2,921 results match your criteria Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease


Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Enteroviruses-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease and Herpangina Outbreak in Zunyi, China, 2019.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 26;8:656699. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zunyi Medical University Third Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi, China.

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA), two of the most common childhood infectious diseases, are associated with enteroviruses (EVs) infection. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular epidemiology of enterovirus causing HFMD/HA in Zunyi, China, during 2019, and to describe the clinical features of the cases. We collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory data of laboratory-confirmed EVs associated HFMD/HA cases in Zunyi Medical University Third Affiliated Hospital between March 1 and July 31, 2019. Read More

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Methods in Screening Antiviral Drugs Against Enterovirus 71.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2296:167-184

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia.

Enteroviruses 71 (EV71) is a single-stranded, neurotrophic RNA virus responsible for the numerous outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific regions. HFMD primarily affects children to cause range of infection, from mild symptoms to acute flaccid paralysis, and hemorrhage. Despite increased incidence of EV71 epidemics globally and research against EV71 becoming prioritized, no antiviral agent against EV71 has yet been licensed and approved worldwide. Read More

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January 2021

Novel capsid binder and PI4KIIIbeta inhibitors for EV-A71 replication inhibition.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9719. Epub 2021 May 6.

Collaborative and Translation Unit for HFMD, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore.

The Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious viral illness generally manifests as a mild disease in young children and immunocompromised adults. It has however emerged as a significant public health threat in recent years as outbreaks have been occurring regularly, especially in the Asia-Pacific. The disease can result from infections by a wide variety of human enteroviruses, particularly, Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has garnered more attention due to its association with severe disease in infected patients. Read More

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The Upregulation of a Novel Long Noncoding RNA AK097647 Promotes Enterovirus 71 Replication and Decreases IFN-λ1 Secretion.

Intervirology 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shenzhen Institute of Wuhan University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infects millions of children every year in China and has become a challenge to public health. However, there is no effective treatment for EV71 infection. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play various roles in virus replication and infection. Read More

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Simultaneous enterovirus EV-D68 and CVA6 infections causing acute respiratory distress syndrome and hand, foot and mouth disease.

Virol J 2021 Apr 30;18(1):88. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratório de Enterovírus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Although most enterovirus (EV) infections can be asymptomatic, these viral agents can cause serious conditions associated with central nervous system, respiratory disease and uncommon manifestations of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-coinfections have been rarely reported with development of complications and severe clinical outcome. An atypical case of a child presenting HFMD and severe acute respiratory syndrome, co-infected with EV-D68 and CVA6, is reported herein. Read More

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Surveillance for Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, and Other Mucocutaneous Symptoms in Spain, 2006-2020.

Viruses 2021 Apr 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Enterovirus Unit, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Madrid, Spain.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a mild illness caused by enteroviruses (EV), although in some Asian countries, large outbreaks have been reported in the last 25 years, with a considerable incidence of neurological complications. This study describes epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EV infections involved in HFMD and other mucocutaneous symptoms from 2006 to 2020 in Spain. EV-positive samples from 368 patients were included. Read More

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In Vitro Characterization of Neutralizing Hen Antibodies to A16.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Ph.D. Program in Medical Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110301, Taiwan.

A16 (CA16) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Children aged <5 years are the most affected by CA16 HFMD globally. Although clinical symptoms of CA16 infections are usually mild, severe complications, such as aseptic meningitis or even death, have been recorded. Read More

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Concomitant Onychomadesis and Skin Rash in a 3-Year-Old Child Affected by Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease.

Indian J Dermatol 2021 Jan-Feb;66(1):106-108

Unit of Dermatology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. E-mail:

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Caregivers: the potential infection resources for the sustaining epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease/herpangina in Guangdong, China?

Arch Public Health 2021 Apr 23;79(1):54. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Although several measures have been taken to control hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA), these two diseases have been prevalent in China for 10 years with high incidence. We suspected that adults' inapparent infection might be the cause of the continued prevalence of HFMD/HA infection in mainland China.

Methods: To explore the role of adults (especially caregivers) in the transmission process of HFMD/HA among children, 330 HFMD/HA cases and 330 healthy children (controls) were selected for a case-control study. Read More

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SAMHD1 inhibits multiple Enteroviruses by interfering with the interaction between VP1 and VP2 proteins.

J Virol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, Key Laboratory of Organ Regeneration and Transplantation of The Ministry of Education, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, P. R. China.

Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) possess multiple biological activities such as virus restriction, innate immunity regulation, and autoimmunity. Our previous study demonstrated that SAMHD1 potently inhibits the replication of enterovirus 71 (EV71). In this study, we observed that SAMHD1 also restricts multiple enteroviruses (EVs) including Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Enterovirus D68 (EVD68), but not Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6). Read More

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A hSCARB2-transgenic mouse model for Coxsackievirus A16 pathogenesis.

Virol J 2021 Apr 21;18(1):84. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Medical Biology, Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development On Severe Infectious Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, No. 935 Alternating Current Road, Wuhua District, Kunming, 650118, Yunna, China.

Background: Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the neurotropic pathogen that has been associated with severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. The limited host range of CA16 make the establishment of a suitable animal model that can recapitulate the neurological pathology observed in human HFMD more difficult. Because the human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (hSCARB2) is a cellular receptor for CA16, we used transgenic mice bearing human SCARB2 and nasally infected them with CA16 to study the pathogenicity of the virus. Read More

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A cross-sectional seroepidemiology study of seven major enteroviruses causing HFMD in Guangdong, China.

J Infect 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, No.31, Huatuo Street, Beijing, P.R. China. Electronic address:

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Enterovirus-A71 exploits peripherin and Rac1 to invade the central nervous system.

EMBO Rep 2021 Apr 19:e51777. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Infectious Diseases Translational Research Programme, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71) has been associated with severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 infects motor neurons at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) to invade the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we investigate the role of peripherin (PRPH) during EV-A71 infection, a type III intermediate neurofilament involved in neurodegenerative conditions. Read More

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Activation and Inhibition of the NLRP3 Inflammasome by RNA Viruses.

J Inflamm Res 2021 26;14:1145-1163. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, People's Republic of China.

Inflammation refers to the response of the immune system to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, or other foreign particles in the body, which can involve the production of a wide array of soluble inflammatory mediators. It is important for the development of many RNA virus-infected diseases. The primary factors through which the infection becomes inflammation involve inflammasome. Read More

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Essential Role of Non-Coding RNAs in Enterovirus Infection: From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Prospects.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 12;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Enteroviruses (EVs) are common RNA viruses that can cause various types of human diseases and conditions such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), myocarditis, meningitis, sepsis, and respiratory disorders. Although EV infections in most patients are generally mild and self-limiting, a small number of young children can develop serious complications such as encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis, and cardiorespiratory failure, resulting in fatalities. Established evidence has suggested that certain non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in the occurrence and progression of many human diseases. Read More

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Safety and Immunogenicity of a Stable, Cold-Adapted, Temperature-Sensitive/Conditional Lethal Enterovirus A71 in Monkey Study.

Viruses 2021 03 9;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604, Singapore.

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are major etiological agents of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, which may result in fatal neurological complications. The development of safe, cost effective vaccines against HFMD, especially for use in developing countries, is still a top public health priority. We have successfully generated a stable, cold-adapted, temperature sensitive/conditional lethal EV-A71 through adaptive culturing in Vero cells at incrementally lower cultivation temperatures. Read More

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Optimized Neural Network Based on Genetic Algorithm to Construct Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prediction and Early-Warning Model.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 14;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Accompanied by the rapid economic and social development, there is a phenomenon of the crazy spread of many infectious diseases. It has brought the rapid growth of the number of people infected with hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), and children, especially infants and young children's health is at great risk. So it is very important to predict the number of HFMD infections and realize the regional early-warning of HFMD based on big data. Read More

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Detection of enteroviruses during a 2018 hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in Malaysia.

Trop Biomed 2021 Mar;38(1):150-153

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease caused by enteroviruses. In 2018, a HFMD outbreak in Malaysia affected over 76,000 children. In this study, we used RT-qPCR and CODEHOP PCR to detect the causative agents in 89 clinically diagnosed HFMD patients in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Read More

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MiR-103/miR-107 inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and facilitates type I interferon response by regulating SOCS3/STAT3 pathway.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Binhaiwan Central Hospital of Dongguan, Dongguan, China.

Background: Enterovirus71 (EV71), the major cause of hand, foot, and-mouth disease (HFMD), has increasingly become a public health challenge. Type I interferons (IFNs) can regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play regulatory roles in host innate immune responses to viral infections. Read More

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Molecular surveillance of coxsackievirus A16 in southern China, 2008-2019.

Arch Virol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, Guangzhou, China.

A national surveillance system on hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) was launched in 2008 in China. Since then, millions of HFMD cases have been reported each year, with enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), and coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) as the major causative pathogens. Long-term surveillance of viral infection rates and genetic changes is essential for understanding the disease epidemiology pattern. Read More

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Diagnostic value of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for hand, foot, and mouth disease.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Apr 1:e23776. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Nowadays, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has a significant negative impact on children's health, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) is a highly efficient and convenient novel tool. However, its diagnostic accuracy for HFMD is still not clear. Read More

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Regulation of RDN on Th1/ILC1 cell imbalance in HFMD patients caused by EV71 infection.

Chin J Nat Med 2021 Mar;19(3):205-211

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Druggability of Biopharmaceuticals, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is more likely to cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, which can lead to neurogenic complications and higher mortality. As a commonly used clinical medicine, Reduning injection (RDN) helps to shorten the symptoms of patients with HFMD and facilitate the early recovery of children. However, the regulatory mechanism of RDN on the HFMD immune system disorder caused by EV71 remains to be discussed. Read More

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Spatial-temporal mapping and risk factors for hand foot and mouth disease in northwestern inland China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Mar 24;15(3):e0009210. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Institute of EcoHealth, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China.

Background: Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is becoming one of the common human infectious diseases in China. Previous studies have described HFMD in tropical or coastal areas of Asia-Pacific countries. However, limited studies have thoroughly studied the epidemiology and potential risk factors for HFMD in inland areas with complex environmental conditions. Read More

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Early warning of hand, foot, and mouth disease transmission: A modeling study in mainland, China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Mar 24;15(3):e0009233. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global infectious disease; particularly, it has a high disease burden in China. This study was aimed to explore the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease by analyzing its epidemiological characteristics, and to calculate the early warning signals of HFMD by using a logistic differential equation (LDE) model.

Methods: This study included datasets of HFMD cases reported in seven regions in Mainland China. Read More

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Preputial balanitis xerotica obliterans shortly after hand, foot and mouth disease in a 5-year-old boy: Coincidence or consequence?

Asian J Surg 2021 May 20;44(5):773-774. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research Unit, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

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Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Thailand: A Comprehensive Modelling of Epidemic Dynamics.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 4;2021:6697522. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious disease with several outbreaks in Asian-Pacific countries, including Thailand. With such epidemic characteristics and potential economic impact, HFMD is a significant public health issue in Thailand. Generally, contagious/infectious diseases' transmission dynamics vary across geolocations due to different socioeconomic situations, demography, and lifestyles. Read More

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Viral determinants that drive Enterovirus-A71 fitness and virulence.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):713-724

Infectious Diseases Translational Research Programme, Department of Microbiology&Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is usually a self-limiting, mild childhood disease that is caused mainly by Coxsackie virus A16 (CVA16) and Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), both members of the family. However, recurring HFMD outbreaks and epidemics due to EV-A71 infection in the Western Pacific region, and the propensity of EV-A71 strains to cause severe neurological complications have made this neurotropic virus a serious public health concern in afflicted countries. High mutation rate leading to viral quasispecies combined with frequent intra- and inter-typic recombination events amongst co-circulating EV-A71 strains have contributed to the great diversity and fast evolution of EV-A71 genomes, making impossible any accurate prediction of the next epidemic strain. Read More

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December 2021

An unusual location of hand, foot and mouth disease.

J Ultrasound 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathobiological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a childhood febrile disease. Oral lesions and papulovesicular lesions on the hands and feet are the clinical signs of the disease. In our case, a 17-year-old boy presented to the emergency department, where he was diagnosed with HFMD. Read More

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Efficacy of a coxsackievirus A6 vaccine candidate in an actively immunized mouse model.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):763-773

Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd., Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) has been emerging as a major pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Study on the pathogenesis of CV-A6 infection and development of vaccines is hindered by a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we report an actively immunized-challenged mouse model to evaluate the efficacy of a Vero-cell-based, inactivated CV-A6 vaccine candidate. Read More

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December 2021

Two cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enterovirus A71 after vaccination.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institute of Pediatrics, The Kunming Children' s Hospital and Kunming Medical University, Kunming, PR China; Yunnan Key Laboratory of Children's Major Disease Research, Kunming, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Enterovirus A71 (EVA71) is often identified as one of the main pathogens that lead to the vast majority of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases. In China, the proportion of HFMD cases caused by EVA71 decreases significantly after EVA71 vaccination; however, infection with EVA71 can still occur after vaccination.

Methods: The complete genomic sequencesof EVA71-KM18A and KM18B (from two rare cases of EVA71 infection after vaccination) were obtained and performed phylogenetic, nucleotide mutation,recombinant analyses, and comparative analysis of amino acid mutations. Read More

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