42,128 results match your criteria Harm Reduction Journal [Journal]


Novel endotypes in heart failure: effects on guideline-directed medical therapy.

Eur Heart J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Aims: We sought to determine subtypes of patients with heart failure (HF) with a distinct clinical profile and treatment response, using a wide range of biomarkers from various pathophysiological domains.

Methods And Results: We performed unsupervised cluster analysis using 92 established cardiovascular biomarkers to identify mutually exclusive subgroups (endotypes) of 1802 patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) from the BIOSTAT-CHF project. We validated our findings in an independent cohort of 813 patients. Read More

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December 2018

Stakeholder perspectives on implementing fentanyl drug checking: Results from a multi-site study.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 13;194:527-532. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 N. Broadway, Hampton House 163, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The opioid epidemic is one of the greatest public health crises of our times, driven increasingly by synthetic opioids such as fentanyl in the heroin supply. The implementation of drug checking in community settings has the potential to reduce the burden of fatal overdose, provide harm reduction education around safer drug consumption, and increase health access among people who use drugs (PWUD). To inform program development, we explored stakeholder opinions on drug checking technologies and implementation considerations. Read More

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November 2018

The high prevalence of pre-existing mental health complaints in clients attending Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre: Implications for initial management and engagement with the Independent Sexual Violence Advisor service at the centre.

J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Dec 5;61:102-107. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre, York Place, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre has a unique service delivery model whereby it provides an integrated physical and psychological support services to clients, women men and children, living in Greater Manchester. The service is available to those who have reported rape or sexual assault, whether this is recent or historic. Clients living in surrounding areas of Cheshire are provided with forensic and medical services at Saint Mary's Centre, with follow-up care provided locally, as appropriate. Read More

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December 2018

The role of powerful audiences in health information avoidance.

Soc Sci Med 2018 Dec 1;220:430-439. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

University of Florida, United States.

Background: Although people may want to learn information, concerns about how audiences (persons or entities privy to one's behavior or information) might respond may motivate people to avoid information that audiences could use to threaten resources or harm them.

Purpose: We examined whether powerful audiences prompt health risk information avoidance.

Methods: We tested in two studies (N = 843 adults 25 and older, 75% White) the influence of different audiences on medical information avoidance. Read More

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December 2018

[New tobacco products, a threat for tobacco control and public health of Mexico].

Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):598-604

Departamento de Investigación sobre Tabaco, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. Cuernavaca, Morelos. México.

The new tobacco products that include electronic cigarettes (called "E Cig", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), electronic nicotine delivery systems (SEAN, Spanish acronym), similar systems without nicotine (SSSN, Spanish acronym) and alternative nicotine consumption systems (SACN, Spanish acronym), are positioned in the global market with a discourse of harm reduction and risk minimization. This manuscript summarizes the scientific evidence and presents a regulatory proposal for this technological innovation, oriented to guide the decision making of legislators, government institutions and organized civil society. The scientific evidence concludes that there is no safe tobacco product for health. Read More

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[The recent syndemic of HIV and injected drugs in Hermosillo, Sonora and how face it with a public policy of harm reduction].

Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):494-495

Centro Nacional para la Prevención y Control del VIH//Sida. Ciudad de México, México.

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December 2018

Posttreatment surveillance PET/CT for HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, California.

Background: Surveillance positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for treatment assessment of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer. However, human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV+OPSCC) patients represent a unique subpopulation, for which the utility of surveillance PET/CT has not been well studied.

Methods: In this retrospective chart review comprising 233 HPV+OPSCC patients, we evaluated surveillance PET/CT for diagnostic accuracy, downstream clinical impact, and survival. Read More

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December 2018

Uptake of direct acting antiviral therapies for the treatment of hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs in a universal health-care system.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment can reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence and mortality, although large scale uptake of these treatments is necessary to achieve those reductions. Targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) will be crucial to achieve the necessary reductions. Previously, treatment uptake has been very low (1-2%) among PWID, but these new DAAs have been subsidised in Australia since March 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Exploring the binding interaction of the by-product of Maillard reaction 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde with calf thymus DNA.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, 235 Nanjing East Road Nanchang, 330047, China.

Background: 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF), a kind of by-product of Maillard reaction, usually existed in fried and baked food, it may cause potential harm to human body. Here, the interaction between 5-HMF and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) under physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was studied using multispectroscopic methods combined with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) chemometrics and molecular simulation techniques. Read More

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December 2018

Infection by invasive parasites increases susceptibility of native hosts to secondary infection via modulation of cellular immunity.

J Anim Ecol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

AWI Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Wadden Sea Station Sylt, Hafenstraße 43, D-25992, List/Sylt, Germany.

1.Parasite spillover from invasive aliens to native species increases the risk of disease emergence within native biota - either by direct harm to the new host or by indirect effects like increased risks of secondary infection. 2. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal probiotic supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 12;12:CD012519. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington VT, USA.

Background: Inflammation may contribute to preterm birth and to morbidity of preterm infants. Preterm infants are at risk for alterations in the normal protective microbiome. Oral probiotics administered directly to preterm infants have been shown to decrease the risk for severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) as well as the risk of death, but there are safety concerns about administration of probiotics directly to preterm infants. Read More

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December 2018

Seasonal variability is not observed in the rates of high anti-A and anti-B titers in plasma, apheresis platelet, and whole blood units tested by different methods.

Transfusion 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire.

Background: ABO-incompatible platelet transfusions are common, and transfusions with ABO-incompatible plasma are increasing with the use of group A plasma and group O whole blood (WB) in emergencies. Many centers screen blood products for anti-A and/or anti-B titers to help prevent hemolysis from ABO-incompatible transfusions, yet titer methods and definition of high titers are not standardized.

Study Design And Methods: This international multicenter study collected data on anti-A and anti-B titer practices for plasma, apheresis platelet (AP), and WB units from January 2015 through December 2017 to determine the prevalence of high-titer units using local definitions. Read More

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December 2018

The prevalence and clinical seriousness of medication discrepancies identified upon hospital admission of pediatric patients.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 14;18(1):966. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Clinical Pharmacy, Al-Hodeida University, Al-Hodeida, Yemen.

Background: Medication discrepancies are seen frequently in hospital setting upon admission or discharge. Medication Reconciliation service is a practice designed to ensure that patients' medications are ordered in a correct manner upon hospital admission, thus reducing the risk of having medication discrepancies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of medication discrepancies and their clinical seriousness in pediatric patients at the time of hospital admission. Read More

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December 2018

Increased hepatitis C virus co-infection and injection drug use in HIV-infected fishermen in Myanmar.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14;18(1):657. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

MSF, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: In Southeast Asia, though fishermen are known to be a key population at high risk of HIV, little is known about their co-infection rates with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), or how illness and risk behaviors vary by occupation or type of fishermen. In Myanmar, this lack of knowledge is particularly acute, despite the fact that much of the country's border is coastline.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis to assess clinical, demographic, and risk characteristics of HIV-infected, ≥15-year-old males under HIV care from 2004 to 2014. Read More

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December 2018

Conference proceedings of the 4th Masterclass Psychiatry: Transcultural Psychiatry - Diagnostics and Treatment, Luleå, Sweden, 22-23 February 2018 (Region Norrbotten in collaboration with the Maudsley Hospital and Tavistock Clinic London).

Authors:
Ursula Werneke

Nord J Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Sunderby Research Unit , Umeå University , Umeå , Sweden.

Background: According to estimates from the European Commission, Europe has experienced the greatest mass movement of people since the Second World War. More than one million refugees and migrants have arrived in the European Union in the past few years. Mental health and primary care professionals are more likely than ever to meet patients from different cultures and backgrounds. Read More

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December 2018

Re-feeding syndrome and alcoholic cardiomyopathy: A case of interacting diagnoses.

J Cardiol Cases 2016 Sep 3;14(3):90-93. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Re-feeding syndrome is an uncommon clinical entity of fluid and electrolyte disorders that typically occurs after re-initiation of enteral nutrition following prolonged fasting. This disorder can be complicated by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, arrhythmias, and death. Alcohol abuse and anorexia nervosa are independently associated with similar complications. Read More

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September 2016

In Vitro Methods for Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:1-29

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

As a consequence of their increase in annual production and widespread distribution in the environment, nanoparticles potentially pose a significant public health risk. The sought-after catalytic activity granted by their physiochemical properties doubles as a hazard to physiological processes following exposure through inhalation, oral, transdermal, subcutaneous, and intravenous uptake. Upon uptake into the body, their size, morphology, surface charge, coating, and chemical composition augment the response of biological systems to the materials and enhance their toxicity. Read More

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January 2019

A public health framework for the regulation of marketing.

J Public Health Policy 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Oregon Research Institute, 1776 Millrace, Eugene, OR, 97403, USA.

Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies have found a link between youth exposure to cigarette marketing and youth initiation of smoking. These decisive research findings led to regulations of cigarette marketing to youth-including no television or radio ads, prohibitions on the use of cartoons, bans on transit and billboard advertisements, and disallowing tobacco brand sponsorships of sporting events or concerts. Similar products that may cause more harm than benefits include alcohol, electronic cigarettes, and opioids. Read More

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December 2018

Developing Typologies of User Engagement With the BRANCH Alcohol-Harm Reduction Smartphone App: Qualitative Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2018 Dec 13;6(12):e11692. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Addictions Department, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Understanding how users engage with electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is a critical research objective to improve effectiveness of app-based interventions to reduce harmful alcohol consumption. Although quantitative measures of engagement provide a strong indicator of how the user engages with an app at the group level, they do not elucidate finer-grained details of how apps function from an individual, experiential perspective and why, or how, users engage with an intervention in a particular manner.

Objective: The aim of this study was to (1) understand why and how participants engaged with the BRANCH app, (2) explore facilitators and barriers to engagement with app features, (3) explore how the BRANCH app impacted drinking behavior, (4) use these data to identify typologies of users of the BRANCH app in terms of engagement behaviors, and (5) identify future eSBI app design implications. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

How self-inflicted injury and gender impacted the outcome following a severe burn.

Burns 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Monash University Central Clinical School, Australia.

Background: A high prevalence of self-inflicted burn injury is noted in severe burn injury. It remains unclear as to whether gender and past psychiatric history impact upon whether injury is self-inflicted and the outcomes.

Aims: Review the psychiatric history of patients treated in a statewide burn service following severe burn injury and determine whether psychiatric history, extent of burn and mortality are impacted by gender and whether the injury was self-inflicted. Read More

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December 2018

Data Analytics of a Wearable Device for Heat Stroke Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 9;18(12). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University No. 75, Shiyuan Rd., Daxi District, Taoyuan City 33551, Taiwan.

When exercising in a high-temperature environment, heat stroke can cause great harm to the human body. However, runners may ignore important physiological warnings and are not usually aware that a heat stroke is occurring. To solve this problem, this study evaluates a runner's risk of heat stroke injury by using a wearable heat stroke detection device (WHDD), which we developed previously. Read More

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December 2018

A novel index for assessing treatment plan quality in stereotactic radiosurgery.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec;129(Suppl1):118-124

OBJECTIVEStereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is characterized by high levels of conformity and steep dose gradients from the periphery of the target to surrounding tissue. Clinical studies have backed up the importance of these factors through evidence of symptomatic complications. Available data suggest that there are threshold doses above which the risk of symptomatic radionecrosis increases with the volume irradiated. Read More

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December 2018

Protecting the Rights of Children with Intersex Conditions from Nonconsensual Gender-Conforming Medical Interventions: The View from Europe.

Med Law Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Law, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Nonconsensual gender-conforming interventions on children with intersex conditions have recently come under sharp criticism from human rights authorities within the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the European Union, which have identified these interventions as violating children's rights to bodily integrity, privacy, and protection from violence, torture, and degrading treatment. Responding largely to requests for intervention from nongovernmental organizations, these authorities have called upon nations to reform their legal frameworks, both to prevent these rights violations and to redress them. To date, however, few nations have endeavored to prohibit nonconsensual gender-conforming procedures on children with intersex conditions, and none have enacted significant reforms of their frameworks to redress rights violations. Read More

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December 2018

Grass root approaches to control levels of carcinogenic nitrosamines, NNN and NNK in smokeless tobacco products.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Preventive Oncology, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Department of Health Research Govt. of India, Noida, India. Electronic address:

Due to the extensive ban on public smoking, tobacco companies focused their business on new smokeless tobacco (SLT) products promoting them as a harm reduction strategy and a safer alternative to cigarettes. Two nitrosamines, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), present in SLT, listed as group 1 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are found to be the prime agents for most of cancers in SLT users. This review illustrates the mechanism of cancer induction by NNN and NNK in humans along with factors influencing the formation of NNN and NNK at various stages of tobacco manufacturing. Read More

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December 2018

High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in patients undergoing thoracic surgery: current evidence and practice.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Pulmonary Engineering Group, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at high risk for pulmonary and extra pulmonary complications, and may develop impairment of gas exchange during surgery and in the postoperative period. This review focuses on the potential benefits of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in those patients.

Recent Findings: HFNC oxygen therapy can be used pre, intra and postoperatively. Read More

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December 2018

Parallels Between Low-Risk Prostate Cancer and Thyroid Cancer: A Review.

JAMA Oncol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Importance: Across many countries, a rapid escalation of the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed, a surge that nonetheless underestimates the true extent of the disease. Most thyroid cancers now diagnosed comprise small, low-risk cancers that are incidentally found and are unlikely to cause harm. In many ways, prostate cancer similarly harbors a well-behaved subclinical reservoir, a long natural history, and superlative outcomes that have made active surveillance the de facto guideline recommendation for low-risk disease. Read More

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December 2018

De-prescribing benzodiazepine receptor agonists taken for insomnia: a review and key messages from practice guidelines.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Long term benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BZRA) use for insomnia is common and highly prevalent in adults in all care settings. Evidence syntheses suggest that the therapeutics benefits of benzodiazepines for insomnia are marginal and very short term. On the harm side, BZRAs are associated with daytime sedation and confusion. Read More

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December 2018

Genomic and transcriptomic comparisons of closely related malaria parasites differing in virulence and sequestration pattern.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 2;3:142. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Malaria Immunology laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, London, NW1 1AT, UK.

Malaria parasite species differ greatly in the harm they do to humans. While kills hundreds of thousands per year, kills much less often and is relatively benign. Strains of the rodent malaria parasite show phenotypic variation in virulence during infections of laboratory mice. Read More

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November 2018

Drug safety testing, disposals and dealing in an English field: Exploring the operational and behavioural outcomes of the UK's first onsite 'drug checking' service.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Durham University, Department of Sociology, 32 Old Elvet, Durham, DH1 3HN, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: In a year when UK drug-related deaths and festival drug-related deaths reached their highest on record, a pilot festival drug safety testing service was introduced with the aim of reducing drug-related harm. This paper describes the operational and behavioural outcomes of this pilot and explores the relationship between drug use, supply and policing within festival grounds.

Methods: Chemists in a temporary laboratory analysed 247 substances submitted by the public to a free, confidential testing service across four days at a UK festival in July 2016. Read More

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November 2018

Smoking and HIV: what are the risks and what harm reduction strategies do we have at our disposal?

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Dec 12;15(1):26. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

The World Health Organization estimates that smoking poses one of the greatest global health risks in the general population. Rates of current smoking among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are 2-3 times that of the general population, which contributes to the higher incidence of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in PLHIV. Given the benefit of smoking cessation, strategies to assist individuals who smoke to quit should be a primary focus in modern HIV care. Read More

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December 2018

Associating conditional cash transfer to universal access to treatment could be the solution to the HCV epidemic among drug users (DUs).

Harm Reduct J 2018 Dec 12;15(1):63. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Association ITHAQUE, 12 rue Kuhn, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Background: To understand the limits of HCV screening programs to reach all drug users (DUs).

Method: The association of the recruitment of a representative sample of a population of DUs in a specific area with the use of a questionnaire that included 250 items allowed the use of uni- and multifactorial analysis to explore the relationship between HCV screening and dimensions until now restricted to qualitative studies.

Results: We recruited, in less than 2 months, 327 DUs representing about 6% of the total population of DUs. Read More

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December 2018
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Differences between the perspectives of physicians and patients on the potential barriers to optimal diabetes control in China: a multicenter study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 12;18(1):961. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, 169 Changle Road West, Xi'an, 710032, China.

Background: To investigate the potential barriers to optimal diabetes control by evaluating the different perspectives of physicians and patients on such matters in China.

Methods: This multi-center survey was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016. A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to sample representative diabetes physicians and patients in 18 hospitals in Shaanxi province, China. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of a local government "shelter and van" intervention to improve safety and reduce alcohol-related harm.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 12;18(1):1370. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Rural Health, Monash University, PO Box 666, Bendigo, VIC, 3552, Australia.

Background: The entertainment precincts of cities, while contributing to local economies, need to be carefully managed to mitigate harms. Individual behaviours and government regulation have typically been the foci of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. Little is known about how changes to the built environment might influence alcohol-related harms in these settings. Read More

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December 2018

Decision makers' experience of participatory dynamic simulation modelling: methods for public health policy.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2018 Dec 12;18(1):131. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The Australian Prevention Partnership Centre, Sax Institute, PO Box K617, Haymarket, Sydney, NSW, 1240, Australia.

Background: Systems science methods such as dynamic simulation modelling are well suited to address questions about public health policy as they consider the complexity, context and dynamic nature of system-wide behaviours. Advances in technology have led to increased accessibility and interest in systems methods to address complex health policy issues. However, the involvement of policy decision makers in health-related simulation model development has been lacking. Read More

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December 2018

Moral Emotions and Social Economic Games in Paranoia.

Front Psychiatry 2018 21;9:615. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Impaired social cognitive processes are putative psychological mechanisms implicated in the formation and maintenance of paranoid beliefs. Paranoia denotes unfounded fears about the hostile intentions of others and is prevalent in a significant proportion of the general population. We investigated social cognition in healthy participants selectively recruited to have a broad occurrence of paranoid thinking ( = 89). Read More

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November 2018

IUGA committee opinion: laser-based vaginal devices for treatment of stress urinary incontinence, genitourinary syndrome of menopause, and vaginal laxity.

Int Urogynecol J 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

This committee opinion reviews the laser-based vaginal devices for treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause, vaginal laxity, and stress urinary incontinence. The United States Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning for unsubstantiated advertising and use of energy-based devices. Well-designed case-control studies are required to further investigate the potential benefits, harm, and efficacy of laser therapy in the treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause, vaginal laxity, and stress urinary incontinence. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of immigration detention on mental health: a systematic review.

BMC Psychiatry 2018 Dec 6;18(1):382. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Helen Bamber Foundation, Bruges Place, 15-20 Baynes Street, London, NW1 0TF, UK.

Background: The number of asylum seekers, refugees and internally displaced people worldwide has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. Many countries are continuing to resort to detaining asylum seekers and other migrants, despite concerns that this may be harmful. In light of the considerable body of recent research, this review aims to update and expand on a 2009 systematic review on the mental health consequences of detention on adult, adolescent and child immigration detainees, which found (on the basis on 9 studies) that there was consistent evidence that immigration detention had adverse effects on mental health. Read More

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December 2018

What does the ecological and epidemiological evidence indicate about the potential for cannabinoids to reduce opioid use and harms? A comprehensive review.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2018 Dec 6:1-16. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre , UNSW Sydney , Sydney , Australia.

Pre-clinical research supports that cannabinoids reduce opioid dose requirements, but few studies have tested this in humans. This review evaluates ecological and epidemiological studies that have been cited as evidence that medical cannabis use may reduce opioid use and opioid-related harms. Medline and Embase were searched for relevant articles. Read More

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December 2018

Penetration of new antidiabetic medications in East Asian countries and the United States: A cross-national comparative study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208796. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Background: The number of patients with diabetes is increasing particularly in Asia-Pacific region. Many of them are treated with antidiabetics. As the basis of the studies on the benefit and harm of antidiabetic drugs in the region, the information on patterns of market penetration of new classes of antidiabetic medications is important in providing context for subsequent research and analyzing and interpreting results. Read More

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December 2018

Complementary and integrative medicine in kidney transplantation.

Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) use is widely prevalent in kidney transplant recipients but studies of efficacy or potential harm are sparse. This review examines prevalence of use of CIM and discusses potential beneficial and harmful aspects of CIM in renal transplant recipients.

Recent Findings: The prevalence of CIM use in kidney transplant patients varies from 12 to 45%. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Harm Reduction Strategies and Disinhibitors Among Women Who Use Heroin.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2018 Dec 12:306624X18818682. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

2 University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.

People who use illicit drugs face significant physical risks in the acquisition, use, and aftermath of their use. This is particularly the case among those who use heroin in view of recent spikes in heroin-associated overdoses, injuries, and deaths. Using a restrictive deterrence framework, we identify the risks that women associate with chronic heroin use and the ways they seek to manage those risks. Read More

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December 2018

Genetically Modified Labeling Policies: Moving Forward or Backward?

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2018 27;6:181. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Biotechnology Group, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil.

One of the priorities to address food security is to increase the access of farmers to biotechnology, through the application of scientific advances, such as genetically modified organisms and food (GMF). However, the spread of (mis)information about their safety strengthens the clamor for mandatory GMF labeling. This paper provides an overview of food labeling policies, considering the principles suggested by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and analyzes the consequences for the world food security of the Brazilian labeling policies compared to developed countries. Read More

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November 2018

New therapeutic strategies in systemic lupus erythematosus management.

Nat Rev Rheumatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Unit of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

The current treatment approach for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as outlined in the recommendations by international medical associations including EULAR and the ACR, is mostly eminence-based rather than evidence-based. However, knowledge on SLE is growing quickly, and such new advances need to be translated into clinical practice. Questions remain regarding the choice and timing of drug administration and tapering until withdrawal, which both can affect the balance between the control of disease activity and damage to organs triggered by long-standing and/or disproportionate immunosuppression. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A data-driven ground fault detection and isolation method for main circuit in railway electrical traction system.

ISA Trans 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Information Science and Engineering, University of Central South, 410083 Changsha, China.

Due to the complex and harsh operation conditions, like corrosion, aging cable and static electricity, of electrical traction drive system, ground fault will generate large short circuit current to harm the key components. Effective fault diagnosis is important, but also challenging. The conventional method used for ground fault detection only takes advantage of voltage measurements of DC-link. Read More

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December 2018

Barriers and facilitators to hepatitis C (HCV) screening and treatment-a description of prisoners' perspective.

Harm Reduct J 2018 Dec 11;15(1):62. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Medicine University College, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global epidemic with an estimated 71 million people infected worldwide. People who inject drugs (PWID) are overrepresented in prison populations globally and have higher levels of HCV infection than the general population. Despite increased access to primary health care while in prison, many HCV infected prisoners do not engage with screening or treatment. Read More

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December 2018

How do Families Represent the Functions of Deliberate Self-Harm? A Comparison Between the Social Representations from Adolescents and Their Parents.

Arch Suicide Res 2018 Dec 11:1-29. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

c Faculty of Medicine , University of Lisbon , Portugal.

Research has recognized the importance of understanding the social representations about the functions of deliberate self-harm, particularly in the context of clinical intervention. In addition, parents can play a relevant role in the rehabilitation of adolescents with these behaviours. However, there are few studies that focused on the description and comparison of the social representations about these functions, particularly in families. Read More

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December 2018

Quality improvement priorities for safer out-of-hours palliative care: Lessons from a mixed-methods analysis of a national incident-reporting database.

Palliat Med 2018 Dec 12:269216318817692. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Division of Population Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Background:: Patients receiving palliative care are often at increased risk of unsafe care with the out-of-hours setting presenting particular challenges. The identification of improved ways of delivering palliative care outside working hours is a priority area for policymakers.

Aim:: To explore the nature and causes of unsafe care delivered to patients receiving palliative care from primary-care services outside normal working hours. Read More

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December 2018

On Cuba, diplomats, ultrasound, and intermodulation distortion.

Comput Biol Med 2018 Nov 22;104:250-266. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Systems Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, China. Electronic address:

This paper analyzes how ultrasounds could have unintentionally led to the AP news recordings of metallic sounds heard by diplomats in Cuba. Beginning with screen shots of the acoustic spectral plots from the AP news, we reverse engineered ultrasonic signals that could lead to those outcomes as a result of intermodulation distortion with non-linearity in the acoustic transmission medium. We created a proof of concept ultrasonic device that amplitude modulates a signal over an inaudible ultrasonic carrier. Read More

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November 2018