3,139 results match your criteria Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease


[Etiology and epidemiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in China].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2022 May;43(5):771-783

Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Center, Beijing Youan Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been widespread in the world, and caused fever, rashes and other clinical symptoms of children, and sometimes inducing respiratory failure, brainstem encephalitis, and other complications, even death. The disease is mainly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus 16 (CV-A16). Since 2013, the proportion of HFMD cases caused by other enteroriruses has gradually increased, causing severe and even fatal cases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The nonstructural protein 2C of Coxsackie B virus has RNA helicase and chaperoning activities.

Virol Sin 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China; State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

RNA-remodeling proteins, including RNA helicases and chaperones, play vital roles in the remodeling of structured RNAs. During viral replication, viruses require RNA-remodeling proteins to facilitate proper folding and/or re-folding the viral RNA elements. Coxsackieviruses B3 (CVB3) and Coxsackieviruses B5 (CVB5), belonging to the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, have been reported to cause various infectious diseases such as hand-foot-and-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, and viral myocarditis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Relationship between meteorological factors, air pollutants and hand, foot and mouth disease from 2014 to 2020.

BMC Public Health 2022 May 17;22(1):998. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No.16, Section 3, Renmin south road, Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Meteorological factors and air pollutants have been reported to be associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics before the introduction of vaccine. However, there is limited evidence for studies with long-term dimensions.

Methods: We collected the daily HFMD counts, weather and air pollution data from 2014 to 2020 in Chengdu. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chemokine PF4 Inhibits EV71 and CA16 Infections at the Entry Stage.

J Virol 2022 May 17:e0043522. Epub 2022 May 17.

Center of Infectious Diseases and Pathogen Biology, Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, Key Laboratory of Organ Regeneration and Transplantation of The Ministry of Education, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Platelet factor 4 (PF4) or the CXC chemokine CXCL4 is the most abundant protein within the α-granules of platelets. Previous studies found that PF4 regulates infections of several viruses, including HIV-1, H1N1, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and dengue virus. Here, we show that PF4 is an inhibitor of enterovirus A71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bioinformatics and Screening of a Circular RNA-microRNA-mRNA Regulatory Network Induced by Coxsackievirus Group B5 in Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 22;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Medical School, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackievirus Group B5 (CVB5) is one of the most common herpetic diseases in human infants and children. The pathogenesis of CVB5 remains unknown. Circular RNAs (CircRNAs), as novel noncoding RNAs, have been shown to play a key role in many pathogenic processes in different species; however, their functions during the process of CVB5 infection remain unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of Non-Coding RNA in Neurological Complications Associated With Enterovirus 71.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 25;12:873304. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogenic virus that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Studies have reported that EV71-induced infections including aseptic meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and even neurogenic pulmonary edema, can progress to severe neurological complications in infants, young children, and the immunosuppressed population. However, the mechanisms through which EV71 causes neurological diseases have not been fully explored. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Onychomadesis and Beau's Line Following Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in a Seven-Year-Old Male.

Cureus 2022 Apr 4;14(4):e23832. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, SAU.

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection frequently encountered in the pediatric age group. Common culprits in such manifestations are coxsackievirus A16 and human enterovirus 71. The patient presents febrile with erythematous papulovesicular exanthems in the mouth, palms, and soles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Insight into the Enterovirus A71: A review.

Rev Med Virol 2022 May 5:e2361. Epub 2022 May 5.

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Enterovirus A71 is a major causative pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease. It has become a global public health threat, and is especially important for infants and young children in the Asian-Pacific countries. The enterovirus A71 is a non-enveloped virus of the Picornaviridae family having a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of about 7. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effect of ambient temperature on hand, foot and mouth disease in Qingdao, China, 2014-2018.

Int J Environ Health Res 2022 May 4:1-10. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Acute Infectious Diseases, Qingdao Municipal Centre of Disease Control and Prevention, Qingdao Institute of Prevention Medicine, Qingdao City, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a kind of infection gastrointestinal disease. The present study aims to explore the association between ambient temperature and HFMD in Qingdao. A distributed lag nonlinear model with Poisson distribution was adopted to explore the effects of daily mean temperature on HFMD incidence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TAK - 021, an inactivated Enterovirus 71 vaccine candidate, provides cross-protection against heterologous sub-genogroups in human scavenger receptor B2 transgenic mice.

Vaccine 2022 May 29;40(24):3330-3337. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Vaccines Business Unit, Takeda Pharmaceuticals USA, 40 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease, most frequently in children, and is a public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region. Takeda is developing TAK-021, an inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate based on sub-genogroup B2 strain MS87. In a phase I clinical trial, TAK-021 was safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic in healthy adults and elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous EV71 sub-genogroup viruses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effectiveness of case isolation and class suspension in mitigation of enterovirus transmission in children.

J Infect Public Health 2022 May 22;15(5):594-598. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taiwan.

Background: Appropriate mitigation strategy to minimize enterovirus (EV) transmission among children is essential to control severe EV epidemics. Scientific evidence for the effectiveness of case isolation and class suspension is lacking.

Methods: EV-infected children ≤ eight years are asked to stay at home for seven days. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fucosylated oligosaccharide Lacto--fucopentaose I ameliorates enterovirus 71 infection by inhibiting apoptosis.

Food Chem X 2022 Mar 4;13:100244. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

College of Food Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main cause of hand, foot and mouth disease that results in high rates of severe diseases in small children. Lacto--fucopentaose I (LNFPI) can inhibit pathogen invasion and regulate intestinal flora. However, whether LNFPI inhibits EV71 infection remains unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Changing epidemiology of human enteroviruses (HEV) in a hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in Vellore, south India.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: Hand Foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major childhood exanthematous disease causing outbreaks that have become a major public health threat in recent years. In Vellore district of Tamil Nadu, south India, occasional outbreaks are common among the paediatric age group, most commonly in those under 5years of age (U5s). CoxsackieA6, A4, A5, A9, A10, B2 and B5 are the common serotypes causing outbreaks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epidemiological characteristics, routine laboratory diagnosis, clinical signs and risk factors for hand, -foot -and -mouth disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2022 28;17(4):e0267716. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: For the past few years, only a few monovalent EV71 vaccines have been developed, while other enterovirus vaccines are in short supply. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to explore the epidemiological characteristics, routine laboratory diagnosis, clinical signs and risk factors for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

Methods: PubMed, Embase and the Web of Science were searched for eligible reports published before April 16, 2021, with no publication time or language restrictions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Analysis of HFMD Transmissibility Among the Whole Population and Age Groups in a Large City of China.

Front Public Health 2022 11;10:850369. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Background: Hand-Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (HFMD) has been widely spread in Asia, and has result in a high disease burden for children in many countries. However, the dissemination characteristics intergroup and between different age groups are still not clear. In this study, we aim to analyze the differences in the transmissibility of HFMD, in the whole population and among age groups in Shenzhen city, by utilizing mathematical models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Disease burden in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease in Jiangsu Province: a cross-sectional study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 Apr 27:1-7. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

This study aimed to estimate the disease burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Jiangsu Province, China. We analyzed the surveillance data of HFMD cases in Jiangsu Province from 2009 to 2020. Moreover, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Nanjing and Suzhou, China, between January 2017 and May 2018. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prototypes virus of hand, foot and mouth disease infections and severe cases in Gansu, China: a spatial and temporal analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Apr 26;22(1):408. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: Little research has been conducted on the spatio-temporal relationship between the severe cases and the enteroviruses infections of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). This study aimed to investigate epidemic features and spatial clusters of HFMD incidence rates and assess the relationship between Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) and severe cases of HMFD in Gansu province, China.

Methods: Weekly county-specific data on HFMD between 1st January and 31st December 2018 were collected from the China Infectious Disease Information System (CIDIS), including enterovirus type (EV71 and CoxA16), severe and non-severe cases in Gansu province, China. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterization of G-Quadruplexes in Enterovirus A71 Genome and Their Interaction with G-Quadruplex Ligands.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Apr 21:e0046022. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Human enteroviruses cause many diseases; however, there is no specific therapeutic drug. G-quadruplex is an atypical secondary structure formed in the guanine rich region of DNA or RNA, which can exist in the viral genome. The different positions of G-quadruplex play an important role in the regulation of virus replication and infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparative analysis of the biological characteristics of three CV-A10 clones adaptively cultured on Vero cells.

J Med Virol 2022 Apr 18. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.

Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) is a major pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease. There are no effective therapeutic drugs for CV-A10 infection; therefore, CV-A10 vaccines should be developed. Previously, we isolated a CV-A10 strain (N25) that can be cultured on Vero cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Whole-genome analysis of coxsackievirus B3 reflects its genetic diversity in China and worldwide.

Virol J 2022 Apr 18;19(1):69. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

WHO WPRO Regional Polio Reference Laboratory, National Health Commission Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 155 Changbai Road, Beijing, 102206, People's Republic of China.

Background: Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) has emerged as an active pathogen in myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and pancreatitis, and is a heavy burden on public health. However, CVB3 has not been systematically analyzed with regard to whole-genome diversity and recombination. Therefore, this study was undertaken to systematically examine the genetic characteristics of CVB3 based on its whole genome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluating Health Education Module on Hand, Food, and Mouth Diseases Among Preschoolers in Malacca, Malaysia.

Front Public Health 2022 31;10:811782. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

This study aims to improve parents' perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to children's handwashing practice by utilizing the Health Belief Model. In Alor Gajah, Melaka, a parallel cluster-randomized controlled study was conducted over 26 months. Parents who agreed to participate completed pre-test (t0) questionnaires. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pathological Characteristics of Echovirus 30 Infection in a Mouse Model.

J Virol 2022 May 14;96(9):e0012922. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Weifang Medical Universitygrid.268079.2, Weifang, People's Republic of China.

Echovirus 30 (E30), a member of species B enterovirus, is associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis and has become a global health emergency. However, the pathogenesis of E30 remains poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, we established a mouse infection model to explore the pathogenicity of E30. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aseptic Meningitis in Oral Medicine: Exploring the Key Elements for a Challenging Diagnosis: A Review of the Literature and Two Case Reports.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 25;19(7). Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Oral Medicine Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Oral Sciences, "Federico II" University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Aseptic meningitis (AM) is a potentially severe and life-threatening disease characterized by meningeal inflammation, usually with mononuclear pleocytosis. It represents a challenging and controversial issue in medicine for multiple etiologies, classification, and difficult diagnosis in the face of nonspecific sets of signs and symptoms. In the area of interest of oral medicine, in specific clusters of patients, even if rare, the occurrence of aseptic meningitis can pose a diagnostic and management dilemma in the following potential etiologies: (i) systemic diseases with oral and meningeal involvement, which include Behçet's disease and Sjögren syndrome; (ii) drug-induced aseptic meningitis; (iii) aseptic viral meningitis, mostly related to herpes simplex virus infection and hand, foot, and mouth disease, caused by enteroviruses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of different enterovirus and rhinovirus types show that EV-D68 may still have an impact on severity of respiratory infections.

J Med Virol 2022 Apr 10. Epub 2022 Apr 10.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Respiratory infections are often caused by enteroviruses (EVs). The aim of this study was to identify whether certain types of EV were more likely to cause severe illness in 2016, when an increasing spread of upper respiratory infections was observed in Gothenburg, Sweden. The EV strain in 137 of 1341 nasopharyngeal samples reactive for EV by polymerase chain reaction could be typed by sequencing the viral 5'-untranslated region and VP1 regions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Uncovering Novel Viral Innate Immune Evasion Strategies: What Has SARS-CoV-2 Taught Us?

Front Microbiol 2022 23;13:844447. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Biosafety Level 3 Core Facility, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has tested the capabilities of public health and scientific community. Since the dawn of the twenty-first century, viruses have caused several outbreaks, with coronaviruses being responsible for 2: SARS-CoV in 2007 and MERS-CoV in 2013. As the border between wildlife and the urban population continue to shrink, it is highly likely that zoonotic viruses may emerge more frequently. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genomic analysis of a recombinant coxsackievirus A19 identified in Xinxiang, China, in 2019.

Arch Virol 2022 Jun 10;167(6):1405-1420. Epub 2022 Apr 10.

School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, 453003, China.

Coxsackievirus A19 (CV-A19) is an enterovirus belonging to the species Enterovirus C, and the prototype strain 8663 was isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome in Japan. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of a CV-A19 isolate identified in a stool sample from a child with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Xinxiang, Henan, China, in 2019 and named it CV-A19 strain 2019103106/XX/CHN/2019 - 2019103106 for short. The genome of this virus consists of 7409 nucleotides, including a 6624-nucleotide open reading frame encoding a potential polyprotein precursor of 2207 amino acids. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genomic phylogenetic analyses of four major hand, foot and mouth disease-related enteroviruses.

Acta Virol 2022 ;66(1):27-38

Enteroviruses had diverged into many types, some of which cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. The predominant enterovirus types associated with HFMD are EVA71, CVA16, CVA6 and CVA10. Four enterovirus types were classified into subtypes based on VP1 sequences. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Single Amino Acid Substitution in Structural Protein VP2 Abrogates the Neurotropism of Enterovirus A-71 in Mice.

Front Microbiol 2022 17;13:821976. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Infectious Diseases Translational Research Programme, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children and has been associated with neurological complications. With no specific treatment and a monovalent vaccine limited to the Chinese market, HFMD remains a serious public health concern and an economic burden to affected societies. The molecular mechanisms underpinning EV-A71 neurovirulence have yet to be fully elucidated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Type I Interferon-Induced TMEM106A Blocks Attachment of EV-A71 Virus by Interacting With the Membrane Protein SCARB2.

Front Immunol 2022 11;13:817835. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. Studies showed that EV-A71 and CV-A16 antagonize the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway; however, how IFN controls this viral infection is largely unknown. Here, we identified an IFN-stimulated gene, (, encoding a protein that blocks EV-A71 and CV-A16 infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF