603 results match your criteria Harm Reduction Journal [Journal]


Understanding hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV among people who inject drugs in South Africa: findings from a three-city cross-sectional survey.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Apr 11;16(1):28. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

TB HIV Care, 11 Adderley Street, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV) and HIV without accessible harm reduction programmes. Coverage of needle and syringe and opioid substitution therapy (OST) services in South Africa is below global recommendations and no hepatitis services exist for PWID. We assessed HCV, HBV and HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID accessing harm reduction services in Cape Town, Durban and Pretoria to inform policy and programming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0298-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Smokeless tobacco mortality risks: an analysis of two contemporary nationally representative longitudinal mortality studies.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Apr 11;16(1):27. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Regulatory Affairs, Altria Client Services LLC, 601 East Jackson Street, Richmond, VA, 23219, USA.

Background: Assessments supporting smokeless tobacco (SLT) disease risk are generally decades old. Newer epidemiological data may more accurately represent the health risks associated with contemporary US-based SLT products, many of which contain lower levels of hazardous and potentially hazardous chemicals compared to previously available SLT products.

Methods: Data from two longitudinal datasets (National Longitudinal Mortality Study-NLMS, and the National Health Interview Survey-NHIS) were analyzed to determine potential associations between SLT use and/or cigarette smoking and all-cause and disease-specific mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0294-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458834PMC
April 2019
1 Read

"You can't chain a dog to a porch": a multisite qualitative analysis of youth narratives of parental approaches to substance use.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Apr 5;16(1):26. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, T201-2211 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5, Canada.

Background: Reducing harms of youth substance use is a global priority, with parents identified as a key target for efforts to mitigate these harms. Much of the research informing parental responses to youth substance use are grounded in abstinence and critiqued as ineffective and unresponsive to youth contexts. Parental provision of substances, particularly alcohol, is a widely used approach, which some parents adopt in an attempt to minimize substance use harms; however, research indicates that this practice may actually increase harms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0297-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451235PMC

Prolonged-release opioid agonist therapy: qualitative study exploring patients' views of 1-week, 1-month, and 6-month buprenorphine formulations.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Apr 3;16(1):25. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, 4 Windsor Walk, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

Background: Options for opioid agonist therapy (OAT) are expanding with the development of prolonged-release (also known as extended-release) 1-week, 1-month, and 6-month formulations of buprenorphine. There is an assumption that patients will welcome these new treatments and medication adherence will correspondingly increase. However, there has been little research exploring patients' views of prolonged-release buprenorphine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0296-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446264PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

Recall and awareness of gambling advertising and sponsorship in sport in the UK: a study of young people and adults.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Apr 2;16(1):24. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Centre for Population Health Research, School of Health and Social Development, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Background: The impact of gambling advertisements shown during sporting events on young people is an important public health issue. While extensive research has taken place in Australia, there is still only a limited understanding of this issue in the United Kingdom (UK).

Method: A mixed methods study was conducted with 71 family groups comprised of 99 young people (8-16 years) and 71 adults recruited at six sites across South London, England (May-July 2018). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0291-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446266PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Barriers to using new needles encountered by rural Appalachian people who inject drugs: implications for needle exchange.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Apr 2;16(1):23. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, West Virginia University, PO Box 9163, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA.

Background: Using a new needle for every injection can reduce the spread of infectious disease among people who inject drugs (PWID). No previous study has examined new needle use barriers among PWIDs residing in the rural Appalachian part of the United States, an area currently in the midst of a heroin epidemic.

Objective: Therefore, our primary aim was to explore self-reported barriers to using a new needle by PWID attending a needle exchange program (NEP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0295-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444507PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Factors associated with past 30-day abstinence from cigarette smoking in a non-probabilistic sample of 15,456 adult established current smokers in the United States who used JUUL vapor products for three months.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Mar 25;16(1):22. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Centre for Substance Use Research, 4.04 West of Scotland Science Park, 2317 Maryhill Road, Glasgow, G20 0SP, UK.

Background: JUUL is the fastest growing and highest selling brand of e-cigarette/vapor products in the USA. Assessing the effect of JUUL vapor products on adult smokers' use of conventional tobacco cigarettes can help inform the potential population health impact of these products.

Methods: Online surveys assessed past 30-day use of conventional cigarettes, JUUL vapor products, and other e-cigarettes/vapor products, monthly for 3 months, in a non-probabilistic sample of 15,456 US adults (21+ years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0293-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434836PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Hepatitis C services at harm reduction centres in the European Union: a 28-country survey.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Mar 21;16(1):20. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Carrer Rosselló, 132, 4th floor, ES-08036, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: In the context of the WHO's 2016 Viral Hepatitis Strategy and the introduction of treatment that can cure more than 95% of cases with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the European Joint Action on HIV and Co-infection Prevention and Harm Reduction (HA-REACT) undertook a study in the member states of the European Union (EU). It aimed to determine service providers' understanding of the current services in their respective countries and the barriers experienced by PWID in accessing HCV testing, care and treatment services in their country.

Methods: In 2017, 38 purposively selected harm reduction service providers completed a 26-item English-language online survey addressing the availability, accessibility and funding of HCV services at harm reduction centres. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0290-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429787PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Perceived acceptability of and willingness to use syringe vending machines: results of a cross-sectional survey of out-of-service people who inject drugs in Tbilisi, Georgia.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Mar 21;16(1):21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, PO Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA, 90407-2138, USA.

Background: The growing HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia has been driven by high rates of injection drug use. The Republic of Georgia has among the highest injection drug use rates globally, with a prevalence of 2.24%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0292-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429706PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Prevalence of injecting drug use in Estonia 2010-2015: a capture-recapture study.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Mar 14;16(1):19. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Background: It has been observed in an earlier study that the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Estonia is declining. We provide nationwide estimates of the number of PWID in Estonia for years 2010-2015 and compare different modelling strategies to minimise over-coverage-induced bias in capture-recapture estimates.

Methods: We obtained data from the Estonian Causes of Death Registry (DR) for opioid-related deaths, the Estonian Health Insurance Fund (HIF) for opioid-related overdose and drug dependence treatment episodes, and the Estonian Police and Border Guard Board (PB) drug-related misdemeanours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0289-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416985PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Women and gambling-related harm: a narrative literature review and implications for research, policy, and practice.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Mar 4;16(1):18. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Anthropology, Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK.

Background: While the prevalence of women's participation in gambling is steadily increasing, there is a well-recognised male bias in gambling research and policy. Few papers have sought to synthesise the literature relating to women and gambling-related harm and provide practical suggestions to guide future research, policy, and practice which take into account the specific nuances associated with women's gambling.

Methods: A narrative literature review was conducted to review the evidence base on women's gambling behaviours and experiences of harm. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0284-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399932PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

The effects of heat and freeze-thaw cycling on naloxone stability.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Feb 27;16(1):17. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Waterloo, 10 Victoria Street South, Kitchener, Ontario, N2G 1C5, Canada.

Purpose: The availability of take home naloxone (THN) was increased for Canadians in 2016, including access to kits via pharmacies. Unlike typical over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs, THN kits may be stored in non-standard conditions, including in vehicles, backpacks, and out of doors. To evaluate whether these non-standard storage conditions affect stability, we investigated the impact of heat and freeze-thaw cycling on naloxone hydrochloride stability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0288-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391798PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

"Maybe if I stop the drugs, then maybe they'd care?"-hospital care experiences of people who use drugs.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Feb 13;16(1):16. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College St, Toronto, ON, M5T 3M7, Canada.

Background: Drug use is associated with increased morbidity and mortality but people who use drugs experience significant barriers to care. Data are needed about the care experiences of people who use drugs to inform interventions and quality improvement initiatives. The objective of this study is to describe and characterize the experience of acute care for people who use drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0285-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373073PMC
February 2019

Hidden populations: discovering the differences between the known and the unknown drug using populations in the Republic of Georgia.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Feb 12;16(1):15. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Background: The HIV epidemic in Georgia is increasing. Data shows that compared to previous years, Georgia has increasingly more HIV-infected individuals than previous assessments. Select client groups remain hard to reach by harm reduction programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0287-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373035PMC
February 2019

Sociodemographic characteristics of patients with children in a methadone maintenance program: a cross-sectional study.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Feb 11;16(1):13. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8, Canada.

Background: Ever-increasing numbers of opioid use disorder (OUD) in Canada has created the recent opioid crisis. One common treatment for OUD is methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Various factors, including being a parent which entails specific stressors, may increase susceptibility to negative treatment outcomes. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0283-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371427PMC
February 2019
17 Reads

Evidence-based and guideline-concurrent responses to narratives deferring HCV treatment among people who inject drugs.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Feb 11;16(1):14. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, 801 Massachusetts Ave, 442e, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the context of the current US opioid crisis. Although curative therapy is available and recommended as a public health strategy, few PWID have been treated. We explore PWID narratives that explain why they have not sought HCV treatment or decided against starting it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0286-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371610PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

A mapping review of research on gambling harm in three regulatory environments.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Feb 8;16(1):12. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Gambling Research Exchange Ontario, 55 Wyndham St. N., Suite 214A, Guelph, ON, N1H 7T8, Canada.

Background: Harmful gambling is a complex issue with diverse antecedents and resulting harms that have been studied from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Although previous bibliometric reviews of gambling studies have found a dominance of judgement and decision-making research, no bibliometric review has examined the concept of "harm" in the gambling literature, and little work has quantitatively assessed how gambling research priorities differ between countries.

Methods: Guided by the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling (CFHG), an internationally relevant framework of antecedents to harmful gambling, we conducted a bibliometric analysis focusing on research outputs from three countries with different gambling regulatory environments: Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0265-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368783PMC
February 2019
1 Read

HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge and attitude of residents in border regions of Vietnam.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Feb 7;16(1):11. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Background: Residents in border areas are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS due to high rates of risk behaviors such as unprotected sexual practices or illicit drug use. Improving knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment are vital to diminish the burden of the HIV epidemic in this setting. However, evidence about this issue in Vietnam has been limited. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0282-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367780PMC
February 2019
8 Reads

HIV risk behaviours among women who inject drugs in coastal Kenya: findings from secondary analysis of qualitative data.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Feb 6;16(1):10. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Division of Health Research, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, LA1 4YW, UK.

Background: Injecting drug users are at high risk of HIV infection globally. Research related to female drug users is rare in Kenya, yet it is required to inform the development of gender-sensitive HIV prevention and harm reduction services in East Africa, where injecting drug use is on the rise.

Methods: This study aimed to document the nature of HIV risks encountered by women who inject drugs in the Mombasa and Kilifi, Kenya. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0281-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364406PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Medical cannabis patterns of use and substitution for opioids & other pharmaceutical drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances; results from a cross-sectional survey of authorized patients.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Jan 28;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Principal Research Scientist; Division of Data Science, Leafly, 71 Columbia Street, Suite 200, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA.

Background: A 239-question cross-sectional survey was sent out via email in January 2017 to gather comprehensive information on cannabis use from Canadian medical cannabis patients registered with a federally authorized licensed cannabis producer, resulting in 2032 complete surveys.

Methods: The survey gathered detailed demographic data and comprehensive information on patient patterns of medical cannabis use, including questions assessing the self-reported impact of cannabis on the use of prescription drugs, illicit substances, alcohol, and tobacco.

Results: Participants were 62. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0278-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350348PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Performance indicator as the main and the only goal: a "dark side" of the intervention aims to accelerate HIV treatment entry among people who inject drugs in Kyiv, Ukraine.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Jan 28;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Convictus Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Background: To improve healthcare entry and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for HIV-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine, an intervention built upon a successful community-based harm reduction project and the existing best practices was developed. In this article, we present the results of the study conducted in collaboration with one of the recipient organizations of the intervention in Kyiv. The research question was formulated as follows: how does the interaction between different actors work to lead it to a positive outcome (initiation PWIDs into ART) within the limited period of the intervention implementation?

Methods: The central focus of the study was on the work activities of case managers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0279-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348601PMC
January 2019

Baseline differences in characteristics and risk behaviors among people who inject drugs by syringe exchange program modality: an analysis of the Miami IDEA syringe exchange.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Jan 23;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: In March of 2016, Florida passed the Infection Disease Elimination Act (IDEA), legalizing the formation of the first syringe exchange program in Florida, which opened in December of 2016 at a fixed site in Overtown, Miami. Since that time, the exchange expanded in April of 2017 to include a mobile van unit that provides the same services at different locations throughout Miami-Dade County.

Methods: Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews from all first-time participants at the IDEA Exchange, both at the fixed site and the mobile van unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0280-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343273PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Stigma against patients with HIV/AIDS in the rapid expansion of antiretroviral treatment in large drug injection-driven HIV epidemics of Vietnam.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Jan 17;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Background: Despite existing efforts to provide antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all HIV-diagnosed people, stigma deprives them of the highest attainable health status and challenges the effectiveness of ART program in Vietnam. This study aimed to assess five dimensions of HIV-related stigma and explore its associated factors among ART patients in a multisite survey. Implications of this study support the development of HIV policies to improve patients' access, utilization, and outcomes of ART program toward the 90-90-90 goal in Vietnam. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0277-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337792PMC
January 2019
11 Reads

Twenty years of the methadone treatment protocol in Ireland: reflections on the role of general practice.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Jan 17;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Opioid dependence, characterised by socio economic disadvantage and significant morbidity and mortality, remains a major public health problem in Ireland. Through the methadone treatment protocol (MTP), Irish general practice has been a leader in the introduction and expansion of Irish harm reduction services, including opioid substitution treatment (OST), needle and syringe programs (NSP) and naloxone provision. These services have been effective in engaging opiate users in treatment, reducing human deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and reducing-drug related morbidities. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0272-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337760PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Mobile supervised consumption services in Rural British Columbia: lessons learned.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Jan 10;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: In 2016, a public health emergency was declared in British Columbia due to an unprecedented number of illicit drug overdose deaths. Injection drug use was implicated in approximately one third of overdose deaths. An innovative delivery model using mobile supervised consumption services (SCS) was piloted in a rural health authority in BC with the goals of preventing overdose deaths, reducing public drug use, and connecting clients to health services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0273-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330429PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Perspectives on rapid fentanyl test strips as a harm reduction practice among young adults who use drugs: a qualitative study.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Jan 8;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, 121 South Main Street, Box G-S-121-2, Providence, RI, 02912, USA.

Background: In 2016, drug overdose deaths exceeded 64,000 in the United States, driven by a sixfold increase in deaths attributable to illicitly manufactured fentanyl. Rapid fentanyl test strips (FTS), used to detect fentanyl in illicit drugs, may help inform people who use drugs about their risk of fentanyl exposure prior to consumption. This qualitative study assessed perceptions of FTS among young adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0276-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325714PMC
January 2019
1 Read

What is the value of peer involvement in advancing tobacco harm reduction?

Harm Reduct J 2019 Jan 7;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 7.

National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0275-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322296PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Underreported injection drug use and its potential contribution to reported increase in sexual transmission of HIV in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Jan 5;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 5.

ICAP at Columbia University, Allan Rosefield Building, 722 West 168th Street, Room 1310, New York, NY, USA.

Background: We conducted a cross-sectional integrated bio-behavioral survey among sex partners of persons who inject drugs (PWID) to explore reasons for reported increase in reporting of heterosexually transmitted HIV in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

Methods: Sexual partners of PWID were recruited through PWID. Behavioral data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0274-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321689PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Rigidity, dyskinesia and other atypical overdose presentations observed at a supervised injection site, Vancouver, Canada.

Harm Reduct J 2018 12 22;15(1):64. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, Canada.

Objective: In midst of the overdose crisis, the clinical features of opioid overdoses seem to be changing. Understanding of the adverse effects of synthetic opioids such as fentanyl is currently limited to clinical settings. Insite, a supervised injection site in Vancouver, Canada, provides an opportunity to better understand illicit drug overdose presentations. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0271-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303894PMC
December 2018
12 Reads

Associating conditional cash transfer to universal access to treatment could be the solution to the HCV epidemic among drug users (DUs).

Harm Reduct J 2018 12 12;15(1):63. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Association ITHAQUE, 12 rue Kuhn, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Background: To understand the limits of HCV screening programs to reach all drug users (DUs).

Method: The association of the recruitment of a representative sample of a population of DUs in a specific area with the use of a questionnaire that included 250 items allowed the use of uni- and multifactorial analysis to explore the relationship between HCV screening and dimensions until now restricted to qualitative studies.

Results: We recruited, in less than 2 months, 327 DUs representing about 6% of the total population of DUs. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0264-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292040PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

Barriers and facilitators to hepatitis C (HCV) screening and treatment-a description of prisoners' perspective.

Harm Reduct J 2018 12 11;15(1):62. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Medicine University College, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global epidemic with an estimated 71 million people infected worldwide. People who inject drugs (PWID) are overrepresented in prison populations globally and have higher levels of HCV infection than the general population. Despite increased access to primary health care while in prison, many HCV infected prisoners do not engage with screening or treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0269-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288965PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Brief report: the association between recreational versus therapeutic marijuana use on hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol-associated behavioral consequences among adults living with HIV in Florida.

Harm Reduct J 2018 12 7;15(1):61. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100165, 1225 Center Drive, Room 3146, Gainesville, FL, 32610-0165, USA.

Background: Though marijuana use has previously been associated with risky alcohol use, studies often do not delineate between the effect of recreational versus therapeutic marijuana use, particularly among people living with HIV (PLWH). In this study, we examined the association between recreational versus therapeutic marijuana use to manage HIV symptoms (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0266-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286547PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Gender differences in the provision of injection initiation assistance: a comparison of three North American settings.

Harm Reduct J 2018 12 4;15(1):59. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0507, USA.

Aim: Individuals experience differential risks in their initiation into drug injecting based on their gender. Data suggest women are more likely to be injected after their initiator and to share injection equipment. Little is known, however, regarding how gender influences the risk that people who inject drugs (PWID) may assist others into injection initiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0270-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280353PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

The complex relation between access to opioid agonist therapy and diversion of opioid medications: a case example of large-scale misuse of buprenorphine in the Czech Republic.

Harm Reduct J 2018 12 4;15(1):60. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal.

Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) has been available in a standard regime in the Czech Republic since 2000. Buprenorphine is the leading medication, while methadone is available only in a few specialised centres. There is an important leakage of buprenorphine onto the illicit market, and the majority of Czech opioid users are characterised by the misuse (and injecting) of diverted buprenorphine medications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0268-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280526PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Challenges and opportunities for implementation of substance misuse interventions in conflict-affected populations.

Harm Reduct J 2018 11 28;15(1):58. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 North Broadway, Rm. 888, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Alcohol and other drug misuse are significant but neglected public health issues in conflict-affected populations. In this article, we review the literature on the challenges and strategies for implementing substance misuse treatment and prevention services in conflict and post-conflict settings in low- and middle-income countries. We identified nine studies describing interventions in conflict-affected populations residing in Afghanistan, Croatia, India, Kenya, Kosovo, Pakistan, and Thailand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0267-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6263054PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Assessing pharmacy student experience with, knowledge of and attitudes towards harm reduction: illuminating barriers to pharmacist-led harm reduction.

Harm Reduct J 2018 11 16;15(1):57. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 232 Life Science, 1110 Kirby Drive, Duluth, MN, 55812-3003, USA.

Background: As the burden from the opioid epidemic continues to increase in the state of Minnesota and across the nation, the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy seeks to design an innovative, comprehensive harm reduction curriculum in order to better train student pharmacists to serve the varied needs of the greater community. This study examines incoming individuals' baseline knowledge of and attitudes toward harm reduction in order to better inform curriculum planning and to ultimately produce pharmacists capable of impacting the devastating effects of the opioid crisis.

Methods: Incoming first-year pharmacy students took a survey focused on their knowledge of opioid overdose and the drug naloxone and also provided written reflections on their perceptions of harm reduction. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0262-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240215PMC
November 2018
13 Reads

Perspectives on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) utilization and related intervention needs among people who inject drugs.

Harm Reduct J 2018 11 12;15(1):55. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Health Law, Policy & Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is clinically efficacious and recommended for HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID), but uptake remains low and intervention needs are understudied. To inform the development of PrEP interventions for PWID, we conducted a qualitative study in the Northeastern USA, a region where recent clusters of new HIV infections have been attributed to injection drug use.

Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with 33 HIV-uninfected PWID (hereafter, "participants") and 12 clinical and social service providers (professional "key informants") in Boston, MA, and Providence, RI, in 2017. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0263-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233595PMC
November 2018
11 Reads

Contraceptive utilization among new exotic dancers: a cross-sectional study.

Harm Reduct J 2018 11 12;15(1):56. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Health Behavior and Society, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, 624 N. Broadway, Hampton House 749, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Background: Female exotic dancers are a population at high risk of unintended pregnancy. The objective of this study is to describe the reproductive health needs and contraceptive utilization of exotic dancers.

Methods: New exotic dancers (< 6 months dancing) from 26 clubs in Baltimore City/County completed a one-time survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0261-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233581PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Study of human rights violations faced by women who use drugs in Estonia.

Harm Reduct J 2018 11 6;15(1):54. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Estonian Association of People Who Use Psychotropic Substances (LUNEST), Pärnu Maantee 130-25, 11317, Tallinn, Estonia.

Background: Estonia continues to have the highest prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs, and the highest overdose mortality, in the European Union. In August 2017, the Eurasian Harm Reduction Association (EHRA), the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network (CHALN), and the Estonian Association of People Who Use Psychotropic Substances (LUNEST) conducted a study in Estonia to assess the situation regarding the human rights of women who use drugs and/or living with HIV.

Methods: The research methodology, developed by EHRA and CHALN, comprised in-depth interviews with 38 drug-dependent women conducted between August 8 and 14, 2017, in Tallinn and Ida-Viru county. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0259-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220502PMC
November 2018
12 Reads

Opinion of health professionals and drug users before the forthcoming opening of the first drug consumption room in Paris: a quantitative cross-sectional study.

Harm Reduct J 2018 10 25;15(1):53. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Département de Psychiatrie et de Médecine Addictologique, Hôpital Fernand Widal, APHP, Paris, France.

Background: On the brink of the opening of the first French drug consumption room in Paris, the general opinion of the local involved health care professionals and drug users was not known. The objective of this study was to determine their expectations and to search for influencing factors.

Method: We carried out a quantitative cross-sectional study. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0260-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202864PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Peer-delivered harm reduction and recovery support services: initial evaluation from a hybrid recovery community drop-in center and syringe exchange program.

Harm Reduct J 2018 10 22;15(1):52. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Center for Young Adult Addiction and Recovery, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, 30144, USA.

Background: Recovery from substance use disorder (SUD) is often considered at odds with harm reduction strategies. More recently, harm reduction has been categorized as both a pathway to recovery and a series of services to reduce the harmful consequences of substance use. Peer recovery support services (PRSS) are effective in improving SUD outcomes, as well as improving the engagement and effectiveness of harm reduction programs. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0258-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198436PMC
October 2018
13 Reads

Young people's awareness of the timing and placement of gambling advertising on traditional and social media platforms: a study of 11-16-year-olds in Australia.

Harm Reduct J 2018 10 19;15(1):51. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, Australia.

Background: Research has demonstrated that the promotion of gambling, particularly within sport, may have a significant impact on positively shaping young people's attitudes towards gambling. While some governments have implemented restrictions to limit young people's exposure to gambling advertising, few studies have investigated where young people recall seeing gambling advertising, and whether they perceive that advertising restrictions have gone far enough in reducing exposure to these promotions.

Method: Mixed methods, interviewer-assisted surveys were conducted with n = 111 young people aged 11-16 years, who were self-reported fans of basketball in Victoria, Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0254-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194705PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Concentrations of nicotine, nitrosamines, and humectants in legal and illegal cigarettes in Mexico.

Harm Reduct J 2018 10 3;15(1):50. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Center for Population Health Research, National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Santa María Ahuacatitlán, 62100, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

Background: Article 10 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control states the need for industry disclosure of tobacco contents and emissions. Currently, the profiles of key tobacco compounds in legal and illegal cigarettes are largely unknown. We aimed to analyze and compare concentrations of nicotine, nitrosamines, and humectants in legal and illegal cigarettes collected from a representative sample of smokers. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0257-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171311PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Understanding the business versus care paradox in gambling venues: a qualitative study of the perspectives from gamblers, venue staff and counsellors.

Harm Reduct J 2018 09 24;15(1):49. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Flinders University Human Behaviour Health Research Unit, Margaret Tobin Building (4T:306), GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001, Australia.

Background: In recent years, greater emphasis has been placed on gambling venues to identify potential problem gamblers, respond appropriately and refer to treatment. In seeking the perspectives of problem gamblers, venue staff and treatment providers, this qualitative study investigates how problem gamblers experience being identified and referred for treatment by venue staff.

Methods: A semi-structured interview guide focusing on experiences and perceptions of problem gambling identification and referral for treatment in gaming venues was used to conduct 4 focus groups and 9 semi-structured in-depth interviews. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0256-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6154431PMC
September 2018
7 Reads

Acceptability of prison-based take-home naloxone programmes among a cohort of incarcerated men with a history of regular injecting drug use.

Harm Reduct J 2018 09 21;15(1):48. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Behaviours and Health Risks, Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Road, Melbourne, Victoria, 3004, Australia.

Background: Take-home naloxone (THN) programmes are an evidence-based opioid overdose prevention initiative. Elevated opioid overdose risk following prison release means release from custody provides an ideal opportunity for THN initiatives. However, whether Australian prisoners would utilise such programmes is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0255-5DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Acceptance of pharmaceutical cannabis substitution by cannabis using patients with schizophrenia.

Harm Reduct J 2018 09 20;15(1):47. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Cannabis-smoking patients with a psychotic disorder have poorer disease outcomes than non-cannabis-smoking patients with poorest outcomes in patients smoking high-potency cannabis (HPC) containing high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low cannabidiol (CBD). Quitting cannabis smoking or substitution of HPC by cannabis variants containing less THC and/or more CBD may benefit these patients. The present study explores whether daily HPC-smoking patients with schizophrenia accept smoking such variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0253-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6149068PMC
September 2018
4 Reads

Evaluation of a fentanyl drug checking service for clients of a supervised injection facility, Vancouver, Canada.

Harm Reduct J 2018 09 10;15(1):46. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 5804 Fairview Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Background: British Columbia, Canada, is experiencing a public health emergency related to opioid overdoses driven by consumption of street drugs contaminated with illicitly manufactured fentanyl. This cross-sectional study evaluates a drug checking intervention for the clients of a supervised injection facility (SIF) in Vancouver.

Methods: Insite is a facility offering supervised injection services in Vancouver's Downtown East Side, a community with high levels of injection drug use and associated harms, including overdose deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0252-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131768PMC
September 2018
2 Reads

Problem gambling and psychological distress: a cross-national perspective on the mediating effect of consumer debt and debt problems among emerging adults.

Harm Reduct J 2018 09 3;15(1):45. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tampere, 33014, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Severe economic difficulties are common among younger generations who currently have an easy access to consumer credit and payday loans in many Western countries. These accessible yet expensive short-term loans may lead to more severe financial difficulties, including default and debt enforcement, both which are defined as debt problems within this study. This study hypothesized that consumer debt and debt problems mediate the relationship between problematic gambling and psychological distress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0251-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6122437PMC
September 2018
6 Reads

Feasibility of needle and syringe programs in Tajikistan distributing low dead space needles.

Harm Reduct J 2018 08 31;15(1):44. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

RTI International, 3040 E. Cornwallis Road, PO Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2709-2194, USA.

Background: In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended that needle and syringe programs offer their clients low dead space insulin syringes with permanently attached needles. However, in many countries, these syringes are not acceptable to a majority of people who inject drugs. This study assessed the feasibility of working with needle and syringe programs to implement the WHO recommendation using low dead space detachable needles. Read More

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https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0249-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6119303PMC
August 2018
21 Reads

A qualitative study of persons who inject drugs but who have never helped others with first injections: how their views on helping contrast with the views of persons who have helped with first injections, and implications for interventions.

Harm Reduct J 2018 08 28;15(1):43. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, The New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 15, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Background: Transitioning from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically escalates health risks. Evidence suggests that people who inject drugs (PWID) help in a majority of others' first injections, yet these helpers represent only a minority of experienced PWID. Recent research has provided insight into this helping process, as reported by helpers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0250-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114536PMC
August 2018
3 Reads