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    1876 results match your criteria Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

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    Characterization of genome sequences and clinical features of coxsackievirus A6 strains collected in Hyogo, Japan in 1999-2013.
    J Med Virol 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan.
    Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) is an enterovirus, which is known to cause herpangina. However, since 2009 it has frequently been isolated from children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In Japan, CV-A6 has been linked to HFMD outbreaks in 2011 and 2013. Read More

    Tracking and predicting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics in China by Baidu queries.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Feb 22:1-9. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Institute for Population and Development Studies,School of Public Policy and Administration,Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an,Shaanxi Province 710049,China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is highly prevalent in China, and more efficient methods of epidemic detection and early warning need to be developed to augment traditional surveillance systems. In this paper, a method that uses Baidu search queries to track and predict HFMD epidemics is presented, and the outbreaks of HFMD in China during the 60-month period from January 2011 to December 2015 are predicted. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of the predictive model and the mean absolute percentage errors between observed HFMD case counts and the predicted number show that our predictive model gives excellent fit to the data. Read More

    Human enterovirus 71 protein interaction network prompts antiviral drug repositioning.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 21;7:43143. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Biotechnology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, China.
    As a predominant cause of human hand, foot, and mouth disease, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to serious diseases and result in severe consequences that threaten public health and cause widespread panic. Although the systematic identification of physical interactions between viral proteins and host proteins provides initial information for the recognition of the cellular mechanism involved in viral infection and the development of new therapies, EV71-host protein interactions have not been explored. Here, we identified interactions between EV71 proteins and host cellular proteins and confirmed the functional relationships of EV71-interacting proteins (EIPs) with virus proliferation and infection by integrating a human protein interaction network and by functional annotation. Read More

    A Novel Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Virulence Determinant: The 69th Residue of 3C Protease Modulates Pathogenicity.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 3;7:26. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Key Laboratory of Rare and Uncommon Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences Jinan, China.
    Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71), the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has been known to cause fatal neurological complications. Unfortunately, the reason for neurological complications that have been seen in fatal cases of the disease and the relationship between EV71 virulence and viral genetic sequences remains largely undefined. The 3C protease (3C(pro)) of EV71 plays an irreplaceable role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, and intervening with host life activity during viral infection. Read More

    Shedding light on onychomadesis.
    Cutis 2017 Jan;99(1):33-36
    School of Public Affairs and Administration and the Departments of Dermatology, Pathology, and Pediatrics, Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School, Newark, USA.
    Onychomadesis is the proximal separation of the nail plate from the nail matrix due to a temporary cessation of nail growth. It can occur in children of all ages including neonates. Diagnosis is made clinically through palpation and inspection of the nail plate. Read More

    [Value of serum S100B protein and neuron-specific enolase levels in predicting the severity of hand, foot and mouth disease].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Feb;19(2):182-187
    Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China.
    Objective: To study the value of serum S100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels in predicting the severity of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Methods: Ninety children with HFMD were classified into three groups: common type, severe type, and critical type (n=30 each). Thirty healthy children were randomly selected as the control group. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis reveals dynamic changes in coxsackievirus A16 infected HEK 293T cells.
    BMC Genomics 2017 Jan 25;18(Suppl 1):933. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.
    Background: Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are two of the major causes of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) world-wide. Although many studies have focused on infection and pathogenic mechanisms, the transcriptome profile of the host cell upon CVA16 infection is still largely unknown.

    Results: In this study, we compared the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of human embryonic kidney 293T cells infected and non-infected with CVA16. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Skin Infections.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:26-32
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Read More

    Rapid detection of Enterovirus and Coxsackievirus A10 by a TaqMan based duplex one-step real time RT-PCR assay.
    Mol Cell Probes 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Changsha Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changsha 410008, China. Electronic address:
    A TaqMan based duplex one-step real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for the rapid detection of Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) and other enterovirus (EVs) in clinical samples. The assay was fully evaluated and found to be specific and sensitive. When applied in 115 clinical samples, a 100% diagnostic sensitivity in CV-A10 detection and 97. Read More

    Seasonal modeling of hand, foot, and mouth disease as a function of meteorological variations in Chongqing, China.
    Int J Biometeorol 2017 Feb 10. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an enterovirus-induced infectious disease, mainly affecting children under 5 years old. Outbreaks of HFMD in recent years indicate the disease interacts with both the weather and season. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal association between HFMD and weather variation in Chongqing, China. Read More

    The impact of hand, foot and mouth disease control policies in Singapore: A qualitative analysis of public perceptions.
    J Public Health Policy 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Tahir Foundation Building, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore, 117549, Singapore.
    Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease in Asia. Most cases are relatively mild and caused by Coxsackie viruses, but in epidemics caused by Enterovirus 71, severe complications can occur. In response to the deaths of dozens of children in a 1997 outbreak (Podin in BMC Public Health 6:180,1 Abubakar in Virus Res 61(1):1-9,2 WHO in3), Singapore practices childcare centre surveillance, case-isolation, and short-term closure of centres. Read More

    A novel Enterovirus 96 circulating in China causes hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Virus Genes 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China.
    Enterovirus 96 (EV-96) is a recently described member of the species Enterovirus C and is associated with paralysis and myelitis. In this study, using metagenomic sequencing, we identified a new enterovirus 96 strain (EV-96-SZ/GD/CHN/2014) as the sole pathogen causing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A genomic comparison showed that EV-96-SZ/GD/CHN/2014 is most similar to the EV-96-05517 strain (85% identity), which has also been detected in Guangdong Province. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 infection and vaccines.
    Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2017 Jan 25;6(1):4-14. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Laboratory of Microbiology, College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.; Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (RIPST), Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious viral infection affecting young children during the spring to fall seasons. Recently, serious outbreaks of HFMD were reported frequently in the Asia-Pacific region, including China and Korea. The symptoms of HFMD are usually mild, comprising fever, loss of appetite, and a rash with blisters, which do not need specific treatment. Read More

    An Ultrasensitive Biosensing Platform Employing Acetylcholinesterase and Gold Nanoparticles.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1530:307-316
    Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a well-known strategy for biomarker detection with a color change, which can be seen by the naked eyes. However, the moderate sensitivity of conventional ELISA limits its applications in many cases where the concentrations of biomarker are very low, such as cancer diagnosis. Here we describe an ultrasensitive colorimetric assay based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis reaction, whose products trigger the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), causing a distinct color change of the solution from red to purple. Read More

    Antiviral Activity of Acid beta-Glucosidase 1 on Enterovirus 71, a Causative Agent of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jan 27. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    5Nagoya Medical Center.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). EV71 causes fever, rash, diarrhea, and, in some cases, acute encephalopathy/encephalitis, which can be fatal. No specific treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. Read More

    Correlation of symptomatic enterovirus infection and later risk of allergic diseases via a population-based cohort study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(4):e5827
    aDepartment of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan bDepartment of Pediatrics and Kawasaki Disease Center, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan cDepartment of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Infants who are exposed to the rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus are at a higher risk of subsequently developing wheezing or asthma. This study aims to determine whether preschoolers with a history of symptomatic enterovirus infection are at an increased risk of developing allergic diseases or not.We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1999 to 2006 for this nationwide population-based cohort study. Read More

    [Application of esmolol in severe hand, foot, and mouth disease].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jan;19(1):44-48
    Department of Intensive Care Unit, Xuzhou Children's Hospital, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221006, China.
    Objective: To study the clinical effect and mechanism of action of esmolol in the treatment of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed. A total of 102 children with severe HFMD were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into conventional treatment and esmolol treatment groups (n=51 each). Read More

    The first genome sequences of human bocaviruses from Vietnam.
    Wellcome Open Res 2016 Nov 16;1:16. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in partnership with the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh, 700000, Vietnam.
    As part of an ongoing effort to generate complete genome sequences of hand, foot and mouth disease-causing enteroviruses directly from clinical specimens, two complete coding sequences and two partial genomic sequences of human bocavirus 1 (n=3) and 2 (n=1) were co-amplified and sequenced, representing the first genome sequences of human bocaviruses from Vietnam. The sequences may aid future study aiming at understanding the evolution of the pathogen. Read More

    A Case-control Study on Risk Factors for Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jan 13;7:40282. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    The objective of this study was to identify potential risk factors for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In this case-control study, 459 severe HFMD patients and 246 mild HFMD patients from Guangdong province and Henan province, China were included. Data comprising demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory findings and other factors were collected. Read More

    2-Year Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety of Vigoo Enterovirus 71 Vaccine in Healthy Chinese Children: A Randomized Open-Label Study.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Jan 17;215(1):56-63. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University.
    Background:  This study evaluated the 2-year efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the Vigoo enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine.

    Method:  In an initial phase 3 study, we randomly assigned healthy infants and children aged 6-35 months (ratio, 1:1) to receive 2 doses of either EV71 vaccine (5120 participants) or placebo (5125 participants) at days 0 and 28, and followed them for 12 months after vaccination. In this extended follow-up study, we continued to evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the EV71 vaccine for up to 2 years. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 induces apoptosis by directly modulating the conformational activation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    2center for molecular virology,CAS key laboratory of pathogenic microbiology and immunology.
    Enterovirus 71 (EVA71), a virus of the genus enterovirus in the picornaviridae family, is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease in infected infants and young children. In this study, we report that cells with EVA71 infection exhibit increased levels of cytochrome c release and Caspase-3 activation. EVA71 infection induces the conformational activation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and the subsequent formation of oligomers of Bax in mitochondria. Read More

    Seroepidemiological and phylogenetic characterisation of neurotropic enteroviruses in Ireland, 2005-2014.
    J Med Virol 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    National Virus Reference Laboratory, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, including aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis and acute flaccid myelitis. Epidemics occur sporadically and are associated with increased cases of AM in children. The present study describes the seroepidemiological analysis of circulating EVs in Ireland from 2005-2014 and phylogenetic characterisation of echovirus 30 (E-30), enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). Read More

    The exposure-response relationship between temperature and childhood hand, foot and mouth disease: A multicity study from mainland China.
    Environ Int 2017 Mar 6;100:102-109. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, No. 17, Section 3, South Renmin Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, PR China. Electronic address:
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a rising public health issue in the Asia-Pacific region. Numerous studies have tried to quantify the relationship between meteorological variables and HFMD but with inconsistent results, in particular for temperature. We aimed to characterize the relationship between temperature and HFMD in various locations and to investigate the potential heterogeneity. Read More

    The Preferential Infection of Astrocytes by Enterovirus 71 Plays a Key Role in the Viral Neurogenic Pathogenesis.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2016 21;6:192. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College Kunming, China.
    The pathological manifestations of fatal cases of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) are characterized by inflammatory damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the dynamic distribution of EV71 in the CNS and the subsequent pathological characteristics within different regions of neonatal rhesus macaque brain tissue were studied using a chimeric EV71 expressing green fluorescence protein. The results were compared with brain tissue obtained from the autopsies of deceased EV71-infected HFMD patients. Read More

    Inhibition of enterovirus 71 replication by an α-hydroxy-nitrile derivative NK-1.9k.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jan 4. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    College of Pharmacy & State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology & Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Drug Research, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major etiological agents of human hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. EV71 infection in young children and people with immunodeficiency causes severe symptoms with a high fatality rates. However, there is still no approved drugs to treat such infections. Read More

    Temporal and spatial analysis of hand, foot, and mouth disease in relation to climate factors: A study in the Mekong Delta region, Vietnam.
    Sci Total Environ 2017 Mar 5;581-582:766-772. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Centre for Environment and Population Health (CEPH), Griffith University, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:
    This study examined the temporal and spatial patterns of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam. A time-series analysis was used to examine the temporal patterns of HFMD in relation to climate factors while a retrospective space-time scan was used to detect the high-risk space-time clusters of this disease. A 1°C increase in average temperature was associated with 5. Read More

    [Direct medical costs and influencing factors in severe hand, foot and mouth disease in children aged between six months and five years old].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jan;51(1):87-92
    Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early Warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
    Objective: To estimate the direct medical cost of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in patients aged less than five years. Methods: A stratified sampling method was used to collect data on severe HFMD cases reported in the National HFMD surveillance database between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2013. The sampling was referenced with the national aetiologic distribution of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and other Enteroviruses (OEV) for severe HFMD cases and the included cases were distributed among seven geographic regions (Northeast, North China, Northwest, Central China, Southwest, East China and South China). Read More

    Epidemiologic Features of Enterovirus 71-Associated Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease from 2009 to 2013 in Zhejiang, China.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 Dec 30;14(1). Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Department of Science and Technology Information, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) usually causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) with severe clinical symptoms and even deaths in China. There is no efficient antiviral drug to protect against severe EV71-associated HFMD, making the development of EV71 vaccines therefore a priority. However, the potential target subject population(s) to be immunized with EV71 vaccine are not well understood. Read More

    Changes of circulating Th22 cells in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 infection.
    Oncotarget 2016 Dec 21. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Interleukin (IL)-22+CD4+T (Th22) cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases, although the role of Th22 cells remains largely unclear in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). This study aims to explore the role of circulating IL-22+IL-17A-CD4+T (cTh22) cells in children with EV71-associated HFMD. We found that during the acute stage of illness, the frequencies of cTh22 and circulating IL-22+IL-17A+CD4+T (IL-22+cTh17) cells in CD4+T cells infrom affected patients, and especially in severely affected patients, were significantly higher than in healthy controls (HC). Read More

    Two Genotypes of Coxsackievirus A2 Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Circulating in China since 2008.
    PLoS One 2016 28;11(12):e0169021. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    WHO WPRO Regional Polio Reference Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Coxsackievirus A2 (CV-A2) has been frequently detected and commonly associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China since 2008. However, limited sequences of CV-A2 are currently available. As a result, we have been focusing on the genetic characteristics of CV-A2 in the mainland of China during 2008-2015 based on national HFMD surveillance. Read More

    Clinicopathologic analysis of atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease in adult patients.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 Dec 24. Epub 2016 Dec 24.
    Clinique Dermatologique, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg et Hôpitaux, Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious viral infection usually affecting children. A resurgence of cases in adults, mainly caused by coxsackievirus A6 and with an atypical and more severe presentation, has taken place.

    Objective: The goal was to examine the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of this disease in adults. Read More

    An Outbreak of Kingella kingae Infections Complicating a Severe Hand, Foot, And Mouth Disease Outbreak in Nice, France, 2016.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    1URMITE "Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes", UM63, Inserm 1095, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France. 2Childcare Centers, Nice, France. 3Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre National de Référence des Enterovirus et Parechovirus-laboratoire associé, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France. 4Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, La Timone Children's Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France. 5Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, North Hospital, Marseille, France. 6Department of Pediatrics, Foundation Lenval Children's Hospital, Nice, France. 7Laboratory of Foundation Lenval Children's Hospital, Nice, France. 8IRD French Institute of Research and Development, EHESP French School of Public Health, EPV UMR_D 190 "Emergence des Pathologies Virales", Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France.
    We report the investigative methods for the diagnosis of an epidemic and culture-negative K. kingae endocarditis complicating a severe outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in a childcare center. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR testings performed from cardiac tissue. Read More

    [Epidemiologic features of hand-foot-mouth disease in Haikou city from 2008 to 2015].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2016 Dec;37(12):1615-1618
    Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Department, Haikou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou 571100, China.
    Objective: To analyze the epidemiologic features of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in Haikou city from 2008 to 2015. Methods: Descriptive methods on epidemiology and detection on pathogens were conducted in Haikou city from 2008 to 2015. Results: A total of 71 611 patients were diagnosed as HFMD in Haikou city from 2008 to 2015, including 728 severe cases, accounting for 1. Read More

    [Surveillance on the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease during the outbreaks in three cities of Jiangsu province, 2012-2015].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2016 Dec;37(12):1608-1614
    Department of Acute Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009, China.
    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and etiological characteristics through monitoring the outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), in three cities of Jiangsu province from 2012 to 2015 and to provide evidence for prevention and control of the disease. Methods: Data related to cases of HFMD during the outbreaks was collected through active surveillance programs in three cities of Jiangsu province, under the guidelines of clusters and outbreaks of HFMD (2012 edition HFMD). Features related to clusters and outbreaks of the disease were identified according to the real-time RT-PCR detection. Read More

    Late-onset acute graft-versus-host disease mimicking hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2016 Nov-Dec;7(6):509-511
    Department of Hematology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Acute skin graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) classically presents as a pruritic erythematous maculopapular rash. We describe a patient who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and presented with a hand foot and mouth disease like clinical presentation. Histopathology was suggestive of acute GVHD. Read More

    Enhancement of Polymerase Activity of the Large Fragment in DNA Polymerase I from Geobacillus stearothermophilus by Site-Directed Mutagenesis at the Active Site.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 17;2016:2906484. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    School of Bioscience & Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Fermentation and Enzyme Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.
    The large fragment of DNA polymerase I from Geobacillus stearothermophilus GIM1.543 (Bst DNA polymerase) with 5'-3' DNA polymerase activity while in absence of 5'-3' exonuclease activity possesses high thermal stability and polymerase activity. Bst DNA polymerase was employed in isothermal multiple self-matching initiated amplification (IMSA) which amplified the interest sequence with high selectivity and was widely applied in the rapid detection of human epidemic diseases. Read More

    In Vivo Imaging with Bioluminescent Enterovirus 71 Allows for Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Tropism and Viral Spread.
    J Virol 2017 Mar 14;91(5). Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a reemerging illness caused by a variety of enteroviruses. The main causative agents are enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and, most recently, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6). Enterovirus infections can vary from asymptomatic infections to those with a mild fever and blisters on infected individuals' hands, feet, and throats to infections with severe neurological complications. Read More

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Like Illness in Office Practice.
    Indian J Pediatr 2017 Mar 12;84(3):216-218. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Department of Pediatrics, Vinayaka Missions Medical College, Karaikal, Puducherry, 609609, India.
    Objective: To describe the clinical profile of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) like illness in a cluster of cases.

    Methods: Children presenting with papulovesicular skin lesions with or without oral lesions were clinically examined, treated and followed up.

    Results: Out of 21 cases, 18 (85. Read More

    Characterization of enterovirus 71 infection and associated outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Shawo of China in 2012.
    Sci Rep 2016 Dec 12;6:38451. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, China.
    Infection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) are recognized as emerging public health issues worldwide. Hundreds of thousands of children are annually infected with EV71 and develop HFMD in China alone. Studies of EV71 infection are critical to the treatment and prevention of the associated HFMD outbreaks. Read More

    Acral manifestations of viral infections.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):40-49. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Emeritus Professor of Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Beşevler, Ankara, Turkey.
    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Read More

    An elaborate landscape of the human antibody repertoire against enterovirus 71 infection is revealed by phage display screening and deep sequencing.
    MAbs 2017 Feb/Mar;9(2):342-349. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    a MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College , Beijing , China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), primarily in the Asia-Pacific area, that are often associated with complications of severe to fatal neurological symptoms. There are currently no anti-viral therapies or vaccines available for the treatment of EV71 infection. Illustrating human antibody responses neutralizing EV71 infection could potentially provide valuable information for the development of effective therapies and vaccines. Read More

    Unilateral hemorrhagic maculopathy: An uncommon manifestation of hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2016 Oct;64(10):772-774
    Department of Retina and Vitreous, Aravind Eye Hospitals Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFD) is a common systemic infection occurring in childhood or immunocompromised adults caused by enteroviruses, the most common being coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. It is characterized by maculopapular eruptions over the hands and feet and ulcerative stomatitis. Ocular involvement is a rare complication and commonly manifests as inflammatory macular pathology. Read More

    Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Hunan Province, China, 2009-2014: Epidemiology and Death Risk Factors.
    PLoS One 2016 29;11(11):e0167269. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hunan, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an arising public health problem in Asia, including China. Epidemiological data is necessary to enable judicious public health responses and interventions. We analyzed the epidemiological and laboratory data of 759,301 HFMD cases reported to the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2014. Read More

    Identification of molecular determinants of cell culture growth characteristics of Enterovirus 71.
    Virol J 2016 Nov 28;13(1):194. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Research Centre for Biomedical Sciences, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, 47500, Malaysia.
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackieviruses. EV-A71 infection is associated with high fever, rashes and ulcers but more severe symptoms such as cardiopulmonary failure and death have been reported. The lack of vaccines highlighted the urgency of developing preventive agents against EV-A71. Read More

    Comparison analysis of microRNAs in response to EV71 and CA16 infection in human bronchial epithelial cells by high-throughput sequencing to reveal differential infective mechanisms.
    Virus Res 2017 Jan 24;228:90-101. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, China. Electronic address:
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. Read More

    Enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 show different replication kinetics in human neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines.
    Arch Virol 2016 Nov 23. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are closely related enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Serious neurological complications almost always occur in EV-A71 infection, but are rare in CV-A16 infection. Based on the hypothesis that this may be because EV-A71 infects neuronal cells more easily than CV-A16, we compared virus infection, replication and spread of EV-A71 and CV-A16 in SK-N-SH cells. Read More

    VP1 residues around the five-fold axis of enterovirus A71 mediate heparan sulfate interaction.
    Virology 2017 Jan 19;501:79-87. Epub 2016 Nov 19.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic enterovirus that uses heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor. The molecular determinants of EV-A71-heparan sulfate interaction are unknown. With In silico heparin docking and mutagenesis of all possible lysine residues in VP1, we identified that K162, K242 and K244 are responsible for heparin interaction and inhibition. Read More

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