagen disease, hay fever, depression, current contact-lens use, extended screen time, and smoking. Read More

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December 2018
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Interferon-gamma production in Lyme arthritis synovial tissue promotes differentiation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes into immune effector cells.

Cell Microbiol 2018 Dec 14:e12992. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Immunology & Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, & Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Lyme arthritis (LA), a late disease manifestation of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, usually resolves with antibiotic therapy. However, some patients develop proliferative synovitis lasting months to several years after spirochetal killing, called post-infectious LA. In this study, we phenotyped hematopoietic and stromal cell populations in the synovial lesion ex vivo and used these findings to generate an in vitro model of LA using patient-derived fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Read More

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December 2018

Pathologic Prognostic Factors in Endometrial Carcinoma (Other Than Tumor Type and Grade).

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S93-S113

Department of Cellular Pathology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London (N.S.) Department of Cellular Pathology, Birmingham Women's NHS Trust, Birmingham (L.H.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast (W.G.M.), UK Division of Anatomic Pathology, Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania (R.Z.) Department of Pathology, Mexico City Hospital of Oncology, Mexico City, Mexico (I.A.-C.) Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (M.A.D.) Department of Pathology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (R.A.-F.) Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (E.E., A.M.) Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (J.L.H.) Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (M.N.) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (E.O.), Boston, Massachusetts Division of Gynecologic, Breast & Perinatal Pathology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (L.-C.H.) Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen (A.S.), Germany Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (O.I.) Pathological Oncology Group and Pathology Department, University Hospital of Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (X.M.-G.) Department of Pathology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, ISGlobal, Barcelona Center for International Health Research, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (J.O.), Spain Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan (Y.M.) Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Pathology, Women and Infants Hospital/Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (M.R.Q.) Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (C.M.Q.) Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (C.Z.).

Although endometrial carcinoma (EC) is generally considered to have a good prognosis, over 20% of women with EC die of their disease, with a projected increase in both incidence and mortality over the next few decades. The aim of accurate prognostication is to ensure that patients receive optimal treatment and are neither overtreated nor undertreated, thereby improving patient outcomes overall. Patients with EC can be categorized into prognostic risk groups based on clinicopathologic findings. Read More

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January 2019

Guidelines to Aid in the Distinction of Endometrial and Endocervical Carcinomas, and the Distinction of Independent Primary Carcinomas of the Endometrium and Adnexa From Metastatic Spread Between These and Other Sites.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S75-S92

Department of Histopathology, King Edward Memorial Hospital and School for Women's and Infants' Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia (C.J.R.S.) Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital (C.P.C.) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (E.O.), Boston, Massachusetts Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK (W.G.M.) Department of Pathology, Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (K.J.P.) Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (J.K.R.) Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Pathological Oncology Group and Pathology Department, Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain (X.M.-G.) Departments of Pathology and Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (B.M.R.).

In most cases of suspected endometrial neoplasia tumor origin can be correctly assigned according to a combination of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features, even when the latter are based upon the examination of relatively small biopsy samples. However there are well-recognized exceptions to this rule which continue to create diagnostic difficulty, and sometimes difficulties persist even after the detailed examination of resection specimens. Among the most common problems encountered in practice are the distinction of primary endometrial and primary endocervical adenocarcinomas, and the determination of tumor origin when there is synchronous, multifocal involvement of gynecologic tract sites, for example the endometrium and the ovary. Read More

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January 2019

High-grade Endometrial Carcinomas: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Features, Diagnostic Challenges and Recommendations.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S40-S63

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (R.M., R.A.S.) New York University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Tisch Hospital (K.M.), New York Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Stony Brook School of Medicine, Stony Brook (C.T.), New York Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital; Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (B.D.) Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego (O.F.) Department of Pathology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.K.L.R.), California Department of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (J.A.C.) Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (C.P.C.) Department of Pathology, Massachussetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (E.O.), Boston, Massachussetts Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (C.B.G., J.A.I.) Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pathology and Medical Genetics, Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria (J.A.I.), BC, Canada Department of Pathology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Department of Pathology, Hospital University Arnau de Vilanova; and Department of Pathology, Hospital University de Bellvitge, IRBLLEIDA, IDIBELL, University of Lleida, CIBERONC, Barcelona, Spain (X.M.-G.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK (W.G.M.) Department of Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale School of Medicine and Yale School of Publich Health, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (P.N.S.) Department of Pathology, KEMH and School for Women's and Infants' Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia (C.J.R.S.).

This review of challenging diagnostic issues concerning high-grade endometrial carcinomas is derived from the authors' review of the literature followed by discussions at the Endometrial Cancer Workshop sponsored by the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists in 2016. Recommendations presented are evidence-based, insofar as this is possible, given that the levels of evidence are weak or moderate due to small sample sizes and nonuniform diagnostic criteria used in many studies. High-grade endometrioid carcinomas include FIGO grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas, serous carcinomas, clear cell carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. Read More

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January 2019
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Endometrial Carcinoma, Grossing and Processing Issues: Recommendations of the International Society of Gynecologic Pathologists.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S9-S24

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M., E.D.E.) Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (J.L.H.) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (E.O.), Boston, Massachusetts Department of Pathology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (R.A.F.) Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (C.M.Q.) Department of Cellular Pathology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London (N.S.) Department of Cellular Pathology, Birmingham Women's NHS Trust, Birmingham (L.H.), UK Division of Gynecologic, Breast and Perinatal Pathology, University Hospital, Leipzig (L.C.H.) Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen (A.S.), Germany Department of Pathology, Hospital de Oncología Siglo XXI, Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico (I.A.C.) Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge and Hospital Universitari de Arnau de Vilanova, Idibell, Irblleida, and Universitat de Lleida, Ciberonc (X.M.G.) Department of Pathology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (J.O.), Spain Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada (M.D.) Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan (Y.M.) Department of Pathology, Women and Infants Hospital and The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (M.R.Q.) Division of Anatomic Pathology, Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania (R.Z.) Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (C.Z.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK (W.G.M.).

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic neoplasm in developed countries; however, updated universal guidelines are currently not available to handle specimens obtained during the surgical treatment of patients affected by this disease. This article presents recommendations on how to gross and submit sections for microscopic examination of hysterectomy specimens and other tissues removed during the surgical management of endometrial cancer such as salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and lymph node dissection-including sentinel lymph nodes. In addition, the intraoperative assessment of some of these specimens is addressed. Read More

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January 2019

Current Practices in the Processing, Diagnosis, and Reporting of Endometrial Carcinoma: Results of a Web-based Survey by the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists (ISGyP).

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S3-S8

Department of Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale School of Medicine and the Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Pathology, Hospital University Arnau de Vilanova and University de Bellvitge, Irblleida, Idibell, University of Lleida, Ciberonc, Lleida, Spain (X.M.G.) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (E.O.) Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK (W.G.M.).

There have been significant advances in our understanding of the biology and classification of endometrial carcinoma, over the last few years, and the new prediction models proposed for prognostication. To accurately diagnose and stage tumors and apply these prediction models, it is necessary that there be standardized processing of specimens, and a common understanding and usage of the diagnostic terminology of endometrial carcinoma. The International Society of Gynecological Pathologists embarked on an ambitious project to achieve this goal in 2015. Read More

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January 2019

The International Society of Gynecological Pathologists (ISGyP) Endometrial Carcinoma Project.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S1-S2

Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK (W.G.M.) Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Departments of Pathology, Hospital University Arnau de Vilanova and, Hospital University de Bellvitge, IRBLLEIDA, Idibell, University of Lleida, CIBERONC, Barcelona, Spain (X.M.-G.) James Homer Wright Pathology Laboratories, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (E.O.) Department of Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale School of Medicine and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.).

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January 2019

Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists/European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthetists Practice Advisory for the Management of Perioperative Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

Anesth Analg 2019 Jan;128(1):33-42

Department of Perioperative Medicine, Barts Heart Centre, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Postoperative atrial fibrillation (poAF) is the most common adverse event after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital and intensive care unit length of stay. Despite progressive improvements in overall cardiac surgical operative mortality and postoperative morbidity, the incidence of poAF has remained unchanged at 30%-50%. A number of evidence-based recommendations regarding the perioperative management of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been released from leading cardiovascular societies in recent years; however, it is unknown how closely these guidelines are being followed by medical practitioners. Read More

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January 2019

Clinical Practice Improvement: Mind the Gap or Fall Into the Chasm.

Anesth Analg 2019 Jan;128(1):19-20

Missoula Anesthesiology and The International Heart Institute of Montana, Missoula, Montana.

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January 2019
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CE: Original Research: Antineoplastic Drug Administration by Pregnant and Nonpregnant Nurses: An Exploration of the Use of Protective Gloves and Gowns.

Am J Nurs 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Christina C. Lawson is the epidemiology team leader, Candice Y. Johnson and Carissa M. Rocheleau are epidemiologists, and James M. Boiano is an industrial hygienist in the Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Cincinnati, OH. Feiby L. Nassan is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston. Thomas H. Connor is a research biologist in the Division of Applied Research and Technology at NIOSH. Jorge E. Chavarro is an associate professor in the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health at Harvard Medical School, as well as the principal investigator of the Nurses' Health Study 3. Janet W. Rich-Edwards is the director of developmental epidemiology at the Mary Horrigan Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Rich-Edwards received grant funding from NIOSH to support data analysis (grant no. 200-2013-M-54978). Contact author: Christina C. Lawson, The authors and planners have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Findings from this cross-sectional study indicate a need for expanded training in safe handling practices.

Abstract: Background: Many antineoplastic (chemotherapeutic) drugs are known or probable human carcinogens, and many have been shown to be reproductive toxicants in cancer patients. Evidence from occupational exposure studies suggests that health care workers who have long-term, low-level occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs have an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

Operation Cancer Resection: Does Anesthetic Approach Matter?

Anesthesiology 2019 Jan;130(1):A17

Vanderbilt University Medical Center Brigham and Women's Health Care/Harvard Medical School.

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January 2019

Lipoprotein metabolism in liver diseases.

Curr Opin Lipidol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The liver is the central hub of lipoprotein metabolism. A complex relationship exists between dyslipidemia and chronic liver diseases (CLDs). Recent advances in the genetics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) exemplify the pivotal role of lipoprotein metabolism in the pathogenesis of CLD. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of Fentanyl Use on Buprenorphine Treatment Retention and Opioid Abstinence.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital (SEW, YC, SR, LY, JM, NR); Harvard Medical School (SEW, YC, SR, JF, JM, NR); Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (JF).

Objectives: There has been a rapid increase in the presence of illicitly manufactured fentanyl in the heroin drug supply. Buprenorphine is an effective treatment for heroin and prescription opioid use disorder; however, little is known about treatment outcomes among people using fentanyl. We compared 6-month treatment retention and opioid abstinence among people initiating buprenorphine treatment who had toxicology positive for heroin compared to fentanyl at baseline. Read More

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December 2018

Factors Associated With Long-Term Outcomes After Injury: Results of the Functional Outcomes and Recovery After Trauma Emergencies (FORTE) Multicenter Cohort Study.

Ann Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma, Burn and Surgical Critical Care, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with patient-reported outcomes, 6 to 12 months after moderate to severe injury.

Summary Of Background Data: Due to limitations of trauma registries, we have an incomplete understanding of factors that impact long-term patient-reported outcomes after injury. As 96% of patients survive their injuries, several entities including the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine have called for a mechanism to routinely follow trauma patients and determine factors associated with survival, patient-reported outcomes, and reintegration into society after trauma. Read More

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December 2018

Tumor Testing for Microsatellite Instability to Identify Lynch Syndrome: New Insights Into an Old Diagnostic Strategy.

J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 14:JCO1801664. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

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December 2018

Imaging the Human Prostate Gland Using 1-μm-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

From the Wellman Center for Photomedicine (Drs Gardecki, Singh, and Tearney) and the Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge (Drs Wu and Tearney); the Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston (Dr Tearney); and the Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Drs Wu and Tearney).

Context.—: The accuracy of needle biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer is limited by well-known sampling errors. Thus, there is an unmet need for a microscopic screening tool that can screen large regions of the prostate comprehensively for cancer. Read More

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December 2018

Handshaking promotes deal-making by signaling cooperative intent.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Marketing, Harvard Business School.

We examine how a simple handshake-a gesture that often occurs at the outset of social interactions-can influence deal-making. Because handshakes are social rituals, they are imbued with meaning beyond their physical features. We propose that during mixed-motive interactions, a handshake is viewed as a signal of cooperative intent, increasing people's cooperative behavior and affecting deal-making outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

Relationship between the Implicit Association Test and intergroup behavior: A meta-analysis.

Am Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Using data from 217 research reports (N = 36,071, compared to 3,471 and 5,433 in previous meta-analyses), this meta-analysis investigated the conceptual and methodological conditions under which Implicit Association Tests (IATs) measuring attitudes, stereotypes, and identity correlate with criterion measures of intergroup behavior. We found significant implicit-criterion correlations (ICCs) and explicit-criterion correlations (ECCs), with unique contributions of implicit (β = .14) and explicit measures (β = . Read More

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December 2018

Modular Nanoparticulate Prodrug Design Enables Efficient Treatment of Solid Tumors Using Bioorthogonal Activation.

ACS Nano 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Systems Biology , Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston , Massachusetts 02114 , United States.

Prodrug strategies that facilitate localized and controlled activity of small-molecule therapeutics can reduce systemic exposure and improve pharmacokinetics, yet limitations in activation chemistry have made it difficult to assign tunable multifunctionality to prodrugs. Here, we present the design and application of a modular small-molecule caging strategy that couples bioorthogonal cleavage with a self-immolative linker and an aliphatic anchor. This strategy leverages recently discovered in vivo catalysis by a nanoencapsulated palladium compound (Pd-NP), which mediates alloxylcarbamate cleavage and triggers release of the activated drug. Read More

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December 2018

Review of light parameters and photobiomodulation efficacy: dive into complexity.

J Biomed Opt 2018 Dec;23(12):1-17

Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy, previously known as low-level laser therapy, was discovered more than 50 years ago, yet there is still no agreement on the parameters and protocols for its clinical application. Some groups have recommended the use of a power density less than 100  mW/cm2 and an energy density of 4 to 10  J/cm2 at the level of the target tissue. Others recommend as much as 50  J/cm2 at the tissue surface. Read More

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December 2018
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Hypercalcemia and Psychosis: Case Report, Review of the Literature, and Management Considerations.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Nov 29;20(6). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

VA Boston Healthcare System, Brockton, Massachusetts, USA.

The objective of this article is to help clinicians make an accurate diagnosis by considering hypercalcemia as a potential cause of psychosis. A patient case is presented, along with a review of the literature dissecting the association between calcium and psychiatric symptoms. Clinical implications and suggestions for management of hypercalcemia and psychosis in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism are provided. Read More

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November 2018

What Should a Psychiatrist Know About Genetics? Review and Recommendations From the Residency Education Committee of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics.

J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Nov 27;80(1). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The International Society of Psychiatric Genetics (ISPG) created a Residency Education Committee with the purpose of identifying key genetic knowledge that should be taught in psychiatric training programs. Thirteen committee members were appointed by the ISPG Board of Directors, based on varied training, expertise, gender, and national origin. The Committee has met quarterly for the past 2 years, with periodic reports to the Board and to the members of the Society. Read More

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November 2018

Metabolic Syndrome in Dutch Patients With Bipolar Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Dec 6;20(6). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Objective: To characterize the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Dutch patients with bipolar disorder (BD), identify factors associated with MetS, and estimate the rate of pharmacologic treatment of MetS in this population.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of medical records of adult patients (≥ 18 years) with BD receiving psychotropic drug treatment was performed in a Dutch psychiatric outpatient setting. MetS was determined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III-Adapted (NCEP ATP III-A) criteria. Read More

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December 2018

Changes in Sex, Race, and Ethnic Origin of Emergency Medicine Resident Physicians from 2007-2017.

Acad Emerg Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Rhode Island Hospital and Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI.

Diversity among residents in particular, and among the emergency medicine workforce in general, is a goal of both specialty societies and accrediting agencies. The proportion of medical students and residents who self-identify as female has increased over the last few decades, but the proportion who are racial and ethnic minorities remains low. The percentage of emergency physicians and emergency medicine residents who are women and minorities are known to be lower than that of the general population. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of Aβ and tau on prospective cognitive decline in older individuals.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Harvard Aging Brain Study, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau pathologies are commonly observed among clinically normal older individuals at post-mortem and can now be detected with in vivo neuroimaging. The association and interaction of these proteinopathies with prospective cognitive decline in normal aging and preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be fully elucidated.

Methods: One hundred and thirty-seven older individuals (age=76. Read More

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December 2018

Entecavir and peginterferon alfa-2a in adults with HBeAg-positive immune tolerant chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Michigan.

Background/aim: Monotherapy with interferon or nucleoside analog is generally not recommended during the immune tolerant (IT) phase of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recognition that high HBV DNA levels are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma has increased interest in treating HBV in the IT phase. Small pediatric studies reported efficacy with combination nucleoside analog and interferon therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Neural gain control measured through cortical gamma oscillations is associated with sensory sensitivity.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre (GNC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Gamma oscillations facilitate information processing by shaping the excitatory input/output of neuronal populations. Recent studies in humans and nonhuman primates have shown that strong excitatory drive to the visual cortex leads to suppression of induced gamma oscillations, which may reflect inhibitory-based gain control of network excitation. The efficiency of the gain control measured through gamma oscillations may in turn affect sensory sensitivity in everyday life. Read More

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December 2018

Photodetachable Adhesion.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 14:e1806948. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, MA, 02138, USA.

Peeling from strong adhesion is hard, and sometimes painful. Herein, an approach is described to achieve both strong adhesion and easy detachment. The latter is triggered, on-demand, through an exposure to light of a certain frequency range. Read More

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December 2018
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Direct and indirect effects of climate on richness drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in forest trees.

Ecol Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

ECNU-Alberta Joint Lab for Biodiversity Study, Tiantong National Station for Forest Ecosystem Research, East China Normal University, 200241, Shanghai.

Climate is widely recognised as an important determinant of the latitudinal diversity gradient. However, most existing studies make no distinction between direct and indirect effects of climate, which substantially hinders our understanding of how climate constrains biodiversity globally. Using data from 35 large forest plots, we test hypothesised relationships amongst climate, topography, forest structural attributes (stem abundance, tree size variation and stand basal area) and tree species richness to better understand drivers of latitudinal tree diversity patterns. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of sex and reproductive status on memory circuitry structure and function in early midlife using structural covariance analysis.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Research on age-related memory alterations traditionally targets individuals aged ≥65 years. However, recent studies emphasize the importance of early aging processes. We therefore aimed to characterize variation in brain gray matter structure in early midlife as a function of sex and menopausal status. Read More

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December 2018

In response to Letter to the Editor regarding: Primary surgery versus primary radiation-based treatment for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

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December 2018

Improvement of hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma with oral trametinib.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Dermatology Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

We report a child with a past medical history notable for congenital deafness, palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK), and hypothalamic glioma who initiated a MEK inhibitor trametinib for cancer-directed therapy at 11 years of age and was incidentally noted to have marked improvement in his PPK. Trametinib withdrawal led to worsening in the patient's PPK. We speculate that the patient's PPK improved because of trametinib, given the temporal relationship between trametinib therapy and PPK severity, observed both after introduction and withdrawal of trametinib therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Global patterns in excess body weight and the associated cancer burden.

CA Cancer J Clin 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Scientific Vice President, Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

The prevalence of excess body weight and the associated cancer burden have been rising over the past several decades globally. Between 1975 and 2016, the prevalence of excess body weight in adults-defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m -increased from nearly 21% in men and 24% in women to approximately 40% in both sexes. Notably, the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m ) quadrupled in men, from 3% to 12%, and more than doubled in women, from 7% to 16%. Read More

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December 2018
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Generation of Pancreatic Ductal Organoids and Whole-Mount Immunostaining of Intact Organoids.

Curr Protoc Cell Biol 2018 Dec 12:e82. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Section of Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Traditionally, studies of cells and tissues have been performed on isolated primary cells or immortalized cell lines by culturing them in 2D culture dishes or flasks. However, a caveat regarding 2D culture is that the cells poorly recapitulate their in vivo counterparts, mainly due to a lack of 3D cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In recent years, the development of in vitro organoids as 3D culture has gained substantial attention as a model to study different tissues. Read More

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December 2018

Novel variants in SPTAN1 without epilepsy: An expansion of the phenotype.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Office of the Clinical Director, NHGRI, and NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

We describe two unrelated children with de novo variants in the non-erythrocytic alpha-II-spectrin (SPTAN1) gene who have hypoplastic brain structures, intellectual disability, and both fine and gross motor impairments. Using agnostic exome sequencing, we identified a nonsense variant creating a premature stop codon in exon 21 of SPTAN1, and in a second patient we identified an intronic substitution in SPTAN1 prior to exon 50 creating a new donor acceptor site. Neither of these variants has been described previously. Read More

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December 2018

Alcohol Consumption and Hospitalization Burden in an Adult Italian Population: Prospective Results from the Moli-sani Study.

Addiction 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS NEUROMED, Pozzilli, (IS), Italy.

Background And Aims: Epidemiological evidence on the impact of different alcohol drinking patterns on healthcare systems or hospitalizations is sparse. We investigated how the different average volumes of alcohol consumed relate to all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations.

Design: Prospective cohort study (baseline 2005-10) linked to a registry of hospital discharge records to identify hospitalizations at follow-up (Dec-2013). Read More

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December 2018