831 results match your criteria Hairy Leukoplakia

Physical Examination in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease.

Med Clin North Am 2022 May 4;106(3):527-536. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated disease is known for its protean manifestations. However, many of the characteristic findings on physical examination are not associated with HIV infection per se but the numerous opportunistic infections (OIs) that are common in patients with advanced HIV disease. Common findings of acute HIV infection include fever, adenopathy, rash, and oral ulcers. Read More

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Common Oral Lesions.

Am Fam Physician 2022 04;105(4):369-376

Medical University of South Carolina College of Dental Medicine, Charleston, SC, USA.

Familiarity with common oral conditions allows clinicians to observe and treat patients in the primary care setting or refer to a dentist, oral surgeon, otolaryngologist, or other specialist. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (canker sores) is the most common ulcerative condition of the oral cavity. Recurrent herpes simplex labialis and stomatitis also commonly cause oral ulcers. Read More

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A Rare Case of Plasmablastic Lymphoma in a Patient with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 Infections.

Curr Oncol 2022 03 2;29(3):1537-1543. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Faculty of Medicine, "Ovidius" University of Constanta, 900470 Constanta, Romania.

Lesions commonly associated with HIV infection include oral candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, oral Kaposi's sarcoma, hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases (linear gingival erythema and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis), xerostomia, human papillomavirus-associated warts, aphthous ulcers, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, histoplasmosis, carcinoma, exfoliative cheilitis, and HIV salivary gland disease. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the most common cancer in people living with HIV (PLWH), and the incidence is increased for aggressive B-cell NHL. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PbL) is a rare and aggressive B-cell malignancy that is often unresponsive to chemotherapy and usually has a poor prognosis. Read More

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Onycho-mucocutaneous syndrome secondary to human immunodeficiency virus disease.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2021 Jul-Dec;42(2):150-153. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya (Deemed to be) University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Cutaneous, mucosal, and nail examination is the key to unveiling a plethora of systemic diseases. Mucocutaneous lesions directly related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually present as initial manifestations of immune deficiency, of which few lesions act as predictors of an immunocompromised state. Here, we report two cases who presented with onycho-mucocutaneous symptoms which raised the suspicion of and invariably led to the diagnosis of an underlying immunosuppression secondary to HIV infection. Read More

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Oral hairy leukoplakia: A sign of severe Human Immunodeficiency Virus-mediated immunosuppression.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal.

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December 2021

Prevalence of oral lesions in patients with AIDS: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Evid Based Dent 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Dentistry Student, Student Research Committee, Faculty of Dentistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background Oral lesions are considered to be early clinical signs which may predict the progression of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Due to the lack of a comprehensive study that includes oral lesions in people with AIDS, the global prevalence of oral lesions in people with AIDS was estimated by combining preliminary studies' results using meta-analysis.Material and methods Databases including PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus were searched using keywords as 'HIV', 'AIDS', 'oral candidiasis', 'Kaposi Sarcoma', 'LinearGingival Erythema' and OR operators, AND and NOT. Read More

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November 2021

Epstein-Barr virus oral shedding and viremia and their association with oral hairy leukoplakia in HIV+ individuals.

Oral Dis 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Stomatology, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To assess the oral shedding and viremia of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in HIV-positive patients and their relationship with oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL).

Methodology: A total of 94 HIV-positive patients were included in the study, in which blood and saliva samples were collected for EBV quantification. Data on gender, age, time of HIV seropositivity, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), CD4+ T-cell counts, and HIV viral load were collected. Read More

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Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral mucosal lesions in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Med Virol 2021 11 6;93(11):6089-6099. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of oral lesions is controversial. There has been no comprehensive study about HPV prevalence in Iran. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed at finding HPV prevalence of oral lesions and normal oral mucosa in Iran. Read More

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November 2021

Oral hairy leukoplakia: a series of 45 cases in immunocompetent patients.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2021 08 29;132(2):210-216. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Oral Medicine, Infection, and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; Center of Oral Pathology, StrataDx, Lexington, MA, USA; Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a benign Epstein-Barr virus infection typically presenting as a white lesion on the lateral border of the tongue. Historically, OHL was described in patients who are severely immunocompromised, such as those with HIV/AIDS and organ transplant patients. OHL is increasingly seen in patients who are not severely immunocompromised. Read More

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Oral hairy leukoplakia associated with the use of adalimumab.

Cutis 2020 Nov;106(5):E4-E6

Dermatology Center of Southern Indiana, Bloomington, and the Indiana University School of Medicine, Bloomington, USA.

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November 2020

Treatment options for oral hairy leukoplakia: A case report.


Dermatol Ther 2020 Sep 27;33(5):e14148. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

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September 2020

Oral Hairy Leukoplakia in Immunocompetent Patients Revisited with Literature Review.

Head Neck Pathol 2021 Sep 11;15(3):989-993. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diagnostic Sciences, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 1395 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.

Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lesion seen in severely immunocompromised patients especially, those with concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It has been rarely reported in immunocompetent patients. OHL most often presents on the lateral border of the tongue as an asymptomatic, white, and corrugated plaque that does not rub off. Read More

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September 2021

Oral Hairy Leukoplakia Related to Orodispersible Budesonide Use.

ACG Case Rep J 2020 Dec 9;7(12):e00502. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

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December 2020

Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection is associated with reduced HIV viral load and lower risk for opportunistic infections in people living with HIV.

PLoS Biol 2020 12 7;18(12):e3000963. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Approximately 28% of the human population have been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), with the overwhelming majority of infected individuals not developing disease (latent TB infection (LTBI)). While it is known that uncontrolled HIV infection is a major risk factor for the development of TB, the effect of underlying LTBI on HIV disease progression is less well characterized, in part because longitudinal data are lacking. We sorted all participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) with at least 1 documented MTB test into one of the 3 groups: MTB uninfected, LTBI, or active TB. Read More

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December 2020

Oral health status and treatment needs among HIV/AIDS patients attending antiretroviral therapy center in Western India: A cross-sectional study.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Jul 30;9(7):3722-3728. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Conservative and Endodontics, Daswani Dental College & Research Centre, Kota, Rajasthan, India.

Aims And Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a major public health problem across the globe. Among 37.9 million people are living with HIV in the world and 21. Read More

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A real-world, cross sectional study of oral lesions and their association with CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load in Yunnan, China.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Oct;99(40):e22416

Department of Stomatology, Kunming Medical University Yan An Hospital and Yan An Hospital of Kunming City.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) supresses immune system, primarily cell-mediated immunity. Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count, viral load, and oral lesions are the most important laboratory parameters to evaluate the evolution of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The present study aims to determine the incidence of HIV-related oral lesions with CD4 cell count and viral load in Yunnan, China. Read More

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October 2020

Oral manifestations of HIV: Can they be an indicator of disease severity? (A systematic review).

Oral Dis 2020 Sep;26 Suppl 1:133-136

Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Objective: To review the existing research literature on the paradigm that the oral lesions could be an indicator of the disease severity with the objective of documenting the current status of research, highlighting its major findings.

Material And Methods: Publications were identified through a careful search, of which a majority focused on oral lesions as an indicator for HIV progression. A PubMed journal search of 10 years OF period publication (2009-2019) for "oral lesion, oral manifestation, indicator, HIV and HIV-associated" was performed and analysed. Read More

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September 2020

The global changing pattern of the oral manifestations of HIV.

Anwar R Tappuni

Oral Dis 2020 Sep;26 Suppl 1:22-27

Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

The significance of the oral manifestations of HIV has been widely recognised since the start of the epidemic. It is estimated that more than 38 million people are living with HIV currently, with more than a third presenting with oral manifestations. Access to optimum clinical management and effective treatment in resource-rich countries has led to a remarkable decrease in some of the oral manifestations in the HIV population but this is not mirrored in developing countries, where most HIV-positive patients reside. Read More

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September 2020

Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in saliva of HIV-1-infected individuals with oral hairy leukoplakia.

Oral Dis 2020 Sep;26 Suppl 1:158-160

Oral Medicine Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, Indonesia.

We present three cases of oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) in whom the diagnosis was established by EBV DNA detection in whole saliva. Three HIV-infected patients came to the Oral Medicine Clinic with similar chief complaints of asymptomatic white lesions on the tongue. All patients were diagnosed with suspected OHL and oral thrush also in the first patient. Read More

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September 2020

A 45-year-old Female with an Atypical Presentation of Pharyngitis.

Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med 2020 May 27;4(2):234-240. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Reynold's Memorial Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Glen Dale, West Virginia.

Introduction: Emergency physicians are trained to treat a variety of ailments in the emergency department (ED), some of which are emergent, while others are not. A common complaint seen in the ED is a sore throat. While most sore throats are easily diagnosed and treated, less common causes are often not considered in the differential diagnoses. Read More

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Oral hairy leukoplakia in a child using a corticosteroid nasal spray.

Pediatr Dermatol 2020 Jul 5;37(4):721-723. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, São Paulo State University (Unesp), São José dos Campos, Brazil.

We report a case of atypical oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) in a 9-year-old immunocompetent girl treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray for allergic rhinitis. The OHL in childhood is uncommon and should be included in a differential diagnosis of white lesions in the oral mucosa. Read More

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Treatment options for oral hairy leucoplakia: A case report.

Dermatol Ther 2020 05 3;33(3):e13425. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

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Oral Manifestations in HIV-TB Co- infected Patients and Their Correlation with CD4 Count in Telangana State, India.

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2020 Jan-Feb;10(1):21-35. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Panineeya Mahavidyalaya Institute of Dental Sciences, Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Aims And Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related oral lesions are often an early finding, and they reflect the underlying immunosuppression, and tuberculosis (TB) coinfection can have further deteriorating effect. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinical and oral presentations of patients coinfected with HIV-TB, correlating with various parameters such as the type of TB with CD4 cell count, the type of TB with oral manifestations, site of the lesion, oral manifestations with CD4 cell counts, age, and gender.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among selected 200 patients coinfected with HIV-TB, registered at Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, and demographic data, CD4 count, diagnosis of TB, and clinical presentation of TB were correlated with site, age, gender, and the type of lesions in the oral cavity. Read More

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January 2020

Oral leukoplakia; a proposal for simplification and consistency of the clinical classification and terminology.

I van der Waal

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2019 Nov 1;24(6):e799-e803. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Pathology VU University Medical Center P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands

There is a distinct lack of uniformity in the definitions and clinical terminologies related to oral leukoplakia and leukoplakialike lesions and disorders. Proposals have been put forward to subclassify leukoplakia into a homogeneous and a non-homogeneous type based on color only, being either predominantly white or mixed whiteand-red, respectively, irrespective of the texture of the lesion. In this proposal there is no need anymore to regard the poorly defined proliferative verrucous leukoplakia as a separate entity. Read More

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November 2019

Racial differences in dermatologic conditions associated with HIV: A cross-sectional study of 4679 patients in an urban tertiary care center.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 May 6;82(5):1117-1123. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Background: Because of reduced mortality, patients with HIV are living longer and presenting with chronic diseases. Little is known about racial differences in dermatologic conditions associated with HIV infection.

Objective: This study examines associated dermatologic conditions in a large population of patients with HIV at a tertiary care center with a diverse patient population. Read More

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Oral Hairy Leukoplakia in Patients With No Evidence of Immunosuppression: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

J Can Dent Assoc 2018 05;84:i4

Objectives: Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and is often associated with HIV and other immunosuppressive conditions. It is rare in HIV-negative patients, but has been reported in patients who use immune-modulating medications (e.g. Read More

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HIV status does not worsen oral health outcomes.

J Clin Periodontol 2019 06;46(6):640-641

Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Last January 31st, Journal of Clinical Periodontology just made available the report titled "A Retrospective Analysis of Dental Implant Survival in HIV Patients," which concluded that "implants placed in HIV-positive patients had similar survival rates as HIV-negative patients." These data support our hypothesis that infection by HIV does not lead to worse oral health outcomes, including worse periodontitis. We looked 6,092 individuals and selected all HIV-positive subjects (N = 73) and matched them by age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking habits with 261 HIV-negative control subjects. Read More

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Hairy Tongue: Differential Diagnosis by Use of Widefield Optical Fluorescence.

Braz Dent J 2019 Mar-Apr;30(2):191-196. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Núcleo de Pesquisa em Química Biológica (NQBio), UFSJ - Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Divinópolis, MG, Brasil.

Hairy tongue is a benign pathology, characterized clinically by hyperkeratinized plaques on the dorsal surface of the tongue, hairlike, whose coloration ranges from unpigment, whitish, yellowish, green, brown to black. Diagnosis is clinical, and, in cases of whitish plaques, it may be difficult to differentiate between oral hairy leukoplakia, potentially malignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Thus, widefield optical fluorescence complementary examination may allow a better visualization of the local hairlike pattern of hyperkeratinization, typical of the hairy tongue, facilitating the diagnosis. Read More

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October 2019

Knowledge of Oral Cancer among the Fourth and Fifth Year Dental Students.

Acta Stomatol Croat 2018 Dec;52(4):340-347

Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: The literature data show insufficient knowledge and awareness about oral cancer among dental and medical students.

Objective: To assess the knowledge of graduating dental students regarding oral cancer and to assess their awareness regarding the prevention and early detection of oral cancer. Also student's smoking status was examined aimed to investigate their attitude towards smoking as a risk factor for development of oral cancer and to assess the prevalence of smoking among dental students. Read More

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December 2018