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    Alkaptonuria: A Case Report With Diagnostic Challenge.
    S D Med 2017 Aug;70(8):366-368
    Department of Dermatology, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine.
    Alkaptonuria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of homogentisic acid (HGA) oxidase, the only enzyme capable of catabolizing HGA. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to excess HGA which deposits in the connective tissue. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who was referred to the dermatology clinic for a full body mole check and skin cancer screening. Read More

    Pigmented Epithelioid Melanocytoma (PEM)/Animal Type Melanoma (ATM): Quest for an Origin. Report of One Unusual Case Indicating Follicular Origin and Another Arising in an Intradermal Nevus.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Aug 15;18(8). Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35201, USA.
    Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a tumor encompassing epithelioid blue nevus of Carney complex (EBN of CNC) and was previously termed animal-type melanoma. Histologically PEMs are heavily pigmented spindled and epithelioid dermal melanocytic tumors with infiltrative borders, however, their origin remains unclear. Stem cells for the epidermis and hair follicle are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle with the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages. Read More

    Blue Nevi and Related Tumors.
    Clin Lab Med 2017 Sep 4;37(3):401-415. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Lahey Clinic, 41 Mall Road, Burlington, MA 018056, USA; www.DermatopathologyConsultations.com, C/O Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates Laboratories, 152 2nd Avenue, Needhan, MA 02494, USA. Electronic address:
    The major entities related to blue nevus are common blue nevus, cellular blue nevus, atypical blue nevus, and malignant blue nevus. These lesions share presence of dermal pigmented dendritic melanocytes derived from embryonal precursors to melanocytes, Schwann cells, and glial cells migrating to the skin from the ventral neural crest. Genetically, blue nevi harbor mutations in G-protein-coupled receptor subunits GNAQ and GNA11. Read More

    Cellular Blue Nevus of Perilimbal Conjunctiva: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
    Ann Clin Lab Sci 2017 Aug;47(4):477-480
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin China.
    Cellular blue nevus is an uncommon neoplasm in the conjunctiva. Here we present an unusual case of a cellular blue nevus that clinically resembled conjunctival melanoma. A 29-year-old Chinese male was found to have a giant pigmented lesion of the conjunctiva around the limbal area of right eye from birth. Read More

    Punch "scoring": a technique that facilitates melanoma diagnosis of clinically suspicious pigmented lesions.
    Histopathology 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Aims: Early recognition and accurate diagnosis underpins melanoma survival. Identifying early melanomas arising in association with pre-existing lesions is often challenging. Clinically suspicious foci, however small, must be identified and examined histologically. Read More

    Single-Stage Reconstruction of Eyebrow Defect Using a V-Y Advancement Pedicle Flap Based on the Orbicularis Oculi Muscle.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.
    Eyebrows play an important role in face expression and facial mimics by virtue of muscle contraction. Defects or deformity of the eyebrows result in abnormal facial expressions, and may lead to aesthetic issues for patients. The objective of this study is to report the case of a patient, with a congenital skin pigmented nevus at the right side of the eyebrow treated with direct surgical resection and followed by immediate reconstruction of the eyebrow with a V-Y advancement pedicle flap based on the orbicularis oculi muscle. Read More

    Genomic Analysis of Pigmented Epithelioid Melanocytomas Reveals Recurrent Alterations in PRKAR1A, and PRKCA Genes.
    Am J Surg Pathol 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Departments of *Pathology §Dermatopathology ∥Dermatology †Clinical Cancer Genomics Laboratory ‡Helen Diller Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA ¶Department of Pathology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA.
    Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a rare cutaneous melanocytic tumor first described as epithelioid blue nevus in patients with the Carney Complex (CC). PEM was among the first established examples of an intermediate class of melanocytic tumors, including atypical Spitz tumors, with frequent metastasis to lymph nodes but only rare extranodal spread. Sporadic and CC-associated PEM are essentially histologically indistinguishable. Read More

    Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus (GCMN) - A New Hope for Targeted Therapy?
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 22;5(4):549-550. Epub 2017 Jul 22.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Plovdiv, 15A Vasil Aprilov blvd., 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    We present a 6-month-old male patient, who was consulted with dermatologist by his parents, because of a pigmented lesion, present since birth, covering almost the all skin of the back and buttocks. A sharply bordered, unequally coloured congenital pigmented nevus, measuring approximately 21 cm in diameter was observed in the whole body skin examination. The lesion was affecting the lower 2/3 of the skin of the back and the top half of the gluteus area, extending to the lateral part of the tors, forward the abdomen and the upper lateral part of the hips, composed by multiple darker-pigmented nests and several lighter areas, with single depigmented zones, hairy surface, irregularly infiltrated on palpation. Read More

    Retinal pigment epithelium adenoma in vitreous fluid cytology.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2017 Jul 18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Ocular cytology specimens are relatively uncommon, adding to the difficulty of their evaluation by cytopathologists. While melanomas account for a majority of primary intraocular pigmented lesions, other diagnostic considerations must be included in the differential. This brief report highlights a case of a pigmented ocular lesion in a 24-year-old man and key morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical differences between melanoma, melanocytoma, choroidal nevus, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) adenoma. Read More

    Iris Freckles a Potential Biomarker for Chronic Sun Damage.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 May;58(6):BIO174-BIO179
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Purpose: To investigate the role of sunlight exposure in iris freckles formation.

    Methods: We prospectively examined volunteers attending a skin cancer screening program conducted by ophthalmologists and dermatologists. Frequency and topographical variability of iris freckles were noted and associated with behavioral and dermatologic characteristics indicating high sun exposure. Read More

    Hard to face: cutaneous malignant melanoma.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2017 APR-JUN;31(2 Suppl. 2):53-55
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    An 88-year-old Caucasian man recently sought medical attention due to recrudescence of skin disease in the area of previously excised nodule (in 2002) on the nose dorsum. The original lesion was clinically considered as a pigmented basal cell carcinoma, after which histological examination revealed a superficial spreading melanoma in vertical growth face (Clark level IV; Breslow thickness 2.1 mm) arising from a pre-existing nevus. Read More

    Pathologists' diagnosis of invasive melanoma and melanocytic proliferations: observer accuracy and reproducibility study.
    BMJ 2017 Jun 28;357:j2813. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Objective To quantify the accuracy and reproducibility of pathologists' diagnoses of melanocytic skin lesions.Design Observer accuracy and reproducibility study.Setting 10 US states. Read More

    The correlation of the standard 5 probe FISH assay with melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential.
    Ann Diagn Pathol 2017 Jun 10;28:30-36. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: FISH has recently emerged as a technique to better assess the malignant potential of histologically ambiguous melanocytic lesions. However, the usefulness of FISH has not been conclusively established. The purpose of this study was to further explore the diagnostic value of FISH in distinguishing the borderline melanocytic tumor (BMT) from melanoma. Read More

    Intracorneal Hematoma Showing Clinical and Dermoscopic Features of Acral Lentiginous Melanoma.
    Case Rep Dermatol Med 2017 8;2017:3509146. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Dermatology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Intra- and subcorneal hematoma, a skin alteration seen palmar and plantar after trauma or physical exercise, can be challenging to distinguish from in situ or invasive acral lentiginous melanoma. Thus, careful examination including dermoscopic and histologic assessment may be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. We here present a case of a 67-year-old healthy female patient who presented with a pigmented plantar skin alteration. Read More

    Pigmented trichoblastoma developed in a sebaceous nevus: HRAS mutation as a common molecular driver.
    Pathol Res Pract 2017 Jul 30;213(7):860-862. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Research Unit Dermatopathology, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    A 40-year-old woman presented with a pigmented nodule on a previously existing yellowish, verrucous plaque on the scalp. The histological diagnosis was consistent with a pigmented trichoblastoma developed within a sebaceous nevus (SN). A multigene hotspot mutational profiling of the BRAF, NRAS, HRAS and KRAS genes was carried out, and a shared G13R HRAS mutation in both the trichoblastoma and the sebaceous nevus components was found. Read More

    Longitudinal melanonychia in childhood: a clinical and histopathological review of Korean patients.
    Eur J Dermatol 2017 Jun;27(3):275-280
    Department of Dermatology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea.
    Longitudinal melanonychia is not frequently observed in children, and few studies exist on longitudinal melanonychia in paediatric patients, especially in Asian populations. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and histological findings of longitudinal melanonychia in Korean paediatric patients. A retrospective review of paediatric patients (≤18 years old) with longitudinal melanonychia who underwent nail biopsy between January 2010 and October 2015 was performed. Read More

    POSTERIOR SCLERAL MELANOCYTOSIS: A NOVEL FUNDUS FINDING MASQUERADING AS A CHOROIDAL NEVUS.
    Retin Cases Brief Rep 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    *Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York, New York, New York; †LuEsther T. Mertz Retinal Research Center, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, New York; ‡Unit of Macula, Health Research Institute, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain; §Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York; and ¶Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.
    Purpose: To report a case of "posterior scleral melanocytosis," a pigmented lesion of the posterior sclera that clinically resembles a flat choroidal nevus.

    Methods: Case report of a patient with posterior scleral melanocytosis. Multimodal imaging, including swept source optical coherence tomography, was used to demonstrate the scleral location of the pigmented lesion and to distinguish its features from a typical choroidal nevus present in the same eye. Read More

    Long-Term Follow-Up of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Secondary to Angioid Streaks Treated by Intravitreal Aflibercept and Ranibizumab.
    Case Rep Ophthalmol 2017 Jan-Apr;8(1):221-231. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Strathfield Retina Clinic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Purpose: Angioid streaks (AS) are dehiscences in Bruch's membrane that may be idiopathic or associated with numerous systemic illnesses. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is an underdiagnosed exudative chorioretinopathy often characterised by serosanguineous detachments of the pigmented epithelium. The use of the anti-VEGF agents ranibizumab and aflibercept in the management of PCV secondary to AS has not been previously documented. Read More

    Spitz Tumors of the Skin.
    Surg Pathol Clin 2017 Jun 31;10(2):281-298. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam 1007 MB, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Spitz tumors are melanocytic neoplasms hallmarked by large cell size, lack of high-grade atypia, and a regular architecture. Most are nonpigmented or poorly pigmented. Malignant potential ranges from absent (Spitz nevus), to fully present (spitzoid melanoma), with a further, ill-defined group of Spitz tumors with limited metastatic potential. Read More

    Estimating melanin location in the pigmented skin lesions by hue-saturation-lightness color space values of dermoscopic images.
    J Dermatol 2017 May;44(5):490-498
    Department of Dermatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan.
    The depth of melanin in the skin can be estimated roughly by observation of the color exhibited on dermoscopy. Currently, there are no objective methods to estimate it. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the depth of melanin in the skin and the color variation exhibited, and to objectively estimate the 3-D location of melanin in the pigmented skin lesions from dermoscopic images. Read More

    Dermoscopy-pathology relationship in seborrheic keratosis.
    J Dermatol 2017 May;44(5):518-524
    Department of Dermatology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.
    Making a definitive diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis (SK) can be challenging for the naked eye due to its wide variation in clinical features. Fortunately, however, most cases of SK exhibit the typical dermoscopic findings of fissures and ridges, hairpin vessels with white halo, comedo-like openings, and milia-like cysts, all of which are helpful to distinguish SK from melanoma, melanocytic nevus, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and other skin tumors. Histopathologically, these dermoscopic characteristics correspond to papillomatous surface of the epidermis, enlarged capillaries of the dermal papillae, pseudohorn cysts in the epidermis opened to the surface of the lesion and intraepidermal cysts, respectively. Read More

    Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features in Melanocytoma of the Optic Nerve.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Apr;48(4):364-366
    Optic disc melanocytoma (ODM) is a pigmented tumor with malignant potential characterized clinically as a dark brown to black lesion with feathery margins. The authors report a case of ODM and describe the utility of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in detecting superficial tumor vascularization. This case report demonstrated the ability of OCTA to reveal the fine abnormal retinal vasculature on the surface of the lesion, a characteristic of ODM, which has been previously correlated with tumor growth. Read More

    Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (animal-type melanoma): An institutional experience.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Aug 14;77(2):328-332. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York; Department of Pathology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York.
    Background: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is an uncommon, recently described entity with unknown biologic behavior. There is a high rate of regional metastases, but limited evidence of distant metastases or disease-related death.

    Objective: We sought to report our series of patients given a diagnosis of PEM at our institution and provide mutational analysis of genes commonly implicated in melanoma in 2 cases. Read More

    Successful treatment of Ota nevus with the 532-nm solid-state picosecond laser.
    Cutis 2017 Mar;99(3):E29-E31
    DuPage Medical Group, Naperville, Illinois, USA.
    Laser treatment of Ota nevi can be complicated, particularly in darker skin types, as there is a higher risk for adverse effects if the laser is not carefully employed. We report a case of successful treatment of an Ota nevus in a patient with Fitzpatrick skin type IV with the novel 532-nm solid-state picosecond laser after 2 treatments. Read More

    A similar local immune and oxidative stress phenotype in vitiligo and halo nevus.
    J Dermatol Sci 2017 Jul 19;87(1):50-59. Epub 2017 Mar 19.
    Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 127 Changlexi Road, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Vitiligo and halo nevus are two common T-cell-mediated skin disorders. Although autoimmunity has been suggested to be involved in both diseases, the relationship between vitiligo and halo nevus is not fully understood.

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether vitiligo and halo nevus share the same immunological and oxidative stress response. Read More

    Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of oral melanocytic nevi and review of the literature.
    J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Jun 29;118(3):151-155. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Dental School of University of Seville, Spain.
    Introduction: Oral melanocytic nevi (OMNs) are uncommon benign melanocytic tumors, histologically similar to their cutaneous counterparts. The aim of this study was twofold: to contribute to the epidemiology with a literature review with the first Spanish series of OMNs, and to report on clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and demographic findings.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of cases attended over the period 1999-2010 was carried out using data drawn from the pathology unit files at two public hospitals in the Spanish region of Andalusia, serving between them a population of 823. Read More

    Tissue expansion in the treatment of giant congenital melanocytic nevi of the upper extremity.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Mar;96(13):e6358
    aDepartment of Plastic Surgery bDepartment of Operating Theater, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, China.
    The aim of our study was to use tissue expansion for the treatment of giant congenital melanocytic nevi of the upper extremity and examine potential advantages over traditional techniques.There were 3 stages in the treatment of giant congenital melanocytic nevi of the upper extremities using tissue expansion: first, the expander was inserted into the subcutaneous pocket; second, the expander was removed, lesions were excised, and the wound of the upper extremity was placed into the pocket to delay healing; third, the residual lesion was excised and the pedicle was removed. The pedicle flap was then unfolded to resurface the wound. Read More

    Patterns of distribution of giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN): The 6B rule.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Apr;76(4):689-694
    Melanoma Unit, Department of Dermatology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; "Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Raras, Instituto de Salud Carlos III", Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:
    Background: Garment-related terms have been used to describe the pattern of distribution of giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN).

    Objective: We sought to describe patterns of distribution of GCMN and propose a classification scheme.

    Methods: Photographic records of patients with GCMN from the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona were analyzed and a classification based on observed GCMN distribution patterns was created. Read More

    Special Considerations in Children with Vitiligo.
    Dermatol Clin 2017 Apr;35(2):229-233
    Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de la Peau Hôpital Larrey - Service de Dermatologie 24, Chemin de Pouvourville TSA 30030, Toulouse Cedex 9 31059, France.
    Childhood vitiligo differs from adult-onset vitiligo for several features including increased incidence of the segmental variant, higher prevalence of halo nevi, and more common family history for autoimmune diseases and atopic diathesis. The major differential diagnoses are the postinflammatory hypomelanoses for nonsegmental vitiligo and nevus depigmentosus for segmental vitiligo. From a therapeutic standpoint, early awareness of the diagnosis seems to correlate with a good treatment outcome in this age group. Read More

    Immunohistochemical Study of Vasculogenic Mimicry and Angiogenesis in Melanocytic Tumors of the Eye and the Periocular Area.
    Anticancer Res 2017 03;37(3):1113-1120
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Background/aim: The ability of a tumor to grow requires a sufficient blood supply. Microvascular density is considered the standard for assessing the neovasculature. Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry refers to the formation of tumor cell-lined vessels that contribute to tumor neovascularization. Read More

    Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis of cesioflammea type.
    An Bras Dermatol 2016 Sep-Oct;91(5 suppl 1):54-56
    Instituto de Dermatologia Professor Rubem David Azulay - Santa Casa da Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro (IDPRDA - SCMRJ) - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
    Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis is a rare syndrome, defined as the simultaneous presence of vascular nevus and melanocytic nevus in the same patient. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman presented with dermal melanosis and extensive vascular nevus, which match the typical manifestations of phakomatosis pigmetovascularis of cesioflammea type, according to Happle's classification. The rare occurrence of this genodermatosis and the clinical exuberance of the skin lesions motivated this case report. Read More

    A split-face comparison of Q-switched Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser for facial rejuvenation in Nevus of Ota patients.
    Lasers Med Sci 2017 May 15;32(4):765-769. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.
    We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of using the 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (QSNYL) for skin rejuvenation in patients with Nevus of Ota. A retrospective, randomized, split-faced, clinical study was conducted. Twenty-nine patients with unilateral moderate to severe Nevus of Ota were enrolled. Read More

    Impression Cytology in a Series of Clinically Diagnosed Ocular Surface Melanocytic Lesions.
    J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2017 Jan-Mar;12(1):17-22
    Rassoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Purpose: To report impression cytology (IC) results of clinically diagnosed ocular surface melanocytic lesions.

    Methods: Ten patients with a clinical diagnosis of an ocular surface melanocytic lesion underwent IC using cellulose acetate strips and Periodic acid Schiff-Papanicolaou staining. Excisional biopsy of lesions was performed in case of observing atypical cells on IC or at the patient's request, and excised specimens were subjected to histopathological analysis. Read More

    Automatic detection of melanoma using broad extraction of features from digital images.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:1357-1360
    Automatic and reliable diagnosis of skin cancer, as a smartphone application, is of great interest. Among different types of skin cancers, melanoma is the most dangerous one which causes most deaths. Meanwhile, melanoma is curable if it were diagnosed in its early stages. Read More

    Reelin and its receptors, VLDLR and ApoER2, in melanocytic nevi.
    J Med Life 2017 Jan-Mar;10(1):85-89
    Department of Dermatology, "Dr. Victor Babeş" Clinical Hospital of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bucharest, Romania ; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.
    Reelin is an extracellular signaling protein synthesized by Cajal-Retius cells in utero and early after birth, its presence being signaled in adult life too. Reelin acts on its receptors, VLDLR and ApoER2, acting on cytoskeleton, controlling migration and subsequently positioning and stabilizing the cortical neurons. We investigated the reelin presence and its receptors, VLDLR and ApoER2, in melanocytic nevi considering the neural crest origin of the nevus cells and their migration into skin during embrionary period. Read More

    Dermoscopic and confocal features of an axillary "special site" nevus.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2017 Jan 31;7(1):55-58. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Dermatology, Sheba Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    "Nevi of special sites" is a term that denotes melanocytic nevi presenting in specific anatomic locations including the scalp, genital area, flexural sites, and acral sites [1]. Nevi from these anatomic sites display at times histopathologic features that may lead the reading pathologist to recommend re-excision of these benign nevi. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive imaging tool that allows for visualization of epidermal, dermal-epidermal junctional (DEJ), and superficial dermal tissue structures at cellular level resolution. Read More

    Congenital melanocytic nevi in young children: Histopathologic features and clinical outcomes.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 May 24;76(5):941-947. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Background: Although only large congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are associated with a significantly high risk for malignant transformation, CMN of all sizes are prone to changes in clinical appearance in early childhood and thus are often biopsied or excised. While CMNs typically exhibit benign behavior, atypical histopathologic findings might be common and may prompt additional unnecessary procedures.

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated clinical outcomes of atypical histopathologic features in CMN in children. Read More

    Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Jan-Feb;92(1):110-112
    Division of Dermatology, Internal Medicine Department - Medical School of Ribeirão Preto - Universidade de São Paulo- Ribeirão Preto (SP) -Brazil.
    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Congenital Melanocytic Nevi and Infantile Hemangiomas.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:33-37
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are hamartomas present at birth that are composed of nevomelanocytes and thought to originate from faulty migration of precursor melanocytes in the neural crest. Classification is based on projected adult size of the lesion. CMN size correlates positively with risk of melanoma and neurocutaneous melanocytosis. Read More

    Basal cell carcinoma arising in a congenital melanocytic naevus in an adult.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Feb 13;2017. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, UK.
    Congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) are common skin lesions. They harbour a risk of malignant transformation, and various lesions have been described as developing within them. A basal cell cancer occurring within a CMN has never previously been described. Read More

    Immunohistochemical profiling including beta-catenin in conjunctival melanocytic lesions.
    Exp Mol Pathol 2017 Apr 1;102(2):198-202. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, University of Washington School of Medicine and Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, United States. Electronic address:
    Conjunctival melanocytic lesions encompass a group of clinically diverse, benign to malignant, neoplasms that may contain overlapping histopathological features, making definitive diagnosis challenging in some cases. In this series, we compared multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers in 11 conjunctival nevi, 10 primary acquired melanosis (PAM) lesions, and 11 conjunctival melanomas. Immunostains included the melanocytic markers HMB-45 and Melan-A, as well as the proliferative marker Ki-67. Read More

    Choroidal nevus: a review of prevalence, features, genetics, risks, and outcomes.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017 May;28(3):228-237
    Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: To review the prevalence, clinical features, imaging findings, cytogenetics, and risks and outcomes of choroidal nevus.

    Recent Findings: Choroidal nevus is a benign melanocytic tumor, often discovered incidentally on ophthalmic examination. This lesion is generally well circumscribed and pigmented. Read More

    Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome: Promising Response To Sirolimus.
    Indian Pediatr 2017 Jan;54(1):53-54
    Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hacettepe University, Cancer Institute, 06100 Ankara-Turkey. Correspondence to: Dr Burca Aydin, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hacettepe University, Cancer Institute, 06100 Ankara-Turkey.
    Background: Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is a rare disease involving venous malformations.

    Case Characteristics: We present a 6-year-old female with the syndrome, and consumptive coagulopathy.

    Intervention/outcome: After management with sirolimus, symptoms resolved. Read More

    Polypoid Spitz Nevus With a Halo Reaction.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Feb;39(2):130-133
    *Department of Cellular Pathology, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain;†Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, INER/CIENI, Hospital Angeles Lomas, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico City, Mexico; and‡Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense, I+12, Madrid, Spain.
    Approximately, 2% of Spitz nevi are polypoid; between 3.6% and 7.4% present with a halo reaction. Read More

    Clinical profile and triggering factors for acquired, bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules.
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2017 Feb 15:1-4. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    a Department of Dermatology , Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine , Nanjing , China and.
    Background: Acquired, bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (ABNOM) is one of the most common dermal melanocytoses. Although there are some literatures on ABNOM, its clinical features and etiopathogenetic factors have not been fully understood.

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of ABNOM among the Chinese patients. Read More

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