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    ORAL LESIONS IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS.
    Acta Clin Croat 2016 09;55(3):459-63
    Permanent immunosuppression is necessary to prevent rejection after kidney transplantation. However, it may predispose patients to different conditions and diseases including oral lesions. The most common benign oral lesions in kidney transplant recipients are gingival hyperplasia, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and saburral tongue. Read More

    Diagnosis of Oral Hairy Leukoplakia: The Importance of EBV In Situ Hybridization.
    Int J Dent 2017 17;2017:3457479. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Special Care Dentistry Center, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Department of Stomatology, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which has been related to HIV infection. In situ hybridization (ISH) is the gold-standard diagnosis of OHL, but some authors believe in the possibility of performing the diagnosis based on clinical basis. The aim of this study is diagnose incipient lesions of OHL by EBV ISH of HIV-infected patients and the possible correlations with clinical characteristics of the patients. Read More

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated epithelial and non-epithelial lesions of the oral cavity.
    Jpn Dent Sci Rev 2017 Aug 15;53(3):95-109. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Division of Pathology, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Sciences, Meikai University School of Dentistry, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0283, Japan.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with the development of malignant lymphoma and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in immunocompromised patients. EBV, a B-lymphotropic gamma-herpesvirus, causes infectious mononucleosis and oral hairy leukoplakia, as well as various pathological types of lymphoid malignancy. Furthermore, EBV is associated with epithelial malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), salivary gland tumor, gastric carcinoma and breast carcinoma. Read More

    Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Nov 3;46(11):1497-1504. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Sergipe, Lagarto, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to determine whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The search was conducted in seven electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, Embase, Web of Science, and OpenGrey), without restriction on publication period or language. Read More

    A Temporal Proteomic Map of Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Replication in B Cells.
    Cell Rep 2017 May;19(7):1479-1493
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Harvard Virology Program, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication contributes to multiple human diseases, including infectious mononucleosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, B cell lymphomas, and oral hairy leukoplakia. We performed systematic quantitative analyses of temporal changes in host and EBV proteins during lytic replication to gain insights into virus-host interactions, using conditional Burkitt lymphoma models of type I and II EBV infection. We quantified profiles of >8,000 cellular and 69 EBV proteins, including >500 plasma membrane proteins, providing temporal views of the lytic B cell proteome and EBV virome. Read More

    Oral hairy leukoplakia arising in a patient with hairy cell leukaemia: the first reported case.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Apr 6;2017. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Oral Medicine, University of Bristol Dental Hospital, Bristol, UK.
    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an oral mucosal lesion that is associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. It commonly presents as an asymptomatic, non-removable white patch on the lateral borders of the tongue in individuals who are immunocompromised. Historically, OHL was thought to be pathognomonic of HIV infection; however, it is now an established phenomenon in a range of conditions affecting immune competence. Read More

    Oral manifestations and their correlation to baseline CD4 count of HIV/AIDS patients in Ghana.
    J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Feb 20;43(1):29-36. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Oral and Maxillofacial Microvascular Reconstruction LAB, Brong Ahafo Regional Hospital, Sunyani, Ghana.; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
    Objectives: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People with AIDS are much more vulnerable to infections, including opportunistic infections and tumors, than people with a healthy immune system. The objective of this study was to correlate oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS and immunosuppression levels by measuring clusters of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell counts among patients living in the middle western regions of Ghana. Read More

    Differentiation-Dependent LMP1 Expression Is Required for Efficient Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in Epithelial Cells.
    J Virol 2017 Apr 29;91(8). Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases of epithelial cells, including tumors that have latent infection, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) lesions that have lytic infection, frequently express the viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In lytically infected cells, LMP1 expression is activated by the BRLF1 (R) immediate early (IE) protein. However, the mechanisms by which LMP1 expression is normally regulated in epithelial cells remain poorly understood, and its potential roles in regulating lytic reactivation in epithelial cells are as yet unexplored. Read More

    Retrospective analysis of the clinical behavior of oral hairy leukoplakia in 215 HIV-seropositive patients.
    Braz Oral Res 2016 Nov 28;30(1):e118. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Universidade de São Paulo - USP, Special Care Dentistry Center, Department of Oral Pathology, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Oral manifestations are common findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and frequently influence the overall health. Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is strongly associated with HIV infection demonstrating its relationship with the individual's immune status and progression of immunosuppression. This study aims to retrospectively evaluate OHL in HIV patients, analyzing its incidence, demographic aspects and possible changes in clinical and epidemiological profile of the disease over 17 years. Read More

    Prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal non-malignant lesions in the western Sicilian population.
    Minerva Stomatol 2016 Aug;65(4):191-206
    Department of Surgical, Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy -
    Backgroung: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal non-malignant lesions in the Sicilian population. In addition, we evaluated the association between each oral lesion and its risk factors.

    Methods: This study analyzed a total of 2539 consecutive patients, attending the Department of Surgical, Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines of Palermo University, who were examined for the presence of various oral lesions during the period from January 2012 and February 2015. Read More

    Diseases of the tongue.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul-Aug;34(4):458-69. Epub 2016 Mar 8.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ.
    The tongue is a complex organ involved in speech and expression as well as in gustation, mastication, and deglutition. The oral cavity, along with the tongue, are sites of neoplasms, reactive processes, and infections, and may be a harbinger of systemic diseases. This review includes both common and rare diseases that occur on the tongue, including: vascular and lymphatic lesions (infantile hemangiomas and oral varices), reactive and inflammatory processes (hairy tongue, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, benign migratory glossitis, and fissured tongue), infections (oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections, human papillomavirus, and candidiasis), premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and erythroplakia), malignant lesions (squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and lymphoproliferative diseases), and signs of systemic disease (nutritional deficiency and systemic amyloidosis). Read More

    Hairy leukoplakia; lessons learned: 30-plus years.
    Oral Dis 2016 Apr;22 Suppl 1:120-7
    Department of Dental Ecology, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Well into the fourth decade of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, we can look back on the early years, the initial discoveries, and the broad sweep of the progress of our understanding of the nature, causes, and significance of the oral lesions seen in those infected with the virus. Prominent among these is oral hairy leukoplakia (HL), a previously unknown lesion of the mouth associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and initially seen only in people with AIDS, in the then-recognized risk groups, or those shown to be HIV positive. Subsequently, it became clear that the distribution of HL extends well beyond the HIV spectrum. Read More

    Epstein-Barr Virus and Its Association with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia: A Short Review.
    Int J Dent 2016 7;2016:4941783. Epub 2016 Mar 7.
    Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Ga-Rankuwa 0208, South Africa.
    In immunocompromised subjects, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of terminally differentiated oral keratinocytes may result in subclinical productive infection of the virus in the stratum spinosum and in the stratum granulosum with shedding of infectious virions into the oral fluid in the desquamating cells. In a minority of cases this productive infection with dysregulation of the cell cycle of terminally differentiated epithelial cells may manifest as oral hairy leukoplakia. This is a white, hyperkeratotic, benign lesion of low morbidity, affecting primarily the lateral border of the tongue. Read More

    Diagnosis of HIV-Associated Oral Lesions in Relation to Early versus Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from the CIPRA HT001 Trial.
    PLoS One 2016 1;11(3):e0150656. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America.
    Oral mucosal lesions that are associated with HIV infection can play an important role in guiding the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). The incidence of these lesions relative to the timing of ART initiation has not been well characterized. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between 2004 and 2009. Read More

    Epstein- Barr Virus: Clinical and Epidemiological Revisits and Genetic Basis of Oncogenesis.
    Open Virol J 2015 3;9:7-28. Epub 2015 Nov 3.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Reading, G37 AMS Wing, UK.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is classified as a member in the order herpesvirales, family herpesviridae, subfamily gammaherpesvirinae and the genus lymphocytovirus. The virus is an exclusively human pathogen and thus also termed as human herpesvirus 4 (HHV4). It was the first oncogenic virus recognized and has been incriminated in the causation of tumors of both lymphatic and epithelial nature. Read More

    [Oral viral infections].
    Presse Med 2016 Feb 4;45(2):196-214. Epub 2016 Feb 4.
    Hôpital Erasme, clinique de pathologie des muqueuses, université libre de Bruxelles, service de dermatologie, 808, route de Lennik, Bruxelles, Belgique. Electronic address:
    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Read More

    Current strategies for prevention of oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus.
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Jan 9;121(1):29-38. Epub 2015 Sep 9.
    Professor and Chair Department of Dental Ecology, CB 7450, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Strategies to prevent new-onset and recurrent oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including fungal, viral, neoplastic, and idiopathic mucosal diseases and destructive periodontal conditions, are poorly understood.

    Study Design: A structured review of the English language literature in PubMed through March 2015 was conducted to identify current prevention strategies for initial and recurrent oral manifestations of HIV.

    Results: Pharmacologic approaches, including combination antiretroviral therapy or other targeted therapies for prevention of oropharyngeal candidiasis, orolabial herpes, oral hairy leukoplakia, oral Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis were found. Read More

    White lesions in the oral cavity: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2015 Dec;34(4):161-70
    Departments of Orofacial Sciences, Radiation Oncology, and Pathology, and the Helen Diller Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
    White lesions in the oral cavity are common and have multiple etiologies, some of which are also associated with dermatological disease. While most intraoral white lesions are benign, some are premalignant and/or malignant at the time of clinical presentation, making it extremely important to accurately identify and appropriately manage these lesions. Due to their similar clinical appearances, it may be difficult sometimes to differentiate benign white lesions from their premalignant/malignant counterparts. Read More

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers in Lesotho regarding the management of patients with oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS.
    SADJ 2014 Nov;69(10):446, 448-53
    Lesotho has the third highest prevalence of HIV in the world with an estimated 23% of the adult population infected. At least 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have presented with oral manifestation of HIV as the first sign of the disease. Oral health workers regularly encounter patients presenting with oral lesions associated with HIV disease and therefore need to have adequate knowledge of these conditions for diagnosis and management. Read More

    Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells.
    PLoS Pathog 2015 Oct 2;11(10):e1005195. Epub 2015 Oct 2.
    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America; Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s) that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Read More

    Frequent detection of high human papillomavirus DNA loads in oral potentially malignant disorders.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2016 Jan 25;22(1):95.e9-95.e15. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is estimated to be the cause of 40--80% of the squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx but only of a small fraction of the oral cavity cancers. The prevalence of oral HPV infection has significantly increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the role of HPV in progression of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) toward squamous cell carcinomas. We sought to study HPV infection in patients with oral lesions, and in control individuals, using non-invasive and site-specific oral brushing and sensitive molecular methods. Read More

    Operational research on the correlation between skin diseases and HIV infection in Tigray region, Ethiopia.
    Int J Dermatol 2015 Oct;54(10):1169-74
    San Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Italy.
    Background: In Ethiopia, skin diseases are among the leading causes of outpatient attendance to primary health service. Correlation of skin diseases and HIV has long been recognized and used to guide medical management in resource-limited settings. Therefore, this study aims to assess the correlation of skin diseases and HIV infection, to estimate epidemiological distribution in the study area, and to provide health workers of skin indicators for HIV early detection. Read More

    [Oral hairy leukoplakia induced by topical steroids].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2015 Oct 9;142(10):572-6. Epub 2015 Sep 9.
    Dermatologie, consultation pluridisciplinaire de pathologies de la muqueuse buccale, institut Claudius-Regaud, institut universitaire du cancer Toulouse Oncopole, 1, avenue Irène-Joliot-Curie, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France.
    Background: Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an EBV-associated condition of the oral mucosa, which is often painless. It is found predominantly in HIV-positive patients and is considered a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. OHL has rarely been described in HIV-negative patients, being found most often in association with iatrogenic immunosuppression. Read More

    Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Asia: Systematic review and future research guidelines.
    J Clin Exp Dent 2015 Jul 1;7(3):e419-27. Epub 2015 Jul 1.
    Reader, Department of Oral Medicine, P.D.M. Dental College, Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India.
    Objectives: The authors have conducted a systematic review of oral manifestations of HIV from studies conducted in Asia to establish the characteristics and prevalence of individual oral manifestations in Asia, and to assess the direction of future research studies on oral manifestations of HIV in Asia.

    Material And Methods: The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE], EBSCO, and EMBASE. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period January 1995 to August 2014. Read More

    Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus associated conditions of the oral mucosa.
    Semin Diagn Pathol 2015 Jan 19;32(1):3-11. Epub 2014 Dec 19.
    Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women׳s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Center for Oral Pathology, StrataDx Inc, Lexington, Massachusetts.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections of the oral mucosa may present as both benign and malignant conditions. Squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum are benign, HPV-associated growths treated with simple excision while multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) usually occurs in children and adolescents and resolves over time. HPV-associated oral dysplasia is uncommon and HPV-carcinoma comprises 6% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Read More

    Epidemiology and Relationships between CD4+ Counts and Oral Lesions among 50 Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
    J Int Oral Health 2015 Jan;7(1):18-21
    Lecturer, Director Postgraduate Program of Oral Pathology, Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology and Diagnosis Science, School of Dentistry, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical lesions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients in the oral cavity, head and neck region and to determine their associations with level of immune suppression as measured by the CD4+ count.

    Materials And Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 50 patients with a proven HIV infection were evaluated. Based on the clinical findings and CD4+ counts, the relationships between oral lesions and CD4+ cell count were investigated. Read More

    Twenty-first-century oral hairy leukoplakia--a non-HIV-associated entity.
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Mar 5;119(3):326-32. Epub 2014 Dec 5.
    Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Cellular Pathology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Objective: This study presents the clinicopathologic features of a series (N = 35) of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL).

    Methods: Patients with non-HIV-associated OHL were identified from three centers. Epstein-Barr virus infection was demonstrated by using EBV early ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization. Read More

    Epstein-Barr virus: dermatologic associations and implications: part I. Mucocutaneous manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus and nonmalignant disorders.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2015 Jan;72(1):1-19; quiz 19-20
    Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, New Jersey; Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus that has been implicated in a wide range of human diseases, many of which have mucocutaneous manifestations. As a member of the herpesviridae family, EBV causes lifelong infection by establishing latency in B lymphocytes. An intact immune response is critical in preventing progression of EBV disease, and the clinical manifestations of infection are dependent on the intricate relationship between virus and host immune system. Read More

    [Oral ulcer as primary manifestation of HIV infection in an 80-year-old man].
    Ugeskr Laeger 2014 Dec;176(25A)
    Øre-Næse-Halsafdelingen, Sygehus Sønderjylland, Sydvang 1, 6400 Sønderborg.
    Oral lesions such as candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex infection, and ulcerative periodontitis are associated with HIV infection and may be the primary presentation in persons with undiagnosed HIV. We report a clinical case in which an 80-year-old man presented with an oral ulcer with morphological signs of immuno-suppression. The patient was perceived to be at low risk of HIV infection and thus, diagnostic HIV testing was delayed until subsequent development of Kaposi's sarcoma on the skin. Read More

    Correlation between oral lesions and opportunistic infections among human immunodeficiency virus - infected individuals in Indian population.
    Int Marit Health 2014 ;65(3):124-30
    Department of Medicine, Jhalawar Medical College and SRG Hospital, Jhalawar, Rajasthan, India.
    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major global health problem. Tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis are the leading cause of death among people living with HIV.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether any relationship exists between the occurrence of oral lesions and opportunistic infections among HIV-infected patients in Indian population. Read More

    Development of a clinical scoring system for assessment of immunosuppression in patients with tuberculosis and HIV infection without access to CD4 cell testing - results from a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia.
    Glob Health Action 2014 Dec;7(1):23105
    a Infectious Diseases Research Unit Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University , Sweden.
    Background Currently, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis (TB). The timing of ART during the course of anti-TB treatment is based on CD4 cell counts. Access to CD4 cell testing is not universally available; this constitutes an obstacle for the provision of ART in low-income countries. Read More

    Association between oral candidiasis and low CD4+ count among HIV positive patients in Hoima Regional Referral Hospital.
    BMC Oral Health 2014 Nov 28;14:143. Epub 2014 Nov 28.
    Department of Dentistry, Makerere University, P,O, Box 33019, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Human Immune Virus (HIV) related oral lesions and their association with Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4+) count among treatment naïve HIV positive patients.

    Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical cross sectional study. Participants were 346 treatment naïve HIV positive adult patients. Read More

    Cellular differentiation regulator BLIMP1 induces Epstein-Barr virus lytic reactivation in epithelial and B cells by activating transcription from both the R and Z promoters.
    J Virol 2015 Feb 19;89(3):1731-43. Epub 2014 Nov 19.
    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Unlabelled: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) maintains a lifelong latent infection within a subset of its host's memory B cells, while lytic EBV replication takes place in plasma cells and differentiated epithelial cells. Therefore, cellular transcription factors, such as BLIMP1, that are key mediators of differentiation likely contribute to the EBV latent-to-lytic switch. Previous reports showed that ectopic BLIMP1 expression induces reactivation in some EBV-positive (EBV(+)) B-cell lines and transcription from Zp, with all Z(+) cells in oral hairy leukoplakia being BLIMP1(+). Read More

    Design aspects of a case-control clinical investigation of the effect of HIV on oral and gastrointestinal soluble innate factors and microbes.
    PLoS One 2014 19;9(11):e112901. Epub 2014 Nov 19.
    Department of Basic Sciences and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, New York, United States of America; Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.
    Introduction: The impaired host defense system in HIV infection impacts the oral and gastrointestinal microbiota and associated opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment is predicted to partially restore host defenses and decrease the oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the interactions of soluble host defense proteins with bacteria and virus in HIV/AIDS. Read More

    [Clinical features of oral lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Guangxi autonomous region].
    Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Aug;49(8):459-63
    Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, College of Stomatology, GuangXi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China. Email:
    Objective: To investigate the features of oral lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS).

    Methods: A total of 127 HIV-seropositive patients were interviewed for health information and examined for their HIV-related oral lesions according to the EC Clearing House Criteria on Oral Problems related to HIV-Infection (1992). The examinations were conducted by dental specialist and HIV specialist. Read More

    Black hairy tongue syndrome.
    World J Gastroenterol 2014 Aug;20(31):10845-50
    Grigoriy E Gurvits, Department of Gastroenterology, New York University School of Medicine/Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, United States.
    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11. Read More

    Oral hairy leukoplakia in patients without HIV: presentation of 2 new cases.
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2014 Nov 15;118(5):e151-60. Epub 2014 May 15.
    Assistant Professor, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Objective: We report 2 cases of oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) in patients without HIV and present a comprehensive review of OHL in HIV-negative individuals.

    Study Design: Two cases of non-HIV-associated OHL are described. A PubMed search identified previously reported cases. Read More

    [Oral lesions associated to immunosuppression in kidney transplant patients].
    Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2014 Jul-Aug;52(4):442-7
    Departamento de Atención a la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco, Distrito Federal, México.
    Background: The use of immunosuppresive drugs in patients with kidney transplantation (KT) could influence the development of oral lesions (OL). The aim of this study was to establish the OL prevalence in a group of KT patients, and explore some possible associations of their presence.

    Methods: Cross-sectional study. Read More

    Critical review of topical management of oral hairy leukoplakia.
    World J Clin Cases 2014 Jul;2(7):253-6
    Cláudia B Brasileiro, Ricardo A Mesquita, Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte/MG, Brazil.
    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections. OHL is usually an asymptomatic lesion, but in some cases treatment is recommended to reestablish the normal characteristics of the tongue, to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, to improve patient comfort and for cosmetic reasons. Proposed treatments for this condition include surgery, systemic antiviral treatment and topical management. Read More

    Significance of Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) and CMV (HHV-5) infection among subtype-C human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2014 Jul-Sep;32(3):261-9
    Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Purpose: Opportunistic viral infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection and their molecular detection in the whole blood could be a useful diagnostic tool.

    Objective: The frequency of opportunistic DNA virus infections among HIV-1-infected individuals using multiplex real-time PCR assays was studied.

    Materials And Methods: The subjects were in two groups; group 1: Having CD4 counts<100 cells/µl (n=118) and the group 2: counts>350 cells/µl (n=173). Read More

    Oral manifestations of allograft recipients before and after renal transplantation.
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2014 Mar;25(2):278-84
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Biomaterial Research Center, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Renal transplantation is considered the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. In this study, the prevalence of oral lesions was studied in a cohort of renal transplant recipients before and after transplantation. Fifty-nine kidney transplant recipients were examined one week before and four months after transplantation. Read More

    Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014 ;15(2):757-62
    Department of Oral Medicine, King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA) E-mail :
    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. Read More

    Development of a clinical scoring system for assessment of immunosuppression in patients with tuberculosis and HIV infection without access to CD4 cell testing--results from a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia.
    Glob Health Action 2014 13;7:23105. Epub 2014 Feb 13.
    Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Background: Currently, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis (TB). The timing of ART during the course of anti-TB treatment is based on CD4 cell counts. Access to CD4 cell testing is not universally available; this constitutes an obstacle for the provision of ART in low-income countries. Read More

    Oral lesions and immune status of HIV infected adults from eastern Nepal.
    J Clin Exp Dent 2013 Feb 1;5(1):e1-7. Epub 2013 Feb 1.
    Associate Professor, Dept of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. College of Dental Surgery, B.P.Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Sunsari District, Nepal.
    Objective: To document the prevalence, age and gender distribution of oral lesions in HIV infected adults and the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy and correlate them to the immune status of the patients.

    Materials And Methods: Oral lesions were diagnosed by a detailed physical examination by trained and calibrated examiners according to the case definitions established by the Oral HIV/AIDS research alliance. Demographic details, risk behavior patterns and oral symptoms and habits were collected by a questionnaire. Read More

    Langerhans cells and their role in oral mucosal diseases.
    N Am J Med Sci 2013 Sep;5(9):505-14
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, K.D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, India.
    Dendritic cells are arguably the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be the only cells capable of initiating the adaptive immune response. The epithelial residents of dendritic cells are Langerhans cells, which serve as the "sentinels" of the mucosa, altering the immune system not only to pathogen entry but also of tolerance to self antigen and commensal microbes. Oral mucosal Langerhans cells are capable of engaging and internalizing a wide variety of pathogens and have been found responsive to nickel in patients with nickel allergies, oral Candida species, oral lichen planus, lichenoid drug eruptions, graft versus host diseases, periodontal diseases median rhomboid glossitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, hairy leukoplakia of the tongue, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity!
    Adv Anat Pathol 2013 Nov;20(6):416-23
    Departments of *Head and Neck Surgery ‡Pathology §Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center †Department of Diagnostic Sciences, The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston, Houston, TX.
    Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare less recognized form of oral leukoplakia. Patients with this condition represent a unique clinically and pathologically progressive characteristic from conventional leukoplakia. Because of the lack of defined pathologic lesions, identifying patients with the early diagnosis of PVL is challenging. Read More

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