27,072 results match your criteria Hallucinogens


Migraine prevalence in visual snow with prior illicit drug use (Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder) versus without.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background/objective: To investigate migraine prevalence in persons with Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) presenting as visual snow syndrome (VSS).

Methods: Persons with visual snow as persisting symptom after illicit drug use (HPPD) were recruited via a Dutch consulting clinic for recreational drug use. A structured interview on (visual) perceptual symptomatology, details of drugs use, medical and headache history was taken. Read More

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Examining the heterogeneity of polysubstance use patterns in young adulthood by age and college attendance.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University School of Public Health.

Substance use in young adulthood and polysubstance users (PSU), in particular, pose unique risks for adverse consequences. Prior research on young adult PSU has identified multiple classes of users, but most work has focused on college students. We examined PSU patterns by age and college attendance during young adulthood in two nationally representative samples. Read More

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Peri-operative care of the cannabis user: practical considerations.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 2021 06;38(6):664

From the Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University Hospital Kerry, Tralee, Ireland (PB), Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India (HMRK) and Consultant and head, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland (BO'B).

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Phytocannabinomics: Untargeted metabolomics as a tool for cannabis chemovar differentiation.

Talanta 2021 Aug 20;230:122313. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy; CNR NANOTEC, Campus Ecotekne, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100, Lecce, Italy.

Cannabis sativa is traditionally classified according to five chemotypes based on the concentration of the main phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG). However, cannabis chemovars and varieties very often present similar concentrations of such phytocannabinoids but different chemical profiles, which is unavoidably translated into different pharmacological effects when used for therapeutic purposes. For this reason, a more refined approach is needed for chemovar distinction, which is described in this study and named phytocannabinomics. Read More

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Molecular and Functional Imaging Studies of Psychedelic Drug Action in Animals and Humans.

Molecules 2021 Apr 22;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.

Hallucinogens are a loosely defined group of compounds including LSD, -dimethyltryptamines, mescaline, psilocybin/psilocin, and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methamphetamine (DOM), which can evoke intense visual and emotional experiences. We are witnessing a renaissance of research interest in hallucinogens, driven by increasing awareness of their psychotherapeutic potential. As such, we now present a narrative review of the literature on hallucinogen binding in vitro and ex vivo, and the various molecular imaging studies with positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT). Read More

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Application of Microextraction-Based Techniques for Screening-Controlled Drugs in Forensic Context-A Review.

Molecules 2021 Apr 9;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Centro de Química Estrutural, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.

The analysis of controlled drugs in forensic matrices, i.e., urine, blood, plasma, saliva, and hair, is one of the current hot topics in the clinical and toxicological context. Read More

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Psychedelic-inspired drug discovery using an engineered biosensor.

Cell 2021 May 28;184(10):2779-2792.e18. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA; Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, 1544 Newton Court, Davis, CA 95618, USA. Electronic address:

Ligands can induce G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to adopt a myriad of conformations, many of which play critical roles in determining the activation of specific signaling cascades associated with distinct functional and behavioral consequences. For example, the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is the target of classic hallucinogens, atypical antipsychotics, and psychoplastogens. However, currently available methods are inadequate for directly assessing 5-HT2AR conformation both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids on substance use disorders: an updated (2016-2020) systematic review of preclinical and human studies.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic/psychedelic traditionally used for ritual and therapeutic purposes. One such therapeutic use is related to Substance Use Disorders (SUDs). A previous systematic review of preclinical and human studies published until 2016 suggested that ayahuasca and its alkaloids have therapeutic effects in the treatment of SUDs. Read More

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Biosynthesis and synthetic biology of psychoactive natural products.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. and Invizyne Technologies, Inc., Monrovia, CA, USA.

Psychoactive natural products play an integral role in the modern world. The tremendous structural complexity displayed by such molecules confers diverse biological activities of significant medicinal value and sociocultural impact. Accordingly, in the last two centuries, immense effort has been devoted towards establishing how plants, animals, and fungi synthesize complex natural products from simple metabolic precursors. Read More

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Seizure and Interictal Electroencephalographic (EEG) Changes with Cannabinoid Concentrate Use.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Apr 18;22:e931360. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

BACKGROUND The electroencephalographic (EEG) findings associated with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use, particularly in concentrated form, are not well-described, despite the current widespread availability of these products. There is a lack of prior research describing the EEG findings in adolescent cannabis users, and the effects of THC on the seizure threshold have been variably reported. CASE REPORT A 17-year-old girl with no prior history of seizures or known seizure risk factors presented to an Emergency Department with acutely abnormal behavior in the setting of daily vaping of highly concentrated THC marijuana ("wax"). Read More

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The association of opioid use disorder and homelessness nationally in the veterans health administration.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Jun 14;223:108714. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

VA New England Mental Illness Research and Education Center, West Haven, CT, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Background: Substance use disorder (SUD) is a major risk factor for homelessness, but the specific association of opioid use disorder (OUD) and homelessness in the context of their shared risk factors has not been the focus of prior studies. We used national data from the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to examine the association of OUD and homelessness in the context of shared risk factors.

Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis of veterans who received VHA care during Fiscal Year 2012 (N = 5,450,078), we compared the prevalence of OUD and other sociodemographic, and clinical factors among homeless and non-homeless veterans. Read More

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Investigation of the Structure-Activity Relationships of Psilocybin Analogues.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 14;4(2):533-542. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0804, United States.

The 5-HT receptor is thought to be the primary target for psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-,-dimethyltryptamine) and other serotonergic hallucinogens (psychedelic drugs). Although a large amount of experimental work has been conducted to characterize the pharmacology of psilocybin and its dephosphorylated metabolite psilocin (4-hydroxy-,-dimethyltryptamine), there has been little systematic investigation of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 4-substituted tryptamine derivatives. In addition, structural analogs of psilocybin containing a 4-acetoxy group, such as 4-acetoxy-,-dimethyltryptamine (4-AcO-DMT), have appeared as new designer drugs, but almost nothing is known about their pharmacological effects. Read More

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Back to the Future - The Therapeutic Potential of Psychedelic Drugs.

N Engl J Med 2021 04;384(15):1460-1461

From the Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and New York State Psychiatric Institute - both in New York.

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Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression.

N Engl J Med 2021 04;384(15):1402-1411

From the Centre for Psychedelic Research, Department of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London.

Background: Psilocybin may have antidepressant properties, but direct comparisons between psilocybin and established treatments for depression are lacking.

Methods: In a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with long-standing, moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder, we compared psilocybin with escitalopram, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor, over a 6-week period. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two separate doses of 25 mg of psilocybin 3 weeks apart plus 6 weeks of daily placebo (psilocybin group) or two separate doses of 1 mg of psilocybin 3 weeks apart plus 6 weeks of daily oral escitalopram (escitalopram group); all the patients received psychological support. Read More

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Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Tryptamines in the Poison of Incilius alvarius (Amphibia: Bufonidae).

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, Forensic Toxicology, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Rising numbers of psychoactive tryptamine derivatives have become available on the drug market over the last decade, making these naturally occurring or synthetically manufactured compounds highly relevant for forensic analysis. One of these compounds is 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), a constituent of the dried poison of Incilius alvarius (Colorado River toad) which has a history of ritual and/or recreational use. Still, comprehensive and validated qualitative as well as quantitative analytical data on the psychoactive components of this poison are scarce. Read More

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Effects of Ayahuasca on the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotions in Naive Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot, Proof-of-Concept, Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May-Jun 01;41(3):267-274

Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Background: The recognition of emotions in facial expressions (REFE) is a core aspect of social cognition. Previous studies with the serotonergic hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin showed that these drugs reduced the recognition of negative (fear) faces in healthy volunteers. This trial assessed the acute and prolonged effects of a single dose of ayahuasca on the REFE. Read More

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Psychedelic Medicines in Major Depression: Progress and Future Challenges.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1305:515-533

ICEERS (International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research & Service), Barcelona, Spain.

The volume of research on the therapeutic use of psychedelic drugs has been increasing during the last decades. Partly because of the need of innovative treatments in psychiatry, several studies have assessed the safety and efficacy of drugs like psilocybin or ayahuasca for a wide range of mental disorders, including major depression. The first section of this chapter will offer an introduction to psychedelic research, including a brief historical overview and discussions about appropriate terminology. Read More

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Comorbid Substance Use Disorder Profiles and Receipt of Substance Use Disorder Treatment Services: A National Study.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2021 Mar;82(2):246-256

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Objective: Those with comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs) are a particularly vulnerable group. Information regarding the nature of these comorbidities and how they relate to receipt of substance use treatment could reduce the treatment gap that exists among those with comorbid SUDs.

Method: Public-use data from the 2015-2017 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health was used to analyze past-year SUD comorbidity combinations among 12 substances and the relationship between these combinations with past-year treatment in adults (N = 128,740). Read More

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Comparison of Water Pipes vs Other Modes of Cannabis Consumption and Subsequent Illicit Drug Use in a Longitudinal Cohort of Young Swiss Men.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e213220. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Importance: There are concerns that the use of water pipes to consume cannabis is associated with increased risks of engaging in more addictive behaviors.

Objective: To examine whether consuming cannabis with a water pipe was associated with later consumption of other illicit drugs compared with not using a water pipe.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) was a population-based study, recruiting 5987 Swiss men aged 18 to 25 years from 3 of 6 Swiss Armed Forces recruitment centers (response rate: 79. Read More

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Pharmacology and adverse effects of new psychoactive substances: synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 2;44(4):402-413. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaengmyong 1-ro, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, 28160, Republic of Korea.

Over the last decade, new psychoactive substances (NPS) have continuously been the focus of the international society since their emergence on the illicit drug market. NPS can be classified into six groups including; synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs), stimulants, opioids, dissociatives, sedatives/hypnotics, and classic hallucinogens with psychoactive effects. These are sold as "herbal incense," "bath salts," "legal highs," and "research chemicals". Read More

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Cortical influences of serotonin and glutamate on layer V pyramidal neurons.

Prog Brain Res 2021 14;261:341-378. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Consultant, Ardmore, PA, United States.

Layer V pyramidal neurons constitute principle output neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/neocortex to subcortical regions including the intralaminar/midline thalamic nuclei, amygdala, basal ganglia, brainstem nuclei and the spinal cord. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on layer V pyramidal cells primarily reflect a range of excitatory influences through 5-HT receptors and inhibitory influences through non-5-HT receptors, including 5-HT receptors. While the 5-HT receptor is primarily a postsynaptic receptor on throughout the apical dendritic field of 5-HT receptors, activation of a minority of 5-HT receptors also appears to increase spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents/potentials (EPSCs/EPSPs) via a presynaptic effect on thalamocortical terminals arising from the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei. Read More

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January 2021

Opioid pain medication misuse, concomitant substance misuse, and the unmet behavioral health treatment needs of transgender and gender diverse adults.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 May 18;222:108674. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, 1340 Boylston Street, Boston, MA, 02215, United States; Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, BOX 951772, 71-267 CHS, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, BOX 951772, 71-267 CHS, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, United States; UCLA Center for LGBTQ Advocacy, Research & Health, BOX 951772, 71-267 CHS, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Limited research has explored risk factors for opioid pain medication misuse, concomitant substance misuse, and the unmet behavioral health treatment (BHTx) needs of transgender and gender diverse (TGD) adults.

Methods: In 2019, TGD adults (N = 562) in Massachusetts and Rhode Island were purposively recruited and completed a psychosocial and behavioral health survey (95 % online; 5% in-person). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with past 12-month opioid pain medication misuse and unmet BHTx needs. Read More

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In-depth cannabis fatty acid profiling by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

Talanta 2021 Jun 26;228:122249. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy; CNR NANOTEC, Campus Ecotekne, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100, Lecce, Italy.

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) represents an important plant, used for a variety of uses including pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes. As such, a detailed characterization of the composition of this plant could help future research to further exploit the beneficial effects of hemp compounds on the human health. Read More

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Sex Workers and Syndemics: A Population Vulnerable to HIV and COVID-19.

Arch Sex Behav 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases, The Miriam Hospital, 11 Fourth St., Providence, RI, 02906, USA.

COVID-19 has disproportionately affected vulnerable populations across the U.S. Street-based sex workers are one vulnerable population whose health and impact of COVID-19 have been understudied to date. Read More

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Driving Impairment Following Vaporization of Cannabis.

JAMA 2021 03;325(12):1225

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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Driving Impairment Following Vaporization of Cannabis.

JAMA 2021 03;325(12):1225-1226

Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

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Driving Impairment Following Vaporization of Cannabis.

JAMA 2021 03;325(12):1226

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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[Biodegradation of Algae-derived Organic Matter (I-DOM) from Lake Taihu].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Apr;42(4):1870-1878

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

A large amount of intracellular dissolved organic matter (I-DOM) is released during the senescent phase of phytoplankton cultures. This research investigated the bio-incubation of I-DOM of cyanobacteria in Lake Taihu under various temperatures (20, 25, and 30℃) and I-DOM initial concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg·L) with the aid of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and three-dimensional fluorescence matrix-parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC). I-DOM was effectively degraded during the incubation. Read More

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Hallucinogenic/psychedelic 5HT2A receptor agonists as rapid antidepressant therapeutics: Evidence and mechanisms of action.

J Psychopharmacol 2021 Apr 19;35(4):453-458. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), CNPq, Brazil.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most prevalent mental health disorders worldwide, and it is associated with a reduced quality of life and enormous costs to health care systems. Available drug treatments show low-to-moderate response in most patients, with almost a third of patients being non-responders (treatment-resistant). Furthermore, most currently available medications need several weeks to achieve therapeutic effects, and the long-term use of these drugs is often associated with significant unwanted side effects and resultant reductions in treatment compliance. Read More

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Preparation of a hybrids APT@MIL by one-step solvent-thermal method for effectively degrading organics.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Mar;83(5):1118-1129

Key Laboratory of Eco-functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China E-mail:

The attapulgite (APT), a typical nano-rod structured clay was introduced to MIL-101(Fe), a typical eco-friendly iron-based Metal-Organic Framework material (MOF), during the preparation by a one-step solvothermal method, which afforded a novel APT and MOF hybrid (APT@MIL). Based on the characterization of SEM, FT-IR and XRD, it was found that the rod-like crystals of APT determined the size of MIL-101(Fe) while maintaining its regular octahedral crystal form, and the crystal size of MIL-101(Fe) in APT@MIL enlarged 4 times. It was also discovered that the rod-like APT were evenly distributed in MIL-101(Fe) crystals. Read More

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