25,289 results match your criteria Hallucinogens


Classic Psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, mystical experience, brain network function, and therapeutics.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The Effects of Substance Abuse on Blood Glucose Parameters in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 29;15(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Family Care & Mental Health, University of Greenwich, London SE9 2UG, UK.

: People who abuse substances are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes resulting partly from increased cell damage and due to the effects of opioids on glucose homeostasis. Therefore, people with diabetes who abuse substances may carry greater health risks than the general population resulting from their effect on glucose metabolism. These substances may be in the form of cannabis, hallucinogens, opioids, and stimulants. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Two immunoassays for the detection of 2C-B and related hallucinogenic phenethylamines.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2018 Nov 24;95:36-46. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Chemistry of Natural Compounds, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Praha 6, Dejvice, Czechia; Forensic Laboratory of Biologically Active Substances, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 3, 166 28 Praha 6, Dejvice, Czechia; Department of Experimental Neurobiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Topolová 748, 250 67 Klecany, Czechia. Electronic address:

Introduction: The use of new psychoactive substances as drugs of abuse has dramatically increased over the last years. Hallucinogenic phenethylamines gained particular popularity as they have both stimulating and psychedelic effects. Although generally perceived as safe, these illicit drugs pose a serious health risk; they have been linked to cases of severe poisoning or even deaths. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Self-Experiments with Psychoactive Substances: A Historical Perspective.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the rich tradition of self-experiments (SEs) with psychoactive substances carried out by scientists and therapists for more than a century. Scientifically inspired controlled SEs dominated until the end of the twentieth century, when ethical requirements minimized controlled SEs and "wild" SEs expanded particularly with the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The review focuses on laughing gas (nitrous oxide), cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, entactogens, and dissociative hallucinogens. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

d-Lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and other classic hallucinogens: Mechanism of action and potential therapeutic applications in mood disorders.

Prog Brain Res 2018 31;242:69-96. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Neurobiological Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University and McGill University Health Center, Montréal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Depression and anxiety are psychiatric diagnoses commonly associated with low quality of life and low percentage of responsiveness by patients treated with currently available drugs. Thus, research into alternative compounds to treat these disorders is essential to guarantee a patient's remission. The last decade has witnessed a revamped interest for the application of psychedelic medicine for the treatment of mental disorders due to anecdotal reports and clinical studies which show that low doses of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin may have antidepressant effects. Read More

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August 2018
9 Reads
2.833 Impact Factor

Advances and challenges in neuroimaging studies on the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens: Contributions of the resting brain.

Prog Brain Res 2018 28;242:159-177. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Psychiatry (UPK), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The effects of hallucinogenic drugs on the human brain have been studied since the earliest days of neuroimaging in the 1990s. However, approaches are often hard to compare and results are heterogeneous. In this chapter, we summarize studies investigating the effects of hallucinogens on the resting brain, with a special emphasis on replicability and limitations. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Current perspectives on psychedelic therapy: use of serotonergic hallucinogens in clinical interventions.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2018 Nov 13:1-26. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

a Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Humans have used serotonergic hallucinogens (i.e. psychedelics) for spiritual, ceremonial, and recreational purposes for thousands of years, but their administration as part of a structured therapeutic intervention is still a relatively novel practice within Western medical and psychological frameworks. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Comparison of the behavioral responses induced by phenylalkylamine hallucinogens and their tetrahydrobenzodifuran ("FLY") and benzodifuran ("DragonFLY") analogs.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Jan 29;144:368-376. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK.

In recent years, rigid analogs of phenylalkylamine hallucinogens have appeared as recreational drugs. Examples include 2-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-4-yl)ethan-1-amine (2C-B-FLY) and 1-(8-bromobenzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']difuran-4-yl)-2-aminopropane (Bromo-DragonFLY, DOB-DFLY). Although some rigid compounds such as DOB-DFLY reportedly have higher potency than their non-rigid counterparts, it is not clear whether the same is true for 2C-B-FLY and other tetrahydrobenzodifurans. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Acute behavioral effects of deliriant hallucinogens atropine and scopolamine in adult zebrafish.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Oct 23;359:274-280. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

School of Pharmacy, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Scientific Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia; The International Zebrafish Neuroscience Research Consortium (ZNRC), Slidell, LA, USA; Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia; ZENEREI Research Center, Slidell, LA, USA; Laboratory of Biological Psychiatry, ITBM, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Institute of Experimental Medicine, Almazov National Medical Research Centre, Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia; Granov Russian Scientific Center of Radiology and Surgical Technologies, Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia. Electronic address:

Atropine and scopolamine are classical muscarinic cholinergic antagonists that exert multiple CNS effects. Belonging to a group of deliriant hallucinogens, these drugs induce delirium-like hallucinations, hyperactivity, altered affective states and amnesia. However, as deliriants remain the least studied group of hallucinogens, their complex and poorly understood profiles necessitate further clinical and preclinical studies. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Medical marijuana legalization and associated illicit drug use and prescription medication misuse among adolescents in the U.S.

Addict Behav 2018 Oct 16;90:48-54. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Applied Health Science, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Use of illicit drugs and misuse of prescription medications among U.S. adolescents have been major public health issues. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

The Evolving Landscape of Designer Drugs.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1872:129-135

NMS Laboratories, Willow Grove, PA, USA.

Since 2008 there has been an onslaught of new drugs in the illicit marketplace. Often referred to as "research chemicals," "designer drugs," or "novel psychoactive substances" (NPS), these substances are used for their pharmacological effects which are often similar to more widely known drugs such as ecstasy or heroin. In some cases users specifically seek out these new chemicals, in other cases they are simply purchasing what they believe to be their normal drug of choice from a dealer, but the product is not what it is purported to be. Read More

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January 2019
10 Reads

Quantification of THC in Cannabis plants by fast-HPLC-DAD: A promising method for routine analyses.

Talanta 2019 Jan 6;192:135-141. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Section of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Nowadays, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is mainly used in forensic sciences but suffers from limitations when the analysed compounds are thermally instable as it is the case for THC-A (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid) which is converted into Δ-THC (Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol) that subsequently partially degrades. We propose herein a Fast High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (Fast-HPLC-DAD) method which allows the efficient separation of CBN (Cannabinol), CBD (Cannabidiol), THC-A and Δ-THC, the major cannabinoids compounds found in cannabis plants in less than 5 min. Our method allows also the proper quantification of Δ-THC in plant extracts using an external calibration method with a very good accuracy as pointed out by a recovery of 100. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Design, synthesis and biological evaluations of quaternization harman analogues as potential antibacterial agents.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 6;160:23-36. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Thirty-three new quaternization harman analogues were synthesized and their antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria were evaluated. The structure-activity relationships were summarized and compounds 4f, 4i, 4l, 4u, 4w, 4x and 5c showed excellent antibacterial activity, low cytotoxicity, good thermal stability and "drug-like" properties. In particular, compound 4x exhibited better bactericidal effect (4-fold superiority against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) than standard drugs fosfomycin sodium and ampicillin sodium (minimum inhibitory concentration = 50 nmol/mL). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Pharmacological characterization of the LSD analog N-ethyl-N-cyclopropyl lysergamide (ECPLA).

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 8. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK.

Rationale: The lysergamide lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a prototypical classical hallucinogen with remarkably high potency. LSD remains a popular recreational drug but is also becoming an important research tool for medical and neuroscience studies. Recently, several lysergamides that are close structural analogs of LSD have been sold as recreational drugs, which suggests that further studies are needed to explore the pharmacological properties of these compounds. Read More

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October 2018
12 Reads

A fully automated approach for the analysis of 37 psychoactive substances in raw wastewater based on on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Nov 18;1576:80-89. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

This work presents a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 37 legal and illicit psychoactive substances in wastewater, including the most common illicit drugs (cocaine-related compounds, amphetamine-type stimulants, hallucinogens, opiates/opioids, and cannabinoids), new psychoactive substances (two synthetic cathinones, the synthetic opioid AH-7921, and the arylcyclohexylamine methoxetamine), and legal but controlled psychoactive substances (stimulants, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, sedatives, antipsychotics, and hypnotics). To this end a fully automated analytical approach based on solid phase extraction coupled in series to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection (on-line SPE- LC-MS/MS) was used. The methodology developed was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, repeatability, and sensitivity in wastewater. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Drug use among youth and adults in a population-based survey in South Africa.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2018 12;24:1139. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

HIV/AIDS/STIs and TB Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa.

Objective: Illicit drug use is a growing public health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of drug use and the sociodemographic and health characteristics that influence it among young and adult South Africans.

Methods: Data based on the South African national population-based survey in 2012 for 26 453 individuals (52. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Neurochemical pharmacology of psychoactive substituted N-benzylphenethylamines: High potency agonists at 5-HT receptors.

Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Dec 25;158:27-34. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Research Service, VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR 97239, United States; Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, United States; The Methamphetamine Abuse Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, United States.

The use of new psychoactive substituted 2,5-dimethoxy-N-benzylphenethylamines is associated with abuse and toxicity in the United States and elsewhere and their pharmacology is not well known. This study compares the mechanisms of action of 2-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25D-NBOMe), 2-(4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25E-NBOMe), 2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25H-NBOMe), 2-(((4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethyl)amino)methyl)phenol (25I-NBOH); and 2-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine) (25N-NBOMe) with hallucinogens and stimulants. Mammalian cells heterologously expressing 5-HT, 5-HT, 5-HT or 5-HT receptors, or dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine transporters (DAT, SERT and NET, respectively) were used to assess drug affinities at radioligand binding sites. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Dimensions of consciousness and the psychedelic state.

Neurosci Conscious 2018 19;2018(1):niy008. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

It has often been suggested in the popular and academic literature that the psychedelic state qualifies as a higher state of consciousness relative to the state of normal waking awareness. This article subjects this proposal to critical scrutiny, focusing on the question of what it would mean for a state of consciousness to be 'higher'. We begin by considering the contrast between conscious contents and conscious global states. Read More

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September 2018
12 Reads

Understanding Central Nervous System Effects of Deliriant Hallucinogenic Drugs through Experimental Animal Models.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

School of Pharmacy , Southwest University , Chongqing 400716 , China.

Hallucinogenic drugs potently alter human behavior and have a millennia-long history of use for medicinal and religious purposes. Interest is rapidly growing in their potential as CNS modulators and therapeutic agents for brain conditions. Antimuscarinic cholinergic drugs, such as atropine and scopolamine, induce characteristic hyperactivity and dream-like hallucinations and form a separate group of hallucinogens known as "deliriants". Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Differentially classified methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men: A latent class analysis.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 15;192:129-136. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

University of Minnesota School of Public Health, 420 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Context: Substance use interventions for methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) are limited by the assumption that they are a uniform group. We hypothesized that an LCA would identify distinct patterns of substance use and demographic and psychosocial variables associated with different substance-using groups would aid in understanding distinctions. Using cross-sectional data from 343 methamphetamine-using MSM, we conducted an LCA to model the patterns of polysubstance use then examined how the classes varied on psychosocial variables defined by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Epidemiology of hallucinogen use in the U.S. results from the National epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions III.

Addict Behav 2019 Feb 16;89:35-43. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

Lev-Hasharon Mental Health Center, Pardesiya, Israel; Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Population-based data regarding the epidemiology of hallucinogen use and co-occurring psychiatric disorders is largely absent from the literature. We aim to present findings on the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, treatment utilization, social support and associated disability of hallucinogen use using nationally representative data.

Method: We analyzed data from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (2011-2012, N = 36,309). Read More

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February 2019
7 Reads

LSD Administered as a Single Dose Reduces Alcohol Consumption in C57BL/6J Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2018 31;9:994. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Division of Analytical Psychopharmacology, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, United States.

There is a substantive clinical literature on classical hallucinogens, most commonly lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. However, there has been no published research on the effect of LSD on alcohol consumption in animals. This study evaluated the effect of LSD in mice using a two-bottle choice alcohol drinking paradigm. Read More

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August 2018
8 Reads

Analysis of Contact Traces of Cannabis by In-Tube Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled to Nanoliquid Chromatography.

Molecules 2018 Sep 15;23(9). Epub 2018 Sep 15.

MINTOTA Research Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.

Because of its inherent qualities, in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) coupled on-line to nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) can be a very powerful tool to address the new challenges of analytical laboratories such as the analysis of traces of complex samples. This is the case of the detection of contact traces of drugs, especially cannabis. The main difficulties encountered in the analysis of traces of cannabis plants on surfaces are the low amount of sample available (typically < 1 mg), the complexity of the matrix, and the low percentages of cannabinoic compounds in the samples. Read More

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September 2018

DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Ibogaine.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Oct 9;9(10):2475-2483. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Arnold & Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences , Long Island University-Brooklyn , 75 DeKalb Avenue , Brooklyn , New York 11201 , United States.

The West African iboga plant has been used for centuries by the Bwiti and Mbiri tribes to induce hallucinations during religious ceremonies. Ibogaine, the principal alkaloid responsible for iboga's psychedelic properties, was isolated and sold as an antidepressant in France for decades before its adverse effects precipitated its removal from the market. An ibogaine resurgence in the 1960s was driven by U. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Role of mGlu2 in the 5-HT receptor-dependent antipsychotic activity of clozapine in mice.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.

Background: Serotonin 5-HT and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) are neurotransmitter G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in the signaling mechanisms underlying psychosis and schizophrenia treatment. Previous findings in mGlu2 knockout (KO) mice suggested that mGlu2 is necessary for head-twitch behavior, a rodent phenotype characteristic of hallucinogenic 5-HT receptor agonists. However, the role of mGlu2 in the behavioral effects induced by antipsychotic drugs remains poorly understood. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Postmortem Hyperthermia: Two Case Reports and a Review of the Literature.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2018 Dec;39(4):364-366

Institut de médecine légale de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

In this daily practice, the forensic pathologist is rarely confronted with postmortem hyperthermia associated with the rapid onset of rigor mortis. We report 2 similar cases where the rectal temperature value taken during the on-scene investigations by the forensic pathologist was greater than 40°C (104°F) in both cases, and rigor mortis was complete within less than 6 hours postmortem. The first case was due to a deadly intoxication by ecstasy and the second one to the deadly association of methadone and a possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Does getting high hurt? Characterization of cases of LSD and psilocybin-containing mushroom exposures to national poison centers between 2000 and 2016.

J Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 5;32(12):1286-1294. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Maryland Poison Center, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background:: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin are serotonergic hallucinogens that are used primarily for recreational abuse. Small studies evaluated the efficacy of LSD and psilocybin for several psychiatric conditions. There are limited safety or toxicity data for either of these substances, especially in large populations. Read More

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December 2018
10 Reads

SIADH and water intoxication related to ecstasy.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Aug 29;2018. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Internal Medicine, Hopital Riviera-Chablais, Vevey, Switzerland.

Recreational drug use is a significant societal issue and remains a clinical challenge in emergency and critical care departments. We report on a 19-year-old woman admitted to hospital semiconscious and with severe hyponatraemia. Urinalysis was positive for methamphetamine and supported a diagnosis of hyponatraemia related to ecstasy use together with a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Epidemiology of NPS Based Confirmed Overdose Cases: The STRIDA Project.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Aug 23. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Swedish Poisons Information Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.

The Swedish STRIDA project on new psychoactive substances (NPS) monitored the occurrence and health hazards of novel recreational drugs in Sweden through evaluation of analytically confirmed adverse events presenting in emergency departments and intensive care units. During a ~6-year period from 2010 to early 2016, about 2,600 cases of suspected NPS intoxications were included in the project. About 75% of patients were men and the total age range was 8-71 (median 24) years and 57% were 25 years or younger. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

A Survey on the Medical Use of Cannabis in Europe: A Position Paper.

Eur Addict Res 2018 22;24(4):201-205. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

European Federation for Addiction Societies (EUFAS), Barcelona, Spain.

Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the availability and prescription of different medicinal variants of cannabis and their status in European countries.

Methods: A -web-based survey was sent to all member societies of the -European Federation of Addiction Societies (EUFAS) in 2 waves during the summer of 2017. All 34 member societies in 19 different European countries were invited to participate. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Effects of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol on irinotecan-induced clinical effects in rats.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Oct 18;294:128-134. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address:

Because of the great interest for research on the potential use of cannabis preparations as co-medication for alleviation of toxic effects in cancer management, we investigated the influence of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) to modulate irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced toxicity. Male Wistar rats were treated either with a single irinotecan intraperitoneal dose, 100 mg/kg body-weight (b.w. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Sub-acute and long-term effects of ayahuasca on affect and cognitive thinking style and their association with ego dissolution.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 13;235(10):2979-2989. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Rationale: Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant tea from South America used for religious purposes by indigenous people of the Amazon. Increasing evidence indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of mental health disorders and can enhance mindfulness-related capacities. Most research so far has focused on acute and sub-acute effects of ayahuasca on mental health-related parameters and less on long-term effects. Read More

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October 2018

Psychedelics as anti-inflammatory agents.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2018 Aug 13:1-13. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

a Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center , New Orleans , LA , USA.

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor agonists have recently emerged as promising new treatment options for a variety of disorders. The recent success of these agonists, also known as psychedelics, like psilocybin for the treatment of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction, has ushered in a renaissance in the way these compounds are perceived in the medical community and populace at large. One emerging therapeutic area that holds significant promise is their use as anti-inflammatory agents. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of serotonergic psychedelics for the management of mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018 Sep 23;11(9):889-902. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

b Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, Ribeirão Preto Medical School , University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , Brazil.

Introduction: Mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the population. Although several pharmacological treatments are available, they are not effective for a significant proportion of patients and are associated with several adverse reactions. Therefore, new treatments should be explored. Read More

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September 2018
19 Reads

Lamotrigine Cross-Reactivity With Phencyclidine in Rapid Urine Toxicology in a Research Study.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Jul 26;20(4). Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Schizophrenia Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

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Simultaneous quantification of cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and CB1 receptor antagonist in rat plasma: An application to characterize pharmacokinetics after passive cannabis smoke inhalation and co-administration of rimonabant.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Oct 19;160:119-125. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States. Electronic address:

A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, and rimonabant in rat plasma was developed. Analytes and the internal standard were extracted from plasma using a combination of protein precipitation followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was done using Waters Symmetry C18, 4. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Longitudinal associations between youth tobacco and substance use in waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 10 25;191:25-36. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Background: While evidence suggests bidirectional associations between cigarette use and substance (alcohol or drug) use, how these associations are reflected across the range of currently available tobacco products is unknown. This study examined whether ever tobacco use predicted subsequent substance use, and ever substance use predicted subsequent tobacco use among 11,996 U.S. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Gene expression analysis indicates reduced memory and cognitive functions in the hippocampus and increase in synaptic reorganization in the frontal cortex 3 weeks after MDMA administration in Dark Agouti rats.

BMC Genomics 2018 Aug 2;19(1):580. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, Semmelweis University, Nagyvarad ter 4., Budapest, H-1089, Hungary.

Background: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a widely used entactogenic drug known to impair cognitive functions on the long-run. Both hippocampal and frontal cortical regions have well established roles in behavior, memory formation and other cognitive tasks and damage of these regions is associated with altered behavior and cognitive functions frequently described in otherwise healthy MDMA users. Meanwhile, in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients seem to benefit from therapeutic application of the drug, where damage in hippocampal cue extinction may play a role. Read More

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Novel behavioral assays of spontaneous and precipitated THC withdrawal in mice.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 10 7;191:14-24. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Department of Psychology, West Virginia University, 1124 Life Sciences Building, P.O. Box 6040, Morgantown, WV 26506-6040, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A subset of cannabis users develop some degree of Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD). Although behavioral therapy has some success in treating CUD, many users relapse, often citing altered sleep, mood, and irritability. Preclinical animal tests of cannabinoid withdrawal focus primarily on somatic-related behaviors precipitated by a cannabinoid receptor antagonist. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Assessment of CYP2D6 re-activation after inhibitory effect of MDMA using tramadol as a probe.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2018 Sep;33(3):119-125

Tehran University of Medical Sciences - Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Enghelab Square, Tehran 1998754611, The Islamic Republic of Iran.

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September 2018
3 Reads

Double-blind comparison of the two hallucinogens psilocybin and dextromethorphan: effects on cognition.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 30;235(10):2915-2927. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Dr., Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Objectives: Classic psychedelics (serotonin 2A receptor agonists) and dissociative hallucinogens (NMDA receptor antagonists), though differing in pharmacology, may share neuropsychological effects. These drugs, however, have undergone limited direct comparison. This report presents data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study comparing the neuropsychological effects of multiple doses of the classic psychedelic psilocybin with the effects of a single high dose of the dissociative hallucinogen dextromethorphan (DXM). Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Elucidation of structure-function relationship of THCA and CBDA synthase from Cannabis sativaL.

J Biotechnol 2018 Oct 24;284:17-26. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Technical Biochemistry, TU Dortmund University, Emil-Figge Str. 66, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.

Cannabinoids are secondary natural products from the plant Cannabis sativaL. Therapeutic indications of cannabinoids currently comprise a significant area of medicinal research. We have expressed the Δ-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) and cannabidiolic acid synthase (CBDAS) recombinantly in Komagataella phaffii and could detect eight different products with a cannabinoid scaffold after conversion of the precursor cannabigerolic acid (CBGA). Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Bromo-dragonfly, a psychoactive benzodifuran, is resistant to hepatic metabolism and potently inhibits monoamine oxidase A.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Oct 20;295:397-407. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Section of Forensic Chemistry, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Bromo-dragonfly is a benzodifuran derivative known as one of the most potent 5-HT-receptor agonists within this chemical class, with long-lasting effects of up to 2-3 days. In addition to hallucinogenic effects, the drug is a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in severe adverse effects, such as necrosis of the limbs. In some cases, intoxication has had fatal outcomes. Read More

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October 2018
17 Reads

Nano liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for the identification of metabolites of the two new psychoactive substances N-(ortho-methoxybenzyl)-3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine and N-(ortho-methoxybenzyl)-4-methylmethamphetamine.

Talanta 2018 Oct 21;188:111-123. Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Molecular Signaling (PZMS), Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Among the emerging new psychoactive substances (NPS), compounds carrying an N-ortho-methoxybenzyl substituent, the so-called NBOMes, represented a highly potent group of new hallucinogens. Recently, 3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine (3,4-DMA)-NBOMe and 4-methylmethamphetamine (4-MMA)-NBOMe occurred, but no data on their pharmacokinetics were available. According to other NBOMes, they are expected to be extensively metabolized. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Made from concentrate? A national web survey assessing dab use in the United States.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 09 26;190:133-142. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Core (CCNC), McLean Imaging Center, 115 Mill St, Belmont, MA, 02478, USA; Marijuana Investigations for Neuroscientific Discovery (MIND) Program, 115 Mill St, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, 02478, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA, 02215 USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cannabis concentrates, including dabs, contain extremely high levels of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Although these products appear to be gaining popularity among recreational cannabis consumers, little data exists regarding concentrate use in the US. We conducted a national web-based survey to examine patterns of concentrate use, specifically dabbing. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads

Commercial cannabis consumer products part 2: HPLC-DAD quantitative analysis of cannabis cannabinoids.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Aug 30;289:438-447. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Forensic Chemistry Center, Food and Drug Administration, 6751 Steger Drive, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Quantitative analysis for the cannabis cannabinoids such as cannabidiol and Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol in commercial products is necessary for evaluating label information, and assessing dosages and exposures when the products are consumed. Herein is presented a broadly applicable HPLC-DAD method for the determination of cannabis cannabinoids in commercial consumer products and traditional plant-related substances. The current method provides chromatographic resolution of 11 cannabinoids using a commercial, mixed C18-aromatic functionality stationary phase. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Tetrahydrocannabinol/Cannabidiol Oromucosal Spray in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study on the Plasma Concentration-Effect Relationship.

Clin Neuropharmacol 2018 Sep/Oct;41(5):171-176

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the potential relationship between intrasubject 9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray plasma profiles and clinical effects elicited by subacute dosing in chronically treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: The study design was pilot, single center, open, and prospective. The patients were challenged with a morning test dose of 2 THC/CBD sprays at a 15-minute interval. Read More

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December 2018