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    2049 results match your criteria Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

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    Hepatitis B virus core particles containing multiple epitopes confer protection against enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 infection in mice.
    Vaccine 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:
    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two major causative agents of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). To investigate novel combined vaccines to prevent EV71 and CA16 infection, we constructed chimeric virus-like particles (tHBc/SPA or tHBc/SP VLPs) displaying conserved epitopes of EV71 (aa 208-222 of VP1 and aa 248-263 of VP2) and CA16 (aa271-285 of VP1) using a truncated hepatitis B virus core carrier (tHBc). Immunization with the chimeric VLPs induced epitope- or virus-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies against EV71 and CA16 in the mice. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    2​Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, PR China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. Read More

    Involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of enterovirus 71 infection.
    Oncotarget 2017 Oct 23;8(46):81014-81026. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China.
    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is recognized as the main causative agent of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, the pathogenesis of EV71 infection has not been well characterized. Clinical evidence indicated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction in the lung of HFMD patients contributes to the severe symptoms of pulmonary edema. Read More

    Association study of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in hand foot and mouth disease.
    Oncotarget 2017 Oct 2;8(45):79425-79432. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Dingli Hospital of Wenzhou Medical School, Wezhou Central Hospital, Zhejiang, P. R. China.
    Objective: To determine the relationship of cytokine/chemokine expression with the clinical presentation of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Results: All cytokine/chemokine levels were higher in severe HFMD patients than in mild HFMD patients or controls (P < 0.01). Read More

    Onychomadesis as a Late Complication of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease: A Case Series Shedding Light on Nail Shedding.
    Pediatr Emerg Care 2017 Nov;33(11):e122-e123
    From the Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.
    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a viral illness frequently caused by enterovirus and coxsackievirus. Traditionally, this disease initially causes malaise, fever, and rash with vesicles in the mouth, as well as on the hands and feet. Occasionally, more severe presentations and late postinfectious sequelae occur, including onychomadesis, nail matrix arrest. Read More

    A 3.0-Angstrom Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structure and Antigenic Sites of Coxsackievirus A6-Like Particles.
    J Virol 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has recently emerged as one of the predominant causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Structure of CVA6 mature viral particle has not been solved thus far. Our previous work shows that recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) of CVA6 represent a promising CVA6 vaccine candidate. Read More

    Predicting the outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Nanjing, China: a time-series model based on weather variability.
    Int J Biometeorol 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health issue in China and an accurate prediction of epidemic can improve the effectiveness of HFMD control. This study aims to develop a weather-based forecasting model for HFMD using the information on climatic variables and HFMD surveillance in Nanjing, China. Daily data on HFMD cases and meteorological variables between 2010 and 2015 were acquired from the Nanjing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, respectively. Read More

    A comparative study of multiple clinical enterovirus 71 isolates and evaluation of cross protection of inactivated vaccine strain FY-23 K-B in vitro.
    Virol J 2017 Oct 26;14(1):206. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, China.
    Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease, which mostly affects infants and children and leads to severe neurological diseases. Vaccination offers the best option for disease control. We have screened the virus strain FY-23 K-B, which is used as an inactivated vaccine strain. Read More

    Structure, Immunogenicity and Protective Mechanism of an Engineered Enterovirus 71-Like Particle Vaccine Mimicking 80S Empty Capsid.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Unit of Vaccinology & Antiviral Strategies, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand, foot and mouth disease which affects millions of young children in the Asia-Pacific region annually. In this study, we engineered a novel EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) that lacks VP4 (thereby designated "VLPΔVP4"), and investigated its structure, antigenicity and vaccine potential. The cryo-EM structure of VLPΔVP4 was reconstructed to 3. Read More

    Suppression of the toll-like receptor 7-dependent type I interferon production pathway by autophagy resulting from enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 infections facilitates their replication.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, 935 Jiaoling Road, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, China.
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as molecular sentinels, detecting invading viral pathogens and triggering host innate immune responses, including autophagy. However, many viruses have evolved a series of strategies to manipulate autophagy for their own benefit. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), as the primary agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), can induce autophagy leading to their replication. Read More

    Case report: Features of hand, foot and mouth disease in neonates.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Oct;96(42):e8307
    aDepartment of Neonatology bInternal Medicine Intensive Care Unit, Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital affiliated to Fujian Medical School, Zhangzhou, China.
    Rationale: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enterovirus. The virus may exist in secretions.

    Patient Concerns: Five neonates had symptoms of fever and maculopapular rashes involving face, trunk, breech, arms, and legs, especially scattering on palms and feet. Read More

    Seroepidemiology of Coxsackievirus B5 in infants and children in Jiangsu province, China.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    a National Institutes for Food and Drug Control , Beijing , P.R.China.
    Coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5) is associated with various human diseases such as viral encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, paralysis, herpangina, and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, there is currently no effective vaccine against CV-B5.The seroepidemiologic characteristics of CV-B5 remained unknown. Read More

    The association between diurnal temperature range and childhood hand, foot, and mouth disease: a distributed lag non-linear analysis.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Nov 17;145(15):3264-3273. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    West China School of Public Health,Sichuan University,Chengdu,Sichuan,People's Republic of China.
    In recent years, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been increasingly recognized as a critical challenge to disease control and prevention in China. Previous studies have found that meteorological factors such as mean temperature and relative humidity were associated with HFMD. However, little is known about whether the diurnal temperature range (DTR) has any impact on HFMD. Read More

    Pattern classification of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in chinese medicine: A retrospective study in 433 cases.
    Chin J Integr Med 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700, China.
    Objective: To determine whether patterns of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) were classified based on symptoms and signs, and explore whether individual characteristics were correlated with membership in particular pattern.

    Methods: Symptom-based latent class analysis (LCA) was used to determine whether patterns of EV71-HFMD existed in a sample of 433 cases from a clinical data warehouse system. Logistic regression was then performed to explore whether demographic, and laboratory data were associated with pattern membership. Read More

    The impact of influenza on the health related quality of life in China: an EQ-5D survey.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 16;17(1):686. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: Influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality in China, but its impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been previously measured.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective telephone survey to assess the impact of influenza on the HRQoL among outpatients and inpatients using the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L instrument. Participants were individuals with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection registered by the National Influenza-like-illness Surveillance Network in 2013. Read More

    Evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Enterovirus A71 subgenogroups in Vietnam.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 169857, Singapore.
    Background: Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is the major cause of severe hand, foot and mouth disease and viral encephalitis in children across the Asia-Pacific region, including in Vietnam which has experienced a high burden of disease in recent years. Multiple subgenogroups (C1, C4, C5 and B5) concurrently circulate in the region with a large variation in epidemic severity. The relative differences in their evolution and epidemiology were examined within Vietnam and globally. Read More

    Intestinal probiotics in relieving clinical symptoms of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease and potential mechanism analysis.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017 Sep;21(18):4214-4218
    Department of Emergency, Xuzhou Children's Hospital affiliated to Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.
    Objective: In this prospective cohort study, the efficacy and action mechanism of an intestinal probiotic formulation, Golden Bifid, in severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) were determined in 63 consecutively admitted patients successfully treated in the Pediatrics Emergency Department of our hospital.

    Patients And Methods: All patients had a persistent fever; 43 patients had rashes on hands, feet, crissum, and hips; and 45 patients had neurological signs and symptoms. Patients were treated with standard supportive therapy along with ventilator-assisted respiration combined with bedside hemofiltration for removal of circulatory toxins and to achieve acid-base equilibrium and electrolyte stability. Read More

    Protective effect of an alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist against enterovirus 71 infection in neuronal cells.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Laboratory of Virology, Beijing Municipal Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71, as one of the dominant pathogens associated with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, has been well reported to trigger severe neurological symptoms among young children over the last decade, particularly among children in the Asia-Pacific region. To date, no effective antiviral agent has been developed for the treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection. PNU-282987, a selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect by participating in inflammatory regulation in previous studies. Read More

    Long non-coding RNA expression profiles in different severity EV71-infected hand foot and mouth disease patients.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Dec 7;493(4):1594-1600. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is associated with the severe hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outcomes, however the host-virus interaction mechanism and the pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in variety physiological and pathological processes, but the functions of lncRNAs in EV71 infection remain elusive. Here we profiled the expression of lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected mild patients, severe patients as well as the healthy controls, and identified 8541 lncRNAs were differentially expressed. Read More

    Predicting the hand, foot, and mouth disease incidence using search engine query data and climate variables: an ecological study in Guangdong, China.
    BMJ Open 2017 Oct 6;7(10):e016263. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology & Health Information Research Center & Guangdong Key Laboratory of Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Objectives: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused a substantial burden in China, especially in Guangdong Province. Based on the enhanced surveillance system, we aimed to explore whether the addition of temperate and search engine query data improves the risk prediction of HFMD.

    Design: Ecological study. Read More

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in West Bengal, India: A Preliminary Report on Clinicovirological Trend over 3 Successive Years (2013-2015).
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Sep-Oct;62(5):486-490
    ICMR Virus Unit, I.D & B.G Hospital Campus, GB-4, Beliaghata, Kolkata - 700 010, West Bengal, India.
    Introduction: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), an enteroviral disease has emerged as a major emerging infection in India. This is caused most commonly by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) but can also be due to CVA4-10, CVA24, CVB2-5, and echovirus 18 (Echo18). Virological analysis of the cases of HFMD has been infrequently done in India. Read More

    Epitope-associated and specificity-focused features of EV71-neutralizing antibody repertoires from plasmablasts of infected children.
    Nat Commun 2017 Oct 2;8(1):762. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, 33305, Taiwan.
    Protective antibody levels are critical for protection from severe enterovirus 71 infection. However, little is known about the specificities and functional properties of the enterovirus 71-specific antibodies induced by natural infection in humans. Here we characterize 191 plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies from three enterovirus 71-infected children, each of whom shows a distinct serological response. Read More

    Risk factors for neurogenic pulmonary edema in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease: A meta-analysis.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Sep 29;65:37-43. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Institute of Cardiovascular Disease and Key Laboratory for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of NPE.

    Methods: Several databases were searched (from inception to 2017) to identify case-control studies on risk factors for NPE among patients with severe HFMD. Data were analyzed via meta-analysis. Read More

    B-type brain natriuretic peptide as a measure of the severity of hand-foot-mouth disease: a case-control study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 29;17(1):651. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Department of Emergency, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 136, Zhongshan 2 Road, Yuzhong district, Chongqing, 400014, China.
    Background: Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute infectious disease caused by enteroviruses, and HFMD complicated by cardiopulmonary failure has a high mortality. B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is widely applied in monitoring cardiovascular disorders, and thus, we investigated whether this index was associated with the severity of HFMD and the outcome in severe HFMD.

    Methods: Serum BNP, lactate, and glucose levels as well as white blood cell (WBC) count, PaO2/FiO2, and cardiac output (CO) were analyzed in the 83 enrolled HFMD patients according to different conditions (common, severe, and critical; with and without complication; and survivors and non-survivors). Read More

    Acute localized exanthem due to Coxsackievirus A4.
    Infez Med 2017 Sep;25(3):274-276
    DISSAL Department of Dermatology, IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy.
    Enteroviruses are the leading cause of exanthems in children, especially during summer and autumn. Enterovirus infections may occur in epidemics or small outbreaks. A 30-year-old woman presented with a three-day history of an erythematous maculopapular skin rash with petechiae localized exclusively under the nipple of the right breast. Read More

    HERP Binds TBK1 To Activate Innate Immunity and Repress Virus Replication in Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.
    J Immunol 2017 Nov 27;199(9):3280-3292. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; and
    Host innate immunity is crucial for cellular responses against viral infection sensed by distinct pattern recognition receptors and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and neurological diseases. However, the exact mechanism underlying the link between ER stress induced by EV71 infection and host innate immunity is largely unknown. Read More

    Spatio-temporal clustering analysis and its determinants of hand, foot and mouth disease in Hunan, China, 2009-2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 25;17(1):645. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410008, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is one of the highest reported infectious diseases with several outbreaks across the world. This study aimed at describing epidemiological characteristics, investigating spatio-temporal clustering changes, and identifying determinant factors in different clustering areas of HFMD.

    Methods: Descriptive statistics was used to evaluate the epidemic characteristics of HFMD from 2009 to 2015. Read More

    Vitamin D receptor protects glioblastoma A172 cells against Coxsackievirus A16 infection induced cell death in the pathogenesis of hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Nov 21;493(2):952-956. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Harbin Children's Hospital, Harbin 150010, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) was one of the most common children illnesses. Coxsackievirus A16 was one of the major pathogens that cause HFMD. However, the role of vitamin D underlying this common illness has not been elucidated. Read More

    Multiple transmission chains of coxsackievirus A4 co-circulating in China and neighboring countries in recent years: Phylogenetic and spatiotemporal analyses based on virological surveillance.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Sep 20;118:23-31. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, No. 44 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012, People's Republic of China.
    Coxsackievirus A4 (CV-A4) has been reported frequently in association with many infectious diseases and cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease potentially associated with CV-A4 infection are also identified. This study summarized the Shandong CV-A4 strains isolated from 25years acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, with an emphasis on exploring the phylogenetic analyses and spatiotemporal dynamics of CV-A4 at the global scale. We sampled 43 CV-A4 isolates and utilized VP1 gene to construct phylogenetic trees. Read More

    Comparative Analysis of Serum Proteins from Patients with Severe and Mild EV-A71-induced HFMD using iTRAQ-Coupled LC-MS/MS Screening.
    Proteomics Clin Appl 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine Ministry of Health, Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, China.
    Purpose: This study was designed to provide a rationale for monitoring the development of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and predicting the onset of this disease via global comparative analysis between patients with severe and mild HFMD.

    Experimental Design: The authors collected serum from five groups: mild (E-M) and severe (E-S) EV-A71-induced HFMD; mild (NE-M) and severe (NE-S) non-EV-A71-induced HFMD; and healthy control subjects (CON). The authors then performed comparative analysis and identified specific differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) of E-S using isobaric mass tag (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Read More

    Tailoring Diagnostic Studies in Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: Utility of PCR testing of Lesional Skin.
    Br J Dermatol 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Hand, Foot, Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious enteroviral infection with the potential for significant morbidity. In recent years, there has been an increase in atypical cutaneous manifestations of HFMD. We present a pilot case series utilizing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing of lesional skin to render a diagnosis of HFMD. Read More

    A highly conserved amino acid in VP1 regulates maturation of enterovirus 71.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Sep 22;13(9):e1006625. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical School, Beijing, PR China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, causing severe clinical outcomes and even death. Here, we report an important role of the highly conserved alanine residue at position 107 in the capsid protein VP1 (VP1A107) in the efficient replication of EV71. Substitutional mutations of VP1A107 significantly diminish viral growth kinetics without significant effect on viral entry, expression of viral genes and viral production. Read More

    Web-Based Surveillance of Illness in Childcare Centers.
    Health Secur 2017 Sep/Oct;15(5):463-472. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    School absenteeism is an inefficient and unspecific metric for measuring community illness and does not provide surveillance during summertime. Web-based biosurveillance of childcare centers may represent a novel way to efficiently monitor illness outbreaks year-round. A web-based biosurveillance program ( sickchildcare. Read More

    [Real world analysis to explore Xiyanping injection combined with other drugs for hand-foot-mouth disease].
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2016 Dec;41(24):4510-4515
    Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.
    Integrated network analysis was used in this paper to analyze Xiyanping injection combined therapy for hand-foot-mouth disease based on the registered research data of 3 204 cases. It was found that the drug combination therapy was almost consistent with the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand foot mouth disease, but there were some problems to be noticed: there were too many applications of antibiotics, more than the need in preventing secondary infection; and ribavirin was not necessary for use. This article showed that the clinical antibacterial and antiviral values of Xiyanping injection has not been well recognized for hand-foot-mouth disease. Read More

    Economic costs and health-related quality of life for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients in China.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0184266. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in China that mainly affects infants and children. The objective of this study is to assess the economic cost and health-related quality of life associated with HFMD in China.

    Method: A telephone survey of caregivers were conducted in 31 provinces across China. Read More

    The Process of Wrapping Virus Revealed by a Force Tracing Technique and Simulations.
    Adv Sci (Weinh) 2017 Sep 26;4(9):1600489. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical ChemistryChangchun Institute of Applied ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesChangchunJilin130022P. R. China.
    Viral entry into the host cell is the first step of virus infection; however, its dynamic process via endocytosis remains largely elusive. Here, the force tracing technique and single particle simulation are combined to investigate the invagination of single human enterovirus 71 (HEV71, a positive single-stranded RNA virus that is associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease) via cell membranes during its host cell entry. The experimental results reveal that the HEV71 invaginates in membrane vesicles at a force of 58 ± 16 pN, a duration time of 278 ± 68 ms. Read More

    A Selective Bottleneck Shapes the Evolutionary Mutant Spectra of Enterovirus A71 during Viral Dissemination in Humans.
    J Virol 2017 Dec 14;91(23). Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
    RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Read More

    [Acute skin infections and their imitators in children : A photo quiz].
    Hautarzt 2017 Oct;68(10):774-783
    Abteilung pädiatrische Dermatologie, Universitäts-Kinderspital Zürich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zürich, Schweiz.
    Background: Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. Read More

    [Downscaling research of spatial distribution of incidence of hand foot and mouth disease based on area-to-area Poisson Kriging method].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Sep;38(9):1201-1205
    China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100022, China.
    Objective: To understand the spatial distribution of incidence of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) at scale of township and provide evidence for the better prevention and control of HFMD and allocation of medical resources. Methods: The incidence data of HFMD in 108 counties (district) in Shandong province in 2010 were collected. Downscaling interpolation was conducted by using area-to-area Poisson Kriging method. Read More

    Monitoring hand, foot and mouth disease by combining search engine query data and meteorological factors.
    Sci Total Environ 2018 Jan 8;612:1293-1299. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been recognized as a significant public health threat and poses a tremendous challenge to disease control departments. To date, the relationship between meteorological factors and HFMD has been documented, and public interest of disease has been proven to be trackable from the Internet. However, no study has explored the combination of these two factors in the monitoring of HFMD. Read More

    Atomic structures of Coxsackievirus A6 and its complex with a neutralizing antibody.
    Nat Commun 2017 Sep 11;8(1):505. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, PR China.
    Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has recently emerged as a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in children worldwide but no vaccine is available against CVA6 infections. Here, we demonstrate the isolation of two forms of stable CVA6 particles-procapsid and A-particle-with excellent biochemical stability and natural antigenicity to serve as vaccine candidates. Despite the presence (in A-particle) or absence (in procapsid) of capsid-RNA interactions, the two CVA6 particles have essentially identical atomic capsid structures resembling the uncoating intermediates of other enteroviruses. Read More

    [Clinical characteristics and course of hand, foot, and mouth disease].
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Oct;24(10):1036-1046
    CHU Clermont-Ferrand, laboratoire de virologie, Centre national de référence des entérovirus et des parechovirus, laboratoire associé, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand cedex, France; Université Clermont-Auvergne, LMGE UMR CNRS 6023, équipe EPIE, épidémiologie et physiopathologie des infections à entérovirus, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address:
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA) are common childhood diseases mostly associated with human enteroviruses (EV). Although usually benign illnesses, neurological complications may be observed during large epidemics when enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is involved, as observed in the Asia Pacific Region and in China since the late 1990s. The occurrence of these complications warrants reinforcing the surveillance of the emergence of EV-A71 infections in France and Europe. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of a national enterovirus 71 vaccination program in China.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005899. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Background And Aims: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused great morbidity, mortality, and use of health service in children younger than five years in China. Vaccines against EV71 have been proved effective and safe by recent phase 3 trials and are now available in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health impact and cost-effectiveness of a national EV71 vaccination program in China. Read More

    Spatiotemporal risk mapping of hand, foot and mouth disease and its association with meteorological variables in children under 5 years.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Oct 11;145(14):2912-2920. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment,Beijing,China.
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) risk has become an increasing concern in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is the biggest urban agglomeration in north-eastern Asia. In the study, spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HFMD were analysed, and a Bayesian space-time hierarchy model was used to detect local spatial relative risk (RR) and to assess the effect of meteorological factors. From 2009 to 2013, there was an obvious seasonal pattern of HFMD risk. Read More

    Spatial Clustering of Severe Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease Cases in Hainan Island, China.
    Jpn J Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo.
      The incidence of severe Hand-Foot-Mouth disease (HFMD) in Southeast/East Asia has recently increased. This study explored spatial clusters of the incidence and proportion of severe HFMD cases in Hainan Island, Where the prevalence and mortality of HFMD were the highest in China in 2011. A spatial autocorrelation statistic (Anselin's Local Moran I) was calculated for the Empirical Bayesian (EB) smoothed dataset of severe HFMD cases. Read More

    Clinical features for 89 deaths of hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangxi, China, 2014.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 4;64:15-19. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Pediatric Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Shuangyong Road, 530000 Nanning, China. Electronic address:
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to summarize the risk factors of severe Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and explore the clinical characteristics of pulmonary edema (PE) and non-PE in the deceased patients with HFMD.

    Methods: We identified 89 HFMD deaths which were separated into the PE group or non-PE group. Next, patients were divided based on their initial admission to hospitals as stage 1, 2, 3, or 4; at this point, their clinical manifestations were compared. Read More

    Efficacy of ethanol against viruses in hand disinfection.
    J Hosp Infect 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:
    Ethanol is used worldwide in healthcare facilities for hand rubbing. It has been reported to have a stronger and broader virucidal activity compared with propanols. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of virucidal activity of ethanol in solution or as commercially available products. Read More

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