33,631 results match your criteria Hair Anatomy


Cnr2 Is Important for Ribbon Synapse Maturation and Function in Hair Cells and Photoreceptors.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 20;14:624265. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

The role of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2) is still poorly described in sensory epithelia. We found strong expression in hair cells (HCs) of the inner ear and the lateral line (LL), a superficial sensory structure in fish. Next, we demonstrated that sensory synapses in HCs were severely perturbed in larvae lacking cnr2. Read More

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Development in the Mammalian Auditory System Depends on Transcription Factors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 18;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

We review the molecular basis of several transcription factors (, ), including the three related genes coding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH; see abbreviations) proteins (, , ) during the development of spiral ganglia, cochlear nuclei, and cochlear hair cells. Neuronal development requires followed by its downstream target , to cross-regulate expression. In contrast, hair cells and cochlear nuclei critically depend on and require expression for interactions with . Read More

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Efferent feedback controls bilateral auditory spontaneous activity.

Nat Commun 2021 04 27;12(1):2449. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

In the developing auditory system, spontaneous activity generated in the cochleae propagates into the central nervous system to promote circuit formation. The effects of peripheral firing patterns on spontaneous activity in the central auditory system are not well understood. Here, we describe wide-spread bilateral coupling of spontaneous activity that coincides with the period of transient efferent modulation of inner hair cells from the brainstem medial olivocochlear system. Read More

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Haır Dıameter Measurements For Plannıng Follıcular Unıt Extractıon Surgery (FUE): Is There A Correlatıon Between The Mıcrometer Calıper And Scannıng Electron Mıcroscopy (SEM) Fındıngs?

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Hair shaft diameter is one of the most important factors for the outcome of follicular unit extraction (FUE) surgery. In fact, the hair shaft is elliptical. Therefore, it has a long and short axis. Read More

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Revisiting the Pericranial Flap for Scalp Reconstruction.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 May;32(Suppl 3):1275-1280

Division of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Abstract: Soft tissue deficits of the scalp due to trauma, infection, or tumor resection present a unique challenge to the reconstructive surgeon whose goal is to achieve excellent cosmesis in a hair bearing area without compromising coverage. While extensive undermining for large rotation flaps or free tissue transfer can provide necessary coverage, the pericranial flap is an excellent alternative for less ideal surgical candidates who cannot tolerate more extensive interventions or for patients who require long-term cancer surveillance. Elevation of the pericranial flap limits the need for back cuts through the skin and uses blunt dissection to preserve overlying hair follicles. Read More

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[A rare cause of mechanical occlusion in children: a case report].

Pan Afr Med J 2021 21;38:71. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Service de la Radiologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital d'Enfants Abderrahim Harouchi, Casablanca, Maroc.

Gastrointestinal (GI) bezoars are aggregates of undigested material found in the GI tract. Trichobezoar is the most common type of bezoars and consists of ingested hair, carpet fibers or fitted carpet fibers. They are mainly located in the gastric region, rare forms extend to the duodenum or small intestine and are described as Rapunzel syndrome. Read More

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Impact of constant light exposure during pregnancy on skin of neonatal New Zealand rabbits: structural and ultrastructural study.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 19;54(6):e10722. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physiotherapy, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Continuous industrial productivity and modern societies have resulted in excess artificial light. The altered circadian rhythm causes many diseases. During intrauterine life, the mother's maternal melatonin rhythm has a major role in influencing organ development. Read More

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Light and scanning electron microscopic study of genus Echinochloa species inhabited in Pakistan.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Botany, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Grass taxonomy is quite problematic and insignificant taxonomic work has been done on Echinochloa with special reference to Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was carried out to provide taxonomic keys for the identification of this genus through microscopic epidermal leaf anatomical parameters. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were done to delimit the different species. Read More

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Flavonoids increase melanin production and reduce proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma cells by blocking endolysosomal/melanosomal TPC2.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8515. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Walther Straub Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.

Two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) resides in endolysosomal membranes but also in lysosome-related organelles such as the melanin producing melanosomes. Gain-of-function polymorphisms in hTPC2 are associated with decreased melanin production and blond hair color. Vice versa genetic ablation of TPC2 increases melanin production. Read More

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Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate results in impaired auditory brainstem structure and function.

Hear Res 2021 Jun 8;405:108243. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Anatomy, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, 1858 West Grandview Blvd, Erie, PA 16504, United States. Electronic address:

Excitotoxic injury during the neonatal period has been shown to result in neurodegenerative changes in several different brain regions. Exposure to monosodium glutamate (MSG) during the first two postnatal weeks results in glutamate neurotoxicity in the cochlea and has been shown to result in damage to cochlear hair cells and fewer neurons in the spiral ganglion. Further, we have shown that such exposure results in fewer neurons in the cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex and abnormal expression of the calcium binding proteins calbindin and calretinin. Read More

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[Research progress of clinical application of medial sural artery perforator flap].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):508-513

Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, Tianjin Union Medical Center, Tianjin, 300121, P.R.China.

Objective: To review the research progress of the clinical application of the medial sural artery perforator flap (MSAPF).

Methods: The relevant domestic and abroad literature on the clinical application of MSAPF was extensively consulted, and the research progress were summarized and analyzed in aspect of its definition, anatomical characteristics, clinical application, surgical resection and improvement, and advantages and disadvantages of flaps, etc.

Results: MSAPF has the advantages of relatively constant anatomical position, thin flap texture, long vascular pedicle, large vessel diameter, no sacrifice of main blood vessels, concealed donor site, no hair, and fewer complications; it can carry nerves, tendons, and muscles to construct chimeric flaps to repair three-dimensional wounds; and can also repair wounds with high aesthetic and functional requirements such as hand, foot and ankle, head and neck, etc. Read More

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Medically Indicated Labiaplasty in a Case of Recurrent Labial Hair Thread Tourniquet Syndrome in a Premenarchal Girl.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: Despite controversy surrounding labiaplasty in adolescent girls, labiaplasty might be indicated in the case of recurrent labial hair thread tourniquet syndrome (HTTS).

Case: We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl with recurrent labial HTTS who underwent labiaplasty.

Summary And Conclusion: Recurrent labial HTTS can lead to disfigurement and partial loss of labium. Read More

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Immunological Properties of Atopic Dermatitis-Associated Alopecia Areata.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 5;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Cellular & Molecular Anatomy, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192, Japan.

Alopecia areata (AA) is regarded as a tissue-specific and cell-mediated autoimmune disorder. Regarding the cytokine balance, AA has been considered a type 1 inflammatory disease. On the other hand, AA often complicates atopic dermatitis (AD) and AD is regarded as type 2 inflammatory disease. Read More

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Genomic and anatomical comparisons of skin support independent adaptation to life in water by cetaceans and hippos.

Curr Biol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Division of Vertebrate Zoology and Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA. Electronic address:

The macroevolutionary transition from terra firma to obligatory inhabitance of the marine hydrosphere has occurred twice in the history of Mammalia: Cetacea and Sirenia. In the case of Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), molecular phylogenies provide unambiguous evidence that fully aquatic cetaceans and semiaquatic hippopotamids (hippos) are each other's closest living relatives. Ancestral reconstructions suggest that some adaptations to the aquatic realm evolved in the common ancestor of Cetancodonta (Cetacea + Hippopotamidae). Read More

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Regulation of otocyst patterning by Tbx2 and Tbx3 is required for inner ear morphogenesis in the mouse.

Development 2021 Apr 23;148(8). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute for Molecular Biology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

All epithelial components of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells and innervating afferent neurons, arise by patterning and differentiation of epithelial progenitors residing in a simple sphere, the otocyst. Here, we identify the transcriptional repressors TBX2 and TBX3 as novel regulators of these processes in the mouse. Ablation of Tbx2 from the otocyst led to cochlear hypoplasia, whereas loss of Tbx3 was associated with vestibular malformations. Read More

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CTD Anatomy: analyzing chemical-induced phenotypes and exposures from an anatomical perspective, with implications for environmental health studies.

Curr Res Toxicol 2021 5;2:128-139. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695.

The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a freely available public resource that curates and interrelates chemical, gene/protein, phenotype, disease, organism, and exposure data. CTD can be used to address toxicological mechanisms for environmental chemicals and facilitate the generation of testable hypotheses about how exposures affect human health. At CTD, manually curated interactions for chemical-induced phenotypes are enhanced with anatomy terms (tissues, fluids, and cell types) to describe the physiological system of the reported event. Read More

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HaCaT‑conditioned medium supplemented with the small molecule inhibitors SB431542 and CHIR99021 and the growth factor PDGF‑AA prevents the dedifferentiation of dermal papilla cells .

Mol Med Rep 2021 May 24;23(5). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

The Key Laboratory of Pathobiology, Ministry of Education, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130000, P.R. China.

Hair loss, including alopecia, is a common and distressing problem for men and women, and as a result, there is considerable interest in developing treatments that can prevent or reverse hair loss. Dermal papillae closely interact with epidermal cells and play a key role during hair follicle induction and hair morphogenesis. As dermal papilla cells (DPCs) lose their hair‑inducing ability in monolayer cultures , it is difficult to obtain hair follicle structures following DPC transplantation . Read More

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Projections from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to the cochlea in the mouse.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Hearing Research, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia.

Auditory efferents originate in the central auditory system and project to the cochlea. Although the specific anatomy of the olivocochlear (OC) efferents can vary between species, two types of auditory efferents have been identified based upon the general location of their cell bodies and their distinctly different axon terminations in the organ of Corti. In the mouse, the relatively small somata of the lateral (LOC) efferents reside in the lateral superior olive (LSO), have unmyelinated axons, and terminate around ipsilateral inner hair cells (IHCs), primarily against the afferent processes of type I auditory nerve fibers. Read More

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Trichilemmal carcinoma in an unexposed area of the nose: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 11;81:105752. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Trichilemmal carcinoma (TC) is a rare, low-grade, cutaneous malignant lesion that originates from hair follicle cells. It usually occurs in photo-exposed areas, especially on the face, scalp, neck, and dorsal part of the hand. We report a case of an adult female with TC in an unexposed area of the nose, which completely obstructed the right nasal cavity. Read More

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Gross and radiographic appearance of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in thalassemia affected skulls.

Anat Cell Biol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Porotic hyperostosis (PH) is the expansion of the cranial diploë, generating 'hair-on-end' appearance on X-rays. This condition is extremely rare and had a prevalence of 0.08%. Read More

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An eyebrow lump: malignant spindle cell melanoma.

Med J Aust 2021 04 16;214(7):306-306.e1. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD.

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High-fat diet induces a predisposition to follicular hyperkeratosis and neutrophilic folliculitis in mice.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Biopolis, Singapore; Skin Research Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Biopolis, Singapore; Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Neutrophilic folliculitis is an inflammatory condition of hair follicles. In some neutrophilic folliculitis, such as in patients with acne and hidradenitis suppurativa, follicular hyperkeratosis is also observed. Neutrophilic folliculitis is often induced and/or exacerbated by a high-fat diet (HFD). Read More

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Generation of Epidermal Equivalents from Hair Follicle Melanocytes, Keratinocytes, and Dermal Fibroblasts.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2269:175-201

Department of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Leipzig Medical Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Bench-to-bedside axis of therapeutic product development is currently being oriented towards minimum invasiveness on both ends-not only clinical application but harvesting of the starting biological material as well. This is particularly relevant for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products and their specific legislative requirements, even more so in skin regeneration. It is precisely the skin equivalents and grafts that benefit from the minimum-to-noninvasive approach to a noteworthy extent, taking in account the sensitive nature of both skin harvesting and grafting. Read More

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Effects of Toluene on the Development of the Inner Ear and Lateral Line Sensory System of Zebrafish.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Feb;34(2):110-118

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the ototoxicity of toluene in the early development of zebrafish embryos/larvae.

Methods: Zebrafish were utilized to explore the ototoxicity of toluene. Locomotion analysis, immunofluorescence, and qPCR were used to understand the phenotypes and molecular mechanisms of toluene ototoxicity. Read More

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February 2021

The misogyny of iron deficiency.

Anaesthesia 2021 Apr;76 Suppl 4:56-62

Division of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Anaemia is common, particularly in women and the commonest underlying cause, iron deficiency, is often overlooked. Anaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing anaesthesia; however, women are defined as being anaemic at a lower haemoglobin level than men. In this narrative review, we present the history of iron deficiency anaemia and how women's health has often been overlooked. Read More

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Knockdown of sorcin increases HEI-OC1 cell damage induced by cisplatin in vitro.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 04 3;701:108752. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

ENT Institute and Otorhinolaryngology Department, Affiliated Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University and Key Laboratory of Hearing Medicine of National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC), Shanghai, 200031, China. Electronic address:

Hearing loss caused by ototoxic drugs is a kind of acquired hearing loss. Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used drugs and its main action sites are hair cells (HCs). Sorcin is a drug-resistant calcium-binding protein belonging to the small penta-EF-hand protein family. Read More

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Convergence: Lactosylceramide-Centric Signaling Pathways Induce Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Other Phenotypic Outcomes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 12;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Cardiology Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-3654, USA.

Lactosylceramide (LacCer), also known as CD17/CDw17, is a member of a large family of small molecular weight compounds known as glycosphingolipids. It plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, primarily by way of serving as a precursor to the majority of its higher homolog sub-families such as gangliosides, sulfatides, fucosylated-glycosphingolipids and complex neutral glycosphingolipids-some of which confer "second-messenger" and receptor functions. LacCer is an integral component of the "lipid rafts," serving as a conduit to transduce external stimuli into multiple phenotypes, which may contribute to mortality and morbidity in man and in mouse models of human disease. Read More

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February 2021

Influence of Recombinant Codon-Optimized Plasmid DNA Encoding VEGF and FGF2 on Co-Induction of Angiogenesis.

Cells 2021 Feb 18;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Research Laboratory Omics Technology, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia.

Several methods for the stimulation of skin wound repair have been proposed over the last few decades. The most promising among them are gene and stem cell therapy. Our present experiments combined several approaches via the application of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MC) that were transfected with pBud-165-2 plasmid (gene-cell therapy) and direct gene therapy using pBud-165-2 plasmid to enhance healing of full thickness skin wounds in rats. Read More

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February 2021

Investigating PEGDA and GelMA Microgel Models for Sustained 3D Heterotypic Dermal Papilla and Keratinocyte Co-Cultures.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 21;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 21.

School of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Pharmacy and Bank Building A15, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Hair follicle morphogenesis is heavily dependent on reciprocal, sequential, and epithelial-mesenchymal interaction (EMI) between epidermal stem cells and the specialized cells of the underlying mesenchyme, which aggregate to form the dermal condensate (DC) and will later become the dermal papilla (DP). Similar models were developed with a co-culture of keratinocytes and DP cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that co-culture with keratinocytes maintains the in vivo characteristics of the DP. Read More

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February 2021

Histologic features of hair follicle neoplasms and cysts in dogs and cats: a diagnostic guide.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 May 5;33(3):479-497. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX.

Hair follicle neoplasms occur in many different species, including humans. In domestic animals, they are most common in dogs. Most hair follicle tumors are benign, but malignant neoplasms can also occur. Read More

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