25,416 results match your criteria Hallucinogens


Comparison of the behavioral effects of mescaline analogs using the head twitch response in mice.

J Psychopharmacol 2019 Feb 21:269881119826610. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

4 School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, UK.

Background: In recent years, there has been increasing scientific interest in the effects and pharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens. While a large amount of experimental work has been conducted to characterize the behavioral response to hallucinogens in rodents, there has been little systematic investigation of mescaline and its analogs. The hallucinogenic potency of mescaline is increased by α-methylation and by homologation of the 4-methoxy group but it not clear whether these structural modifications have similar effects on the activity of mescaline in rodent models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881119826610DOI Listing
February 2019

Illicit substance use after release from prison among formerly incarcerated primary care patients: a cross-sectional study.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2019 Feb 19;14(1). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA.

Background: More than 80% of people in jail or prison report having used illicit substances in their lifetimes. After release from incarceration, resumption of substance use carries risks, including parole revocation, exacerbation of mental health conditions, transmission of infectious diseases, and drug overdose.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from the Transitions Clinic Network (TCN, www. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13722-019-0136-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Association between Drug Use and In-Hospital Outcomes after Infrainguinal Bypass for Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease.

Ann Vasc Surg 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Johns Hopkins Bayview Vascular and Endovascular Research Center, Baltimore, MD; Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: Drug abuse may affect lower extremity vessels due to ischemia following intra-arterial injections, vasospasm, arterial and venous pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulae, vasculitis and complicated abscesses. Little is known about the outcomes of Lower Extremity Bypass (LEB) for peripheral arteries disease (PAD) in patients with a history of drug abuse disorder. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of LEB in this patient population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2018.12.070DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Ayahuasca and Public Health: Health Status, Psychosocial Well-Being, Lifestyle, and Coping Strategies in a Large Sample of Ritual Ayahuasca Users.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2019 Feb 7:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

a International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research, and Services (ICEERS) , Barcelona , Spain.

Assessing the health status of ayahuasca users has been challenging due to the limitations involved in randomized clinical trials and psychometric approaches. The main objective of this study is the implementation of an approach based on public health indicators. We developed a self-administered questionnaire that was administered to long-term ayahuasca users around Spain. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02791072.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2019.1567961DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Binge ethanol and MDMA combination exacerbates HSP27 and Trx-1 (biomarkers of toxic cardiac effects) expression in right ventricle.

Life Sci 2019 Mar 29;220:50-57. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Spain; Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria, Murcia, Spain.

Aims: Oxidative stress caused by exposure to drugs of abuse such as ethanol or 3, 4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) may derive from direct or indirect effects in many organs including the heart. The aim of the present work was to evaluate cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of two antioxidant proteins: heat shock protein27 (HSP27) and thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA.

Material And Methods: Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00243205193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.050DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Two- and three-year follow-up from a gender-specific, web-based drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls.

Addict Behav 2019 Jan 16;93:86-92. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Columbia University School of Social Work, 1255 Amsterdam Ave, NY, NY 10027, USA.

Introduction: Rates of drug use among early adolescent girls meet or exceed rates of their male counterparts. Girls are also vulnerable to differential risk factors for drug use. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064603183116
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.01.010DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Effects of acute and repeated treatment with serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogens on intracranial self-stimulation in rats.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology.

The prototype 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogens LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin are classified as Schedule 1 drugs of abuse by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000253DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Combining attenuated total reflectance- infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for the identification and the dosage estimation of MDMA tablets.

Talanta 2019 Apr 12;195:142-151. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Scientific Direction Chemical and Physical Health Risks, Service of Medicines and Health Products, Sciensano, J. Wytsmanstraat 14, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.

The principal objective of the Belgian Early Warning System on drugs (BEWSD) of the Reitox national focal point is to collect and disseminate information on the appearance of drugs circulating on the local drug market. To this end, one of the actions of BEWSD is to annually collect substances that are circulating on the Belgian summer festivals. Every year a high number of seized samples is collected and submitted to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2018.11.027DOI Listing

Biosynthesis of bioactive natural products from Basidiomycota.

Org Biomol Chem 2019 01;17(5):1027-1036

School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.

The Basidiomycota, also called club fungi, comprise a diverse group of fungi. Basidiomycota are strongly related to ecosystem functioning along with human life. These fungi display a wide range of bioactivities, and some are known to produce of deadly toxins or hallucinogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8ob02774aDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Clinical and Toxicological Profile of NBOMes: A Systematic Review.

Psychosomatics 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Laboratório de Toxicologia (Toxicology Laboratory), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: NBOMes are a new class of potent hallucinogens widely present in illicit drugs. Little is known about this class of drugs, regarding its detection and clinical manifestations of intoxication.

Objective: This study aims to enhance care involving NBOMes by reviewing the literature on their clinical manifestations and laboratory detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2018.11.002DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Detection of 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol in the hair of drug abusers by LC-MS/MS analysis.

Forensic Sci Int 2019 Feb 21;295:219-225. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

National Forensic Service, 10 Ipchoon-ro, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 26460, South Korea. Electronic address:

Cannabis is the second most commonly abused illicit drug after methamphetamine in South Korea. To prove cannabis consumption, 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), the metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was screened for in a hair analysis. In this study, we developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis method, which was used to analyze authentic hair samples in 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.12.013DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Prevalence of reagent test-kit use and perceptions of purity among ecstasy users in an electronic dance music scene in New York City.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2019 01 21;38(1):42-49. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Drug Policy Modelling Program, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Ecstasy users in the electronic dance music scene are at high risk for using ecstasy adulterated with new psychoactive substances and/or methamphetamine. We examined self-reported testing of ecstasy among users in this scene.

Design And Methods: We surveyed individuals (aged 18-40 years) entering electronic dance music parties in New York City in 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.12882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338488PMC
January 2019
1 Read

DARK classics in chemical neuroscience: atropine, scopolamine and other anticholinergic deliriant hallucinogens.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Anticholinergic drugs based on tropane alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine, have been used for various medicinal and toxic purposes for millennia. These drugs are competitive antagonists of acetylcholine muscarinic (M-) receptors that potently modulate the central nervous system (CNS). Currently used clinically to treat vomiting, nausea and bradycardia, as well as alongside other anesthetics to avoid vagal inhibition, these drugs also evoke potent psychotropic effects, including characteristic delirium-like states with hallucinations, altered mood and cognitive deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00615DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Tetrahydrocannabinol: a drug of interest.

Panminerva Med 2018 Dec;60(4):228-230

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0031-0808.18.03468-7DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Classic psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, therapeutics, mystical experience, and brain network function.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baltimore, MD, United States; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are serotonin 2A receptor (5-HTR) agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.11.010DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

The Effects of Substance Abuse on Blood Glucose Parameters in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 11 29;15(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Family Care & Mental Health, University of Greenwich, London SE9 2UG, UK.

: People who abuse substances are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes resulting partly from increased cell damage and due to the effects of opioids on glucose homeostasis. Therefore, people with diabetes who abuse substances may carry greater health risks than the general population resulting from their effect on glucose metabolism. These substances may be in the form of cannabis, hallucinogens, opioids, and stimulants. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/12/2691
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122691DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Two immunoassays for the detection of 2C-B and related hallucinogenic phenethylamines.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2019 Jan - Feb;95:36-46. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Chemistry of Natural Compounds, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Praha 6, Dejvice, Czechia; Forensic Laboratory of Biologically Active Substances, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 3, 166 28 Praha 6, Dejvice, Czechia; Department of Experimental Neurobiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Topolová 748, 250 67 Klecany, Czechia. Electronic address:

Introduction: The use of new psychoactive substances as drugs of abuse has dramatically increased over the last years. Hallucinogenic phenethylamines gained particular popularity as they have both stimulating and psychedelic effects. Although generally perceived as safe, these illicit drugs pose a serious health risk; they have been linked to cases of severe poisoning or even deaths. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10568719183073
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2018.11.001DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Self-Experiments with Psychoactive Substances: A Historical Perspective.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 ;252:69-110

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the rich tradition of self-experiments (SEs) with psychoactive substances carried out by scientists and therapists for more than a century. Scientifically inspired controlled SEs dominated until the end of the twentieth century, when ethical requirements minimized controlled SEs and "wild" SEs expanded particularly with the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The review focuses on laughing gas (nitrous oxide), cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, entactogens, and dissociative hallucinogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2018_177DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

d-Lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and other classic hallucinogens: Mechanism of action and potential therapeutic applications in mood disorders.

Prog Brain Res 2018 31;242:69-96. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Neurobiological Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University and McGill University Health Center, Montréal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Depression and anxiety are psychiatric diagnoses commonly associated with low quality of life and low percentage of responsiveness by patients treated with currently available drugs. Thus, research into alternative compounds to treat these disorders is essential to guarantee a patient's remission. The last decade has witnessed a revamped interest for the application of psychedelic medicine for the treatment of mental disorders due to anecdotal reports and clinical studies which show that low doses of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin may have antidepressant effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.07.008DOI Listing
August 2018
18 Reads
2.833 Impact Factor

Advances and challenges in neuroimaging studies on the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens: Contributions of the resting brain.

Prog Brain Res 2018 28;242:159-177. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Psychiatry (UPK), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The effects of hallucinogenic drugs on the human brain have been studied since the earliest days of neuroimaging in the 1990s. However, approaches are often hard to compare and results are heterogeneous. In this chapter, we summarize studies investigating the effects of hallucinogens on the resting brain, with a special emphasis on replicability and limitations. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00796123183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.08.004DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Cytotoxicity of new psychoactive substances and other drugs of abuse studied in human HepG2 cells using an adopted high content screening assay.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Feb 19;301:79-89. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Molecular Signaling (PZMS), Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are still an emerging issue in clinical and forensic toxicology. Information about their cytotoxic potential is limited or even unavailable before distribution and thus their intake can be of high risk for consumers. The aim of the presented study was to develop a strategy to identify cytotoxic potential of NPS based on a high content screening assay (HCSA) using HepG2 cell line and four fluorescent dyes, namely Hoechst33342, TMRM, CAL-520, and TOTO-3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.007DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

MDMA modulates 5-HT-mediated contractile response of the human internal thoracic artery in vitro.

Toxicol In Vitro 2019 Mar 15;55:15-17. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Laboratory of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal; Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal; CNC.iCBR, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a popular recreational drug of abuse. In addition to its characteristic psychotropic effects, important cardiovascular effects have been described such as increased blood pressure and heart rate. MDMA was previously shown to behave as a partial agonist on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the human internal thoracic artery in vitro, involving the 5-HT subtype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2018.11.006DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Neuroimaging of chronic MDMA ("ecstasy") effects: A meta-analysis.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 01 12;96:10-20. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

University of Basel, Department of Psychiatry (UPK), Switzerland. Electronic address:

In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the evidence from neuroimaging studies for chronic alterations in the brains of MDMA users. The databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies published from inception to August 24, 2018, without any language restriction. Sixteen independent studies comprising 356 MDMA users and 311 controls were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.11.004DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Current perspectives on psychedelic therapy: use of serotonergic hallucinogens in clinical interventions.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2018 Nov 13:1-26. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

a Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Humans have used serotonergic hallucinogens (i.e. psychedelics) for spiritual, ceremonial, and recreational purposes for thousands of years, but their administration as part of a structured therapeutic intervention is still a relatively novel practice within Western medical and psychological frameworks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2018.1486289DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Chemical fingerprinting of single glandular trichomes of Cannabis sativa by Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy.

BMC Plant Biol 2018 Nov 12;18(1):275. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.

Background: Cannabis possesses a rich spectrum of phytochemicals i.e. cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds of industrial and medicinal interests. Read More

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https://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-018-1481-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233497PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Double dropping down under: Correlates of simultaneous consumption of two ecstasy pills in a sample of Australian outdoor music festival attendees.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 11 11;37(7):851-855. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: The term 'double dropping' refers to a person consuming two drugs simultaneously, typically two ecstasy pills. This practice has been reported in numerous countries, including Australia; however, the prevalence and correlates of double dropping among ecstasy users is unknown. Double dropping is particularly risky when adulteration of 'ecstasy' with novel substances and higher dosages of MDMA in pure ecstasy pills have both been increasingly reported. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/dar.12843
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.12843DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Comparison of the behavioral responses induced by phenylalkylamine hallucinogens and their tetrahydrobenzodifuran ("FLY") and benzodifuran ("DragonFLY") analogs.

Neuropharmacology 2019 01 29;144:368-376. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK.

In recent years, rigid analogs of phenylalkylamine hallucinogens have appeared as recreational drugs. Examples include 2-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-4-yl)ethan-1-amine (2C-B-FLY) and 1-(8-bromobenzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']difuran-4-yl)-2-aminopropane (Bromo-DragonFLY, DOB-DFLY). Although some rigid compounds such as DOB-DFLY reportedly have higher potency than their non-rigid counterparts, it is not clear whether the same is true for 2C-B-FLY and other tetrahydrobenzodifurans. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00283908183061
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.10.037DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

The Detection of Novel Stimulants in Oral Fluid from Users Reporting Ecstasy, Molly and MDMA Ingestion.

J Anal Toxicol 2018 Oct;42(8):544-553

Center for Forensic Science Research and Education at the Fredric Rieders Family Foundation, 2300 Stratford Ave, Willow Grove, PA, USA.

"Ecstasy" and "Molly" are common drug slang terms used among club and rave cultures to denote preparations believed to contain 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, users of Ecstasy and Molly have increasingly tested positive for novel psychoactive substances (NPS), notably novel stimulants. To evaluate hypothesized non-specific and interchangeable use of the terms Ecstasy, Molly and MDMA, self-reported drug use was compared against toxicological findings in biological specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bky051DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Acute behavioral effects of deliriant hallucinogens atropine and scopolamine in adult zebrafish.

Behav Brain Res 2019 02 23;359:274-280. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

School of Pharmacy, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Scientific Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia; The International Zebrafish Neuroscience Research Consortium (ZNRC), Slidell, LA, USA; Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia; ZENEREI Research Center, Slidell, LA, USA; Laboratory of Biological Psychiatry, ITBM, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Institute of Experimental Medicine, Almazov National Medical Research Centre, Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia; Granov Russian Scientific Center of Radiology and Surgical Technologies, Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia. Electronic address:

Atropine and scopolamine are classical muscarinic cholinergic antagonists that exert multiple CNS effects. Belonging to a group of deliriant hallucinogens, these drugs induce delirium-like hallucinations, hyperactivity, altered affective states and amnesia. However, as deliriants remain the least studied group of hallucinogens, their complex and poorly understood profiles necessitate further clinical and preclinical studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2018.10.033DOI Listing
February 2019
15 Reads

Involvement of 5-HT receptor hyperfunction in the anxiety-like behavior induced by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide combination treatment in rats.

J Pharmacol Sci 2018 Nov 9;138(3):192-197. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan; Department of Pharmacy, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

We examined whether combination treatment with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, a traditional chemotherapy for breast cancer, induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. Furthermore, we evaluated the role of the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype in the anxiety-like behavior induced by such chemotherapy. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide once a week for 2 weeks. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13478613183018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphs.2018.10.001DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Medical marijuana legalization and associated illicit drug use and prescription medication misuse among adolescents in the U.S.

Addict Behav 2019 Mar 16;90:48-54. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Applied Health Science, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Use of illicit drugs and misuse of prescription medications among U.S. adolescents have been major public health issues. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064603183071
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.10.017DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Exploring the effect of microdosing psychedelics on creativity in an open-label natural setting.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 25;235(12):3401-3413. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Cognitive Psychology Unit & Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Taking microdoses (a mere fraction of normal doses) of psychedelic substances, such as truffles, recently gained popularity, as it allegedly has multiple beneficial effects including creativity and problem-solving performance, potentially through targeting serotonergic 5-HT receptors and promoting cognitive flexibility, crucial to creative thinking. Nevertheless, enhancing effects of microdosing remain anecdotal, and in the absence of quantitative research on microdosing psychedelics, it is impossible to draw definitive conclusions on that matter. Here, our main aim was to quantitatively explore the cognitive-enhancing potential of microdosing psychedelics in healthy adults. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00213-018-5049-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-5049-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267140PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

Changes in global and thalamic brain connectivity in LSD-induced altered states of consciousness are attributable to the 5-HT2A receptor.

Elife 2018 10 25;7. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, United States.

Background:Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has agonist activity at various serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine receptors. Despite the therapeutic and scientific interest in LSD, specific receptor contributions to its neurobiological effects remain unknown. Methods: We therefore conducted a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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https://elifesciences.org/articles/35082
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.35082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202055PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

The Evolving Landscape of Designer Drugs.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1872:129-135

NMS Laboratories, Willow Grove, PA, USA.

Since 2008 there has been an onslaught of new drugs in the illicit marketplace. Often referred to as "research chemicals," "designer drugs," or "novel psychoactive substances" (NPS), these substances are used for their pharmacological effects which are often similar to more widely known drugs such as ecstasy or heroin. In some cases users specifically seek out these new chemicals, in other cases they are simply purchasing what they believe to be their normal drug of choice from a dealer, but the product is not what it is purported to be. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4939-8823-5_13
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8823-5_13DOI Listing
January 2019
23 Reads

Quantification of THC in Cannabis plants by fast-HPLC-DAD: A promising method for routine analyses.

Talanta 2019 Jan 6;192:135-141. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Section of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Nowadays, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is mainly used in forensic sciences but suffers from limitations when the analysed compounds are thermally instable as it is the case for THC-A (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid) which is converted into Δ-THC (Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol) that subsequently partially degrades. We propose herein a Fast High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (Fast-HPLC-DAD) method which allows the efficient separation of CBN (Cannabinol), CBD (Cannabidiol), THC-A and Δ-THC, the major cannabinoids compounds found in cannabis plants in less than 5 min. Our method allows also the proper quantification of Δ-THC in plant extracts using an external calibration method with a very good accuracy as pointed out by a recovery of 100. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2018.09.012DOI Listing
January 2019
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Consumption of hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms by university students in France: A pilot study.

Presse Med 2018 Nov - Dec;47(11-12 Pt 1):1023-1025. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

CHU, CEIP-A de Poitiers, Ancien Pavillon Administratif, service de pharmacologie clinique et vigilances, rue de la Milétrie, BP 577, 86021 Poitiers cedex, France; UFR médecine-pharmacie, 6 rue de la Milétrie Bât D1, TSA 51115, 86073 Poitiers cedex 9, France; Laboratoire de neurosciences expérimentales et cliniques LNEC, Inserm U1084, Pôle Biologie Santé, bâtiment B36, 1, rue Georges Bonnet, BP 633 TSA 51106, 86073 Poitiers cedex 9, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2018.09.010DOI Listing
December 2018
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Possible Interactions Between 5-HT2A Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System in Humans: Preliminary Evidence of Interactive Effects of Ayahuasca and Endocannabinoids in a Healthy Human Subject.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec;38(6):644-646

Departamento de Neurociências e Ciências do Comportamento Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo (USP) Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia-Medicina Translacional Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and ICEERS Foundation (International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research and Services) Barcelona, Spain Departamento de Neurociências e Ciências do Comportamento Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia-Medicina Translacional Ribeirão Preto, Brazil Departamento de Neurociências e Ciências do Comportamento Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo (USP) Ribeirão Preto, Brazil Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo (USP) Ribeirão Preto, Brazil Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia-Medicina Translacional Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticasde Ribeirão Pretoand Departamento de Química Universidade de São Paulo (USP) Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo (USP) São Paulo, Brazil Departamento de Neurociências e Ciências do Comportamento Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia-Medicina Translacional Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000973DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

New opioid receptor modulators and agonists.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2018 Jun 2;32(2):125-136. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, TMP 3, PO Box 208051, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA. Electronic address:

There has been significant research to develop an ideal synthetic opioid. Opioids with variable properties possessing efficacy and with reduced side effects have been synthesized when compared to previously used agents. An opioid modulator is a drug that can produce both agonistic and antagonistic effects by binding to different opioid receptors and therefore cannot be classified as one or the other alone. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15216896183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2018.06.009DOI Listing
June 2018
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluations of quaternization harman analogues as potential antibacterial agents.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 6;160:23-36. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Thirty-three new quaternization harman analogues were synthesized and their antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria were evaluated. The structure-activity relationships were summarized and compounds 4f, 4i, 4l, 4u, 4w, 4x and 5c showed excellent antibacterial activity, low cytotoxicity, good thermal stability and "drug-like" properties. In particular, compound 4x exhibited better bactericidal effect (4-fold superiority against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) than standard drugs fosfomycin sodium and ampicillin sodium (minimum inhibitory concentration = 50 nmol/mL). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02235234183087
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.10.012DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist Mesyl Sal B Attenuates Behavioral Sensitization to Cocaine with Fewer Aversive Side-Effects than Salvinorin A in Rodents.

Molecules 2018 Oct 11;23(10). Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 6604, USA.

The acute activation of kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) produces antinociceptive and anti-cocaine effects, however, their side-effects have limited further clinical development. Mesyl Sal B is a potent and selective KOPr analogue of Salvinorin A (Sal A), a psychoactive natural product isolated from the plant . We assessed the antinociceptive, anti-cocaine, and side-effects of Mesyl Sal B. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/10/2602
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222496PMC
October 2018
15 Reads

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Psychiatry: Pros, Cons, and Suggestions.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec;38(6):632-638

Centre for Addiction Research, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: For a number of mental health disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), there are not many available treatment options. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the potential of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) to restore function for patients with these disorders. The primary hypothesis is that MDMA, via prosocial effects, increases the ability of patients to address the underlying psychopathology of the disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000962DOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder After Ibogaine Treatment for Opioid Dependence.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec;38(6):646-648

IrisZorg, Institute for Addiction Care, Sheltered Housing and Social Support Services, Arnhem and Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands IrisZorg, Institute for Addiction Care, Sheltered Housing and Social Support Services, Arnhem and Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands IrisZorg, Institute for Addiction Care, Sheltered Housing and Social Support Services, Arnhem and Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Radboud University and Department of Psychiatry, Donders Centre for Medical Neuroscience, Radboud UMC, Nijmegen, the Netherlands IrisZorg, Institute for Addiction Care, Sheltered Housing and Social Support Services, Arnhem, the Netherlands Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Radboud University and Department of Psychiatry, Donders Centre for Medical Neuroscience, Radboud UMC, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004714-900000000-9865
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000966DOI Listing
December 2018
27 Reads

Pharmacological characterization of the LSD analog N-ethyl-N-cyclopropyl lysergamide (ECPLA).

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 8. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK.

Rationale: The lysergamide lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a prototypical classical hallucinogen with remarkably high potency. LSD remains a popular recreational drug but is also becoming an important research tool for medical and neuroscience studies. Recently, several lysergamides that are close structural analogs of LSD have been sold as recreational drugs, which suggests that further studies are needed to explore the pharmacological properties of these compounds. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00213-018-5055-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-5055-9DOI Listing
October 2018
21 Reads

A fully automated approach for the analysis of 37 psychoactive substances in raw wastewater based on on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Nov 18;1576:80-89. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

This work presents a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 37 legal and illicit psychoactive substances in wastewater, including the most common illicit drugs (cocaine-related compounds, amphetamine-type stimulants, hallucinogens, opiates/opioids, and cannabinoids), new psychoactive substances (two synthetic cathinones, the synthetic opioid AH-7921, and the arylcyclohexylamine methoxetamine), and legal but controlled psychoactive substances (stimulants, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, sedatives, antipsychotics, and hypnotics). To this end a fully automated analytical approach based on solid phase extraction coupled in series to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection (on-line SPE- LC-MS/MS) was used. The methodology developed was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, repeatability, and sensitivity in wastewater. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00219673183118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2018.09.038DOI Listing
November 2018
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The neuropharmacology of sleep paralysis hallucinations: serotonin 2A activation and a novel therapeutic drug.

Authors:
Baland Jalal

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Nov 5;235(11):3083-3091. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Sleep paralysis is a state of involuntary immobility occurring at sleep onset or offset, often accompanied by uncanny "ghost-like" hallucinations and extreme fear reactions. I provide here a neuropharmacological account for these hallucinatory experiences by evoking the role of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HTR). Research has shown that 5-HTR activation can induce visual hallucinations, "mystical" subjective states, and out-of-body experiences (OBEs), and modulate fear circuits. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00213-018-5042-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-5042-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208952PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Drug use among youth and adults in a population-based survey in South Africa.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2018 12;24:1139. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

HIV/AIDS/STIs and TB Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa.

Objective: Illicit drug use is a growing public health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of drug use and the sociodemographic and health characteristics that influence it among young and adult South Africans.

Methods: Data based on the South African national population-based survey in 2012 for 26 453 individuals (52. Read More

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http://www.sajpsychiatry.org/index.php/sajp/article/view/113
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v24i0.1139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138152PMC
April 2018
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Neurochemical pharmacology of psychoactive substituted N-benzylphenethylamines: High potency agonists at 5-HT receptors.

Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Dec 25;158:27-34. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Research Service, VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR 97239, United States; Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, United States; The Methamphetamine Abuse Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, United States.

The use of new psychoactive substituted 2,5-dimethoxy-N-benzylphenethylamines is associated with abuse and toxicity in the United States and elsewhere and their pharmacology is not well known. This study compares the mechanisms of action of 2-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25D-NBOMe), 2-(4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25E-NBOMe), 2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25H-NBOMe), 2-(((4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethyl)amino)methyl)phenol (25I-NBOH); and 2-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine) (25N-NBOMe) with hallucinogens and stimulants. Mammalian cells heterologously expressing 5-HT, 5-HT, 5-HT or 5-HT receptors, or dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine transporters (DAT, SERT and NET, respectively) were used to assess drug affinities at radioligand binding sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2018.09.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298744PMC
December 2018
10 Reads

Dimensions of consciousness and the psychedelic state.

Neurosci Conscious 2018 19;2018(1):niy008. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

It has often been suggested in the popular and academic literature that the psychedelic state qualifies as a higher state of consciousness relative to the state of normal waking awareness. This article subjects this proposal to critical scrutiny, focusing on the question of what it would mean for a state of consciousness to be 'higher'. We begin by considering the contrast between conscious contents and conscious global states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nc/niy008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146157PMC
September 2018
18 Reads

Understanding Central Nervous System Effects of Deliriant Hallucinogenic Drugs through Experimental Animal Models.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

School of Pharmacy , Southwest University , Chongqing 400716 , China.

Hallucinogenic drugs potently alter human behavior and have a millennia-long history of use for medicinal and religious purposes. Interest is rapidly growing in their potential as CNS modulators and therapeutic agents for brain conditions. Antimuscarinic cholinergic drugs, such as atropine and scopolamine, induce characteristic hyperactivity and dream-like hallucinations and form a separate group of hallucinogens known as "deliriants". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00433DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads