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    Oral pigmentations in physiologic conditions, post inflammatory affections and systemic diseases.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Dermatology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy -
    Melanocytes are found throughout the oral mucosa but usually go unnoticed because of their relatively low level of pigment production. When focally or generally active in pigment production or proliferation they may be responsible for several affections in the oral mucosae ranging from physiologic pigmentation, systemic diseases to malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis of oral pigmentations (OP) is usually challenging for the physician, but a careful examination of the oral cavity may reveal the first manifestation of underlying systemic diseases. Read More

    Oral hairy leukoplakia arising in a patient with hairy cell leukaemia: the first reported case.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Apr 6;2017. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Oral Medicine, University of Bristol Dental Hospital, Bristol, UK.
    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an oral mucosal lesion that is associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. It commonly presents as an asymptomatic, non-removable white patch on the lateral borders of the tongue in individuals who are immunocompromised. Historically, OHL was thought to be pathognomonic of HIV infection; however, it is now an established phenomenon in a range of conditions affecting immune competence. Read More

    Black Hairy Tongue: Predisposing Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2017 Feb 28. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 800 Poly Place, Brooklyn, NY, 11209, USA.
    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign condition commonly found among people who smoke, have poor oral hygiene, are immunocompromised, or have a medical condition limiting their ability to practice good oral hygiene. Though this condition is harmless, patients need to be educated on etiology as many common medications are associated with this condition. Patients being placed on certain antibiotics or antipsychotics should be educated on the importance of good oral hygiene or cessation of habits that promote BHT. Read More

    Black brown discoloration and hairy tongue - A rare linezolid side effect.
    Indian J Tuberc 2017 Jan 15;64(1):44-46. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Director, National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, New Delhi, India.
    Introduction: Linezolid was approved for clinical use for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. Additionally it is used in the management of drug resistant tuberculosis. It is well-tolerated however bone marrow suppression and neuropathies may occur in patients taking this antibiotic for more than 2 weeks. Read More

    Black Hairy Tongue Associated With Lorazepam Treatment of a Male Smoker With Major Depression.
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 2017 Apr;37(2):261-263
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatic Medicine, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Castrop-Rauxel, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany and Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, LVR-Hospital Essen, Faculty of Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatic Medicine, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Castrop-Rauxel, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany.

    Black hairy tongue after chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors.
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2017 Jan 23;159(1):169-172. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Kyorin University Faculty of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka-City, Tokyo, 181-8611, Japan.
    Black hairy tongue (BHT) developed in five patients (2.6%) among 192 patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors. Three patients with a history of diabetes mellitus developed BHT within 10 days after the initiation of chemotherapy. Read More

    Prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal non-malignant lesions in the western Sicilian population.
    Minerva Stomatol 2016 Aug;65(4):191-206
    Department of Surgical, Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy -
    Backgroung: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal non-malignant lesions in the Sicilian population. In addition, we evaluated the association between each oral lesion and its risk factors.

    Methods: This study analyzed a total of 2539 consecutive patients, attending the Department of Surgical, Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines of Palermo University, who were examined for the presence of various oral lesions during the period from January 2012 and February 2015. Read More

    Diseases of the tongue.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul-Aug;34(4):458-69. Epub 2016 Mar 8.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ.
    The tongue is a complex organ involved in speech and expression as well as in gustation, mastication, and deglutition. The oral cavity, along with the tongue, are sites of neoplasms, reactive processes, and infections, and may be a harbinger of systemic diseases. This review includes both common and rare diseases that occur on the tongue, including: vascular and lymphatic lesions (infantile hemangiomas and oral varices), reactive and inflammatory processes (hairy tongue, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, benign migratory glossitis, and fissured tongue), infections (oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections, human papillomavirus, and candidiasis), premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and erythroplakia), malignant lesions (squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and lymphoproliferative diseases), and signs of systemic disease (nutritional deficiency and systemic amyloidosis). Read More

    Black hairy tongue with a fixed dose combination of olanzapine and fluoxetine.
    Indian J Pharmacol 2016 May-Jun;48(3):318-20
    Department of Dermatology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign disease characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae, with a carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. It is has been reported to occur with a prevalence ranging from 0.6% to 11. Read More

    Prevalence of oro-dental anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen.
    East Mediterr Health J 2016 Apr 19;22(1):33-8. Epub 2016 Apr 19.
    Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Al-Farabi College, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Practitioners and policy-makers need information about the relative frequency of dental anomalies among children in their region. This study investigated the prevalence of different oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen. A sample of 1000 private and public schoolchildren aged 4-12 years were examined by the same examiner using disposable tongue blades. Read More

    Epstein-Barr Virus and Its Association with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia: A Short Review.
    Int J Dent 2016 7;2016:4941783. Epub 2016 Mar 7.
    Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Ga-Rankuwa 0208, South Africa.
    In immunocompromised subjects, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of terminally differentiated oral keratinocytes may result in subclinical productive infection of the virus in the stratum spinosum and in the stratum granulosum with shedding of infectious virions into the oral fluid in the desquamating cells. In a minority of cases this productive infection with dysregulation of the cell cycle of terminally differentiated epithelial cells may manifest as oral hairy leukoplakia. This is a white, hyperkeratotic, benign lesion of low morbidity, affecting primarily the lateral border of the tongue. Read More

    Black hairy tongue in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016 Jan-Feb;6(1):80-3
    Department of Surgical Science, Cagliari University, Cagliari, Italy.
    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a condition characterized by the elongation of filiform papillae associated with a marked discoloration, from yellowish-brown to black, and a thick lingual coating. BHT is usually observed in the elderly and in patients with limited self-sufficiency, as a consequence of poor oral hygiene. In this perspective, the patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represent a high-risk category for the occurrence of BHT. Read More

    White lesions in the oral cavity: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2015 Dec;34(4):161-70
    Departments of Orofacial Sciences, Radiation Oncology, and Pathology, and the Helen Diller Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
    White lesions in the oral cavity are common and have multiple etiologies, some of which are also associated with dermatological disease. While most intraoral white lesions are benign, some are premalignant and/or malignant at the time of clinical presentation, making it extremely important to accurately identify and appropriately manage these lesions. Due to their similar clinical appearances, it may be difficult sometimes to differentiate benign white lesions from their premalignant/malignant counterparts. Read More

    Nectar uptake in bats using a pumping-tongue mechanism.
    Sci Adv 2015 Sep 25;1(8):e1500525. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
    Institute of Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Genomics, University of Ulm, Ulm D-89069, Germany. ; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama.
    Many insects use nectar as their principal diet and have mouthparts specialized in nectarivory, whereas most nectar-feeding vertebrates are opportunistic users of floral resources and only a few species show distinct morphological specializations. Specialized nectar-feeding bats extract nectar from flowers using elongated tongues that correspond to two vastly different morphologies: Most species have tongues with hair-like papillae, whereas one group has almost hairless tongues that show distinct lateral grooves. Recent molecular data indicate a convergent evolution of groove- and hair-tongued bat clades into the nectar-feeding niche. Read More

    Mouthpart grooming behavior in honeybees: Kinematics and sectionalized friction between foreleg tarsi and proboscises.
    J Insect Physiol 2015 Nov 9;82:122-8. Epub 2015 Oct 9.
    Division of Intelligent and Biomechanical Systems, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Room 3407, Building 9003, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:
    The mouthpart of a honeybee is prone to contamination by granular particles such as pollen or dirt from the field. To clean the contaminated mouthparts, a honeybee swings its foreleg tarsi forward and backward to brush the proboscis continuously, sweeping the contaminant from the surfaces of the labial palpi, galeae, and bushy haired tongue (glossa). This grooming behavior has been documented but the dynamic characteristics therein have not been investigated yet. Read More

    Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells.
    PLoS Pathog 2015 Oct 2;11(10):e1005195. Epub 2015 Oct 2.
    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America; Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s) that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Read More

    High-Dose Loperamide Abuse Inducing Life-Threatening Cardiac Arrhythmias; Topiramate-Induced Diarrhea in a Breastfed Infant; Danazol-Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome; Asenapine-Induced Myasthenic Syndrome; Black Hairy Tongue Due to Linezolid; Adalimumab-Induced Priapism.
    Hosp Pharm 2015 May;50(5):351-5
    Chair and Clinical Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Temple University School of Pharmacy , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Clinical Advisor, Institute for Safe Medication Practices , Horsham, Pennsylvania.
    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Med Watch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Read More

    Operational research on the correlation between skin diseases and HIV infection in Tigray region, Ethiopia.
    Int J Dermatol 2015 Oct;54(10):1169-74
    San Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Italy.
    Background: In Ethiopia, skin diseases are among the leading causes of outpatient attendance to primary health service. Correlation of skin diseases and HIV has long been recognized and used to guide medical management in resource-limited settings. Therefore, this study aims to assess the correlation of skin diseases and HIV infection, to estimate epidemiological distribution in the study area, and to provide health workers of skin indicators for HIV early detection. Read More

    [Oral hairy leukoplakia induced by topical steroids].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2015 Oct 9;142(10):572-6. Epub 2015 Sep 9.
    Dermatologie, consultation pluridisciplinaire de pathologies de la muqueuse buccale, institut Claudius-Regaud, institut universitaire du cancer Toulouse Oncopole, 1, avenue Irène-Joliot-Curie, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France.
    Background: Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an EBV-associated condition of the oral mucosa, which is often painless. It is found predominantly in HIV-positive patients and is considered a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. OHL has rarely been described in HIV-negative patients, being found most often in association with iatrogenic immunosuppression. Read More

    Oral health status among Iranian veterans exposed to sulfur mustard: A case-control study.
    J Clin Exp Dent 2015 Apr 1;7(2):e192-6. Epub 2015 Apr 1.
    Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran ; Metabolic Research Centre, Royal Perth Hospital, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Background: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that has been repeatedly used since World War I. SM has chronic and deleterious effects on different body organs such as lungs, skin and eyes.

    Objectives: To determine dental and oral health status of chemical victims of SM who were exposed to SM during the Iraqi-Iran war. Read More

    [Intraoral paratrichosis after autograft].
    Cir Cir 2015 Jul-Aug;83(4):309-11. Epub 2015 Jun 25.
    Centro de Salud Alcalde Manuel Bustos, Mairena de Alcor, Sevilla, España.
    Background: Radial graft is one of the optimal treatments for reconstruction after tongue cancer, but it is not free of side effects. Hypertrichosis over the graft, causing an intraoral paratrichosis, might downgrade the quality of life and even require further interventions.

    Clinical Case: The case is presented of a 58 year-old man, who developed hypertrichosis after surgery for tongue carcinoma. Read More

    Oral mucosal lesions in elderly dental patients in Sana'a, Yemen.
    J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015 May;5(Suppl 1):S12-9
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Al-Farabi Colleges of Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Objectives: With aging, the oral mucosa becomes more susceptible to external stimuli. The aims of this study were to obtain baseline data on the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in a population of elderly Yemeni patients and to investigate differences in the presentation of these findings in relation to age, gender, education level, and the wearing of dentures.

    Patients And Methods: The prevalence of OMLs was assessed by clinical examination of a sample of 310 elderly Yemeni patients aged 60 years and older. Read More

    Oral mucosal lesions and their association with tobacco use and qat chewing among Yemeni dental patients.
    J Clin Exp Dent 2014 Dec 1;6(5):e460-6. Epub 2014 Dec 1.
    Dental practitioner, Department of oral and dental surgery, Al-Kuwait teaching Hospital, Sana'a, Yemen.
    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in patients attending outpatient dental clinics in Sana`a university, Yemen, and to evaluate the association of such lesions with age, gender, and oral habits.

    Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study included 409 subjects (272 males, 137 females, age: 15-86 years). Detailed clinical examination was performed in accordance with international criteria. Read More

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.
    J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2014 Jul-Sep;26(3):401-3
    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. Read More

    Twenty-first-century oral hairy leukoplakia--a non-HIV-associated entity.
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Mar 5;119(3):326-32. Epub 2014 Dec 5.
    Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Cellular Pathology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Objective: This study presents the clinicopathologic features of a series (N = 35) of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL).

    Methods: Patients with non-HIV-associated OHL were identified from three centers. Epstein-Barr virus infection was demonstrated by using EBV early ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization. Read More

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue.
    Indian J Pharmacol 2014 Nov-Dec;46(6):653-4
    Department of Orthopedics, Government Mohan Kumaramangalam Medical College Hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Black hairy tongue (BHT) also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc) are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed database. Read More

    Normal variations of oral anatomy and common oral soft tissue lesions: evaluation and management.
    Med Clin North Am 2014 Nov 22;98(6):1281-98. Epub 2014 Sep 22.
    Oral Medicine Clinical Services, Department of Oral Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, 240 South 40th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
    Examination of the oral cavity can provide significant diagnostic information regarding the general health of the patient. The oral cavity is affected by a multitude of pathologic conditions of variable cause and significance; however, there are numerous normal variations of oral soft tissue structures that may resemble a pathologic state. Understanding these variations assists practitioners to discriminate between normal versus abnormal findings and determine the appropriate course of management, if necessary. Read More

    Black hairy tongue syndrome.
    World J Gastroenterol 2014 Aug;20(31):10845-50
    Grigoriy E Gurvits, Department of Gastroenterology, New York University School of Medicine/Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, United States.
    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11. Read More

    Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.
    Parasitol Res 2014 Oct 12;113(10):3823-31. Epub 2014 Aug 12.
    Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A. Read More

    Critical review of topical management of oral hairy leukoplakia.
    World J Clin Cases 2014 Jul;2(7):253-6
    Cláudia B Brasileiro, Ricardo A Mesquita, Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte/MG, Brazil.
    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections. OHL is usually an asymptomatic lesion, but in some cases treatment is recommended to reestablish the normal characteristics of the tongue, to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, to improve patient comfort and for cosmetic reasons. Proposed treatments for this condition include surgery, systemic antiviral treatment and topical management. Read More

    Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014 ;15(2):757-62
    Department of Oral Medicine, King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA) E-mail :
    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. Read More

    Secondary malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using reduced-intensity conditioning and outpatient conduction.
    Hematology 2014 Dec 20;19(8):435-40. Epub 2014 Feb 20.
    Background: Patients given allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) may develop secondary malignant neoplasms (SMN). Several variables have been identified but there are no data about the incidence of this complication in individuals given HSCT using reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) methods.

    Objective: Define the incidence of SMN in patients given HSCT using a RIC preparative regimen conducted on an outpatient basis. Read More

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