19,557 results match your criteria Halothane Hepatotoxicity


A Case Report of Suspected Malignant Hyperthermia: How Will the Diagnosis Affect a Patient's Insurability?

Case Rep Anesthesiol 2018 30;2018:6532821. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, 1611 NW 12 Avenue, Suite C-300, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

The purpose of this case report is to increase awareness that a diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia may have long-lasting or permanent effects on a patient's insurance eligibility or premiums despite legislation providing varying levels of protection from preexisting conditions or genetic discrimination. We present a case of severe rigors, unexplained severe metabolic acidosis, and severe hyperthermia in a patient after general anesthesia for extensive head and neck surgery. The patient was treated for malignant hyperthermia and demonstrated a significant clinical improvement with the administration of dantrolene. Read More

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October 2018

Use of microminipigs for unveiling unknown mechanisms of azithromycin-induced cardiovascular death.

J Pharmacol Sci 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan. Electronic address:

Although azithromycin can suppress cardiac I, I, I, I and I, its onset mechanisms for cardiovascular death have not been fully investigated. We examined electropharmacological effects of azithromycin in intravenous doses of 0.3, 3 and 30 mg/kg using microminipigs under the halothane anesthesia (n = 4), which provided plasma concentrations of 3. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Malignant hyperthermia, environmental heat stress, and intracellular calcium dysregulation in a mouse model expressing the p.G2435R variant of RYR1.

Br J Anaesth 2018 Oct 10;121(4):953-961. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Anesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA; Leeds Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The human p.G2434R variant of the RYR1 gene is most frequently associated with malignant hyperthermia (MH) in the UK. We report the phenotype of a knock-in mouse that expresses the RYR1 variant p. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Ultrasound Elastography for Rapid, Real-time Detection of Localized Muscular Reaction in Malignant Hyperthermia-susceptible Pigs.

Anesthesiology 2018 Nov;129(5):989-999

From the Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

What We Already Know About This Topic: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Halothane and caffeine induce excessive sarcoplasmic calcium liberation and skeletal muscle contracture in patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia (MH) and are utilized for diagnosis in the in vitro contracture test. Intramuscular injection previously caused a marked local lactate increase in MH-susceptible but not in MH-nonsusceptible individuals in vivo. Using shear-wave elastography, this study evaluated localized changes in muscle stiffness after intramuscular injection of halothane and caffeine. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Microdialysis and ultrasound elastography for monitoring of localized muscular reaction after pharmacological stimulation in rats.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Sep 3;11(1):636. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, University of Würzburg, Oberduerrbacher Str. 6, Würzburg, Germany.

Objective: Halothane and caffeine are known to cause skeletal muscular contractions in vitro and have been proven to induce circumscribed metabolic reactions when injected into rat skeletal muscle. In this study 26 rats were investigated by either continuous application of calcium 160 mM or bolus injection of caffeine 160 mM or halothane 10% vol via a microdialysis probe in the tibialis anterior muscle. Tissue elasticity at the injection site was monitored by ultrasound strain elastography. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Anesthetic Molecule Interaction of Noble Gases with Proteins and Lipids and their Effect: A Review.

Curr Drug Deliv 2018 ;15(10):1381-1392

Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Surgical operations are impossible without administering proper analgesia. Advancement in the field of anesthesia has invariably resulted in the accomplishment of all surgical processes without any inconvenience. Admittedly, the use of noble gas is on the decline. Read More

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January 2018
6 Reads

Regenerative potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cadmium chloride-induced hepato-renal injury and testicular dysfunction in sprague dawley rats.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 7;164:41-49. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Urology and Nephrology Department, Mansoura University, Egypt.

The effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on cadmium-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in Sprague Dawley rats. The study employed three animal groups: Group 1 served as control animals; Group 2 rats were dosed intra-peritoneally with 2 mg of cadmium chloride per kg body weight, and Group 3 rats were again dosed with a single intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg of cadmium chloride per kg body weight two doses of 10 cells each intravenously. Finally, the animals were killed using halothane inhalation anesthesia. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Electropharmacological characterization of microminipigs as a laboratory animal using anti-influenza virus drug oseltamivir.

J Toxicol Sci 2018 ;43(8):507-512

Department of Pharmacology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine.

We analyzed electropharmacological characteristics of microminipigs under halothane-anesthesia using anti-influenza virus drug oseltamivir, which has been known to possess multi-channel blocking properties, including Na, Ca and K channels (n = 4). Oseltamivir in doses of 0.3, 3 and 30 mg/kg was intravenously infused over 10 min with an interval of 20 min, which provided peak plasma concentrations 1. Read More

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Anesthetics Have Different Effects on the Electrocorticographic Spectra of Wild-type and Mitochondrial Mutant Mice.

Anesthesiology 2018 Oct;129(4):744-755

From the Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington (C.W.C., S.C., F.K., M.M.S., P.G.M.) the Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (C.W.C., M.M.S., P.G.M.) the Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine (S.C.) the Department of Neurological Surgery (F.K.), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

What We Already Know About This Topic: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Knockout of the mitochondrial protein Ndufs4 (Ndufs4[KO]) in mice causes hypersensitivity to volatile anesthetics but resistance to ketamine. The authors hypothesized that electrocorticographic changes underlying the responses of Ndufs4(KO) to volatile anesthetics and to ketamine would be similar in mutant and control mice.

Methods: Electrocorticographic recordings at equipotent volatile anesthetic concentrations were compared between genotypes. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Experimental assessment of a myocyte-based multiscale model of cardiac contractile dysfunction.

J Theor Biol 2018 Nov 29;456:16-28. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Instituto de Medicina Translacional, Transplante y Bioingeniería, Universidad Favaloro-CONICET, Solís 453, Buenos Aires 1078, Argentina.. Electronic address:

Cardiac contractile dysfunction (CD) is a multifactorial syndrome caused by different acute or progressive diseases which hamper assessing the role of the underlying mechanisms characterizing a defined pathological condition. Mathematical modeling can help to understand the processes involved in CD and analyze their relative impact in the overall response. The aim of this study was thus to use a myocyte-based multiscale model of the circulatory system to simulate the effects of halothane, a volatile anesthetic which at high doses elicits significant acute CD both in isolated myocytes and intact animals. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Classic Papers Revisited: An Early Study of Cardioprotection by Volatile Anesthetics: A Behind-the-scenes Look.

Authors:
David C Warltier

Anesthesiology 2018 Sep;129(3):576-579

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Recovery of Contractile Function of Stunned Myocardium in Chronically Instrumented Dogs Is Enhanced by Halothane or Isoflurane. By Warltier DC, al-Wathiqui MH, Kampine JP, and Schmeling WT. ANESTHESIOLOGY 1988; 69:552-65. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Recent History of Publication-Based Academic Interest in General Anesthetics.

J Anesth Hist 2018 Apr 23;4(2):109-114. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine how interest in various general anesthetics among the authors of academic publications changed over the past 50 years.

Methods: Publication-based academic interest were analyzed using specific scientometric indices: popularity index (PI), top journal selectivity index (TJSI), and index of change (IC). Terms used for searches were the names of drugs belonging to two pharmacological classes of general anesthetics - inhaled and intravenous. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics Analysis Revealed Different Regulatory Mechanisms of Halothane and Rendement Napole Genes in Porcine Muscle Metabolism.

J Proteome Res 2018 Aug 29;17(8):2834-2849. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science , University of Copenhagen , DK-1958 Frederiksberg , Denmark.

Pigs with the Halothane (HAL) or Rendement Napole (RN) gene mutations demonstrate abnormal muscle energy metabolism patterns and produce meat with poor quality, classified as pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat, but it is not well understood how HAL and RN mutations regulate glucose and energy metabolism in porcine muscle. To investigate the potential signaling pathways and phosphorylation events related to these mutations, muscle samples were collected from four genotypes of pigs, wild type, RN, HAL, and RN-HAL double mutations, and subjected to quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis using the TiO enrichment strategy. The study led to the identification of 932 proteins from the nonmodified peptide fractions and 1885 phosphoproteins with 9619 phosphorylation sites from the enriched fractions. Read More

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August 2018
18 Reads

Effects of halothane on the electroencephalogram of the chicken.

Vet Med Sci 2018 05 12;4(2):98-105. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Animal Welfare Science and Bioethics Centre/Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Little is known about the effects of inhalant anaesthetics on the avian electroencephalogram (EEG). The effects of halothane on the avian EEG are of interest, as this agent has been widely used to study nociception and analgesia in mammals. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of halothane anaesthesia on the EEG of the chicken. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Analysis of Safety Margin of Lithium Carbonate Against Cardiovascular Adverse Events Assessed in the Halothane-Anesthetized Dogs.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Dec;18(6):530-536

Department of Pharmacology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan.

Lithium is one of the classical drugs that have been widely used for treating bipolar disorder. However, several cardiac side effects including sick sinus syndrome, bundle branch block, ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, non-specific T-wave abnormalities in addition to Brugada-type electrocardiographic changes have been noticed in patients who were given antidepressant, anticonvulsant, and/or antipsychotic drugs besides lithium. In this study, we assessed cardiohemodynamic and electrophysiological effects of lithium carbonate by itself to begin to analyze onset mechanisms of its cardiovascular side effects. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

[Selection of optimal method of general anesthesia for intubation of nasolacrimal duct in young children].

Vestn Oftalmol 2018 ;134(2):53-58

Khabarovsk branch of S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution, 211 Tikhookeanskaya St., Khabarovsk, Russian Federation, 680033.

Purpose: comparative assessment of safety and clinical efficacy of Sevoflurane and Halothane in general anesthesia for nasolacrimal duct intubation in children.

Material And Methods: Clinical results of nasolacrimal duct intubation in 288 children with persistent obstruction of tear duct were analyzed. A newly developed method of general anesthesia in the supine position was used for all cases. Read More

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January 2018
6 Reads

Increased TASK channel-mediated currents underlie high-fat diet induced vagal afferent dysfunction.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Oct 10;315(4):G592-G601. Epub 2018 May 10.

Gastrointestinal Disease Research Unit, Queen's University , Kingston, Ontario , Canada.

We have previously demonstrated that satiety sensing vagal afferent neurons are less responsive to meal-related stimuli in obesity because of reduced electrical excitability. As leak K currents are key determinants of membrane excitability, we hypothesized that leak K currents are increased in vagal afferents during obesity. Diet-induced obesity was induced by feeding C57Bl/6J mice a high-fat diet (HFF) (60% energy from fat) for 8-10 wk. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Sunitinib does not acutely alter left ventricular systolic function, but induces diastolic dysfunction.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 Jul 2;82(1):65-75. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan.

Purpose: Cancer chemotherapies have improved the prognosis of cancer patients in recent years; however, their side effects on the cardiovascular systems have emerged as a major concern in the field of both cardiology and oncology. In particular, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors are known to induce various types of cardiovascular adverse events including hypertension, QT-interval prolongation and heart failure, but their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To explore how to better predict such drug-induced cardiovascular adverse events, we assessed the electropharmacological effects of sunitinib using the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 5), while plasma concentrations of cardiac enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase and cardiac troponin I  were measured. Read More

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Effects of noxious stimuli on the electroencephalogram of anaesthetised chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

PLoS One 2018 26;13(4):e0196454. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Animal Welfare Science and Bioethics Centre, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

The reliable assessment and management of avian pain is important in the context of animal welfare. Overtly expressed signs of pain vary substantially between and within species, strains and individuals, limiting the use of behaviour in pain studies. Similarly, physiological indices of pain can also vary and may be confounded by influence from non-painful stimuli. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Baseline Cerebral Metabolic Rate Is a Critical Determinant of the Cerebral Vasodilating Potency of Volatile Anesthetic Agents.

Authors:
John C Drummond

Anesthesiology 2018 Jul;129(1):187-189

From the Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, California; and the Anesthesia Service, the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California.

A Comparison of the Direct Cerebral Vasodilating Potencies of Halothane and Isoflurane in the New Zealand White Rabbit. By Drummond JC, Todd MM, Scheller MS, and Shapiro HM. ANESTHESIOLOGY 1986; 65:462-7. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Malignant Hyperthermia: Report of Two Cases with a Neglected Complication in Cardiac Surgery.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2017 Oct;12(4):175-183

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Ostad Aalinasab Hospital, Tabriz, Iran.

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) can develop after contact with volatile anesthetics (halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane) as well as succinylcholine and cause hypermetabolism during anesthesia, which is associated with high mortality when untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment could be life-saving. During cardiac surgery, hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass make the diagnosis of MH extremely challenging compared with other settings such as general surgery. Read More

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October 2017
1 Read

Isoflurane but not Halothane Prevents and Reverses Helpless Behavior: A Role for EEG Burst Suppression?

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background: The volatile anesthetic isoflurane may exert a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effect in patients with medication-resistant depression. The mechanism underlying the putative therapeutic actions of the anesthetic have been attributed to its ability to elicit cortical burst suppression, a distinct EEG pattern with features resembling the characteristic changes that occur following electroconvulsive therapy. It is currently unknown whether the antidepressant actions of isoflurane are shared by anesthetics that do not elicit cortical burst suppression. Read More

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Comparison of electropharmacological effects between terfenadine and its active derivative fexofenadine using a cross-over study in halothane-anesthetized dogs to analyze variability of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of terfenadine and torsadogenic risk of fexofenadine.

J Toxicol Sci 2018 ;43(3):183-192

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University.

In order to better understand the variability of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of terfenadine between the previous studies as well as to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the proarrhythmic potential of its major active metabolite fexofenadine in comparison with that of terfenadine, we directly compared their electropharmacological effects with halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 3). For this purpose, we adopted a cross-over design, which can directly compare the effects of terfenadine and fexofenadine under the identical metabolic condition. Terfenadine in doses of 0. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

Impact of inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function: Study protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Jan;97(1):e9316

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, the 476 Hospital of Fuzhou General Hospital.

Background: Conflict findings of the impact of inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function are reported. No systematic review has been performed to solve the problem. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function in a network meta-analysis. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Minimum alveolar concentration: Key concepts and a review of its pharmacological reduction in dogs. Part 2.

Res Vet Sci 2018 Jun 2;118:27-33. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, 2407 River Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To outline the major components of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and review the literature regarding pharmacological manipulation of the MAC of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and desflurane in dogs. The pharmacological agents included are alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, propofol, opioids, lidocaine, acepromazine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), maropitant, and NMDA antagonists. Part 2 of this review will focus on the effect of opioids, lidocaine, NSAIDs, maropitant, acepromazine, and NMDA antagonists on MAC. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

The Discovery of Myocardial Preconditioning Using Volatile Anesthetics: A History and Contemporary Clinical Perspective.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2018 06 21;32(3):1112-1134. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

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June 2018
4 Reads

Effect of sevoflurane and halothane anesthesia on cognitive function and immune function in young rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Jan 22;25(1):47-51. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Department of Aneshesiology, People's of Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumchi 830001, China.

In the current study, we scrutinized the effect of sevoflurane and halothane on cognitive and immune function in young rats. The rats were divided into following groups: sevoflurane, halothane and sevoflurane + halothane groups, respectively. The rats were regularly treated with the pre-determined treatment. Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

Minimum alveolar concentration: Key concepts and a review of its pharmacological reduction in dogs. Part 1.

Res Vet Sci 2018 Apr 9;117:266-270. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, 2407 River Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To outline the major components of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and review the literature in regard to pharmacological manipulation of the MAC of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and desflurane in dogs. The pharmacologic agents included are alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, propofol, maropitant, opioids, lidocaine, acepromazine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and NMDA antagonists. Part 1 will focus on summarizing the relevance, measurement, and mechanisms of MAC and review the effects of alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, and propofol on MAC. Read More

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A fatal and metabolic experimental hemorrhagic shock in immature swine.

Acta Cir Bras 2017 Dec;32(12):1036-1044

PhD, Division of Pneumology, Department of Internal Medicine and, Participant Professor of Postgraduated Program in Sciences of Surgery, Faculty of Medical School, UNICAMP, Campinas-SP, Brazil. Technical procedures, interpretation of data, manuscript wrinting.

Purpose: To use blood lactate (BL) as an end-point metabolic marker for the begin resuscitation of volume replacement in experimental hemorrhagic shock.

Methods: Group I (n=7) was not bled (Control). Animals in Group II (n=7) were bled to a MAP of 30mmHg in thirty minutes. Read More

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December 2017
2 Reads

Adenosine A receptor activates background potassium channels and modulates information processing in olfactory bulb mitral cells.

J Physiol 2018 Feb 24;596(4):717-733. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Division of Neurophysiology, Institute of Zoology, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, Hamburg, 20146, Germany.

Key Points: Adenosine is a widespread neuromodulator in the mammalian brain, but whether it affects information processing in sensory system(s) remains largely unknown. Here we show that adenosine A receptors hyperpolarize mitral cells, one class of principal neurons that propagate odour information from the olfactory bulb to higher brain areas, by activation of background K channels. The adenosine-modulated background K channels belong to the family of two-pore domain K channels. Read More

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February 2018
7 Reads

Voltage modulates halothane-triggered Ca release in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible muscle.

J Gen Physiol 2018 Jan 15;150(1):111-125. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Institute of Applied Physiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a fatal hypermetabolic state that may occur during general anesthesia in susceptible individuals. It is often caused by mutations in the ryanodine receptor RyR1 that favor drug-induced release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Here, knowing that membrane depolarization triggers Ca release in normal muscle function, we study the cross-influence of membrane potential and anesthetic drugs on Ca release. Read More

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January 2018
6 Reads

Maintenance of equine anaesthesia over the last 50 years: Controlled inhalation of volatile anaesthetics and pulmonary ventilation.

Authors:
M Mosing J M Senior

Equine Vet J 2018 May 8;50(3):282-291. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Department of Equine Clinical Science, Institute of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Neston, Cheshire, UK.

In the first edition of this journal, Barbara Weaver wrote a review titled 'Equine Anaesthesia', stating that, at that time, it was quickly becoming accepted practice that many horses were being anaesthetised 'by essentially similar procedures, i.e. premedication, induction and then maintenance by controlled inhalation'. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Exposure Assessment, Biological Monitoring, and Liver Function Tests of Operating Room Personnel Exposed to Halothane in Hamedan Hospitals, West of Iran.

J Res Health Sci 2017 Nov 4;17(4):e00397. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Center of Excellence for Occupational Health, Occupational Health and Safety Research Center, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Occupational exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons has been associated with halothane hepatitis, an increase of liver enzymes, and congenital malformations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether bromide, a urinary metabolite of halothane, could be used as a biological marker of exposure to this anesthetic gas and assessment of associated exposure to halothane with any significant changes in conventional parameters of liver function (serum aminotransferase activities).

Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Read More

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November 2017

Mitigation of electroencephalographic and cardiovascular responses to castration in Bos indicus bulls following the administration of either lidocaine or meloxicam.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2017 Nov 24;44(6):1341-1352. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, New Zealand.

Objective: To investigate the mitigating effects of administration of local anaesthetic or systemic meloxicam on the electroencephalographic (EEG) and cardiovascular responses during surgical castration of Bos indicus bull calves.

Study Design: Prospective, randomized, experimental study.

Animals: Thirty-six 6-8 month-old Bos indicus bull calves, with a mean ± standard deviation weight of 237 ± 19 kg. Read More

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November 2017
1 Read

In vivo Analysis of the Anti-atrial Fibrillatory, Proarrhythmic and Cardiodepressive Profiles of Dronedarone as a Guide for Safety Pharmacological Evaluation of Antiarrhythmic Drugs.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 06;18(3):242-251

Department of Pharmacology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan.

Anti-atrial fibrillatory, proarrhythmic and cardiodepressive profiles of dronedarone were analyzed using the halothane-anesthetized beagle dogs (n = 4) to create a standard protocol for clarifying both efficacy and adverse effects of anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs. Intravenous administration of dronedarone hydrochloride in doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg over 30 s attained the peak plasma concentrations of 61 and 1248 ng/mL, respectively, reflecting sub- to supra-therapeutic ones. Read More

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June 2018
16 Reads

Regional knockdown of NDUFS4 implicates a thalamocortical circuit mediating anesthetic sensitivity.

PLoS One 2017 14;12(11):e0188087. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, 1900 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Knockout of the mitochondrial complex I protein, NDUFS4, profoundly increases sensitivity of mice to volatile anesthetics. In mice carrying an Ndufs4lox/lox gene, adeno-associated virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into regions of the brain postulated to affect sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. These injections generated otherwise phenotypically wild type mice with region-specific, postnatal inactivation of Ndufs4, minimizing developmental effects of gene loss. Read More

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December 2017
1 Read

Naringin prevents HIV-1 protease inhibitors-induced metabolic complications in vivo.

PLoS One 2017 9;12(11):e0183355. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Discipline of Pharmaceutical Science, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and overt diabetes are known metabolic complications associated with chronic use of HIV-Protease Inhibitors. Naringin is a grapefruit-derived flavonoid with anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities.

Objectives: The study investigated the protective effects of naringin on glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion and signaling in vivo. Read More

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November 2017
6 Reads

An Anesthesiologist's Perspective on the History of Basic Airway Management: The "Progressive" Era, 1904 to 1960.

Authors:
Adrian A Matioc

Anesthesiology 2018 02;128(2):254-271

From the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin.

This third installment of the history of basic airway management discusses the transitional-"progressive"-years of anesthesia from 1904 to 1960. During these 56 yr, airway management was provided primarily by basic techniques with or without the use of a face mask. Airway maneuvers were inherited from the artisanal era: head extension and mandibular advancement. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

Estrogens Protect Calsequestrin-1 Knockout Mice from Lethal Hyperthermic Episodes by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Muscle.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017 10;2017:6936897. Epub 2017 Sep 10.

CeSI-MeT, Center for Research on Ageing and Translational Medicine, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

Oxidative stress has been proposed to play a key role in malignant hyperthermia (MH), a syndrome caused by excessive Ca release in skeletal muscle. Incidence of mortality in male calsequestrin-1 knockout (CASQ1-null) mice during exposure to halothane and heat (a syndrome closely resembling human MH) is far greater than that in females. To investigate the possible role of sex hormones in this still unexplained gender difference, we treated male and female CASQ1-null mice for 1 month, respectively, with Premarin (conjugated estrogens) and leuprolide (GnRH analog) and discovered that during exposure to halothane and heat Premarin reduced the mortality rate in males (79-27% and 86-20%), while leuprolide increased the incidence of mortality in females (18-73% and 24-82%). Read More

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July 2018
10 Reads

Ligand partitioning into lipid bilayer membranes under high pressure: Implication of variation in phase-transition temperatures.

Chem Phys Lipids 2017 12 16;209:9-18. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokushima University, 2-1 Minamijosanjima-cho, Tokushima, 770-8506, Japan.

The variation in phase-transition temperatures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer membrane by adding two membrane-active ligands, a long-chain fatty acid (palmitic acid (PA)) and an inhalation anesthetic (halothane (HAL)), was investigated by light-transmittance measurements and fluorometry. By assuming the thermodynamic colligative property for the bilayer membrane at low ligand concentrations, the partitioning behavior of these ligands into the DPPC bilayer membrane was considered. It was proved from the differential partition coefficients between two phases that PA has strong affinity with the gel (lamellar gel) phase in a micro-molal concentration range and makes the bilayer membrane more ordered, while HAL has strong affinity with the liquid crystalline phase in a milli-molal concentration range and does the bilayer membrane more disordered. Read More

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December 2017
1 Read

Electroencephalographic assessment of oral meloxicam, topical anaesthetic cream and cautery iron for mitigating acute pain in pigs (Sus scrofa) undergoing tail docking.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2017 Sep 24;44(5):1166-1174. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of oral meloxicam, topical anaesthetic cream and cautery iron in mitigating acute nociceptive responses of pigs to tail docking.

Study Design: A prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study.

Animals: A total of 40 healthy Large WhitexLandrace pigs aged 21±1 days, weighing 6. Read More

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September 2017
8 Reads

Heterodimerization of two pore domain K+ channel TASK1 and TALK2 in living heterologous expression systems.

PLoS One 2017 10;12(10):e0186252. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Molecular & Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan.

Two-pore-domain K+ (K2P) channels sense a wide variety of stimuli such as mechanical stress, inhalational anesthetics, and changes in extracellular pH or temperature. The K2P channel activity forms a background K+ current and, thereby, contributes to resting membrane potentials. Six subfamilies including fifteen subtypes of K2P channels have been identified. Read More

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October 2017
4 Reads

Laminar-specific encoding of texture elements in rat barrel cortex.

J Physiol 2017 Dec 15;595(23):7223-7247. Epub 2017 Oct 15.

Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.

Key Points: For rats texture discrimination is signalled by the large face whiskers by stick-slip events. Neural encoding of repetitive stick-slip events will be influenced by intrinsic properties of adaptation. We show that texture coding in the barrel cortex is laminar specific and follows a power function. Read More

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December 2017
4 Reads

Outstanding contribution to pediatric anesthesiology: An interview with Dr. Robert H. Friesen.

Paediatr Anaesth 2017 Oct 5;27(10):991-996. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Section of Pediatric Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Dr. Robert H. Friesen, (1946-) Professor of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, has played a pivotal and pioneering role in the development of pediatric and congenital cardiac anesthesiology. Read More

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October 2017

Analysis of proarrhythmic potential of an atypical antipsychotic drug paliperidone in the halothane-anesthetized dogs.

J Pharmacol Sci 2017 Aug 12;134(4):239-246. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8540, Japan; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8540, Japan. Electronic address:

Fatal cases with the use of atypical antipsychotic drug paliperidone have been reported; however, there was no clinical report describing paliperidone-induced torsade de pointes. In this study we assessed its electropharmacological effects together with its proarrhythmic potential in intravenous doses of 0.03, 0. Read More

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August 2017
7 Reads

Interaction of anesthetic molecules with α-helix and polyproline II extended helix of long-chain poly-l-lysine.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Jan 14;189:436-442. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw, Poland.

The effect of halothane, enflurane, sevoflurane, and isoflurane molecules, as volatile anesthetics, on the α-helices and polyproline II extended helices (PPII) of long-chain poly-l-lysine (PLL) were studied using Fourier-transform infrared and vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy. Uncharged and charged α-helices, as well as charged extended PPII helices, were subjected to anesthetic actions in solvents with different pD values or methanol to water ratios. A crucial factor responsible for hindering the anesthetic-PLL interactions is shown to be the ionization of amino groups of the PLL side chains. Read More

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January 2018

Beyond Ether and Chloroform-A Major Breakthrough With Halothane.

J Anesth Hist 2017 Jul 3;3(3):87-102. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

University of Massachusetts School of Medicine, Worcester, MA. Electronic address:

Background: The use of equipment powered by electricity in the operating room increased the risk of fires in the presence of flammable agents such as ether and cyclopropane. Chloroform was associated with cardiac arrhythmias and liver damage. The introduction of halothane in the late 1950s was heralded as a solution to many problems facing the specialty of anesthesia. Read More

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July 2017
6 Reads

Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Children: Clinical Observations, Animal Models, and Regulatory Status.

Int J Toxicol 2017 Sep/Oct;36(5):365-379. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

4 Gen-X-Tox, LLC, Sarasota, FL, USA.

Drug-induced liver injury in children (cDILI) accounts for about 1% of all reported adverse drug reactions throughout all age groups, less than 10% of all clinical DILI cases, and around 20% of all acute liver failure cases in children. The overall DILI susceptibility in children has been assumed to be lower than in adults. Nevertheless, controversial evidence is emerging about children's sensitivity to DILI, with children's relative susceptibility to DILI appearing to be highly drug-specific. Read More

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June 2018
25 Reads