232 results match your criteria Hand Flexor Tendon Lacerations

A Biomechanical Comparison of Gliding Resistance between Modified Lim Tsai and Asymmetric Tendon Repair Techniques in Zone II Flexor Tendon Repairs.

J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2022 May 27:1-7. Epub 2022 May 27.

Biomechanics Laboratory, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Early active motion protocols have shown better functional outcomes in zone II flexor tendon lacerations. Different techniques of tendon repair have different effects on gliding resistance, which can impact tendon excursion and adhesion formation. For successful initiation of early active mobilisation, the repair technique should have high breaking strength and low gliding resistance. Read More

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Traumatic Zone II Flexor Tendon Injury Repair Through a Traumatic Dorsal Approach.

Orthopedics 2022 Mar 4:1-4. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Zone II flexor tendons present unique challenges for repair because of their complex anatomy in a confined space. The approach for zone II injuries is often dictated by preexisting traumatic skin lacerations, with a midaxial or volar approach being most common. In some injuries, this approach is not viable, and alternative approaches must be considered. Read More

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The use of connective tissue growth factor mimics for flexor tendon repair.

J Orthop Res 2022 Feb 25. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Intrasynovial flexor tendon lacerations of the hand are clinically problematic, typically requiring operative repair and extensive rehabilitation. The small-molecule connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mimics, oxotremorine M (Oxo-M) and 4-PPBP maleate (4-PPBP), have been shown to improve tendon healing in small animal models by stimulating the expansion and differentiation of perivascular CD146+ cells. To enhance intrasynovial flexor tendon healing, small-molecule CTGF mimics were delivered to repaired canine flexor tendons via porous sutures. Read More

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February 2022

Functional Outcomes of Flexor Tendon Repair in the Fingers: A Comparison of Wide-Awake Local Anesthesia No Tourniquet Versus Traditional Anesthesia.

Hand (N Y) 2022 Jan 7:15589447211064364. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Rothman Orthopaedic Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Flexor tendon lacerations in the fingers are challenging injuries that can be repaired using the wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) technique or under traditional anesthesia (TA). The purpose of our study was to compare the functional outcomes and complication rates of patients undergoing flexor tendon repair under WALANT versus TA.

Methods: All patients who underwent a primary flexor tendon repair in zone I and II without tendon graft for closed avulsions or open lacerations between 2015 and 2019 were identified. Read More

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January 2022

The Effect of Flexor Digitorum Profundus Repair Position Relative to Camper Chiasm on Tendon Biomechanics.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Roth | McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St Joseph's Health Care London, London, Ontario, Canada; Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of repairing a zone II flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) laceration anatomically versus extra-anatomically on tendon loads and work of flexion (WOF).

Methods: Twenty digits from 5 cadaveric specimens were tested using an in vitro active finger motion simulator under 2 FDP tendon repair conditions: anatomic and extra-anatomic. Tensile loads in FDP and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), WOF, and total active finger range of motion (ROM) were measured using in-line load cells and electromagnetic tracking, respectively. Read More

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December 2021

Infantile Flexor Tendon Lacerations: Surgical Technique and Illustrative Case.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 10 18;46(10):934.e1-934.e5. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL. Electronic address:

Infantile flexor tendon lacerations are rare, with few cases reported. Surgical intervention in this age group is favorable, but there are several factors that add to the complexity of these injuries, such as small hand anatomy, frequent delays in diagnosis, and difficulties with postoperative rehabilitation. This article describes a 2-strand flexor tendon repair technique in a 10-month-old female infant. Read More

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October 2021

Role of Ultrasound in Flexor Tendon Injuries of the Hand: A New Insight.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 08 29;47(8):2157-2166. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Radiodiagnosis Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

This study was aimed at validating the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound (US) scans in pre-operative evaluation of flexor tendon injuries in the hand and to determine its value in the management of such injuries and in the prediction of patient outcome. This descriptive cross-sectional prospective study included 35 patients with penetrating trauma to the volar aspect of the hand or wrist with questionable clinical findings. They had 50 injured tendons and were candidates for exploratory surgery versus physiotherapy. Read More

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Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound Evaluations of Zone II Partial Flexor Tendon Lacerations: A Cadaveric Study.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Aug 11;40(8):1651-1656. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Orthopedics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Objectives: Surgical intervention for zone II high-grade partial flexor tendon lacerations is often required when more than half of the tendon width is torn. Reliable noninvasive tests are critical for optimizing clinical decision making. Our team previously investigated the use of ultrasound (US) for identification of high-grade zone II flexor digitorum profundus lacerations. Read More

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Early active mobilization after primary repair of the flexor pollicis longus tendon.

J Orthop Sci 2021 Sep 9;26(5):792-797. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Niigata Hand Surgery Foundation, Niigata, Japan.

Background: There have been few studies regarding primary flexor tendon repair of the thumb following early active mobilization, whereas there have been multiple such studies of the finger. This study examined the outcomes of patients who underwent early active mobilization after primary repair of the flexor pollicis longus tendon.

Methods: This study was a retrospective case series. Read More

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September 2021

Functional and Disability Assessment Among Hispanics With Zone 2 Flexor Tendon Injuries: Comparative Study Between Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Repair and Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Excision.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2020 09;4(9):e20.00081

From the Orthopedic Surgery Department, University of Puerto Rico (UPR) Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico (Dr. Natal-Albelo, Dr. Olivella, Dr. Paraliticci-Márquez, Dr. Rivera, Dr. Echegaray, and Dr. Foy-Parrilla), and the Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery Department, Mayagüez Medical Center, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico (Dr. Ramírez).

Introduction: Flexor tendon lacerations in zone II have been reported to be the most complicated of all tendon injuries. Currently, there is no consensus on treatment in surgical management for patients with flexor tendon laceration of flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the repair of FDS tendons provided superior functional outcomes compared with FDS excision in Hispanic patients. Read More

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September 2020

[Flexor tendon injuries of the hand].

Chirurg 2020 Oct;91(10):895-902

BG Klinikum Duisburg, Großenbaumer Allee 250, 47249, Duisburg, Deutschland.

Flexor tendon injuries of the hand are relatively rare but pose significant challenges to both physician and patient. A thorough clinical evaluation enables flexor tendon lacerations to be identified and classified. The flexor tendons of the hand are divided into five anatomic zones (from distal to proximal). Read More

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October 2020

Efficacy of Single-Dose Radiotherapy in Preventing Posttraumatic Tendon Adhesion.

Cureus 2020 Jun 2;12(6):e8410. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Bursa Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, TUR.

Background and Aim Posttraumatic peritendinous adhesion is the greatest obstacle to achieve normal tendon function following lacerations of extrinsic flexor tendons of the hand. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether single-dose radiotherapy (RT) has the potential to modulate intrasynovial tendon adhesions. Materials and Methods A total of 80 tendons from the third to fourth flexor profundus of both hind paws of 20 adult New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Read More

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Fingertip Injuries and Amputations: A Review of the Literature.

Cureus 2020 May 26;12(5):e8291. Epub 2020 May 26.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA.

The fingertip is defined as the part of the digit distal to the insertion of the extensor and flexor tendons on the distal phalanx. Devastating injuries to the hand occur every year that lead fingertip amputations in thousands of people. The highest incidence rates are usually seen in children less than five years old and in adults over the age of 65. Read More

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Bilateral Congenital Absence of Small Finger Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Tendons in a Trauma Patient.

Cureus 2020 Feb 11;12(2):e6948. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Orthopaedics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, USA.

The flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) is the only muscle in the intermediate layer of the flexor compartment of the forearm. Its main function is flexion of the proximal interphalangeal (IP) joint. Variations of the FDS are common, and knowledge of these variations is necessary for hand surgeons because the little finger tendon of the FDS is commonly used in hand reconstruction surgery. Read More

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February 2020

Absence of flexor digitorum profundus muscle and variation of flexor digitorum superficialis muscle in a little finger: two case reports.

Surg Radiol Anat 2020 Aug 10;42(8):945-949. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Anatomy, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, V Úvalu 84, 150 06, Prague, Czech Republic.

Purpose: Knowledge of rare variants of the FDP is of high clinical importance for physicians examining patients for tendon lacerations and especially for hand surgeons operating tendon injuries.

Methods: During routine dissection at our Department of Anatomy both cases were observed.

Results: Variations of flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus muscles of the little finger were observed in two cadavers. Read More

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The Economic Impact of Flexor Tendon Lacerations of the Hand in the United States.

Ann Plast Surg 2019 10;83(4):419-423

From the Department of Plastic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.

Purpose: Flexor tendon lacerations are a common and debilitating injury for thousands of Americans annually. Despite this, no study has attempted to estimate the economic impact of these injuries. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of flexor tendon lacerations in America. Read More

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October 2019

Modified Mantero technique for flexor digitorum profundus laceration repair in Zone 2.

J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2019 12 19;44(10):1096-1098. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, CHU Félix Guyon, Saint Denis, France.

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December 2019

Use of a relative motion flexion orthosis for postoperative management of zone I/II flexor digitorum profundus repair: A retrospective consecutive case series.

J Hand Ther 2020 Jul - Sep;33(3):296-304. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Self-employed, Saint Joseph, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Study Design: A retrospective, single-center, consecutive case series.

Introduction: In concept, a relative motion flexion (RMF) orthosis will induce a "quadriga effect" on a given flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon, limiting its excursion and force of flexion while still permitting a wide range of finger motion. This effect can be exploited in the rehabilitation of zone I and II FDP repairs. Read More

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Ultrasound localization of lacerated flexor tendon ends in the hand: a cadaveric study.

Skeletal Radiol 2019 Dec 21;48(12):1941-1946. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Radiology, LSUHSC-Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, 71103, USA.

Objective: Flexor tendon repair currently requires extensive exposure to locate and repair tendons. Ultrasound (US) has been used to identify lacerated tendon ends with little information on accuracy. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of US to localize tendon ends in zone II flexor tendon lacerations in a cadaveric model. Read More

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December 2019

Lumbrical Tear in Major League Baseball Player Throwing 4-Seam Fastballs: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2019 Apr-Jun;9(2):e0115

Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida.

Case: We present the case of a major league pitcher with persistent finger pain, loss of pitch control, and loss of pitch velocity after an injury during a game. This pitcher only throws fastballs and prefers to only use a 4-seam technique. On examination of the affected hand, it is found that he had tenderness along the palmar iinterosseous near the base of the third metacarpal and no tenderness along the distribution of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon. Read More

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Subcutaneous Transposition of the Flexor Pollicis Longus: Does It Provide Increased Length for Tendon Repair? A Cadaveric Study.

Hand (N Y) 2020 11 20;15(6):828-830. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon lacerations typically occur via sharp mechanisms such as knife injury. When the injury is chronic, it may be difficult to perform a tension free repair, and tendon lengthening may be required. This article proposes a technique that transposes the proximal tendon stump over the thenar eminence subcutaneously, out of the carpal tunnel, in an attempt to gain additional tendon length by eliminating the sharp turn the FPL takes. Read More

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November 2020

Clinical Outcomes of Zone 2 Flexor Tendon Repairs Using the Modified Lim/Tsai Technique.

J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2019 Mar;24(1):83-88

* Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Background: The single looped suture modified Lim/Tsai technique is widely used for flexor tendon repairs. It has been shown to possess better biomechanical properties and require less repair time per tendon as compared to the double looped suture original Lim/Tsai technique. However, there is no clinical data on the modified technique. Read More

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Flexor Tendon Lacerations Secondary to Closed Proximal Phalangeal Fracture.

J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2019 Mar;24(1):123-126

1 Hand Unit, Sydney Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

We report a case of complete laceration of both flexor tendons in the dominant ring finger of a young male caused by a closed volar fracture fragment of the proximal phalanx. Careful clinical examination, reasonable index of suspicion and ultrasound confirmation play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and surgical planning of this rare yet consequential injury. Good outcomes can be achieved from the surgical management and rehabilitation of both soft tissue and bony injuries when planning of surgical approaches and fixation techniques are facilitated by an accurate pre-operative diagnosis. Read More

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Comparison Of Outcome Of 1- And 2-Knot, 4-Strand, Doublemodified Kessler Flexor Tendon Repair With Early Active Mobilization Protocol In Patients With Flexor Tendon Lacerations Of Hand.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2018 Oct-Dec;30(4):544-547

Jinnah Burn and Reconstructive Surgery Centre Lahore, Pakistan.

Background: Hand is unique for the dexterity of its function and flexor tendons have most important function in hand. Its injury is a challenging treatment. Purpose of this study is to compare the success of 1- and 2-knot, flexor tendon repair (good to excellent results) with early active mobilization in terms of total active motion (TAM) of affected hand postoperatively. Read More

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February 2019

Trigger finger secondary to a neglected flexor tendon rupture.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Jan;98(1):e13980

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Chonbuk, Republic of Korea.

Secondary trigger finger caused by trauma to the hand, especially associated with partial flexor tendon rupture, is not a common condition. Thus, the clinical manifestations of these patients are not well-known. The aim of this study is to present secondary trigger finger caused by a neglected partial flexor tendon rupture including discussion of the mechanism and treatment. Read More

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January 2019

The FDP-FDS-FDP Dual Tendon Transfer: A Simple, Single-stage Reconstruction Technique for Chronic, Isolated Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon Injuries.

Nathan T Morrell

Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg 2019 Jun;23(2):62-64

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT.

The reconstruction of chronic flexor tendon injuries remains one of the more challenging injuries facing the hand and upper extremity surgeon. In the setting of an intact flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), there are few indications for isolated flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) reconstruction. Because of the interplay of the FDP system, the reestablishment of normal tension of the FDP tendons and lumbricals is particularly challenging, and postoperative stiffness, quadriga, or lumbrical plus phenomena can actually lead to a deterioration of digital function with surgery. Read More

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Relative Motion Flexion Splinting for Flexor Tendon Lacerations: Proof of Concept.

Hand (N Y) 2019 03 4;14(2):193-196. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

1 New York University, New York City, USA.

Background: The principle of relative motion has allowed patients to regain a higher degree of hand function, while protecting extensor tendon repairs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the principle of relative motion could be a viable method to protect a flexor tendon repair.

Methods: Four fresh-frozen cadaver arms were each mounted on a testing apparatus (wrist in 30° of extension, metacarpophalangeal [MCP] joints blocked to 70°-80°). Read More

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Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Zone II Partial Flexor Tendon Lacerations of the Fingers: A Cadaveric Study.

J Ultrasound Med 2018 Apr 29;37(4):941-948. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Departments of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Imaging, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: Accurate assessment of zone II partial flexor tendon lacerations in the finger is clinically important. Surgical repair is recommended for lacerations of greater than 50% to 60%. Our goal was to evaluate ultrasonographic test characteristics and accuracy in identifying partial flexor tendon lacerations in a cadaveric model. Read More

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Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries: Should They Be Repaired or Not?

Surg J (N Y) 2016 Jul 14;2(3):e89-e90. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

Clinic of Pediatric Surgery, University Clinical Center of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo.

The correct management of partially divided flexor tendon injuries is still controversial. Opinions vary regarding whether partially divided flexor tendon injuries should be repaired. Flexor tendon injuries are common because the tendons lie close to the skin. Read More

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Polymicrobial pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis of the index finger and first ray resulting from autophagia.

J Orthop 2017 Sep 30;14(3):403-405. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Department of Orthopaedics,Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis (PFT) is a well known infectious condition of the hand, involving the inoculation of the flexor tendon sheath with microorganisms. Many cases have been reported, common causes including direct inoculation by a puncture wound and deep lacerations extending into the flexor tendon sheath. In this report, we present a case of a 50 year old female with PFT resulting from autophagia (consuming one's own body parts, in our case, fingers) successfully treated with irrigation and debridement, amputation of the index finger at the metacarpophalangeal joint and antibiotic therapy. Read More

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September 2017