25,528 results match your criteria Hallucinogens


Hallucinogen-Like Action of the Novel Designer Drug 25I-NBOMe and Its Effect on Cortical Neurotransmitters in Rats.

Neurotox Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smętna, 31-343, Kraków, Poland.

NBOMes are N-benzylmethoxy derivatives of the 2C family hallucinogens. 4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine (25I-NBOMe) is one of the commonly used illicit drugs. It exhibits high binding affinity for 5-HT and 5-HT serotonin receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-019-00033-xDOI Listing

Classic psychedelics: the special role of the visual system.

Rev Neurosci 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Psychosomatic Outpatient Clinics, Budapest, Hungary.

Here, we briefly overview the various aspects of classic serotonergic hallucinogens reported by a number of studies. One of the key hypotheses of our paper is that the visual effects of psychedelics might play a key role in resetting fears. Namely, we especially focus on visual processes because they are among the most prominent features of hallucinogen-induced hallucinations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2018-0092DOI Listing

A Hallucinogenic Serotonin-2A Receptor Agonist Reduces Visual Response Gain and Alters Temporal Dynamics in Mouse V1.

Cell Rep 2019 Mar;26(13):3475-3483.e4

Institute of Neuroscience and Department of Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. Electronic address:

Sensory perception arises from the integration of externally and internally driven representations of the world. Disrupted balance of these representations can lead to perceptual deficits and hallucinations. The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HTR) is associated with such perceptual alterations, both in its role in schizophrenia and in the action of hallucinogenic drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.02.104DOI Listing

Adolescent Substance Abuse Risk: A Comparison of Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Emergency Department Patients and 2 Nationally Representative Samples.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to understand the prevalence of alcohol and other substance use among teenagers in generalized samples.

Methods: This study compared the alcohol and other substance use of adolescents enrolled in a screening study across 16 Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network emergency departments (EDs) (ASSESS) with those sampled in 2 nationally representative surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The analysis includes 3362 ASSESS participants and 11,142 YRBSS and 12,086 NSDUH respondents. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006565-900000000-9818
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001763DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Association between polygenic risk for tobacco or alcohol consumption and liability to licit and illicit substance use in young Australian adults.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 Apr 16;197:271-279. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Background: Co-morbid substance use is very common. Despite a historical focus using genetic epidemiology to investigate comorbid substance use and misuse, few studies have examined substance-substance associations using polygenic risk score (PRS) methods.

Methods: Using summary statistics from the largest substance use GWAS to date (258,797- 632,802 subjects), GWAS and Sequencing Consortium of Alcohol and Nicotine use (GSCAN), we constructed PRSs for smoking initiation (PRS-SI), age of initiation of regular smoking (PRS-AI), cigarettes per day (PRS-CPD), smoking cessation (PRS-SC), and drinks per week (PRS-DPW). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.01.015DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

17 D2 Receptor Partial Agonists in Dual Disorders: Use of Aripiprazole in Psychotic Disorder and Comorbid Substance Use Disorder.

CNS Spectr 2019 Feb;24(1):181-182

Psychiatry Department,Ramon y Cajal University Hospital,Madrid,Spain.

Objective: Dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in addiction but few effective drugs have been developed to treat it. Recent research has highlighted dopamine D2 receptor partial agonists, like aripiprazole, as a potential treatment for different types of substance dependence. In this study we investigate the use of both oral or long-acting injectable (LAI) aripiprazole in the treatment of dual disorders, specifically focusing on patients with psychotic disorder and comorbid substance use disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1092852919000117DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Harmine induced apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells by activating the endogenous apoptotic pathways and inhibiting DNA topoisomerase I activity.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2019 Mar 10;155:26-35. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Key Laboratory of Crop Integrated Pest Management in South China, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Natural Pesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Harmine, a useful botanical compound, has demonstrated insecticidal activity against some pests. However, harmine's mechanism of action has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. To preliminarily explore harmine's insecticidal mechanisms, the cytotoxicity of harmine against Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells was comprehensively investigated. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00483575183037
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Development and validation of an assay to measure cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human EDTA plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2019 Apr 3;1112:56-60. Epub 2019 Mar 3.

Translational Pharmacology Research Core and Cannabinoid Sciences Program, Center for Integrated Global Biomedical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

The therapeutic use of cannabinoids has increased with providers often recommending cannabinoid-containing products with limited pre-clinical and clinical pharmacokinetic studies. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma. The cannabinoids are extracted from plasma with a liquid-liquid procedure utilizing methyl tert-butyl ether. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.03.002DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Use of liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and metabolomic approach to discriminate coffee brewed by different methods.

Food Chem 2019 Jul 31;286:106-112. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Institute of Quality Standard & Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Agro-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China.

An untargeted metabolomic method based on UPLC-QTOF were used to investigate the differences in coffee brewed by boiled, pour-over and cold-brew methods here. Distinctive separation among the three groups could be seen from principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Analysis of variance, fold change and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant mode were conducted to find the characteristic potential markers, subsequently, nine potential markers were putatively identified using general chemical databases, and five of them were further confirmed by acquisition of reference standards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.154DOI Listing
July 2019
4 Reads

Serotonin and glutamate interactions in preclinical schizophrenia models.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

The serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems have both been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and there are multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate that they can interact in a functionally relevant manner. Particularly, it has been demonstrated that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 2A (5-HT2A) receptors and metabotropic glutamate type 2 (mGlu2) receptors can assemble into a functional heteromeric complex and modulate each other's function. This heteromeric complex has been implicated in the mechanism of action of hallucinogens as well as antipsychotic agents, and its role has been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00044DOI Listing
February 2019

Cooking with elaborate recipes can reduce the formation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines and promote co-mutagenic amines.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2019 Mar 26;36(3):385-395. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

c Department of Analytical Chemistry , University of Barcelona , Barcelona , Spain.

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are foodborne carcinogens for which their formation is highly dependent on cooking conditions. HCAs have been commonly quantified in food items prepared with simple procedures. This approach is suitable for elucidating HCAs' formation, but it only partially reflects the contamination in consumed food. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2019.1571286DOI Listing

Comparison of the behavioral effects of mescaline analogs using the head twitch response in mice.

J Psychopharmacol 2019 Mar 21;33(3):406-414. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

4 School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, UK.

Background: In recent years, there has been increasing scientific interest in the effects and pharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens. While a large amount of experimental work has been conducted to characterize the behavioral response to hallucinogens in rodents, there has been little systematic investigation of mescaline and its analogs. The hallucinogenic potency of mescaline is increased by α-methylation and by homologation of the 4-methoxy group but it not clear whether these structural modifications have similar effects on the activity of mescaline in rodent models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881119826610DOI Listing

Illicit substance use after release from prison among formerly incarcerated primary care patients: a cross-sectional study.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2019 Feb 19;14(1). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA.

Background: More than 80% of people in jail or prison report having used illicit substances in their lifetimes. After release from incarceration, resumption of substance use carries risks, including parole revocation, exacerbation of mental health conditions, transmission of infectious diseases, and drug overdose.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from the Transitions Clinic Network (TCN, www. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13722-019-0136-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381679PMC
February 2019

Rapid and sensitive capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of Ecstasy in an oral fluid.

Talanta 2019 May 8;197:390-396. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Akadeemia Tee 15, Tallinn, Estonia. Electronic address:

In the present study, a capillary electrophoresis method, with a native fluorescence detection for the quantification of three amphetamine derivatives, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in an oral fluid is described. The reported CE method has made it possible to assess Ecstasy abuse in approximately 15 min, including a saliva sample collection, pretreatment procedures and capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis. The proof of the principle that was demonstrated on a home-made lab scale instrument has had the potential to be easily translated onto a truly portable instrument for on-site measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.01.029DOI Listing

Association between Drug Use and In-hospital Outcomes after Infrainguinal Bypass for Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease.

Ann Vasc Surg 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Bayview Vascular and Endovascular Research Center, Baltimore, MD; Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Drug abuse may affect lower extremity vessels due to ischemia following intra-arterial injections, vasospasm, arterial and venous pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulae, vasculitis, and complicated abscesses. Little is known about the outcomes of lower extremity bypass (LEB) for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with a history of drug abuse disorder. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of LEB in this patient population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2018.12.070DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Ayahuasca and Public Health: Health Status, Psychosocial Well-Being, Lifestyle, and Coping Strategies in a Large Sample of Ritual Ayahuasca Users.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2019 Feb 7:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

a International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research, and Services (ICEERS) , Barcelona , Spain.

Assessing the health status of ayahuasca users has been challenging due to the limitations involved in randomized clinical trials and psychometric approaches. The main objective of this study is the implementation of an approach based on public health indicators. We developed a self-administered questionnaire that was administered to long-term ayahuasca users around Spain. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02791072.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2019.1567961DOI Listing
February 2019
27 Reads

Binge ethanol and MDMA combination exacerbates HSP27 and Trx-1 (biomarkers of toxic cardiac effects) expression in right ventricle.

Life Sci 2019 Mar 29;220:50-57. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Spain; Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria, Murcia, Spain.

Aims: Oxidative stress caused by exposure to drugs of abuse such as ethanol or 3, 4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) may derive from direct or indirect effects in many organs including the heart. The aim of the present work was to evaluate cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of two antioxidant proteins: heat shock protein27 (HSP27) and thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA.

Material And Methods: Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00243205193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.050DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Two- and three-year follow-up from a gender-specific, web-based drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls.

Addict Behav 2019 Jan 16;93:86-92. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Columbia University School of Social Work, 1255 Amsterdam Ave, NY, NY 10027, USA.

Introduction: Rates of drug use among early adolescent girls meet or exceed rates of their male counterparts. Girls are also vulnerable to differential risk factors for drug use. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064603183116
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.01.010DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

A laboratory-study on the analytical determination and removal processes of THC-COOH and bezoylecgonine in the activated sludge reactor.

Chemosphere 2019 May 22;222:83-90. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

ACEA ELABORI SpA, Via Vitorchiano 165, Rome, Italy.

The present study focused on 11-nor-9carboxy-Δ9-THC (THC-COOH) and Benzoylecgonine (BE), the most common metabolites of cannabis and cocaine, respectively, present in the domestic sewage entering the wastewater treatment plants. The aims of the study were: (1) to validate the analytical method of detection in wastewater and sludge; (2) to determine contribution of biodegradation and other processes to the removal in the biological reactor of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the response of biomass to different drug concentrations. The Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem Mass Spectrometry method showed to be repeatable and reliable (recovery>75%; repeatability<10-15%; bias uncertainty<10) for measurements in wastewater; the ultrasound assisted extraction (USE) demonstrated to be reliable as pre-treatment of activated sludge solid phase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.01.117DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 01 28;1:CD008940. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Monash Addiction Research Centre, Monash University, Peninsula Campus, McMahons Road, Frankston, VIC, Australia, 3199.

Background: Globally, cannabis use is prevalent and widespread. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in the Cochrane Library in Issue 12, 2014. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD008940.pub3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008940.pub3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360924PMC
January 2019
11 Reads

Effects of acute and repeated treatment with serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogens on intracranial self-stimulation in rats.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology.

The prototype 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogens LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin are classified as Schedule 1 drugs of abuse by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000253DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Combining attenuated total reflectance- infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for the identification and the dosage estimation of MDMA tablets.

Talanta 2019 Apr 12;195:142-151. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Scientific Direction Chemical and Physical Health Risks, Service of Medicines and Health Products, Sciensano, J. Wytsmanstraat 14, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.

The principal objective of the Belgian Early Warning System on drugs (BEWSD) of the Reitox national focal point is to collect and disseminate information on the appearance of drugs circulating on the local drug market. To this end, one of the actions of BEWSD is to annually collect substances that are circulating on the Belgian summer festivals. Every year a high number of seized samples is collected and submitted to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2018.11.027DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Biosynthesis of bioactive natural products from Basidiomycota.

Org Biomol Chem 2019 01;17(5):1027-1036

School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.

The Basidiomycota, also called club fungi, comprise a diverse group of fungi. Basidiomycota are strongly related to ecosystem functioning along with human life. These fungi display a wide range of bioactivities, and some are known to produce of deadly toxins or hallucinogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8ob02774aDOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Clinical and Toxicological Profile of NBOMes: A Systematic Review.

Psychosomatics 2019 Mar - Apr;60(2):129-138. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Laboratório de Toxicologia (Toxicology Laboratory), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: NBOMes are a new class of potent hallucinogens widely present in illicit drugs. Little is known about this class of drugs, regarding its detection and clinical manifestations of intoxication.

Objective: This study aims to enhance care involving NBOMes by reviewing the literature on their clinical manifestations and laboratorydetection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2018.11.002DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Detection of 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol in the hair of drug abusers by LC-MS/MS analysis.

Forensic Sci Int 2019 Feb 21;295:219-225. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

National Forensic Service, 10 Ipchoon-ro, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 26460, South Korea. Electronic address:

Cannabis is the second most commonly abused illicit drug after methamphetamine in South Korea. To prove cannabis consumption, 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), the metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was screened for in a hair analysis. In this study, we developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis method, which was used to analyze authentic hair samples in 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.12.013DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Prevalence of reagent test-kit use and perceptions of purity among ecstasy users in an electronic dance music scene in New York City.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2019 01 21;38(1):42-49. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Drug Policy Modelling Program, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Ecstasy users in the electronic dance music scene are at high risk for using ecstasy adulterated with new psychoactive substances and/or methamphetamine. We examined self-reported testing of ecstasy among users in this scene.

Design And Methods: We surveyed individuals (aged 18-40 years) entering electronic dance music parties in New York City in 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.12882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338488PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

DARK classics in chemical neuroscience: atropine, scopolamine and other anticholinergic deliriant hallucinogens.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Anticholinergic drugs based on tropane alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine, have been used for various medicinal and toxic purposes for millennia. These drugs are competitive antagonists of acetylcholine muscarinic (M-) receptors that potently modulate the central nervous system (CNS). Currently used clinically to treat vomiting, nausea and bradycardia, as well as alongside other anesthetics to avoid vagal inhibition, these drugs also evoke potent psychotropic effects, including characteristic delirium-like states with hallucinations, altered mood and cognitive deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00615DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Tetrahydrocannabinol: a drug of interest.

Panminerva Med 2018 Dec;60(4):228-230

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0031-0808.18.03468-7DOI Listing
December 2018
22 Reads

Abolishment of fear memory-disruptive effects REM sleep deprivation by harmane.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 14;109:1563-1568. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Harmane, as a neuromodulator, implicates in the learning and memory processes. However, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation negatively affects these processes. Here, we investigated the effects of harmane (2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.179DOI Listing
January 2019

Modeling Retention Behavior on Analysis of Hallucinogenic Mushrooms Using Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography.

J Chromatogr Sci 2019 Mar;57(3):230-237

Department of Drug and Arson Investigation, Hungarian Institute for Forensic Sciences, Mosonyi Street 9, Budapest, Hungary.

The goal of this work was to investigate and compare the selectivity of three different hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) charge modulated amide columns, iHILIC®-Fusion, iHILIC®-Fusion(+) and iHILIC®-Fusion(P), for analysis of compounds in hallucinogen mushrooms. An extract of a truffle-like fungus containing psilocin, psilocybin and baeocystin was chosen as test material. Three different modeling methods were applied to describe the retention times of constituents in isocratic separation mode as a function of mobile phase composition, pH and temperature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmy104DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Classic psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, therapeutics, mystical experience, and brain network function.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baltimore, MD, United States; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are serotonin 2A receptor (5-HTR) agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.11.010DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

The Effects of Substance Abuse on Blood Glucose Parameters in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 11 29;15(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Family Care & Mental Health, University of Greenwich, London SE9 2UG, UK.

: People who abuse substances are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes resulting partly from increased cell damage and due to the effects of opioids on glucose homeostasis. Therefore, people with diabetes who abuse substances may carry greater health risks than the general population resulting from their effect on glucose metabolism. These substances may be in the form of cannabis, hallucinogens, opioids, and stimulants. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/12/2691
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122691DOI Listing
November 2018
16 Reads

Mutagenicity of Ayahuasca and Their Constituents to the Salmonella/Microsome Assay.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2019 04 29;60(3):269-276. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Santa Casa de São Paulo School of Medical Sciences, São Paulo, Brazil.

Ayahuasca is a beverage used in religious rituals of indigenous and nonindigenous groups, and its therapeutic potential has been investigated. Ayahuasca is obtained by decoction of the Banisteriopsis caapi that contains β-carbolines (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine) plus Psychotria viridis that contains N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Although plants used in folk medicine are recognized as safe, many of them have genotoxic potential. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/em.22263
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22263DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Palmitic acid ester of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and palmitic acid diester of 11-hydroxy-THC - Unsuccessful search for additional THC metabolites in human body fluids and tissues.

Forensic Sci Int 2019 Jan 16;294:86-95. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

University Bonn, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Stiftsplatz 12, 53111 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Fatty acid conjugates of hydroxy-metabolites of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabinol have already been reported as metabolites in rats. In the herein presented investigation, palmitic acid esters of THC and its primary metabolite 11-hydroxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) were synthesized using esterification with palmitic acid chloride. Structural elucidation of the products was conducted using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03790738183053
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.11.005DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Two immunoassays for the detection of 2C-B and related hallucinogenic phenethylamines.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2019 Jan - Feb;95:36-46. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Chemistry of Natural Compounds, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Praha 6, Dejvice, Czechia; Forensic Laboratory of Biologically Active Substances, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 3, 166 28 Praha 6, Dejvice, Czechia; Department of Experimental Neurobiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Topolová 748, 250 67 Klecany, Czechia. Electronic address:

Introduction: The use of new psychoactive substances as drugs of abuse has dramatically increased over the last years. Hallucinogenic phenethylamines gained particular popularity as they have both stimulating and psychedelic effects. Although generally perceived as safe, these illicit drugs pose a serious health risk; they have been linked to cases of severe poisoning or even deaths. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10568719183073
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2018.11.001DOI Listing
March 2019
16 Reads

Self-Experiments with Psychoactive Substances: A Historical Perspective.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018;252:69-110

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the rich tradition of self-experiments (SEs) with psychoactive substances carried out by scientists and therapists for more than a century. Scientifically inspired controlled SEs dominated until the end of the twentieth century, when ethical requirements minimized controlled SEs and "wild" SEs expanded particularly with the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The review focuses on laughing gas (nitrous oxide), cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, entactogens, and dissociative hallucinogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2018_177DOI Listing
January 2018
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Common neural signatures of psychedelics: Frequency-specific energy changes and repertoire expansion revealed using connectome-harmonic decomposition.

Prog Brain Res 2018 25;242:97-120. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:

The search for the universal laws of human brain function is still on-going but progress is being made. Here we describe the novel concepts of connectome harmonics and connectome-harmonic decomposition, which can be used to characterize the brain activity associated with any mental state. We use this new frequency-specific language to describe the brain activity elicited by psilocybin and LSD and find remarkably similar effects in terms of increases in total energy and power, as well as frequency-specific energy changes and repertoire expansion. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00796123183010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.08.009DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

d-Lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and other classic hallucinogens: Mechanism of action and potential therapeutic applications in mood disorders.

Prog Brain Res 2018 31;242:69-96. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Neurobiological Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University and McGill University Health Center, Montréal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Depression and anxiety are psychiatric diagnoses commonly associated with low quality of life and low percentage of responsiveness by patients treated with currently available drugs. Thus, research into alternative compounds to treat these disorders is essential to guarantee a patient's remission. The last decade has witnessed a revamped interest for the application of psychedelic medicine for the treatment of mental disorders due to anecdotal reports and clinical studies which show that low doses of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin may have antidepressant effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.07.008DOI Listing
March 2019
22 Reads
2.833 Impact Factor

The renaissance in psychedelic research: What do preclinical models have to offer.

Authors:
Kevin S Murnane

Prog Brain Res 2018 5;242:25-67. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mercer University College of Pharmacy, Mercer University Health Sciences Center, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address:

Human research with psychedelics is making groundbreaking discoveries. Psychedelics modify enduring elements of personality and seemingly reduce anxiety, depression, and substance dependence in small but well-designed clinical studies. Psychedelics are advancing through pharmaceutical regulatory systems, and neuroimaging studies have related their extraordinary effects to select brain networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.08.003DOI Listing
March 2019
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Ibogaine as a treatment for substance misuse: Potential benefits and practical dangers.

Prog Brain Res 2018 12;242:217-257. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Psychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid found in the root bark of the Iboga shrub native to west Africa possessing hallucinogenic properties. For centuries it has been used in religious ceremonies and to gain spiritual enlightenment. However, since the early 1960s, its apparent ability to reduce craving for psychoactive substances including alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine, opiates, and nicotine has led to its use in detoxification treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.08.005DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads
2.833 Impact Factor

Advances and challenges in neuroimaging studies on the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens: Contributions of the resting brain.

Prog Brain Res 2018 28;242:159-177. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Psychiatry (UPK), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The effects of hallucinogenic drugs on the human brain have been studied since the earliest days of neuroimaging in the 1990s. However, approaches are often hard to compare and results are heterogeneous. In this chapter, we summarize studies investigating the effects of hallucinogens on the resting brain, with a special emphasis on replicability and limitations. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00796123183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.08.004DOI Listing
March 2019
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A case report SPECT study and theoretical rationale for the sequential administration of ibogaine and 5-MeO-DMT in the treatment of alcohol use disorder.

Prog Brain Res 2018 25;242:121-158. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Ibogaine is a plant-derived alkaloid and dissociative psychedelic that demonstrates anti-addictive properties with several substances of abuse, including alcohol. 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a naturally occurring psychedelic known to occasion potent mystical-type experiences and also demonstrates anti-addictive properties. The potential therapeutic effects of both compounds in treating alcohol use disorder require further investigation and there are no published human neuroimaging findings of either treatment to date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.08.002DOI Listing
March 2019
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An introduction to psychedelic neuroscience.

Prog Brain Res 2018 15;242:1-23. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Translational Neuroscience Group, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Neuroscience Institute, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

This chapter is an introduction to the volume "Psychedelic Neuroscience" of Elsevier's Progress in Brain Research addressing the neurobiological mechanisms of psychedelic drugs, the resulting changes in brain activity and integration of traditional viewpoints. As the field is relatively new, there are discrepancies in the literature related to classification, composition and effects of the various psychedelics. Currently, psychedelics are grouped according to their neuro-receptor affinities into classic and atypical psychedelics, each with individual treatment potentials and abilities to elicit potent acute experiences and long-lasting changes in neurobiology through concurrent activation of several neuromodulatory systems. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00796123183011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.09.013DOI Listing
March 2019
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Cytotoxicity of new psychoactive substances and other drugs of abuse studied in human HepG2 cells using an adopted high content screening assay.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Feb 19;301:79-89. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Molecular Signaling (PZMS), Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are still an emerging issue in clinical and forensic toxicology. Information about their cytotoxic potential is limited or even unavailable before distribution and thus their intake can be of high risk for consumers. The aim of the presented study was to develop a strategy to identify cytotoxic potential of NPS based on a high content screening assay (HCSA) using HepG2 cell line and four fluorescent dyes, namely Hoechst33342, TMRM, CAL-520, and TOTO-3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.007DOI Listing
February 2019
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MDMA modulates 5-HT-mediated contractile response of the human internal thoracic artery in vitro.

Toxicol In Vitro 2019 Mar 15;55:15-17. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Laboratory of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal; Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal; CNC.iCBR, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a popular recreational drug of abuse. In addition to its characteristic psychotropic effects, important cardiovascular effects have been described such as increased blood pressure and heart rate. MDMA was previously shown to behave as a partial agonist on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the human internal thoracic artery in vitro, involving the 5-HT subtype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2018.11.006DOI Listing
March 2019
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Bioactivity of selected materials for coffee substitute.

PLoS One 2018 15;13(11):e0206762. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Epidemiological studies have suggested that coffee consumption is negatively correlated with the incidence of Parkinson's disease. Coffee contains relatively high levels of β-carbolines, which have been ascribed neuroactive effects in humans however the positive or negative effect has not been confirmed yet. Two ingredients with applications as coffee substitutes-chicory, which is traditionally used in this way, and artichoke-were considered in this study both from the neuroactive point of view but also in relation to the other bioactive compounds that result from their thermal processing. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206762PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237330PMC
April 2019
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Concomitant THC and stress adolescent exposure induces impaired fear extinction and related neurobiological changes in adulthood.

Neuropharmacology 2019 01 12;144:345-357. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, 08003, Barcelona, Spain; Faculty of Experimental Sciences, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, UFV, 28223, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) consumption during adolescence is reported to be a risk factor for the appearance of psychiatric disorders later in life. The interaction between genetic or environmental events and cannabinoid exposure in the adolescent period can also contribute to exacerbate behavioural deficits in adulthood. Here we investigate the effects of THC treatment as well as the consequences of concomitant THC and stress exposure during adolescence in the extinction of fear memory in adult mice. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00283908183085
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.11.016DOI Listing
January 2019
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Neuroimaging of chronic MDMA ("ecstasy") effects: A meta-analysis.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 01 12;96:10-20. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

University of Basel, Department of Psychiatry (UPK), Switzerland. Electronic address:

In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the evidence from neuroimaging studies for chronic alterations in the brains of MDMA users. The databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies published from inception to August 24, 2018, without any language restriction. Sixteen independent studies comprising 356 MDMA users and 311 controls were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.11.004DOI Listing
January 2019
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The protective effects of Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol against inflammation and oxidative stress in rat liver with fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2019 Mar 14;71(3):408-416. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Cerrahpasa Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: A large amount of fructose is metabolized in the liver and causes hepatic functional damage. Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known as a therapeutic agent for clinical and experimental applications. The study aims to investigate the effects of THC treatment on inflammation, lipid profiles and oxidative stress in rat liver with hyperinsulinemia. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jphp.13042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.13042DOI Listing
March 2019
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Current perspectives on psychedelic therapy: use of serotonergic hallucinogens in clinical interventions.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2018 Nov 13:1-26. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

a Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Humans have used serotonergic hallucinogens (i.e. psychedelics) for spiritual, ceremonial, and recreational purposes for thousands of years, but their administration as part of a structured therapeutic intervention is still a relatively novel practice within Western medical and psychological frameworks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2018.1486289DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads