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    1936 results match your criteria Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

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    PD169316, a specific p38 inhibitor, shows antiviral activity against Enterovirus71.
    Virology 2017 May 22;508:150-158. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing 100071, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease, which threatens the health of infants and young children. The expression of inflammatory cytokines induced by this viral infection aggravate the illness. Here, we describe the anti-EV71 activity of a specific p38 inhibitor that regulates the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. Read More

    An inactivated hand-foot-and-mouth disease vaccine using the enterovirus 71 (C4a) strain isolated from a Korean patient induces a strong immunogenic response in mice.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(5):e0178259. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Division of Vaccine Research, Korea National Research Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CheongJu, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) frequently occurring in children. HFMD induced by EV71 can cause serious health problems and has been reported worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated HFMD vaccine using an EV71 strain (FI-EV71 C4a) isolated from a Korean patient. Read More

    Dynamic Interaction of Enterovirus 71 and Dendritic Cells in Infected Neonatal Rhesus Macaques.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 10;7:171. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeKunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process. Read More

    Serotyping and Genetic Characterization of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)-Associated Enteroviruses of No-EV71 and Non-CVA16 Circulating in Fujian, China, 2011-2015.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 May 25;23:2508-2518. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Public Health School of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common contagious disease in infants; it is caused by multiple serotypes of human enterovirus (EV), which belongs to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. According to sentinel surveillance, infection with EVs other than EV71 and CVA 16 have become increasingly common in recent years among HFMD patients, posing new challenges for HFMD control. This study aimed to explore the spectrum of serotypes in the other EVs (non-EV71 and non-CVA16) in Fujian province in southeastern China. Read More

    [Hand, foot, and mouth disease in a hospital in Callao in 2016].
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2017 Jan-Mar;34(1):132-138
    Servicio de Dermatología del Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión, Callao, Perú.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an exanthematous viral disease caused mainly by Coxsackie A16 with a typical symptomatology of fever, papulovesicular rash on the hands, feet, and genitals, and an ulcerous enanthem in the mouth. In the summer of 2016, a variety of cases presented at a hospital in Callao in children and adults with a symptomatology consistent with HFMD. A clinical diagnosis was made, and support therapy was applied, resulting in the resolution of symptoms. Read More

    Epidemiological Characterizations, Pathogen Spectrum and Molecular Characteristics of Coxsackievirus A16 from Patients with HFMD in Yantai, Shandong, China between 2011 and 2015.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    a Yantai Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Yantai, Shandong province , 264003 , PR China.
    This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characterizations and pathogen spectrum of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Yantai City, Shandong Province, China, during 2011-2015, and to study the nucleotide evolution and amino acid variation of coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) epidemic strains that caused HFMD. The HFMD epidemic began to rise in March, and became prevalent from May to August, reached its peak in June, and then declined in September every year, children aged one to five years-old had the highest incidence rate whereas the incidence in children under 6 months was very low, and there were more males than females. Enterovirus nucleic acid detection using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on 2130 clinical specimens collected from patients with HFMD between 2011 and 2015, and 2012 enterovirus positive samples were detected, including 678 CV-A16, 639 EV-A71, and 695 other enteroviruses. Read More

    The impact of hand, foot and mouth disease control policies in Singapore: A qualitative analysis of public perceptions.
    J Public Health Policy 2017 May;38(2):271-287
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Tahir Foundation Building, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore, 117549, Singapore.
    Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease in Asia. Most cases are relatively mild and caused by Coxsackie viruses, but in epidemics caused by Enterovirus 71, severe complications can occur. In response to the deaths of dozens of children in a 1997 outbreak (Podin in BMC Public Health 6:180,1 Abubakar in Virus Res 61(1):1-9,2 WHO in3), Singapore practices childcare centre surveillance, case-isolation, and short-term closure of centres. Read More

    Different microRNA profiles reveal the diverse outcomes induced by EV71 and CA16 infection in human umbilical vein endothelial cells using high-throughput sequencing.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(5):e0177657. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research & Development on Severe Infections Disease, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing. Read More

    Crystal structure of 2C helicase from enterovirus 71.
    Sci Adv 2017 Apr 28;3(4):e1602573. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 9 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100730, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen responsible for outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease. EV71 nonstructural protein 2C participates in many critical events throughout the virus life cycle; however, its precise role is not fully understood. Lack of a high-resolution structure made it difficult to elucidate 2C activity and prevented inhibitor development. Read More

    Enterovirus 71-induced has-miR-21 contributes to evasion of host immune system by targeting MyD88 and IRAK1.
    Virus Res 2017 May 12;237:27-36. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Yanan University, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus71(EV71), the etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has increasingly become a public health challenge around the world. Type I interferons (IFNs) are an important family of cytokines that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens.These pathways are tightly regulated by the host to prevent an inappropriate cellular response, but viruses can modulate these pathways to proliferate and spread. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of an Enterovirus 71 Strain Isolated from the Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Child with Severe Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Yunnan, China, 2013.
    Genome Announc 2017 May 11;5(19). Epub 2017 May 11.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, PR China
    The complete genome sequence of the enterovirus 71 strain CSF15/YN/CHN/2013, first isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a child in Yunnan, China, in 2013, was determined. According to the phylogenetic and homogeneity analyses, the isolate was assigned to subgenotype C4a. Read More

    Clinical Significance and Prognostic Effect of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Critical and Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.
    Nutrients 2017 May 10;9(5). Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of PICU, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan No. 2 Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014, China.
    Objective: To examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with critical and severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and assess the clinical significance and prognostic effect of 25(OH)D concentrations in children with HFMD.

    Methods: This is a prospective observational study. The 138 children with HFMD were divided into common (49 cases), severe (52 cases), and critical (37 cases) HFMD groups. Read More

    Epidemiological and aetiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shijiazhuang City, Hebei province, China, 2009-2012.
    PLoS One 2017 9;12(5):e0176604. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Shijiazhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China.
    Large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have repeatedly occurred in mainland of China since 2007. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and aetiological characteristics of HFMD in Shijiazhuang City, one of the biggest northern cities of China. A total of 57,173 clinical HFMD cases, including 911 severe and 32 fatal cases, were reported in Shijiazhuang City during 2009-2012. Read More

    Valine/isoleucine variants drive selective pressure in the VP1 sequence of EV-A71 enteroviruses.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 May 8;17(1):333. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Cirad, UMR 17, Intertryp, TA-A17/G, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Background: In 2011-2012, Northern Vietnam experienced its first large scale hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemic. In 2011, a major HFMD epidemic was also reported in South Vietnam with fatal cases. This 2011-2012 outbreak was the first one to occur in North Vietnam providing grounds to study the etiology, origin and dynamic of the disease. Read More

    [Observation on intestinal viral shedding time of hand, foot and mouth disease induced by coxsackievirus A6].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 May;55(5):369-372
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou Children's Hospital, Hangzhou 310014, China.
    Objective: To observe the intestinal viral shedding time in patients with hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) induced by coxsackievirus A6 (CA6). Method: Throat swab specimens and stool specimens of HFMD children were collected from those admitted to Hangzhou Children's Hospital between May and October 2015, while fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the viral load.Eeighteen cases of HFMD children were followed up, who were confirmed as CA6 infection via laboratory tests. Read More

    Epidemiological and Genetic Analysis Concerning the Non-enterovirus 71 and Non-coxsackievirus A16 Causative Agents Related to Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Anyang City, Henan Province, China, from 2011 to 2015.
    J Med Virol 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Anyang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Anyang, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and have been associated with consecutive outbreaks of HFMD in China over the past years. Although several other human enteroviruses (HEVs) have also acted as causative agents of HFMD, published information on their roles in the prevalence of HFMD is limited. This study was conducted to reveal the characteristics of the pathogenic spectrum and molecular epidemiology of the non-EV-71 and non-CV-A16 HEVs in Anyang City, which is located in north-central China and has a population of 5 million. Read More

    [Health related quality of life on severe hand, foot and mouth disease patients].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;38(4):462-466
    Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early Warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients with different complications. Methods: A national telephone interview under the EQ-5D proxy2 questionnaire (EQ-SD and EQ-VAS), was conducted to obtain the HRQoL of lab-confirmed severe HFMD patients, aged between six months and five-year-olds from the national communicable disease surveillance system from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Results: A total of 685 severe HFMD cases were included in the study. Read More

    [Hand, foot and mouth disease in Hubei province, 2009-2015: an epidemiological and etiological study].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;38(4):441-445
    Institute of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuhan 430079, China.
    Objective: To clarify the age patterns and types of differences so as to provide reference on prevention and interventions of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases, in Hubei province. Methods: We collected the HFMD case information of Hubei province from the Chinese National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System in 2009-2015 while the information on pathogens from the laboratory monitoring system of Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels in Hubei province. All the data were stratified by age, disease severity, laboratory confirmation status, and serotypes of enterovirus. Read More

    Serosurveillance of foot and mouth disease in Karnataka state, India: a 3 years study.
    Virusdisease 2016 Sep 26;27(3):294-302. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Hebbal, Bengaluru, 560024 India.
    A prospective serological investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), as well as to monitor the effectiveness of the FMD control programme (FMD-CP) through vaccination in Karnataka, India. Random serum samples were collected every year between May and August before the start of vaccination in 2011, and subsequently following two phases of vaccination in 2012 and 2013. Infection status (seroprevalence) was inferred by subjecting the sera to indirect r3AB3 non-structural protein-ELISA, using kits developed by the Project Directorate on FMD, India. Read More

    Neuro-Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: Finding in 412 Patients and Prognostic Features.
    J Comput Assist Tomogr 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    From the *China Southern Medical University; †Department of Radiology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences/Guangdong General Hospital; and ‡Department of Radiology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou; and §Department of Radiology, Ganzhou General Hospital of Jiangxi Province, Ganzhou, P.R. China.
    Purpose: The aims of this study were to describe the neuroimaging findings in hand, foot, and mouth disease and determine those who may provide prognosis.

    Material And Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging scans in 412 severe hand, foot, and mouth disease between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients who had the neurological signs were followed for 6 months to 1 year. Read More

    Structure of EV71 3C(pro) in complex with NK-1.8k: Indications for the development of anti-enterovirus protease inhibitor.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 May 1. Epub 2017 May 1.
    College of Pharmacy & State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus is a threat to public health in worldwide. Up-to-date, enterovirus 71 (EV71) becomes one of the major causative agents of HFMD in Pacific-Asia region and causes millions of infections from its outbreak. However, no drug is currently available for clinical therapeutics. Read More

    Clinical significance of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in hand, foot and mouth disease.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 May 15;15(5):2859-2866. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, P.R. China.
    The present study examined the relationship between cytokine and chemokine expression and the clinical presentation of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is currently unclear. The present study involved 28 patients with mild HFMD, 44 patients with severe HFMD and 26 healthy children. Venous blood was tested for cytokine [interleukin (IL)‑4, IL‑12, IL‑18, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ)] and chemokine expression [IL‑8, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 (MCP‑1) and IFN-γ-inducible protein‑10 (IP‑10)]. Read More

    The binding of a monoclonal antibody to the apical region of SCARB2 blocks EV71 infection.
    Protein Cell 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.
    Entero virus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and occasionally leads to severe neurological complications and even death. Scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) is a functional receptor for EV71, that mediates viral attachment, internalization, and uncoating. However, the exact binding site of EV71 on SCARB2 is unknown. Read More

    Alteration of serum high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) levels in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(17):e6764
    Department of Childhood Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric disease caused by enterovirus infection. It typically presents as a fever along with flat, discolored spots and bumps on the hands, feet, and mouth. Compared with other viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced HFMD is more prone to cause severe complications in children, such as brainstem encephalitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, and even death. Read More

    Association of the OAS3 rs1859330 G/A genetic polymorphism with severity of enterovirus-71 infection in Chinese Han children.
    Arch Virol 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 59, Haier Road, Qingdao, 266000, China.
    The 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) is an interferon (IFN)-induced protein that plays an important role in the antiviral action of IFN, with OAS3 being one of the four OAS classes (OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, OASL). The effect of OAS on several infectious viral diseases has been reported; however, a study of the effect of OAS3 on enterovirus 71 (EV71) is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the OAS3 rs1859330 G/A genetic polymorphism with susceptibility and severity of EV71 infection. Read More

    Development and Application of A Duplex Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Coxsackievirus A6 and Coxsackievirus A10.
    Ann Clin Lab Sci 2017 Mar;47(2):178-183
    Jiaxing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jiaxing, P.R. China
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious public health problem. Generally, it is considered that HFMD is mainly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). Nevertheless, the incidence of HFMD caused by coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) and coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has increased significantly and CVA6 and CVA10 have become major causes of HFMD epidemic. Read More

    A prospective, comparative study of severe neurological and uncomplicated hand, foot and mouth forms of paediatric enterovirus 71 infections.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Apr 22;59:69-76. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Electronic address:
    Objectives: In this study, we document the clinical characteristics and investigated risk factors for uncomplicated and severe forms of EV-A71 disease in Cambodian children.

    Methods: From March to July 2014 inclusive, all patients with suspicion of EV-A71 infection presenting to Kantha Bopha Hospitals in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap and confirmed by the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge were prospectively enrolled in this study. Throat swabs, rectal swabs and serum samples were collected from all consecutive patients with suspected EV-A71 infection. Read More

    Development of a pseudovirus based assay for measuring neutralizing antibodies against coxsackievirus B5.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Apr 20;246:21-26. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:
    Coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5), an important Coxsackie B virus from genus Enteroviruse within the family Picornaviridae, has also been isolated from Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) patients, and often associated with neurological manifestations. In this study, we found out that Coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) replicon RNA could be encapsidated with CV-B5 capsid to assemble infectious CV-B5 pseudovirus. We then utilized this single round infection system of CV-B5 to develop a neutralizing antibody quantification assay. Read More

    Antiviral screen identifies EV71 inhibitors and reveals camptothecin-target, DNA topoisomerase 1 as a novel EV71 host factor.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 17;143:122-133. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Laboratory of Molecular RNA Virology and Antiviral Strategies, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological disease. EV71's pathogenesis remains poorly understood and the lack of approved antiviral has led to its emergence as a clinically important neurotropic virus. The goals of this study were to: (i) identify novel anti-EV71 compounds that may serve as lead molecules for therapeutics; and (ii) investigate their targets in downstream studies. Read More

    Disruption of MDA5 mediated innate immune responses by the 3C proteins of Coxsackievirus A16, Coxsackievirus A6, and Enterovirus D68.
    J Virol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    First Hospital of Jilin University, Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, Changchun, Jilin Province, China
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), A6 (CV-A6), and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belong to the Picornaviridae family and are major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and pediatric respiratory disease worldwide. The biological characteristics of these viruses, especially their interplay with the host innate immune system, have not been well investigated. In this study, we discovered that the 3C(pro) proteins from CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 bind MDA5 and inhibit its interaction with MAVS. Read More

    Protective efficacy of formaldehyde-inactivated whole-virus vaccine and antivirals in a murine model of coxsackievirus A10 infection.
    J Virol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Shandong Universities Key Laboratory of Etiology and Epidemiology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian, China
    Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). CVA10 infection can cause herpangina and viral pneumonia, which can be complicated by severe neurological sequelae. Morbidity and mortality of CVA10-associated HFMD has been increasing in recent years, particularly in the pan-Pacific region. Read More

    Effective in vivo therapeutic IgG antibody against VP3 of enterovirus 71 with receptor-competing activity.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 19;7:46402. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Republic of Singapore.
    Passive immunization is an effective option for treatment against hand, foot and mouth disease caused by EV71, especially with cross-neutralizing IgG monoclonal antibodies. In this study, an EV71-specific IgG2a antibody designated 5H7 was identified and characterized. 5H7 efficiently neutralizes the major EV71 genogroups (A, B4, C2, C4). Read More

    Epidemiology of 45,616 suspect cases of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Chongqing, China, 2011-2015.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 19;7:45630. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Laboratory Medicine Center, Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014, China.
    Epidemiology and etiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) based on large sample size or evaluation of detection for more enterovirus serotypes are not well investigated in Chongqing of China. 45,616 suspect HFMD patients were prospectively enrolled among whom 21,615 were laboratory confirmed HFMD cases over a 5-year period (January 2011 to December 2015). Their epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were extracted and stratified by month, age, sex, disease severity, and enterovirus serotype. Read More

    Exploiting the Anti-Aggregation of Gold Nanostars for Rapid Detection of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Causing Enterovirus 71 Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.
    Anal Chem 2017 May 26;89(10):5373-5381. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore , 4 Engineering Drive 3, Blk E4, #04-08, Singapore 117583.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major public health threat that requires rapid point-of-care detection. Here, we developed a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based scheme that utilized protein-induced aggregation of colloidal gold nanostars (AuNS) to rapidly detect EV71 without the need for fabricating a solid substrate, Raman labels or complicated sample handling. We used AuNS (hydrodynamic diameter, DH of 105. Read More

    Therapeutic efficacy of phentolamine in the management of severe hand, foot and mouth disease combined with pulmonary edema.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Apr 7;13(4):1403-1407. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of First Pediatric Internal Medicine, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei 061000, P.R. China.
    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of phentolamine on severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) combined with pulmonary edema (PE). From May 2008 to December 2012, 53 children with severe HFMD plus PE were enrolled in the treatment group, receiving phentolamine intravenously at a loading dose of 5 µg/kg/min. The control group comprised 52 children with the same disease who did not receive phentolamine infusion. Read More

    Epidemic characteristics of main infectious diseases in Yantai city between 2010 and 2012 and prevention strategy research.
    Pak J Pharm Sci 2016 Nov;29(6(Special)):2191-2198
    Fushan District People's Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province, China.
    To investigate the epidemic characteristics and prevention strategies of main infectious diseases. From 2010 to 2012, 23 notifiable diseases were reported in Yantai with average reported cases of 17,376. The morbidity was the highest in 2012 and the lowest in 2011. Read More

    Characterization of three small molecule inhibitors of enterovirus 71 identified from screening of a library of natural products.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 13;143:85-96. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Pathogen Diagnostic Center, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV-A71 is more often associated with neurological complications in children and is responsible for the majority of fatalities, but currently there is no approved antiviral therapy for treatment. Here, we identified auraptene, formononetin, and yangonin as effective inhibitors of EV-A71 infection in the low-micromolar range from screening of a natural product library. Read More

    Epidemiological features of and changes in incidence of infectious diseases in China in the first decade after the SARS outbreak: an observational trend study.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    Background: The model of infectious disease prevention and control changed significantly in China after the outbreak in 2003 of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but trends and epidemiological features of infectious diseases are rarely studied. In this study, we aimed to assess specific incidence and mortality trends of 45 notifiable infectious diseases from 2004 to 2013 in China and to investigate the overall effectiveness of current prevention and control strategies.

    Methods: Incidence and mortality data for 45 notifiable infectious diseases were extracted from a WChinese public health science data centre from 2004 to 2013, which covers 31 provinces in mainland China. Read More

    A novel combined vaccine based on monochimeric VLP co-displaying multiple conserved epitopes against enterovirus 71 and varicella-zoster virus.
    Vaccine 2017 May 10;35(20):2728-2735. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.
    Chicken pox and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are two major infectious diseases that mainly affect infants and children, causing significant morbidity annually. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71), respectively, are the principal epidemic pathogens causing these two diseases. To investigate the possibility of developing a novel combined vaccine to prevent chicken pox and HFMD, we constructed three chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) (termed HBc-V/1/2, HBc-2/V/1 and HBc-1/2/V) based on the hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) carrier that display epitopes derived from VZV-gE, EV71-VP1, and EV71-VP2 in a varied tandem manner. Read More

    Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Risk Factor Analysis of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Associated with Under-Five Morbidity in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Apr 13;14(4). Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciencesand Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

    Interleukin-18 protects mice from Enterovirus 71 infection.
    Cytokine 2017 Apr 8;96:132-137. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:
    Previous study has demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for protecting murine host against Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. However, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here we discovered that the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18), an NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent effector protein, exhibits a protective capability against EV71 challenge. Read More

    Impact of genetic changes, pathogenicity and antigenicity on Enterovirus- A71 vaccine development.
    Virology 2017 Jun 4;506:121-129. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Research Centre for Biomedical Sciences, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor 47500, Malaysia. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71) is an etiological agent of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 infection produces high fever and ulcers in children. Some EV-A71 strains produce severe infections leading to pulmonary edema and death. Read More

    Epidemics and aetiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in Xiamen, China, from 2008 to 2015.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Apr 3:1-10. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases,Xiamen University,Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University,South Xiang'an Road,Xiamen,China.
    Over the past 8 years, human enteroviruses (HEVs) have caused 27 227 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Xiamen, including 99 severe cases and six deaths. We aimed to explore the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Xiamen to inform the development of diagnostic assays, vaccines and other interventions. From January 2009 to September 2015, 5866 samples from sentinel hospitals were tested using nested reverse transcription PCR that targeted the HEV 5' untranslated region and viral protein 1 region. Read More

    Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Feb 23;13(2):364-377. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Clinical Virology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.
    The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 Neutralizing Antibodies Seroepidemiological Research among Children in Guangzhou, China between 2014 and 2015: A Cross-Sectional Study.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Mar 20;14(3). Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou 510080, China.
    A hand-foot-mouth disease outbreak occurred in 2014 around Guangdong. The purpose of this study was investigating the status and susceptibility of infectious neutralizing antibodies to enterovirus 71 among children so as to provide scientific evidence for the population immunity level of hand-foot-mouth disease and prepare for enterovirus 71 vaccination implementation. Serum specimens were collected from children in communities from January 2014 to March 2015 in Guangzhou. Read More

    Squamous epitheliotropism of Enterovirus A71 in human epidermis and oral mucosa.
    Sci Rep 2017 Mar 21;7:45069. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia.
    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a self-limiting paediatric infectious disease commonly caused by Enterovirus A71 (Genus: Enterovirus, Family: Picornaviridae). Typical lesions in and around the hands, feet, oral cavity and other places may rarely be complicated by acute flaccid paralysis and acute encephalomyelitis. Although virus is readily cultured from skin vesicles and oral secretions, the cellular target/s of Enterovirus A71 in human skin and oral mucosa are unknown. Read More

    The Golgi protein ACBD3 facilitates Enterovirus 71 replication by interacting with 3A.
    Sci Rep 2017 Mar 17;7:44592. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences &Peking Union Medical College, Beijing P.R. China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human pathogen that causes hand, foot, mouth disease and neurological complications. Although EV71, as well as other enteroviruses, initiates a remodeling of intracellular membrane for genomic replication, the regulatory mechanism remains elusive. By screening human cDNA library, we uncover that the Golgi resident protein acyl-coenzyme A binding domain-containing 3 (ACBD3) serves as a target of the 3A protein of EV71. Read More

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