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    2149 results match your criteria Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

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    Potency of A Scalable Nanoparticulate Subunit Vaccine.
    Nano Lett 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Nanoparticulate vaccines can potentiate immune responses by site-specific drainage to lymph nodes (LNs). This approach may benefit from a nanoparticle engineering method with fine control over size and co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant. Here, we applied the flash nanocomplexation (FNC) method to prepare nanovaccines via polyelectrolyte complexation of chitosan and heparin to co-encapsulate the VP1 protein antigen from enterovirus 71, which causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) or CpG as adjuvants. Read More

    Spectrum of Enterovirus Serotypes Causing Uncomplicated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease and Enteroviral diagnostic yield of different clinical samples.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early-warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) represents a substantial disease burden in the Western Pacific region. We investigated the spectrum of causative enteroviruses of HFMD, and evaluated different clinical samples' diagnostic yield for enteroviruses.

    Methods: We enrolled pediatric patients hospitalized for HFMD among six hospitals in Anhua County, Hunan Province, China between October 2013 and September 2016. Read More

    microRNA-4516 Contributes to Different Functions of Epithelial Permeability Barrier by Targeting Poliovirus Receptor Related Protein 1 in Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Infections.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 9;8:110. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Kunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) remain the predominant etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). The clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses are obviously different. CV-A16 usually triggers a repeated infection, and airway epithelial integrity is often the potential causative factor of respiratory repeated infections. Read More

    Detection of hand-foot-mouth disease and its spatial-temporal Epidemiological characteristics with GIS platform.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018 Mar-Apr;32(2):371-377
    Information and Management School, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.
    The aim of this study is to investigate the main category of hand-foot-mouth (HFM) virus and analyze the distribution characteristics and susceptible population of HFM disease in China. Infants who have had HFM disease for less than 7 days were selected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Guangxi, China. Various specimens were collected from the infants, and EV71 and CA16 nucleic acid detections were performed using fluorescence quantitative assay. Read More

    KREMEN1 Is a Host Entry Receptor for a Major Group of Enteroviruses.
    Cell Host Microbe 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Oncode Institute, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands; CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna, Austria; CGC.nl, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Human type A Enteroviruses (EV-As) cause diseases ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to poliomyelitis-like disease. Although cellular receptors are identified for some EV-As, they remain elusive for the majority of EV-As. We identify the cell surface molecule KREMEN1 as an entry receptor for coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10). Read More

    Modeling the Present and Future Incidence of Pediatric Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Associated with Ambient Temperature in Mainland China.
    Environ Health Perspect 2018 Apr 20;126(4):047010. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Background: There is limited evidence about the association between ambient temperature and the incidence of pediatric hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) nationwide in China.

    Objectives: We examined the childhood temperature-HFMD associations across mainland China, and we projected the change in HFMD cases due to projected temperature change by the 2090s.

    Methods: Data on daily HFMD (children 0-14 y old) counts and weather were collected from 362 sites during 2009-2014. Read More

    Enterovirus serotypes in patients with central nervous system and respiratory infections in Viet Nam 1997-2010.
    Virol J 2018 04 12;15(1):69. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.
    Background: Enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of human illness. Enteroviruses have been associated with regional and global epidemics, recently, including with severe disease (Enterovirus A71 and D68), and are of interest as emerging viruses. Here, we typed Enterovirus A-D (EV) from central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory infections in Viet Nam. Read More

    The dynamics of the hand, foot and mouth disease epidemic from 2008 to 2016 in Zhenjiang city, China.
    Future Microbiol 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Pathogen Discovery & Big Data Center, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, PR China.
    Aim: To investigate the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemic in Zhenjiang, China from 2008 to 2016.

    Materials & Methods: A total of 37,202 HFMD cases were investigated and 3707 nasopharyngeal swabs were detected for enterovirus RNA using RT-quantitative PCR.

    Results: We first reported a mixed pattern of HFMD seasonal epidemic with a combination of single-peak and two-peak patterns in alternate years, and the occurrence of sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of HFMD in kindergartens in Zhenjiang. Read More

    The life cycle of non-polio enteroviruses and how to target it.
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    The genus Enterovirus (EV) of the family Picornaviridae includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, numbered enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. These diverse viruses cause a variety of diseases, including non-specific febrile illness, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, neonatal sepsis-like disease, encephalitis, paralysis and respiratory diseases. In recent years, several non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have emerged as serious public health concerns. Read More

    Clinical profile and virology analysis of hand, foot and mouth disease cases from North Kerala, India in 2015-2016: A tertiary care hospital-based cross-sectional study.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2018 May-Jun;84(3):328-331
    Department of Virus Research, Regional Reference Laboratory for Influenza Viruses and ICMR Virology Network Laboratory-Grade-I, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

    Inactivated enterovirus 71 with poly-γ-glutamic acid/Chitosan nano particles (PC NPs) induces high cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice.
    Arch Virol 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and many neurological manifestations. Recently, this virus has become a serious concern because of consecutive epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region. However, no effective vaccine for EV71 has been discovered except two EV71 vaccines which are being used in local communities of China. Read More

    Spatio-temporal analysis of the relationship between meteorological factors and hand-foot-mouth disease in Beijing, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Apr 3;18(1):158. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Research School of Population Health, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Background: Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in China and occurs mostly in infants and children. Beijing is a densely populated megacity, in which HFMD has been increasing in the last decade. The aim of this study was to quantify spatio-temporal characteristics of HFMD and the relationship between meteorological factors and HFMD incidence in Beijing, China. Read More

    [Study on early warning threshold values for 7 common communicable diseases in Gansu province, 2016].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 Mar;39(3):352-356
    Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Gansu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Lanzhou 730000, China.
    To optimize the warning threshold values of common communicable diseases in Gansu province, and improve the early warning effect. An early warning model was set up for influenza, scarlet fever, other infectious diarrheal diseases, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid, viral hepatitis type E and hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) respectively in Gansu by using the moving percentile method and cumulative sum method. By calculating the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of positive test, predictive value of negative test, Youden' index and receiver-operating characteristic curve, the optimum early warning threshold values for communicable diseases in Gansu were selected. Read More

    [Epidemiological characteristics of Coxsackie virus A16 caused hand foot and mouth disease cases in Guangdong province, 2012-2016].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 Mar;39(3):342-346
    Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430, China.
    To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases caused by Coxsackie virus A16 (Cox A16) in Guangdong province from 2012 to 2016. The data of mild HFMD cases caused by Cox A16 were collected from 8 sentinel hospitals in 8 prefecture-level cities in Guangdong to estimate Cox A16 infection status and its population and time distribution characteristics. (1) The highest estimated incidence of Cox A16 infection was in 2014 (113. Read More

    Sequence analysis-based characterization and identification of neurovirulence-associated variants of 36 EV71 strains from China.
    J Med Virol 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of clinical laboratory, the affiliated provincial hospital of Anhui medical university.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and causes several neurological complications. As new strains of EV71 are constantly discovered, it is important to understand the genomic characteristics of the viruses and the mechanism of virulence. Herein, we isolated five strains of EV71 from HFMD patients with or without neurovirulence and sequenced their whole genomes. Read More

    Antiviral and Inflammatory Cellular Signaling Associated with Enterovirus 71 Infection.
    Viruses 2018 03 28;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has become a major threat to global public health, especially in infants and young children. Epidemiological studies have indicated that EV71 infection is responsible for severe and even fatal cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Accumulated evidence indicates that EV71 infection triggers a plethora of interactive signaling pathways, resulting in host immune evasion and inflammatory response. Read More

    An emerging and expanding clade accounts for the persistent outbreak of Coxsackievirus A6-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in China since 2013.
    Virology 2018 May 26;518:328-334. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China; National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China; School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus (EV)-A71 and Coxsackievirus (CV)-A16 have historically been the major pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HMFD) in China; however, CV-A6, which had previously received little attention, became the predominant pathogen in 2013, and has remained one of the common pathogens since then. In this work, we conducted a molecular epidemiology study of CV-A6-associated HFMD in Xiamen from 2009 to 2015. The data showed CV-A6 pandemics had a certain periodicity rather than occurring randomly. Read More

    Induction of a high-titered antibody response using HIV gag-EV71 VP1-based virus-like particles with the capacity to protect newborn mice challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71.
    Arch Virol 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Department of Medical Laboratory and Research Center, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xinsi Road No 569, 710038, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most frequently detected causative agent in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is a serious threat to public health in the Asia-Pacific region. Many EV71 vaccines are under development worldwide, and although both inactivated virus vaccines and virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered to be effective, the main focus has been on inactivated EV71vaccines. There have been very few studies on EV71 VLPs. Read More

    Establishment of the 1st WHO International Standard for anti-EV71 serum (Human).
    Biologicals 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Division of Virology, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus A71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe and fatal hand, foot and mouth disease. There is plenty of evidence that EV71 has circulated widely in the Western Pacific Region for the last twenty years. Vaccines against EV71 are already available or under development. Read More

    Severity and burden of hand, foot and mouth disease in Asia: a modelling study.
    BMJ Glob Health 2018 26;3(1):e000442. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore.
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) affects millions of children across Asia annually, leading to an increase in implemented control policies such as surveillance, isolation and social distancing in affected jurisdictions. However, limited knowledge of disease burden and severity causes difficulty in policy optimisation as the associated economic cost cannot be easily estimated. We use a data synthesis approach to provide a comprehensive picture of HFMD disease burden, estimating infection risk, symptomatic rates, the risk of complications and death, and overall disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) losses, along with associated uncertainties. Read More

    Divergent Pathogenic Properties of Circulating Coxsackievirus A6 Associated with Emerging HFMD.
    J Virol 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China
    Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) is an emerging pathogen associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Its genetic characterization and pathogenic properties are largely unknown. Here, we report 39 circulating CV-A6 strains isolated in 2013 from HFMD patients in Northeast China. Read More

    Epidemiological surveillance of hand, foot and mouth disease in Shanghai in 2014-2016, prior to the introduction of the enterovirus 71 vaccine.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Mar 21;7(1):37. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 201102, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is mainly epidemic in China and Southeast Asian countries. A novel enterovirus 71 vaccine has been available in China for preventing severe HFMD since 2016. Knowledge of the dynamic epidemiology of HFMD in different regions is necessary for appropriate intervention strategies. Read More

    Emerging Coxsackievirus A6 Causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, Vietnam.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Apr;24(4):654-662
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health issue in Asia and has global pandemic potential. Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was detected in 514/2,230 (23%) of HFMD patients admitted to 3 major hospitals in southern Vietnam during 2011-2015. Of these patients, 93 (18%) had severe HFMD. Read More

    Association of Interleukin-17F gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to severe enterovirus 71 infection in Chinese children.
    Arch Virol 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Pediatric Department of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao, 266000, Shandong, People's Republic of China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a single-strand RNA virus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children, leading to neurological complications with significant morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of EV71 infection is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the IL-17F rs1889570 and rs4715290 gene polymorphisms in a Chinese Han population. Read More

    Relevance of the N-terminal and major hydrophobic domains of non-structural protein 3A in the replicative process of a DNA-launched foot-and-mouth disease virus replicon.
    Arch Virol 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Centro de Virología Animal (CEVAN), Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Dr. César Milstein, CONICET, Saladillo 2468, C1440FFX, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) DNA-launched reporter replicon containing a luciferase gene was used to assess the impact of non-structural (NS) protein 3A on viral replication. Independent deletions within the N-terminal region (amino acid [aa] residues 6 to 24) and the central hydrophobic region (HR, aa 59 to 76) of FMDV NS protein 3A were engineered, and luciferase activity in lysates of control and mutated replicon-transfected cells was measured. Triple alanine replacements of the N-terminal triplet Arg 18- His 19 -Glu 20 and a single alanine substitution of the highly charged Glu 20 residue both resulted in a 70-80% reduction in luciferase activity when compared with wild-type controls. Read More

    Prokaryotic expression and identification of scavenger receptor B2.
    Acta Virol 2018 ;62(1):50-57
    There is still no effective clinical antiviral drug against human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) is an important receptor of EV71 as it plays a vital role in the early steps of viral infection. In this study, recombinant SCARB2 protein was expressed and purified in a prokaryotic expression system, and was identified by western blot with a monoclonal antibody and mass spectrometry analysis. Read More

    Enterovirus A71 Proteins: Structure and Function.
    Front Microbiol 2018 21;9:286. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection has grown to become a serious threat to global public health. It is one of the major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. EV-A71 can also infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce diverse neurological complications, such as brainstem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis, or even death. Read More

    Cytokine and Chemokine Profiling in Patients with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Singapore and Malaysia.
    Sci Rep 2018 Mar 6;8(1):4087. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Collaborative and Translation Unit for HFMD, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore.
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a prevalent contagious childhood disease typically associated with fever, oral lesions and limb exanthema. While HFMD is caused by a plethora of serotypes of viruses under the genus Enterovirus within the Picornaviridae family, Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) are considered the main etiological agents. In recent years however, other viruses have also been isolated in considerable numbers from infected individuals in many regions, joining the legion commonly associated with HFMD. Read More

    Effects of relative humidity on childhood hand, foot, and mouth disease reinfection in Hefei, China.
    Sci Total Environ 2018 Feb 27;630:820-826. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Shushan District, Hefei, Anhui 230032, PR China. Electronic address:
    Background: In recent years, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become a major public health issue in China, and its reinfection rate has been high. Numerous studies have examined the effects of meteorological factors involved in HFMD infection. However, no study has investigated the effects on HFMD reinfection. Read More

    Artemisia capillaris inhibited enterovirus 71-induced cell injury by preventing viral internalization.
    Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2018 Mar 6;34(3):150-159. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Renal Care, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Artemisia capillaris (A. capillaris) is a common herbal drug used for thousands years in ancient China. A. Read More

    Comprehensive virome analysis reveals the complexity and diversity of the viral spectrum in pediatric patients diagnosed with severe and mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease.
    Virology 2018 May 19;518:116-125. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:
    The management of hand-foot-and-mouth disease(HFMD) epidemic is difficult due to the frequent emergence of non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses and some cases testing negative for HFMD-associated causative agents. To clarify the virus spectrum of mild and severe HFMD, a comprehensive virome analysis of 238 samples was performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The data revealed total thirteen mammalian- and plant- virus families and diverse viral populations including enteroviruses, common respiratory viruses, diarrhea-related viruses, plant viruses and anelloviruses. Read More

    A virus-like particle vaccine protects mice against coxsackievirus A10 lethal infection.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 20;152:124-130. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Unit of Vaccinology & Antiviral Strategies, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China; Joint Center for Infection and Immunity, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510623, China. Electronic address:
    Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has emerged worldwide as one of the main pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in recent years. However, there is currently no commercial vaccine available to prevent CVA10 infection. Here we report the development of a recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) based candidate vaccine for CVA10. Read More

    Infantile bullous pemphigoid with "string of pearls sign".
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Jul 15;23(7). Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    Department of Dermatology, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Portugal.
    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an immune mediated bullous disease that is manifested by urticarial plaques with superimposed subepidermal blisters and significant pruritus. It is generally found in the elderly, but is rare in the pediatric population. A 5-month-old girl previously diagnosed with hand-foot-mouth disease was examined in our dermatology department owing to vesicles and bullae, initially located to the hands and feet, which progressed with new lesions. Read More

    Fibronectin Facilitates Enterovirus 71 Infection by Mediating Viral Entry.
    J Virol 2018 May 13;92(9). Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    The State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
    Fibronectin (FN) is a high-molecular-weight extracellular matrix protein that contains the RGDS motif, which is required to bind to integrins. Synthetic RGDS peptides have been reported to compete with FN to bind to the cell surface and inhibit the function of FN. Here, we identified that synthetic RGDS peptides significantly inhibit human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in cell cultures. Read More

    A spatiotemporal mixed model to assess the influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors on the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 20;18(1):274. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    LREIS, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Background: As a common infectious disease, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is affected by multiple environmental and socioeconomic factors, and its pathogenesis is complex. Furthermore, the transmission of HFMD is characterized by strong spatial clustering and autocorrelation, and the classical statistical approach may be biased without consideration of spatial autocorrelation. In this paper, we propose to embed spatial characteristics into a spatiotemporal additive model to improve HFMD incidence assessment. Read More

    Epidemiology of Recurrent Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, China, 2008-2015.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Mar;24(3)
    Using China's national surveillance data on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) for 2008-2015, we described the epidemiologic and virologic features of recurrent HFMD. A total of 398,010 patients had HFMD recurrence; 1,767 patients had 1,814 cases of recurrent laboratory-confirmed HFMD: 99 reinfections of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) with EV-A71, 45 of coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) with CV-A16, 364 of other enteroviruses with other enteroviruses, 383 of EV-A71 with CV-A16 and CV-A16 with EV-A71, and 923 of EV-A71 or CV-A16 with other enteroviruses and other enteroviruses with EV-A71 or CV-A16. The probability of HFMD recurrence was 1. Read More

    Honeysuckle-encoded microRNA2911 inhibits Enterovirus 71 replication via targeting VP1 gene.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 16;152:117-123. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Central Laboratory, Nanjing Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Affiliated with Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in children and virus infections are associated with severe neurological dysfunctions and even death. MIR2911 is a honeysuckle-encoded atypical microRNA with extreme stability. Here, we report that MIR2911 directly inhibits EV71 replication by targeting the VP1 gene. Read More

    Identification and characterization of neutralization epitopes at VP2 and VP1 of enterovirus A71.
    J Med Virol 2018 Jun 12;90(6):1164-1167. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) neutralization escape mutants were generated with monoclonal antibody MAB979 (Millipore). The VP2-T141I and VP1-D14N substitutions were identified. Using reverse genetics, infectious clones with these substitutions were constructed and tested by neutralization assay with immune sera from mice and humans. Read More

    Profiling of novel microRNAs elicited by EV71 and CA16 infection in human bronchial epithelial cells using high-throughput sequencing.
    Virus Res 2018 03 13;247:111-119. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research & Development on Severe Infections Disease, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are two major etiologic agents associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. Despite that they both belong to the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family, there are many differences in the infection process of these viruses. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Read More

    Pyroptosis induced by enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus B3 infection affects viral replication and host response.
    Sci Rep 2018 Feb 13;8(1):2887. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin, 150081, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), affecting children with severe neurological complications. Pyroptosis is a programmed cell death characterized by cell lysis and inflammatory response. Although proinflammatory response has been implicated to play important roles in EV71-caused diseases, the involvement of pyroptosis in the pathogenesis of EV71 is poorly defined. Read More

    [Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Aseptic Meningitis, and Encephalitis Caused by Enterovirus].
    Brain Nerve 2018 Feb;70(2):121-131
    Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), and CV-A6 are the major causative agents of Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). These viruses belong to the species Enterovirus A of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. These viruses can also cause aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis and/or paralysis. Read More

    Development of a reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay for the detection of coxsackievirus A10 and coxsackievirus A6 RNA.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 155, Changbai Street, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, China.
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious public health problem, and coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) and coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) are two of the major causative pathogens, in addition to enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). A simple and rapid reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay (RT-RAA) was developed for the detection of CVA10 and CVA6 in this study. The analytical sensitivity for detection of CVA10 and CVA6 at 95% probability by probit regression analysis was 35 copies per reaction and 38 copies per reaction, respectively, with 100% specificity. Read More

    GS-9620 inhibits enterovirus 71 replication mainly through the NF-κB and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 6;153:39-48. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) & Comparative Medicine Centre, Peking Union Medical Collage (PUMC) & Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine Ministry of Health, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:
    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the second most common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which can occur as a severe epidemic especially among children under 5-years old. New and improved treatment strategies to control EV71 infection are therefore urgently required. The heterocyclic compound GS-9620, a potent and selective agonist of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), has been reported to activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and suppress HBV as well as HIV replication. Read More

    Hand, foot and mouth disease: current knowledge on clinical manifestations, epidemiology, aetiology and prevention.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Mar 6;37(3):391-398. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    For a long time, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) was seen as a mild viral infection characterized by typical clinical manifestations that spontaneously resolved in a few days without complications. In the past two decades, HFMD has received new attention because of evidence that this disease could have clinical, epidemiological and aetiological characteristics quite different from those initially thought. In contrast to previous beliefs, it has been clarified that HFMD can be associated with complications, leading to severe neurological sequelae and, rarely, to death. Read More

    Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Chongqing, China, 2009-2016.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Feb 5;15(2). Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Chinese Field Epidemiology Training Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 27, Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China.
    (1) : Even with licensed vaccine for enterovirus 71 (EV71) put into market in 2016 in China, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is still a threat for children's health in Chongqing. We described the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal patterns of HFMD in Chongqing from 2009 to 2016, in order to provide information and evidence for guiding public health response and intervention. (2) : We retrieved the HFMD surveillance data from January 2009 to December 2016 from "National Disease Reporting Information System", and then analyzed demographic and geographical information integrally. Read More

    Impact of meteorological factors on the incidence of childhood hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) analyzed by DLNMs-based time series approach.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Jan 31;7(1). Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become an emerging infectious disease in China in the last decade. There has been evidence that meteorological factors can influence the HFMD incidence, and understanding the mechanisms can help prevent and control HFMD.

    Methods: HFMD incidence data and meteorological data in Minhang District, Shanghai were obtained for the period between 2009 and 2015. Read More

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