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    1969 results match your criteria Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

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    [Polymorphisms of TLR7 rs3853839 and rs179010 are associated with susceptibility to and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 in male children].
    Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jul;33(7):953-958
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Second Affiliated Hospital , Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China.
    Objective To investigate whether the polymorphisms of TLR7/MyD88 signaling pathway is associated with the susceptibility to and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in children. Methods We collected 180 EV71 HFMD cases and 201 healthy controls from both the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University and Xi'an Children's Hospital. The genotypes including rs3853839, rs179010 of TLR7, and rs7744 of MyD88 were detected in the 381 samples by SNPscan kit. Read More

    Machine Learning Algorithms for Risk Prediction of Severe Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease in Children.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 14;7(1):5368. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital/Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P.R. China.
    The identification of indicators for severe HFMD is critical for early prevention and control of the disease. With this goal in mind, 185 severe and 345 mild HFMD cases were assessed. Patient demographics, clinical features, MRI findings, and laboratory test results were collected. Read More

    Characterization of significant molecular determinants of virulence of Enterovirus 71 sub-genotype B4 in Rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
    Virus Res 2017 Jul 10;238:243-252. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Research Centre for Biomedical Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor 47500, Malaysia. Electronic address:
    One of the leading causes of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), displaying symptoms such as fever and ulcers in children but some strains can produce cardiopulmonary oedema which leads to death. There is no FDA-approved vaccine for prevention of severe HFMD. The molecular determinants of virulence for EV-A71 are unclear. Read More

    Prevalence of enteroviruses in healthy populations and excretion of pathogens in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease in a highly endemic area of southwest China.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(7):e0181234. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Yunnan Provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.
    Etiological carriers and the excretion of the pathogens causing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in healthy persons, patients, and asymptomatic persons infected with HFMD as ongoing infection sources may play an important role in perpetuating and spreading epidemics of HFMD. The aims of this study were to determine the carrier status of EV-A71 and CV-A16 in healthy populations, as well as the duration of EV-A71 and CV-A16 shedding in the stools of HFMD patients in an epidemic area of southwest China. A cross-sectional study and a follow-up study were conducted in three HFMD endemic counties of Yunnan Province. Read More

    dsRNA Binding Domain of PKR Is Proteolytically Released by Enterovirus A71 to Facilitate Viral Replication.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 28;7:284. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung UniversityTaoyuan, Taiwan.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease in young children and infants, but can also cause severe neurological complications or even death. The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase R (PKR), an interferon-induced antiviral protein, phosphorylates the regulatory α-subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 in response to viral infection, thereby blocking the translation of cellular and viral mRNA and promoting apoptosis. The cleavage of PKR after infection with poliovirus, a prototype enterovirus, has been reported by others, but the underlying mechanism of this cleavage and its role in viral replication remain unclear. Read More

    Modelling person-to-person transmission in an Enterovirus A71 orally infected hamster model of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and encephalomyelitis.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2017 Jul 12;6(7):e62. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which may be complicated by fatal encephalomyelitis. Although fecal-oral or oral-oral routes are important in person-to-person transmission, how viral shedding and exposure may predispose individuals to infection remains unknown. We investigated person-to-person transmission by using a model of HFMD and encephalomyelitis based on EV-A71 oral infection of 2-week-old hamsters. Read More

    Estimating the basic reproduction rate of HFMD using the time series SIR model in Guangdong, China.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(7):e0179623. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology & Health Information Research Center & Guangdong Key Laboratory of Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused a substantial burden of disease in China, especially in Guangdong Province. Based on notifiable cases, we use the time series Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model to estimate the basic reproduction rate (R0) and the herd immunity threshold, understanding the transmission and persistence of HFMD more completely for efficient intervention in this province. The standardized difference between the reported and fitted time series of HFMD was 0. Read More

    Antiviral effects of Retro-2(cycl) and Retro-2.1 against Enterovirus 71 in vitro and in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 5;144:311-321. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China; Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), especially the form associated with fatal neurological disorders. Sustained outbreaks of EV71 infections remain a serious health threat worldwide. However, no antiviral agent against EV71 for clinical therapy has been approved. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 inhibits pyroptosis through cleavage of GSDMD.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 5. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, China
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. Severe infection with EV71 can lead to neurological complications and even death. However, the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis remain poorly understand. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 infection impairs the reproductive capacity of female mice.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Jul 23;14(1):403-409. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Clinical Laboratory Center, Shaoxing People's Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital of Zhejiang University, Shaoxing, Zhejiang 312000, P.R. China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD); however, no clinically approved vaccine or antiviral treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. In the present study, a murine model of EV71 infection was constructed. The clinical isolates of EV71 were amplified in Vero cells and used to challenge adult mice via hydrodynamic injection (HI) and intraperitoneal injection (IP). Read More

    Development of single-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays for rapid diagnosis of enterovirus 71, coxsackievirus A6, and A16 in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Jun 27;248:92-99. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:
    Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) has facilitated the rapid and accurate identification of the two most common etiological agents underlying hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, the worldwide emergence of CV-A6 infection in HFMD necessitates development of an improved multiplex rRT-PCR method. To rapidly determine the etiology of HFMD, two rRT-PCR assays using TaqMan probes were developed to differentiate among three selected common enteroviruses (EV-A71, CV-A16 and CV-A6) and to enable broad detection of enteroviruses (pan-enterovirus assay). Read More

    Phylogeography of coxsackievirus A16 reveals global transmission pathways and recent emergence and spread of a recombinant genogroup.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LMGE, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16; Picornaviridae) is an enterovirus (EV) type associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in children. To investigate the spatial spread of CV-A16, we used viral sequence data sampled during a prospective sentinel surveillance of HFMD in France (2010--2014) and phylogenetic reconstruction. A dataset of 168 VP1 sequences was assembled with 416 publicly available sequences of various geographic origins. Read More

    [Clinical stages and outcomes of severe cases on hand, foot and mouth disease].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 May;38(5):651-655
    Institute of Infectious Disease, Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu 610041, China.
    Objective: To understand the characteristics and relation of clinical stage and outcome of severe cases on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and to establish the evaluation method for understanding severity of this disease. Methods: According to factors as geographical location, economic and epidemic levels, five provinces (Henan, Shandong, Yunnan, Zhejiang and Sichuan provinces) were selected. Reported severe cases of HFMD from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System were selected randomly in the five provinces. Read More

    [Severe cases with hand, foot and mouth disease: data based on national pilot hand, foot and mouth disease surveillance system].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jun;38(6):759-762
    Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early Warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
    Objective: To investigate the clinical severity, etiological classification and risk factors of severe cases with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods: A total of 1 489 records on severe and fatal HFMD cases reported to the national pilot surveillance system of HFMD were used to analyze the demographic, medical treatment, etiological classification of the cases. Treatment outcome related risk factors were also studied with multi-variable stepwise logistic regression method. Read More

    Relationship between catecholamine level and gene polymorphism of β1 adrenergic receptor G1165C in children with EV71 infection in hand foot and mouth disease.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 May 18;10(5):473-477. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Hainan Province (Children's Hospital of Hainan Province), Haikou 570206, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the levels of plasma adrenaline and norepinephrine and gene polymorphism of β1 adrenergic receptor G1165C in children with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Methods: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the expression of gene polymorphism of β1 adrenergic receptor G1165C in vitro. The levels of plasma adrenaline and norepinephrine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

    A neonatal mouse model of coxsackievirus A10 infection for anti-viral evaluation.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jun 15;144:247-255. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.
    Epidemiological data indicate that coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has become one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and in recent years has often been found to co-circulate with other enteroviruses, which poses a challenge for the prevention and control of HFMD. Although most CVA10-associated HFMD cases present mild symptoms, severe manifestations and even death can also occur. However, the study of the pathogenesis and the development of drugs and vaccines for CVA10 infection are still far from complete. Read More

    Association study of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in hand foot and mouth disease.
    Oncotarget 2017 Jun 2. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Dingli Hospital of Wenzhou Medical School, Wezhou Central Hospital, Zhejiang, P.R. China.
    Objective: To determine the relationship of cytokine/chemokine expression with the clinical presentation of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Results: All cytokine/chemokine levels were higher in severe HFMD patients than in mild HFMD patients or controls (P < 0.01). Read More

    Derivation and Validation of a Mortality Risk Score for Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 13;7(1):3371. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Emergency Center, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China.
    Outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) have increased recently, as has the case fatality rate in severe cases. No scoring system currently exists to predict mortality risk for severe HFMD in previous study. We retrospectively collected laboratory parameters for 546 patients with severe HFMD (a derivation and a validation cohort) at Hunan Children's Hospitals between January 2012 and December 2014. Read More

    How to select a proper early warning threshold to detect infectious disease outbreaks based on the China infectious disease automated alert and response system (CIDARS).
    BMC Public Health 2017 Jun 12;17(1):570. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, NO. 130 Dong-An Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the China Infectious Disease Automated Alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2005. The CIDARS was used to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and aid in the early warning of outbreak. The CIDARS has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the CDC at all levels in China. Read More

    Synonymous codon usage analysis of hand, foot and mouth disease viruses: A comparative study on coxsackievirus A6, A10, A16, and enterovirus 71 from 2008 to 2015.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Sep 15;53:212-217. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China; Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering, the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) have been considered major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) throughout the world for decades. In recent years, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) and coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) have raised attention as two other serious pathogens of HFMD. The present study focused on the synonymous codon usage of four viruses isolated from 2008 to 2015, with particular attention on P1 (encoding capsid proteins) and P2-P3 regions (both encoding non-structural proteins) in the genomic RNA. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of Human Echovirus 20 Strain 812/YN/CHN/2010, Associated with Severe Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.
    Genome Announc 2017 Jun 8;5(23). Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, People's Republic of China
    Human echovirus 20 (E-20) belongs to the Human enterovirus B (HEV-B) species and is often detected in nonpolio enterovirus cases of acute flaccid paralysis. We determined the complete genome of strain 812/YN/CHN/2010, isolated from a child with severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Yunnan, China, in 2010. Read More

    ARRDC4 regulates enterovirus 71-induced innate immune response by promoting K63 polyubiquitination of MDA5 through TRIM65.
    Cell Death Dis 2017 Jun 8;8(6):e2866. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Microbiology, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which induces significantly elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines, leading to local or system inflammation and severe complications, whereas the underlying regulatory mechanisms and the inflammatory pathogenesis remain elusive. ARRDC4 is one member of arrestins family, having important roles in glucose metabolism and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) related physiological and pathological processes, however, the function of ARRDC4 in innate immune system is largely unknown. Here we identified that ARRDC4 expression was increased after EV71 infection in THP-1-derived macrophages and verified in EV71-infected HFMD patients and the healthy candidates. Read More

    miR-127-5p negatively regulates enterovirus 71 replication by directly targeting SCARB2.
    FEBS Open Bio 2017 Jun 13;7(6):747-758. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Center for Public Health ResearchMedical SchoolNanjing UniversityChina.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in young children and can cause severe cerebral and pulmonary complications and even fatality. This study aimed at elucidating whether and how EV71 infection is regulated by a cellular microRNA, miR-127-5p. We found that miR-127-5p can downregulate the expression of SCARB2, a main receptor of EV71, by targeting two potential sites in its 3' UTR region and inhibit EV71 infection. Read More

    Genetic characterization of enterovirus strains identified in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD): Emergence of B1c, C1 subgenotypes, E2 sublineage of CVA16, EV71 and CVA6 strains in India.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Jun 1;54:192-199. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Enteric Viruses Group, National Institute of Virology, 20-A, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Pune 411 001, India. Electronic address:
    Hand, Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease and caused due to Enterovirus-A (EV-A), EV-B and EV-C species worldwide. Cases of HFMD were reported from, Ahmedabad (Gujarat, 2012) and Pune (Maharashtra, 2013-2014) in India. The present study highlights the identification of EV strains (CVA16, CVA6, CVA4 and Echo12), characterization of subgenotypes of CVA16, CVA6 strains during 2012-14 and CVA16, CVA6, EV71 strains reported from the earlier study (2009-10) in HFMD cases from India. Read More

    Severe hand, foot and mouth disease associated with Coxsackievirus A10 infections in Xiamen, China in 2015.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Aug 11;93:20-24. Epub 2017 May 11.
    National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China; School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Rd., Xiamen, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) is one of the etiological agents associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and usually causes mild cases. During 2009-2014, no severe cases caused by CV-A10 was reported in Xiamen, China, however, an increase in cases was seen in 2015.

    Objectives: We aimed to perform a retrospective molecular epidemiological analysis of HFMD associated with CV-A10 infections in Xiamen. Read More

    Intradermal injection of a fractional dose of an inactivated HFMD vaccine elicits similar protective immunity to intramuscular inoculation of a full dose of an Al(OH)3-adjuvanted vaccine.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 30;35(30):3709-3717. Epub 2017 May 30.
    College of Animal Science, Jilin University, Jilin 130062, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the two major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which erupts in the Asia-Pacific regions. A bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CVA16 is highly desirable. In the present study, on the bases that an experimental bivalent vaccine comprising of inactivated EV71 and CVA16 induces a balanced protective immunity against both EV71 and CVA16, we compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of one fourth of a full dose of an intradermal vaccine administered by needle-free liquid jet injector with a full dose of an intramuscular vaccine administered by needle-syringe in monkeys. Read More

    The immune mechanism of intestinal tract Toll-like receptor in mediating EV71 virus type severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease and the MAPK pathway.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 May 20;13(5):2263-2266. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Intensive Care Unit, Xuzhou Children's Hospital, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221006, P.R. China.
    Immunological response is thought to play a crucial role in the development of a severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) infection in children, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study was designed to help in elucidating the immunopathological pathways involved in the disease by quantifying Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNAs, MAPK factors and cytokine levels in children experiencing the disease. A total of 86 enterovirus 71 (EV71)-infected HFMD children (49 with mild and 27 with severe disease), along with 30 healthy children were involved in the study. Read More

    PD169316, a specific p38 inhibitor, shows antiviral activity against Enterovirus71.
    Virology 2017 Aug 22;508:150-158. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing 100071, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease, which threatens the health of infants and young children. The expression of inflammatory cytokines induced by this viral infection aggravate the illness. Here, we describe the anti-EV71 activity of a specific p38 inhibitor that regulates the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. Read More

    An inactivated hand-foot-and-mouth disease vaccine using the enterovirus 71 (C4a) strain isolated from a Korean patient induces a strong immunogenic response in mice.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(5):e0178259. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Division of Vaccine Research, Korea National Research Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CheongJu, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) frequently occurring in children. HFMD induced by EV71 can cause serious health problems and has been reported worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated HFMD vaccine using an EV71 strain (FI-EV71 C4a) isolated from a Korean patient. Read More

    Dynamic Interaction of Enterovirus 71 and Dendritic Cells in Infected Neonatal Rhesus Macaques.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 10;7:171. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeKunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process. Read More

    Serotyping and Genetic Characterization of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)-Associated Enteroviruses of No-EV71 and Non-CVA16 Circulating in Fujian, China, 2011-2015.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 May 25;23:2508-2518. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Public Health School of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common contagious disease in infants; it is caused by multiple serotypes of human enterovirus (EV), which belongs to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. According to sentinel surveillance, infection with EVs other than EV71 and CVA 16 have become increasingly common in recent years among HFMD patients, posing new challenges for HFMD control. This study aimed to explore the spectrum of serotypes in the other EVs (non-EV71 and non-CVA16) in Fujian province in southeastern China. Read More

    [Hand, foot, and mouth disease in a hospital in Callao in 2016].
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2017 Jan-Mar;34(1):132-138
    Servicio de Dermatología del Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión, Callao, Perú.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an exanthematous viral disease caused mainly by Coxsackie A16 with a typical symptomatology of fever, papulovesicular rash on the hands, feet, and genitals, and an ulcerous enanthem in the mouth. In the summer of 2016, a variety of cases presented at a hospital in Callao in children and adults with a symptomatology consistent with HFMD. A clinical diagnosis was made, and support therapy was applied, resulting in the resolution of symptoms. Read More

    Epidemiological characterizations, pathogen spectrum and molecular characteristics of Coxsackievirus A16 from patients with HFMD in Yantai, Shandong, China between 2011 and 2015.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 May 24:1-8. Epub 2017 May 24.
    a Yantai Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Yantai , Shandong Province , PR China.
    This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characterizations and pathogen spectrum of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Yantai City, Shandong Province, China, during 2011-2015, and to study the nucleotide evolution and amino acid variation of coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) epidemic strains that caused HFMD. The HFMD epidemic began to rise in March, and became prevalent from May to August, reached its peak in June, and then declined in September every year, children aged one to 5 years-old had the highest incidence rate whereas the incidence in children under 6 months was very low, and there were more males than females. Enterovirus nucleic acid detection using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on 2130 clinical specimens collected from patients with HFMD between 2011 and 2015, and 2012 enterovirus positive samples were detected, including 678 CV-A16, 639 EV-A71, and 695 other enteroviruses. Read More

    The impact of hand, foot and mouth disease control policies in Singapore: A qualitative analysis of public perceptions.
    J Public Health Policy 2017 May;38(2):271-287
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Tahir Foundation Building, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore, 117549, Singapore.
    Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease in Asia. Most cases are relatively mild and caused by Coxsackie viruses, but in epidemics caused by Enterovirus 71, severe complications can occur. In response to the deaths of dozens of children in a 1997 outbreak (Podin in BMC Public Health 6:180,1 Abubakar in Virus Res 61(1):1-9,2 WHO in3), Singapore practices childcare centre surveillance, case-isolation, and short-term closure of centres. Read More

    Different microRNA profiles reveal the diverse outcomes induced by EV71 and CA16 infection in human umbilical vein endothelial cells using high-throughput sequencing.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(5):e0177657. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research & Development on Severe Infections Disease, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing. Read More

    Crystal structure of 2C helicase from enterovirus 71.
    Sci Adv 2017 Apr 28;3(4):e1602573. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 9 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100730, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen responsible for outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease. EV71 nonstructural protein 2C participates in many critical events throughout the virus life cycle; however, its precise role is not fully understood. Lack of a high-resolution structure made it difficult to elucidate 2C activity and prevented inhibitor development. Read More

    Enterovirus 71-induced has-miR-21 contributes to evasion of host immune system by targeting MyD88 and IRAK1.
    Virus Res 2017 Jun 12;237:27-36. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Yanan University, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus71(EV71), the etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has increasingly become a public health challenge around the world. Type I interferons (IFNs) are an important family of cytokines that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens.These pathways are tightly regulated by the host to prevent an inappropriate cellular response, but viruses can modulate these pathways to proliferate and spread. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of an Enterovirus 71 Strain Isolated from the Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Child with Severe Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Yunnan, China, 2013.
    Genome Announc 2017 May 11;5(19). Epub 2017 May 11.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, PR China
    The complete genome sequence of the enterovirus 71 strain CSF15/YN/CHN/2013, first isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a child in Yunnan, China, in 2013, was determined. According to the phylogenetic and homogeneity analyses, the isolate was assigned to subgenotype C4a. Read More

    Clinical Significance and Prognostic Effect of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Critical and Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.
    Nutrients 2017 May 10;9(5). Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of PICU, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan No. 2 Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014, China.
    Objective: To examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with critical and severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and assess the clinical significance and prognostic effect of 25(OH)D concentrations in children with HFMD.

    Methods: This is a prospective observational study. The 138 children with HFMD were divided into common (49 cases), severe (52 cases), and critical (37 cases) HFMD groups. Read More

    Epidemiological and aetiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shijiazhuang City, Hebei province, China, 2009-2012.
    PLoS One 2017 9;12(5):e0176604. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Shijiazhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China.
    Large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have repeatedly occurred in mainland of China since 2007. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and aetiological characteristics of HFMD in Shijiazhuang City, one of the biggest northern cities of China. A total of 57,173 clinical HFMD cases, including 911 severe and 32 fatal cases, were reported in Shijiazhuang City during 2009-2012. Read More

    Valine/isoleucine variants drive selective pressure in the VP1 sequence of EV-A71 enteroviruses.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 May 8;17(1):333. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Cirad, UMR 17, Intertryp, TA-A17/G, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Background: In 2011-2012, Northern Vietnam experienced its first large scale hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemic. In 2011, a major HFMD epidemic was also reported in South Vietnam with fatal cases. This 2011-2012 outbreak was the first one to occur in North Vietnam providing grounds to study the etiology, origin and dynamic of the disease. Read More

    [Observation on intestinal viral shedding time of hand, foot and mouth disease induced by coxsackievirus A6].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 May;55(5):369-372
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou Children's Hospital, Hangzhou 310014, China.
    Objective: To observe the intestinal viral shedding time in patients with hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) induced by coxsackievirus A6 (CA6). Method: Throat swab specimens and stool specimens of HFMD children were collected from those admitted to Hangzhou Children's Hospital between May and October 2015, while fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the viral load.Eeighteen cases of HFMD children were followed up, who were confirmed as CA6 infection via laboratory tests. Read More

    Epidemiological and genetic analysis concerning the non-enterovirus 71 and non-coxsackievirus A16 causative agents related to hand, foot and mouth disease in Anyang city, Henan Province, China, from 2011 to 2015.
    J Med Virol 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Anyang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Anyang, Henan, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are major pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and have been associated with consecutive outbreaks of HFMD in China over the past years. Although several other human enteroviruses (HEVs) have also acted as causative agents of HFMD, published information on their roles in the prevalence of HFMD is limited. This study was conducted to reveal the characteristics of the pathogenic spectrum and molecular epidemiology of the non-EV-71 and -CV-A16 HEVs in Anyang City, which is located in north-central China and has a population of five million. Read More

    [Health related quality of life on severe hand, foot and mouth disease patients].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;38(4):462-466
    Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early Warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients with different complications. Methods: A national telephone interview under the EQ-5D proxy2 questionnaire (EQ-SD and EQ-VAS), was conducted to obtain the HRQoL of lab-confirmed severe HFMD patients, aged between six months and five-year-olds from the national communicable disease surveillance system from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Results: A total of 685 severe HFMD cases were included in the study. Read More

    [Hand, foot and mouth disease in Hubei province, 2009-2015: an epidemiological and etiological study].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;38(4):441-445
    Institute of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuhan 430079, China.
    Objective: To clarify the age patterns and types of differences so as to provide reference on prevention and interventions of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases, in Hubei province. Methods: We collected the HFMD case information of Hubei province from the Chinese National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System in 2009-2015 while the information on pathogens from the laboratory monitoring system of Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels in Hubei province. All the data were stratified by age, disease severity, laboratory confirmation status, and serotypes of enterovirus. Read More

    Serosurveillance of foot and mouth disease in Karnataka state, India: a 3 years study.
    Virusdisease 2016 Sep 26;27(3):294-302. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Hebbal, Bengaluru, 560024 India.
    A prospective serological investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), as well as to monitor the effectiveness of the FMD control programme (FMD-CP) through vaccination in Karnataka, India. Random serum samples were collected every year between May and August before the start of vaccination in 2011, and subsequently following two phases of vaccination in 2012 and 2013. Infection status (seroprevalence) was inferred by subjecting the sera to indirect r3AB3 non-structural protein-ELISA, using kits developed by the Project Directorate on FMD, India. Read More

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