26,271 results match your criteria Hallucinogens


Illicit drug use among students of a university in Southern Brazil.

Rev Saude Publica 2020 1;54:57. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brasil.

OBJECTIVE To describe drug consumption and the co-occurrence use of more than one illegal drug as well as associated factors in freshmen at a public university in Southern Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study with census of students entering undergraduate courses in 2017. A total of 1,788 university students answered questions about illicit drug use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2020054002176DOI Listing

Hallucinogens/psychedelics resurrected as new tools in psychiatric therapy.

Braz J Psychiatry 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Departamento de Neurociências e Ciências do Comportamento, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-1035DOI Listing

Automated detection of the head-twitch response using wavelet scalograms and a deep convolutional neural network.

Sci Rep 2020 May 20;10(1):8344. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Hallucinogens induce the head-twitch response (HTR), a rapid reciprocal head movement, in mice. Although head twitches are usually identified by direct observation, they can also be assessed using a head-mounted magnet and a magnetometer. Procedures have been developed to automate the analysis of magnetometer recordings by detecting events that match the frequency, duration, and amplitude of the HTR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65264-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239849PMC

Paternal exposure to recreational drugs before conception and its effect on live-born offspring: A scoping review.

Birth Defects Res 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Men of reproductive age increasingly use recreational drugs. While many of these substances may reduce the quantity and quality of sperm, less is known about the effects of these exposures on their offspring. We performed a scoping review to summarize the available literature and identify areas for future research on the outcome of live-born offspring of fathers who were exposed to recreational drugs before conception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1702DOI Listing

How people perceive the minds of the dead: The importance of consciousness at the moment of death.

Cognition 2020 May 5;202:104308. Epub 2020 May 5.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America.

Immortality is thought to be achieved through heroic deeds, reincarnation, and the afterlife. The present studies reveal an alternative path to transcending death: dying while conscious. Seven studies demonstrate that dying while more awake, aware and/or lucid leads people to see a richer postmortem mind-an effect we call conservation of consciousness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104308DOI Listing

Comment on "At-risk drinking and current cannabis use among medical students: a multivariable analysis of the role of personality traits".

Authors:
Scott D Lane

Braz J Psychiatry 2020 04 6;42(2):122-123. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Louis A. Faillace, MD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Houston, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115438PMC

Recent Use of Synthetic Cannabinoids, Synthetic Opioids, and Other Psychoactive Drug Groups among High-risk Drug Users.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2020 Apr 29:1-10. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Hebrew University-Hadassah Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.

The use of synthetic cannabinoids receptor agonists (SCRA) and synthetic opioids is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study examined the patterns-of-use of prescription oral opioids or transdermal fentanyl formulations, and SCRA, among 342 patients enrolled in treatment for drug-dependence in Israel. 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2020.1754534DOI Listing

Patterns of Simultaneous Polysubstance Use among Partygoers: Correlates and Differences in Adverse Acute Effects Experienced.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2020 Apr 22:1-13. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Psychology, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain.

This study identifies patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) in partygoers, their associated characteristics, and their differences in terms of acute effects experienced. We used a web-based survey with 1345 partygoers who reported using at least one substance during the past year, collecting information on drug use and drug-related acute effects experienced at the last party attended. Latent class analysis identified three SPU profiles according to the use of nine substances: (67. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2020.1752959DOI Listing

Hospitalizations and Deaths Associated with EVALI.

N Engl J Med 2020 04;382(17):1589-1598

From the National Center for Environmental Health (A.K.W., E.D.M.), the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (E.H.K., S.E., E.E.P., P. Briss, B.A.K.), the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (K.C.-S., M.L.D.), the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services (P.P.S., I.G.), the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (P.P.S., G.T.B., C.M.J., V.K.), the Center for Preparedness and Response (S.M.H.), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (E.A.K.), and the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (D.A.R., S.R.-S.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Emory University School of Medicine (E.A.K.) - all in Atlanta; the California Department of Public Health, Sacramento (C.A.); the Mississippi State Department of Health, Jackson (P. Byers); the Indiana State Department of Health, Indianapolis (C.R.C.); the Illinois Department of Public Health, Springfield (I.G.); the Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.M.H.); and the New York State Department of Health, Albany (K.A.N.).

Background: As of January 7, 2020, a total of 2558 hospitalized patients with nonfatal cases and 60 patients with fatal cases of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Methods: In a national study, we compared the characteristics of patients with fatal cases of EVALI with those of patients with nonfatal cases to improve the ability of clinicians to identify patients at increased risk for death from the condition. Health departments reported cases of EVALI to the CDC and included, when available, data from medical-record abstractions and patient interviews. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1915314DOI Listing

Cannabis-based medicinal products: summary of NICE guidance.

BMJ 2020 Apr 21;369:m1108. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Centre for Outcomes, Research and Effectiveness, University College London, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1108DOI Listing

[Traumatic brain injury in drug users].

Sud Med Ekspert 2020 ;63(2):4-9

Department of Pathological Anatomy and Forensic Medicine of the Ural State Medical University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.

We assessed the incidence of mechanical injury in drug users. Incidence was 21.9% and exceeds the global average injury rate by 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/sudmed2020630214DOI Listing
January 2020

Longitudinal associations between susceptibility to tobacco use and the onset of other substances among U.S. youth.

Prev Med 2020 Jun 1;135:106074. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

We examined whether tobacco susceptibility at Wave (W) 1 (2013-2014) predicts the onset of tobacco and other substances at W2 (2014-2015) among 5325 U.S. youth (12-17 years) never substance users at W1 in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233357PMC

Pilot study on the uptake and modification of harmaline in acceptor plants: An innovative approach to visualize the interspecific transfer of natural products.

Phytochemistry 2020 Jun 28;174:112362. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

TU Braunschweig, Institute for Plant Biology, Mendelssohnstr. 4, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany. Electronic address:

Substances which have been leached out from decomposing plant parts or exuded from vital plants (donor plants), are taken up by acceptor plants and subsequently modified. This phenomenon was likewise established for harmala alkaloids. Employing hydroponically grown barley seedlings, it becomes evident that harmaline and harmine are taken up by the roots of the acceptor plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112362DOI Listing

Experience of Music Used With Psychedelic Therapy: A Rapid Review and Implications.

J Music Ther 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Caritas Christi Hospice & Department of Psychosocial Cancer Care Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music emerged following discontinuation of psychedelic therapy research in the early 1970s, but psychedelic therapy research has since revived. Music remains a vital component. This study examined participants' experiences of music in psychedelic therapy research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmt/thaa006DOI Listing

How does ayahuasca work from a psychiatric perspective? Pros and cons of the entheogenic therapy.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2020 May 27;35(3):e2728. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Polyedra, Polyedra Research, Teramo, Italy.

Objective: Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation, traditionally consumed in sacred ceremonies by indigenous North-Westerner Amazonian countries like Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Ecuador. It is fundamental to carefully balance benefits/risks related to the ayahuasca intake, both during ceremonies and experimental settings. The aim is at evaluating and comparing the potential therapeutic benefits versus health risks related to ayahuasca intake (both acutely and chronically), focusing on its application in psychedelic psychiatry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.2728DOI Listing
May 2020
2.192 Impact Factor

Psychiatric symptoms caused by cannabis constituents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 04 17;7(4):344-353. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; South London and the Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London, UK; Institute of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Approximately 188 million people use cannabis yearly worldwide, and it has recently been legalised in 11 US states, Canada, and Uruguay for recreational use. The potential for increased cannabis use highlights the need to better understand its risks, including the acute induction of psychotic and other psychiatric symptoms. We aimed to investigate the effect of the cannabis constituent Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone and in combination with cannabidiol (CBD) compared with placebo on psychiatric symptoms in healthy people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30074-2DOI Listing

Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol: harmful even in low doses?

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 04 17;7(4):296-297. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Copenhagen Research Center for Mental Health - CORE, Mental Health Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30093-6DOI Listing

Abuse of Licit and Illicit Psychoactive Substances in the Workplace: Medical, Toxicological, and Forensic Aspects.

J Clin Med 2020 Mar 12;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 12.

IINFACTS-Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, University Institute of Health Sciences (IUCS), CESPU, CRL, 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal.

About one-third of adult life is spent in the workplace. The use of psychoactive substances is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. The consumption of psychoactive substances during or outside working hours greatly increases the frequency and severity of labor accidents, as well as the workers' poor general state of health and productivity, implying higher costs for enterprises. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141377PMC

[Membrane lipids in schizophrenia and early phases of psychosis: Potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets?]

Encephale 2020 Mar 6. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Inserm U1266 - GDR 3557, institut de psychiatrie et neurosciences de Paris, Institut de Psychiatrie, Paris, France; GHU Paris psychiatrie et neurosciences, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

The various roles of membrane lipids in human health has urged researchers to study their impact in neuropsychiatric diseases, especially in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and more recently in early stages of psychosis. The progress in mass spectrometry technologies now allows a more comprehensive analysis of phospholipids (PL) and their fatty acid (FA) molecular species. FA are defined by a carbon chain of variable length and are said to be unsaturated when their chain has one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.encep.2019.11.009DOI Listing

E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung Injury Among Clusters of Patients Reporting Shared Product Use - Wisconsin, 2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Mar 6;69(9):236-240. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

On July 10, 2019, Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) was notified of five previously healthy adolescents with severe lung injuries who reported use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products before symptom onset. As of December 31, 2019, 105 confirmed or probable cases of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI)* had been reported to WDHS . Three social clusters (A, B, and C), comprising eight EVALI patients (cluster A = two patients, cluster B = three, and cluster C = three) were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6909a4DOI Listing

25I-NBOME (2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine)-A HARMFUL HALLUCINOGEN REVIEW.

J Anal Toxicol 2020 Mar 3. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Gronostajowa 2, Krakow 30-387, Poland.

NBOMes are N-benzylmethoxy derivatives of the 2C family compounds with N-2-methoxy-benzyl moiety substituted by the methoxy group at the 2- and 5- position and the halogen group at the 4- position of the phenyl ring. These substances are a new class of potent serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogens with potential harmful effects. The substitution with halogen of the already psychoactive phenethylamine produces a derivative (2C-I) with increased hallucinogenic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkaa022DOI Listing

The implementation of per-se limits for driving under the influence of benzodiazepines and related drugs: No increased risk for arrest during therapeutic use in Norway.

Traffic Inj Prev 2020 2;21(2):122-126. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Forensic Sciences, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

To investigate whether the use of recommended therapeutic doses of medicinal drugs has led to suspicion of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) after implementation of legislative limits for illicit and medicinal drugs in 2012. Data from suspected drug-impaired drivers apprehended by the police from 2013 to 2015 were selected from the Norwegian Forensic Toxicology Database. The blood samples had been analyzed for benzodiazepines (BZDs), z-hypnotics, opioids, stimulants, certain hallucinogens, and alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2020.1724977DOI Listing

Are side effects of cannabidiol (CBD) products caused by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contamination?

F1000Res 2019 8;8:1394. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, 76189, Germany.

Cannabidiol (CBD)-containing products are widely marketed as over the counter products, mostly as food supplements, to avoid the strict rules of medicinal products. Side-effects reported in anecdotal consumer reports or during clinical studies were first assumed to be due to hydrolytic conversion of CBD to psychoactive Δ -tetrahydrocannainol (THC). However, research of pure CBD solutions stored in simulated gastric juice or subjected to various storage conditions such as heat and light with specific liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatographic/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric (UPLC-QTOF) analyses was unable to confirm THC formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.19931.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029751PMC

Cannabis and the exocannabinoid and endocannabinoid systems. Their use and controversies.

Gac Med Mex 2019 ;155(5):471-474

Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Regional Hospital "Ignacio Zaragoza", Neurology Department, Mexico City. Mexico.

Cannabis (marijuana) is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world. The term marijuana is of Mexican origin. The primary cannabinoids that have been studied to date include cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, which is responsible for most cannabis physical and psychotropic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24875/GMM.M20000334DOI Listing

Self-reported negative outcomes of psilocybin users: A quantitative textual analysis.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(2):e0229067. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Psychology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica, São Paulo, Brazil.

Psilocybin, a substance mainly found in mushrooms of the genus psilocybe, has been historically used for ritualistic, recreational and, more recently, medicinal purposes. The scientific literature suggests low toxicity, low risk of addiction, overdose, or other causes of injury commonly caused by substances of abuse, with growing interest in the use of this substance for conditions such as treatment-resistant depression. However, the presence of negative outcomes linked to psilocybin use is not clear yet. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229067PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034876PMC

[Visual snow in hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder].

Ophthalmologe 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Domagkstr. 15, 48149, Münster, Deutschland.

This article presents the case of a 24-year-old female patient who was referred to this department due to permanent flickering in front of both eyes. This flickering, described as being like visual snow in television, had started 1.5 years ago and was perceived to be very disturbing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-020-01056-yDOI Listing
February 2020

Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Psychostimulant Synthetic Cathinones Reveals Nanomolar Antagonist Potency of α-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone at Human Muscarinic M Receptors.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 Mar 3;11(6):960-968. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mercer University College of Pharmacy, 3001 Mercer University Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, United States.

Synthetic cathinones (SCs) are designer, psychostimulant drugs of abuse that primarily act on monoamine transporters; little is known about their off-target liability. Abuse of pyrrolidine-containing SCs, such as α-PHP, has been linked to clinical features, including tachycardia and hypertension, and psychiatric events, including delusions and memory impairments-effects mimicking deliriant hallucinogens that are acetylcholine muscarinic receptor (MR) antagonists. α-PHP and nine analogs with modifications in the α-carbon side chain length and/or containing a methylenedioxy moiety were screened for activity at each of the five human MRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104417PMC

GC-MS Metabolite Profile and Identification of Unusual Homologous Cannabinoids in High Potency Cannabis sativa.

Planta Med 2020 Mar 13;86(5):338-347. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Mining, Industrial and ICT, Escola Politècnica Superior d'Enginyeria de Manresa (EPSEM), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC-BarcelonaTech), Manresa, Catalonia, Spain.

Phytochemical investigation of the lipids extracted from seeds of by GC-MS showed 43 cannabinoids, 16 of which are new. The extract is dominated by Δ-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (A) and its neutral derivative -Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol-C (THC) and -Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol-C isomers with an ethyl-pentyl branched chain together with minor amounts of -Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol with a methyl-pentyl C branched side chain were identified as new natural compounds. Four cannabichromene isomers with a C side chain are postulated to be derived from the double bond migration at the terminal isoprenyl unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1110-1045DOI Listing

Cannabinoid receptor expression in non-small cell lung cancer. Effectiveness of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol inhibiting cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(2):e0228909. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background/objective: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop resistance to antitumor agents by mechanisms that involve the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This necessitates the development of new complementary drugs, e.g. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228909PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015420PMC

Persisting Reductions in Cannabis, Opioid, and Stimulant Misuse After Naturalistic Psychedelic Use: An Online Survey.

Front Psychiatry 2019 22;10:955. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Background: Observational data and preliminary studies suggest serotonin 2A agonist psychedelics may hold potential in treating a variety of substance use disorders (SUDs), including opioid use disorder (OUD).

Aims: The study aim was to describe and analyze self-reported cases in which naturalistic psychedelic use was followed by cessation or reduction in other substance use.

Methods: An anonymous online survey of individuals reporting cessation or reduction in cannabis, opioid, or stimulant use following psychedelic use in non-clinical settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6987443PMC
January 2020

Therapeutic Use of LSD in Psychiatry: A Systematic Review of Randomized-Controlled Clinical Trials.

Front Psychiatry 2019 21;10:943. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Institut de Neuropsiquiatria i Addiccions, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was studied from the 1950s to the 1970s to evaluate behavioral and personality changes, as well as remission of psychiatric symptoms in various disorders. LSD was used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, psychosomatic diseases and addiction. However, most of the studies were not performed under contemporary standards, and it has taken several decades for a resurgence of interest in LSD research and its therapeutic potential for psychiatry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985449PMC
January 2020

Violence and substance use in sexual minorities: Data from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS).

Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2020 02 12;34(1):41-48. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Psychiatric Department, Brazil.

Objective: To describe the prevalence of substance use and the associations between adverse early life experiences, sexual behaviour and violence in sexual minority (SM) individuals.

Methods: The Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey is a probabilistic household survey performed in 2012, collecting data from 4067 Brazilians aged 14 years and older.

Results: 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2019.11.003DOI Listing
February 2020

Cannabis Use and Sport: A Systematic Review.

Sports Health 2020 Mar/Apr;12(2):189-199. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Context: Cannabis use has increased, in large part due to decriminalization. Despite this increase in usage, it remains unclear what proportion of athletes use cannabis and what effect it has on athletic performance and recovery.

Objective: To systematically review cannabis use among athletes, including epidemiology, effect on performance and recovery, and regulations for use in sport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941738120901670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040945PMC

Synthesis of Four Optical Isomers of Antiviral Agent NK0209 and Determination of Their Configurations and Activities against a Plant Virus.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Mar 19;68(9):2631-2638. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, People's Republic of China.

Previously, we reported for the first time that harmala alkaloids harmine and tetrahydroharmine exhibit activity against plant viruses, and we developed an analogue, designated NK0209, that efficiently prevents and controls plant virus diseases. Here, to investigate the influence of the spatial configuration of NK0209 on its antiviral activities, we synthesized its four optical isomers, determined their configurations, and evaluated their activities against tobacco mosaic virus. All four isomers were significantly more active than ningnanmycin, which is one of the most successful commercial antiviral agents, with in vivo inactivation, cure, and protection rates of 57. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b07694DOI Listing

Poisoning with Drugs of Abuse: Identification and Management.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2019 Dec;23(Suppl 4):S296-S304

Department of Psychiatry, Centre for Addiction Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Substances of abuse include alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, opioids, sedatives, volatile solvents, stimulants, and hallucinogens. With the increasing prevalence of drug abuse in India, intensivists are likely to encounter more cases of intentional and accidental poisoning due to drugs of abuse. We aim to sensitize the intensivists to challenges involved in diagnosing and treating poisoning with drugs of abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996663PMC
December 2019

[E-Cigarettes - Operating Principle, Ingredients, and Associated Acute Lung Injury].

Pneumologie 2020 Feb 3;74(2):77-87. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Dept. of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Beginning in April of 2019, the US saw > 2,000 cases of hospitalized, often young, patients with severe acute lung injury, of which over 40 died, and the only existing connection between patients was their use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). The acronym EVALI ("") has since been established for the condition. This review article is intended to provide an overview of recent, mainly US literature on EVALI, including the case definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, typical disease progression, as well as potential triggers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1078-8126DOI Listing
February 2020

Update: Characteristics of a Nationwide Outbreak of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung Injury - United States, August 2019-January 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jan 24;69(3):90-94. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Since August 2019, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders have been investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). This report updates patient demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for EVALI patients reported to CDC by states, as well as the distribution of emergency department (ED) visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products analyzed through the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). As of January 14, 2020, a total of 2,668 hospitalized EVALI cases had been reported to CDC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6903e2DOI Listing
January 2020

Identification of the New Psychoactive Substance Dibutylone.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Dec 25;35(6):682-686. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Crime Scene Evidence, Shanghai Research Institute of Criminal Science and Technology, Shanghai 200083, China.

Abstract: Objective To establish a method to identify unknown samples based on combined use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (NMR) technique. Methods The unknown samples were dissolved in methanol solution containing internal standard SKF525A and detected by GC-MS and HRMS. The mixed samples were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, and then dissolved in methanol-d4 solution for structural analysis of H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H NMR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2019.06.007DOI Listing
December 2019

Highly Selective, Amine-Derived Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Probes.

Chemistry 2020 Jan 21;26(6):1380-1387. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Laboratorium für Organische Chemie, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 3, 8093, Zürich, Switzerland.

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is implied in various human diseases ranging from central nervous system to autoimmune disorders. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB R) is an integral component of the eCB system. Yet, the downstream effects elicited by this G protein-coupled receptor upon binding of endogenous or synthetic ligands are insufficiently understood-likely due to the limited arsenal of reliable biological and chemical tools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201904584DOI Listing
January 2020

Automated quantification of head-twitch response in mice via ear tag reporter coupled with biphasic detection.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 Jan 16;334:108595. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Head-twitch response (HTR) is a manifestation of the serotonergic system behavioral pharmacology commonly used as a proxy of psychedelic drug action in rodents.

New Method: We developed a minimally invasive magnetic ear tag reporter and designed a detection system that performs a comprehensive characterization of each potential HTR event on an electromagnetic readout.

Results: Magnetic ear tags were easy to install and generally well tolerated by the animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108595DOI Listing
January 2020

Update: Product, Substance-Use, and Demographic Characteristics of Hospitalized Patients in a Nationwide Outbreak of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung Injury - United States, August 2019-January 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jan 17;69(2):44-49. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders continue to investigate a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). EVALI patients in Illinois, Utah, and Wisconsin acquired tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products primarily from informal sources (2,3). This report updates demographic characteristics and self-reported sources of THC- and nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products derived from EVALI patient data reported to CDC by state health departments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6902e2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973348PMC
January 2020

Nanosensor for Sensitive Detection of the New Psychedelic Drug 25I-NBOMe.

Chemistry 2020 Mar 18;26(13):2813-2816. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación de Reconocimiento Molecular y Desarrollo Tecnológico (IDM), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia, Spain.

This work reports the synthesis, characterization, and sensing behavior of a hybrid nanodevice for the detection of the potent abuse drug 25I-NBOMe. The system is based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles, loaded with a fluorescent dye, functionalized with a serotonin derivative and capped with the 5-HT receptor antibody. In the presence of 25I-NBOMe the capping antibody is displaced, leading to pore opening and rhodamine B release. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201905688DOI Listing

Visual snow syndrome: A clinical and phenotypical description of 1,100 cases.

Neurology 2020 02 15;94(6):e564-e574. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

From the Headache Group (F.P., P.J.G.), Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London; NIHR-Wellcome Trust King's Clinical Research Facility (F.P., P.J.G.), SLaM Biomedical Research Centre, King's College Hospital, London, UK; and Department of Neurology (C.S.), Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Objective: To validate the current criteria of visual snow and to describe its common phenotype using a substantial clinical database.

Methods: We performed a web-based survey of patients with self-assessed visual snow (n = 1,104), with either the complete visual snow syndrome (n = 1,061) or visual snow without the syndrome (n = 43). We also describe a population of patients (n = 70) with possible hallucinogen persisting perception disorder who presented clinically with visual snow syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136068PMC
February 2020

Correlation between the potency of hallucinogens in the mouse head-twitch response assay and their behavioral and subjective effects in other species.

Neuropharmacology 2020 May 7;167:107933. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Serotonergic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induce head twitches in rodents via 5-HT receptor activation. The goal of the present investigation was to determine whether a correlation exists between the potency of hallucinogens in the mouse head-twitch response (HTR) paradigm and their reported potencies in other species, specifically rats and humans. Dose-response experiments were conducted with phenylalkylamine and tryptamine hallucinogens in C57BL/6J mice, enlarging the available pool of HTR potency data to 41 total compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107933DOI Listing

Natural harmine negatively regulates the developmental signaling network of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae: Diptera) in vivo.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Mar 31;190:110134. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in South China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China; Key Laboratory of Natural Pesticide & Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

The widely distributed β-carboline alkaloids exhibit promising psychopharmacological and biochemical effects. Harmine, a natural β-carboline, can inhibit insect growth and development with unclear mechanisms. In this study, harmine (at 0-200 mg/L) showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the pupal weight, length, height, pupation rate and eclosion rate of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster, which was similar to the inhibition induced by the well-known botanical insect growth regulator azadirachtin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.110134DOI Listing

Optogenetic inhibition of ventral hippocampal neurons alleviates associative motor learning dysfunction in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

PLoS One 2019 31;14(12):e0227200. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Physiology, College of Basic Medical Science, Army Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a serious and incurable mental disorder characterized by clinical manifestations of positive and negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral hippocampus (VHP) has been recently applied as a therapeutic approach for SZ in both experimental and clinical studies. However, little is known about the precise mechanism of VHP-DBS treatment for SZ and the role of hippocampal cell activation in the pathogenesis of SZ. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227200PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938361PMC

From Egoism to Ecoism: Psychedelics Increase Nature Relatedness in a State-Mediated and Context-Dependent Manner.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 12 16;16(24). Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Centre for Psychedelic Research, Department of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK.

(1) Background: There appears to be a growing disconnection between humans and their natural environments which has been linked to poor mental health and ecological destruction. Previous research suggests that individual levels of nature relatedness can be increased through the use of classical psychedelic compounds, although a causal link between psychedelic use and nature relatedness has not yet been established. (2) Methods: Using correlations and generalized linear mixed regression modelling, we investigated the association between psychedelic use and nature relatedness in a prospective online study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6949937PMC
December 2019

Intoxication with 3-MeO-PCP alone: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Dec;98(52):e18295

CHU Rennes, Department of Forensic Toxicology.

Rationale: 3-Methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) is a new psychoactive substance derived from phencyclidine. Although it can lead to severe intoxications, the main manifestations and optimal management have not been well characterized. Here, we report 2 cases of 3-MeO-PCP intoxication in the same patient, and summarize the manifestations of this intoxication reported in literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000018295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946333PMC
December 2019

[A new Cannabis germplasm classification system and research strategies of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Oct;44(20):4309-4316

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700,China.

At present,China manages cannabis into industrial and medical types. Industrial cannabis( THC<0. 3%) is grown for fiber and seed,while medical cannabis( THC>0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190916.101DOI Listing
October 2019