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    2008 results match your criteria Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

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    Economic costs and health-related quality of life for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients in China.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0184266. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in China that mainly affects infants and children. The objective of this study is to assess the economic cost and health-related quality of life associated with HFMD in China.

    Method: A telephone survey of caregivers were conducted in 31 provinces across China. Read More

    The Process of Wrapping Virus Revealed by a Force Tracing Technique and Simulations.
    Adv Sci (Weinh) 2017 Sep 26;4(9):1600489. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical ChemistryChangchun Institute of Applied ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesChangchunJilin130022P. R. China.
    Viral entry into the host cell is the first step of virus infection; however, its dynamic process via endocytosis remains largely elusive. Here, the force tracing technique and single particle simulation are combined to investigate the invagination of single human enterovirus 71 (HEV71, a positive single-stranded RNA virus that is associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease) via cell membranes during its host cell entry. The experimental results reveal that the HEV71 invaginates in membrane vesicles at a force of 58 ± 16 pN, a duration time of 278 ± 68 ms. Read More

    A selective bottleneck shapes the evolutionary mutant spectra of enterovirus A71 during viral dissemination in humans.
    J Virol 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
    RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Read More

    [Acute skin infections and their imitators in children : A photo quiz].
    Hautarzt 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Abteilung pädiatrische Dermatologie, Universitäts-Kinderspital Zürich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zürich, Schweiz.
    Background: Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. Read More

    [Downscaling research of spatial distribution of incidence of hand foot and mouth disease based on area-to-area Poisson Kriging method].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Sep;38(9):1201-1205
    China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100022, China.
    Objective: To understand the spatial distribution of incidence of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) at scale of township and provide evidence for the better prevention and control of HFMD and allocation of medical resources. Methods: The incidence data of HFMD in 108 counties (district) in Shandong province in 2010 were collected. Downscaling interpolation was conducted by using area-to-area Poisson Kriging method. Read More

    Monitoring hand, foot and mouth disease by combining search engine query data and meteorological factors.
    Sci Total Environ 2017 Sep 8;612:1293-1299. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been recognized as a significant public health threat and poses a tremendous challenge to disease control departments. To date, the relationship between meteorological factors and HFMD has been documented, and public interest of disease has been proven to be trackable from the Internet. However, no study has explored the combination of these two factors in the monitoring of HFMD. Read More

    Atomic structures of Coxsackievirus A6 and its complex with a neutralizing antibody.
    Nat Commun 2017 Sep 11;8(1):505. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, PR China.
    Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has recently emerged as a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in children worldwide but no vaccine is available against CVA6 infections. Here, we demonstrate the isolation of two forms of stable CVA6 particles-procapsid and A-particle-with excellent biochemical stability and natural antigenicity to serve as vaccine candidates. Despite the presence (in A-particle) or absence (in procapsid) of capsid-RNA interactions, the two CVA6 particles have essentially identical atomic capsid structures resembling the uncoating intermediates of other enteroviruses. Read More

    [Clinical characteristics and course of hand, foot, and mouth disease].
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    CHU Clermont-Ferrand, laboratoire de virologie, Centre national de référence des entérovirus et des parechovirus, laboratoire associé, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand cedex, France; Université Clermont-Auvergne, LMGE UMR CNRS 6023, équipe EPIE, épidémiologie et physiopathologie des infections à entérovirus, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address:
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA) are common childhood diseases mostly associated with human enteroviruses (EV). Although usually benign illnesses, neurological complications may be observed during large epidemics when enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is involved, as observed in the Asia Pacific Region and in China since the late 1990s. The occurrence of these complications warrants reinforcing the surveillance of the emergence of EV-A71 infections in France and Europe. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of a national enterovirus 71 vaccination program in China.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005899. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Background And Aims: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused great morbidity, mortality, and use of health service in children younger than five years in China. Vaccines against EV71 have been proved effective and safe by recent phase 3 trials and are now available in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health impact and cost-effectiveness of a national EV71 vaccination program in China. Read More

    Spatiotemporal risk mapping of hand, foot and mouth disease and its association with meteorological variables in children under 5 years.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Sep 11:1-9. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment,Beijing,China.
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) risk has become an increasing concern in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is the biggest urban agglomeration in north-eastern Asia. In the study, spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HFMD were analysed, and a Bayesian space-time hierarchy model was used to detect local spatial relative risk (RR) and to assess the effect of meteorological factors. From 2009 to 2013, there was an obvious seasonal pattern of HFMD risk. Read More

    Spatial Clustering of Severe Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease Cases in Hainan Island, China.
    Jpn J Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo.
      The incidence of severe Hand-Foot-Mouth disease (HFMD) in Southeast/East Asia has recently increased. This study explored spatial clusters of the incidence and proportion of severe HFMD cases in Hainan Island, Where the prevalence and mortality of HFMD were the highest in China in 2011. A spatial autocorrelation statistic (Anselin's Local Moran I) was calculated for the Empirical Bayesian (EB) smoothed dataset of severe HFMD cases. Read More

    Clinical features for 89 deaths of hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangxi, China, 2014.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Pediatric Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Shuangyong Road, 530000 Nanning, China. Electronic address:
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to summarize the risk factors of severe Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and explore the clinical characteristics of pulmonary edema (PE) and non-PE in the deceased patients with HFMD.

    Methods: We identified 89 HFMD deaths which were separated into the PE group or non-PE group. Next, patients were divided based on their initial admission to hospitals as stage 1, 2, 3, or 4; at this point, their clinical manifestations were compared. Read More

    Development of a luciferase-based biosensor to assess enterovirus 71 3C protease activity in living cells.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 4;7(1):10385. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). To date, no antiviral drug has been approved to treat EV71 infection. Due to the essential role that EV71 3 C protease (3C(pro)) plays in the viral life cycle, it is generally considered as a highly appealing target for antiviral drug development. Read More

    A nanobiosensing method based on force measurement of antibody-antigen interaction for direct detection of enterovirus 71 by the chemically modified atomic force microscopic probe.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Sep 1;111:292-297. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Hand, Foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common disease with high infectivity for children, and enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens to cause the type of illness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a rapid and effective technique for detecting EV71 directly based on the mechanism of biological intermolecular force by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). At first, we coated EV71 particles on the mica surface and made the EV71 antibodies (anti-EV71) fixed on the AFM tip by means of several chemical procedures. Read More

    A sudden paediatric death due to hand, foot and mouth disease: the importance of vigilance.
    Malays J Pathol 2017 Aug;39(2):167-170
    Universiti Teknologi MARA, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Centre for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Jalan Hospital, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enteroviruses such as Coxsackie virus A16 (CVA16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV71). The diagnostic hallmarks are oral ulcers and maculo-papular or vesicular rash on the hands and feet. Severe form of this disease can lead to death due to neurological and cardiopulmonary complications. Read More

    Large-scale HFMD epidemics caused by Coxsackievirus A16 in Bangalore, India during 2013 and 2015.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Aug 29. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Université Clermont Auvergne, UFR Médecine, Clermont-Ferrand cedex1, France.
    Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a relatively unreported disease in India. This study was undertaken to characterize the enterovirus type/s associated with two unexpectedly-massive epidemics that occurred in Bangalore, India in 2013 and 2015. Stool samples of 229 children with HFMD living in Northern and Southern areas of Bangalore were tested by RT-PCR; 189 (82. Read More

    HRS plays an important role for TLR7 signaling to orchestrate inflammation and innate immunity upon EV71 infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 30;13(8):e1006585. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an RNA virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), and even fatal encephalitis in children. Although EV71 pathogenesis remains largely obscure, host immune responses may play important roles in the development of diseases. Recognition of pathogens mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induces host immune and inflammatory responses. Read More


    IL-10-592 polymorphism is associated with IL-10 expression and severity of enterovirus 71 infection in chinese children.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Aug 19;95:42-46. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Pediatric Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266000, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection results in some severe complications with high mortality and disability in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in children. Recent studies have shown that cytokine genetic predispositions have associations with both the development of EV71 infection and severity of HFMD.

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate whether the IL-10-592 polymorphism is associated with IL-10 levels and disease severity in Chinese children with EV71 infection. Read More

    Spatiotemporal variation of hand-foot-mouth disease in relation to socioecological factors: A multiple-province analysis in Vietnam.
    Sci Total Environ 2017 Aug 20;610-611:983-991. Epub 2017 Aug 20.
    Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Australia.
    Background: Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health issue in Asia-pacific countries. Numerous studies have examined the relationship between socio-ecological factors and HFMD however the research findings were inconsistent. This study examined the association between socio-ecologic factors and HFMD in multiple provinces across Vietnam. Read More

    Discovery of Potent EV71 Capsid Inhibitors for Treatment of HFMD.
    ACS Med Chem Lett 2017 Aug 10;8(8):841-846. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, People's Republic of China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. The viral caspid protein VP1 is a well-known target for antiviral efficacy because its occupancy by suitable compounds could stabilize the virus capsid, thus preventing uncoating of virus for RNA release. In this Letter, design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel anti-EV71 agents (aminopyridyl 1,2,5-thiadiazolidine 1,1-dioxides) are described. Read More

    Antiviral activity of shikonin ester derivative PMM-034 against enterovirus 71 in vitro.
    Braz J Med Biol Res 2017 Aug 17;50(10):e6586. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, NJU-NJFU Joint Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), particularly in infants and children below 4 years of age. Shikonin is a bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial activities derived from the roots of the Chinese medicinal herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon. This study aimed to examine the antiviral activity of PMM-034, a shikonin ester derivative, against EV71 in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Read More

    Formulation and In Vitro Release Kinetics of Mucoadhesive Blend Gels Containing Matrine for Buccal Administration.
    AAPS PharmSciTech 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Pharmacy, Hangzhou Children's Hospital, No.195, Wenhui Road, Xiacheng District, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 310014, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a pathogenic factor of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). No vaccine or specific treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. Hence, we developed a buccal mucoadhesive gel containing matrine to protect against HFMD. Read More

    Epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shandong, China, 2009-2016.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 21;7(1):8900. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Shandong Universities Key Laboratory of Etiology and Epidemiology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical College, Taian, Shandong, China.
    In the past decade, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has posed a serious threat to childhood health in China; however, no epidemiological data from large HFMD epidemics have been described since 2013. In the present study, we described the epidemiological patterns of HFMD in Shandong province during 2009-2016 from a large number of symptomatic cases (n = 839,483), including >370,000 HFMD cases since 2013. Our results revealed that HFMD activity has remained at a high level and continued to cause annual epidemics in Shandong province from 2013 onwards. Read More

    Association between meteorological factors and reported cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease from 2000 to 2015 in Japan.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Aug 22:1-16. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Hygiene,Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine,Hokkaido,Japan.
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics and meteorological conditions. We used HFMD surveillance data of all 47 prefectures in Japan from January 2000 to December 2015. Spectral analysis was performed using the maximum entropy method (MEM) for temperature-, relative humidity-, and total rainfall-dependent incidence data. Read More

    Molecular characterization of two novel echovirus 18 recombinants associated with hand-foot-mouth disease.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 16;7(1):8448. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, PR China.
    Human echovirus 18 (E-18) is a member of the enterovirus B species. To date, sixteen full-length genome sequences of E-18 are available in the GenBank database. In this study, we describe the complete genomic characterization of two E-18 strains isolated in Yunnan, China. Read More

    Onychomadesis in a 9-month-old boy with hand-foot-mouth disease.
    Int J Emerg Med 2017 Aug 14;10(1):26. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Independent Consultant, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Background: Nail abnormalities in childhood are generally uncommon. Recently, onychomadesis is described as a rare, late complication of hand-foot-mouth disease, which is a viral illness commonly seen in the pediatric age group. It is therefore important to elucidate the presentation of this entity, especially in the context of the hand-foot-mouth disease. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequences of Four Coxsackievirus A16 Strains Isolated from Four Children with Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease.
    Genome Announc 2017 Aug 3;5(31). Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Major Infectious Disease Control Key Laboratory and Shenzhen Public Service Platform of Pathogenic Microorganisms Repository, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, People's Republic of China
    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of four coxsackievirus A16 strains isolated from four children with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease. Three of them were assigned to subgenotype B1b based on phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, and the other one belonged to subgenotype B1a. Read More

    [Myocardial protective effect of L-carnitine in children with hand, foot and mouth disease caused by Coxsackie A16 virus].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Aug;19(8):908-912
    Zhengzhou Children's Hospital, Zhengzhou 450003, China.
    Objective: To investigate the myocardial protective effect of L-carnitine in children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackie A16 virus and possible mechanisms.

    Methods: A total of 60 HFMD children with abnormal myocardial enzyme after Coxsackie A16 virus infection were enrolled and randomly divided into L-carnitine group and fructose-1,6-diphosphate group (fructose group), with 30 children in each group. The two groups were given L-carnitine or fructose diphosphate in addition to antiviral and heat clearance treatment. Read More

    [Association between S100B gene polymorphisms and hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 infection].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Aug;19(8):904-907
    Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Critical Care Medicine Center, Women and Children's Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China.
    Objective: To investigate the association between rs9722 polymorphisms in the S100B gene and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71.

    Methods: A total of 124 HFMD children with enterovirus 71 infection were enrolled as subjects, and 56 healthy children were enrolled as control group. The rs9722 polymorphisms in the S100B gene were detected for both groups, and the serum level of S100B protein was measured for 74 HFMD children. Read More

    Impact of Coxsackievirus A6 emergence on hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic in Osaka City, Japan.
    J Med Virol 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Microbiology, Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Tennoji-ku, Osaka, Japan.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute febrile illness characterized by fever; sore throat; and vesicular eruptions on the hands, feet, and oral mucosa. Until 2010, HFMD was predominantly associated with enterovirus (EV) A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16 in Japan. In 2011, CV-A6 emerged as a primary causative agent, causing the largest HFMD epidemic in Japan since 1981. Read More

    Morphological characteristics of fatal pediatric hand, foot and mouth disease: A clinicopathological study with related receptors of EV71.
    Pathol Res Pract 2017 Sep 6;213(9):1144-1151. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530021, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Objective: To investigate the pathological features of fatal pediatric hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Methods: The histopathological features of HFMD were first summarized from literature, and then confirmed by in-house autopsies. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry was conducted to detect the distribution and expression level of two enterovirus 71 (EV71) receptors scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL1) in the samples of autopsies. Read More

    A colorimetric and electrochemical immunosensor for point-of-care detection of enterovirus 71.
    Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Jan 14;99:186-192. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China.
    Point-of-care detection of human enterovirus 71 (EV71), the major pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) among children, is urgently needed for early diagnosis and control of related epidemics. A colorimetric and electrochemical immunosensor for point-of-care detection of EV71 has been developed based on dual-labeled magnetic nanobeads amplification. The dual-labeled magnetic nanobeads (DL-MBs) are fabricated by simultaneous immobilization of EV71 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on magnetic nanobeads. Read More

    Human enteroviruses associated with and without diarrhea in Thailand between 2010 and 2016.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(7):e0182078. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) associated with virus infection affects individuals living in developing countries, especially children. To investigate whether shedding of certain human enterovirus (EV) is more frequently detected in the stool of individuals with AGE of unknown etiology than individuals without AGE symptoms, we tested fecal samples collected from 2,692 individuals with diarrhea between January 2010 and December 2016. Samples were tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and EV by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and adenovirus by PCR. Read More

    Coxsackievirus A16 utilizes cell surface heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans as its attachment receptor.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2017 Jul 26;6(7):e65. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Unit of Vaccinology &Antiviral Strategies, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology &Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is one of the major pathogens responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease, which affects more than two million children in the Asian-Pacific region annually. Previous studies have shown that scavenger receptor B2 is a functional receptor for CVA16 that facilitates the uncoating process. However, it remains unclear whether other receptors are required for efficient CVA16 infection. Read More

    Characterization of human enterovirus71 virus-like particles used for vaccine antigens.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(7):e0181182. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China.
    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and has caused outbreaks with significant mortality among young children in the Asia-Pacific region in recent years. Towards developing a vaccine for this disease, we have expressed and purified EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble the authentic virus in appearance, capsid structure and protein sequence, from insect cells (Sf9) using a multistep chromatography process. We demonstrated intracellular localization of the VLPs in host cells by in situ immunogold detection, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Read More

    AIM2 Inflammasome-Mediated Pyroptosis in Enterovirus A71-Infected Neuronal Cells Restricts Viral Replication.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 19;7(1):5845. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Encephalomyelitis is a well-known complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) due to Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Viral RNA/antigens could be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) neurons in fatal encephalomyelitis but the mechanisms of neuronal cell death is not clearly understood. We investigated the role of absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome in neuronal cell death, and its relationship to viral replication. Read More

    Bilateral idiopathic retinal vasculitis following coxsackievirus A4 infection: a case report.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Jul 19;17(1):128. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa City, Saitama, 359-8513, Japan.
    Background: Coxsackieviruses are members of a group of viruses called the enteroviruses, which may cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, erythema, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and myositis. Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy caused by coxsackievirus A16 has been associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease, but only a few reports describe retinitis associated with coxsackievirus serotype B3 or B4. We report a case of bilateral multifocal obstructive retinal vasculitis that developed after coxsackievirus A4 infection. Read More

    [Polymorphisms of TLR7 rs3853839 and rs179010 are associated with susceptibility to and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 in male children].
    Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jul;33(7):953-958
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Second Affiliated Hospital , Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China.
    Objective To investigate whether the polymorphisms of TLR7/MyD88 signaling pathway is associated with the susceptibility to and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in children. Methods We collected 180 EV71 HFMD cases and 201 healthy controls from both the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University and Xi'an Children's Hospital. The genotypes including rs3853839, rs179010 of TLR7, and rs7744 of MyD88 were detected in the 381 samples by SNPscan kit. Read More

    Machine Learning Algorithms for Risk Prediction of Severe Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease in Children.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 14;7(1):5368. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital/Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P.R. China.
    The identification of indicators for severe HFMD is critical for early prevention and control of the disease. With this goal in mind, 185 severe and 345 mild HFMD cases were assessed. Patient demographics, clinical features, MRI findings, and laboratory test results were collected. Read More

    Characterization of significant molecular determinants of virulence of Enterovirus 71 sub-genotype B4 in Rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
    Virus Res 2017 Jun 10;238:243-252. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Research Centre for Biomedical Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor 47500, Malaysia. Electronic address:
    One of the leading causes of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), displaying symptoms such as fever and ulcers in children but some strains can produce cardiopulmonary oedema which leads to death. There is no FDA-approved vaccine for prevention of severe HFMD. The molecular determinants of virulence for EV-A71 are unclear. Read More

    Prevalence of enteroviruses in healthy populations and excretion of pathogens in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease in a highly endemic area of southwest China.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(7):e0181234. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Yunnan Provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.
    Etiological carriers and the excretion of the pathogens causing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in healthy persons, patients, and asymptomatic persons infected with HFMD as ongoing infection sources may play an important role in perpetuating and spreading epidemics of HFMD. The aims of this study were to determine the carrier status of EV-A71 and CV-A16 in healthy populations, as well as the duration of EV-A71 and CV-A16 shedding in the stools of HFMD patients in an epidemic area of southwest China. A cross-sectional study and a follow-up study were conducted in three HFMD endemic counties of Yunnan Province. Read More

    dsRNA Binding Domain of PKR Is Proteolytically Released by Enterovirus A71 to Facilitate Viral Replication.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 28;7:284. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung UniversityTaoyuan, Taiwan.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease in young children and infants, but can also cause severe neurological complications or even death. The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase R (PKR), an interferon-induced antiviral protein, phosphorylates the regulatory α-subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 in response to viral infection, thereby blocking the translation of cellular and viral mRNA and promoting apoptosis. The cleavage of PKR after infection with poliovirus, a prototype enterovirus, has been reported by others, but the underlying mechanism of this cleavage and its role in viral replication remain unclear. Read More

    Modelling person-to-person transmission in an Enterovirus A71 orally infected hamster model of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and encephalomyelitis.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2017 Jul 12;6(7):e62. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which may be complicated by fatal encephalomyelitis. Although fecal-oral or oral-oral routes are important in person-to-person transmission, how viral shedding and exposure may predispose individuals to infection remains unknown. We investigated person-to-person transmission by using a model of HFMD and encephalomyelitis based on EV-A71 oral infection of 2-week-old hamsters. Read More

    Estimating the basic reproduction rate of HFMD using the time series SIR model in Guangdong, China.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(7):e0179623. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology & Health Information Research Center & Guangdong Key Laboratory of Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused a substantial burden of disease in China, especially in Guangdong Province. Based on notifiable cases, we use the time series Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model to estimate the basic reproduction rate (R0) and the herd immunity threshold, understanding the transmission and persistence of HFMD more completely for efficient intervention in this province. The standardized difference between the reported and fitted time series of HFMD was 0. Read More

    Antiviral effects of Retro-2(cycl) and Retro-2.1 against Enterovirus 71 in vitro and in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 5;144:311-321. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China; Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), especially the form associated with fatal neurological disorders. Sustained outbreaks of EV71 infections remain a serious health threat worldwide. However, no antiviral agent against EV71 for clinical therapy has been approved. Read More

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