28,725 results match your criteria Haemophilus Influenzae Infections
Curr Microbiol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Institute of Immunology, College of Life Science and Technology, Dalian University, Dalian, 116622, Liaoning, China.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant animal morbidity and mortality and economic losses worldwide. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), mucosa, and feces in cecum of the PRRSV-challenged pigs using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform, to investigate the role of microbiota in the pathogenesis and development of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Quantitative insights into microbial ecology analyses indicated that the dominant bacterial groups in the lung from the PRRSV-challenged pigs were Haemophilus parasuis and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, with a relative abundance of 35-48% and 27-41%, respectively. Read More
Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Section of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Background: Data on the serologic status of childhood vaccines, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are limited in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we evaluated vaccine coverage and seroprotection, along with CMV and EBV seropositivity, in pediatric IBD.
Methods: In a cross-sectional study, demographic data, IBD history, vaccine records, and serum for antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), CMV, and EBV were collected from children with IBD. Read More
MBio 2018 Dec 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA
Otitis media (OM) is often polymicrobial, with nontypeable (NTHI) and (Mcat) frequently cocultured from clinical specimens. Bacterial biofilms in the middle ear contribute to the chronicity and recurrence of OM; therefore, strategies to disrupt biofilms are needed. We have focused our vaccine development efforts on the majority subunit of NTHI type IV pili, PilA. Read More
Respirol Case Rep 2019 Feb 4;7(2):e00394. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery Taipei Veterans General Hospital Taipei Taiwan.
Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice for mature mediastinal teratoma, and the operation itself is sometimes complicated or life-threatening, especially when it ruptures into adjacent vital structures. We describe a rare case of unanticipatedly delayed complete resection of a symptomatic teratoma with simultaneous infection, followed by extended rupture into the pleural space, lung, and bronchus. The clinical presentation and the microbiological and radiologic features may lead to the impression of a lung abscess until it can be proven otherwise pathologically after an initial thoracic aspiration. Read More
Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Jul 19;7(2). Epub 2018 Jul 19.
Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important bacterial pathogen that causes otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we report the complete genome sequences of NTHi strains 10P129H1 and 84P36H1, isolated from COPD patients, which contain the phase-variable epigenetic regulators ModA15 and ModA18, respectively. Read More
Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Oct 25;7(16). Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Minnesota Department of Health Public Health Laboratory, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.
is a complex genus that includes commensal and pathogenic species that pose a public health threat to humans. While the pathogenic species have been studied extensively, many commensals have limited genomic information available. Here, we present 24 draft genomes for a diverse set of 7 and species. Read More
Nitric Oxide 2018 Dec 5;83:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Institute for Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK. Electronic address:
There is conflicting evidence on whether dietary nitrate supplementation can improve exercise performance. This may arise from the complex nature of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism which causes substantial inter-individual variability, within-person biological variation (CV), and analytical imprecision (CV) in experimental endpoints. However, no study has quantified the CV and CV of NO metabolites or the factors that influence their production. Read More
Med Mal Infect 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Groupe d'études en préventologie (GEP), hôpital d'instruction des armées Robert-Picqué, 351, route de Toulouse, 33140 Villenave-d'Ornon, France.
Objectives: To measure vaccine coverage among adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region using the free electronic immunization record.
Patients And Methods: We considered adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region from April to October 2013. All participants received a letter explaining how to create an electronic immunization record. Read More
PeerJ 2018 29;6:e6017. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan.
Background: is the etiological agent of Glässer's disease, and causes severe economic losses in the swine industry. Serovar classification is intended as an indicator of virulence and pathotype and is also crucial for vaccination programs and vaccine development. According to a polysaccharide biosynthesis locus analysis, isolates could be classified by a molecular serotyping assay except serovars 5 and 12 detected by the same primer pair. Read More
Lancet Neurol 2018 Dec 13;17(12):1061-1082. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Background: Acute meningitis has a high case-fatality rate and survivors can have severe lifelong disability. We aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the levels and trends of global meningitis burden that could help to guide introduction, continuation, and ongoing development of vaccines and treatment programmes.
Methods: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2016 study estimated meningitis burden due to one of four types of cause: pneumococcal, meningococcal, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a residual category of other causes. Read More
J Educ Health Promot 2018 29;7:129. Epub 2018 Oct 29.
Department of Community Medicine, Seth G. S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases in adults is the need of the hour. The student nurses by virtue of training are the frontline health workers dealing with patient care. They are exposed to maximum risk of contracting the diseases. Read More
Indian J Pharmacol 2018 Jul-Aug;50(4):204-207
Department of Pharmacology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Background: Cefixime is a widely used third-generation cephalosporin schedule H1 drug, which is prescribed for the treatment of otitis media, respiratory tract infections, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections and is effective against infections caused by and species in India. The National Coordination Centre (NCC)-Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI), Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC), has received rare individual case safety reports (ICSRs) for acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) associated with the use of cefixime.
Materials And Methods: IPC, NCC-PvPI also acts as a national collaborating center for pharmacovigilance activities under the aegis of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; moreover, it is a member country in global pharmacovigilance system, World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden. Read More
Am J Med 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nephrology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kohasu, Oko-cho, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8505, Japan.
Auris Nasus Larynx 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.
Objective: Phosphorylcholine (PC) is a structural component of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and is known to be associated with adherence through the platelet activating factor receptor (PAF-R). Furthermore, high PC expression is considered to be involved in Spn and NTHi virulence. In this study, we examined the influence of PC expression on the adherence of Spn and NTHi to epithelial cells in order to clarify the potential effectiveness of a vaccine targeting PC. Read More
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2018 1;2018:5406467. Epub 2018 Nov 1.
Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14049-900, Brazil.
We sought to investigate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in secretions and tonsillar tissues of children with chronic adenotonsillitis hypertrophy compared to controls. Prospective case-control study comparing patients between 2 and 12 years old who underwent adenotonsillectomy due to chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy to children without disease. We compared detection of , , , and by real-time PCR in palatine tonsils, adenoids, and nasopharyngeal washes obtained from 37 children with and 14 without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2674. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
The encapsulated bacteria , and (Group B Streptococcus) have been responsible for the majority of severe infections in children for decades, specifically bacteremia and meningitis. Isolates which cause invasive disease are usually surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule, which is a major virulence factor and the key antigen in protective protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. Protection against these bacteria is largely mediated via polysaccharide-specific antibody and complement, although the contribution of these and other components, and the precise mechanisms, vary between species and include opsonophagocytosis and complement-dependent bacteriolysis. Read More
MBio 2018 Dec 4;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 4.
RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
In their natural settings, CRISPR-Cas systems play crucial roles in bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity to protect against phages and other mobile genetic elements, and they are also widely used as genome engineering technologies. Previously we discovered bacteriophage-encoded Cas9-specific anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins that serve as countermeasures against host bacterial immunity by inactivating their CRISPR-Cas systems (A. Pawluk, N. Read More
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group & Vaccine Institute, St George's University of London and St George's University Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK.
Background: Group B streptococcus is a leading cause of serious infection in young infants in many countries worldwide. We aimed to define the burden and clinical features of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days in the UK and Ireland, together with the characteristics of disease-causing isolates.
Methods: Prospective, active national surveillance of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days was done from April 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, microbiology reference laboratories, and national public health agencies in the UK and Ireland. Read More
Vaccine 2019 Jan 26;37(1):1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Electronic address:
Background: Complex otitis media (OM) may present with intact tympanic membrane or spontaneous otorrhea. We compared dynamics of intact tympanic membrane and spontaneous otorrhea OM following 7- and 13-valent conjugated vaccines (PCV7, PCV13) implementation, since differences in dynamics may imply different underlying mechanisms.
Methods: A prospective, population-based, active surveillance. Read More
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2018 Nov 26;138(19). Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Bakgrunn: Helsedirektoratet gir ut nasjonale retningslinjer for antibiotikabruk i sykehus. For pneumoni oppstått utenfor sykehus anbefales penicillin ved mild til moderat pneumoni og penicillin i kombinasjon med gentamicin ved alvorlig pneumoni. Alvorlighetsgrad vurderes med CRB-65-kriteriene. Read More
Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.
Background: DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib is a fully-liquid, hexavalent vaccine containing a 5-antigen pertussis component; approved since 2016 in Europe (Vaxelis™) for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The comparator vaccine (control) was INFANRIX™ hexa (DTaP3-IPV-HepB/Hib) in European studies and PENTACEL™ (DTaP5-IPV/Hib) in US studies.
Methods: Data from six studies were integrated and analyzed to provide a comprehensive safety profile. Read More
Eye Contact Lens 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Visual Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
This study is a retrospectively recruited case series. We report three infants with acute conjunctivitis induced by β-lactamase-positive, ampicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant strains of Haemophilus influenzae (BLPACR). Patients with BLPACR-positive cultures were recruited from among 5,107 patients with inflammatory diseases of the ocular surface who underwent examinations, including bacterial culturing of conjunctival sac or corneal scrapings, between 2000 and 2015. Read More
Microb Drug Resist 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
1 Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine , Seoul, Korea.
This study investigated the roles of β-lactamase and penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) alterations in the development of recent antimicrobial resistance in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) isolated from Korean children. Nasopharyngeal NTHi isolates from children at a tertiary children's hospital were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using E-test. β-lactamase production was screened by the paper disc test, and polymerase chain reaction amplification of bla and bla was performed. Read More
J Infect Chemother 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Japan. Electronic address:
In paediatric patients, β-lactams and macrolides are widely used to treat acute otitis media and sinusitis, which are often caused by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae. However, resistant isolates have emerged and are becoming more prevalent. H. Read More
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Nov 27:194599818815109. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
3 Division of Otolaryngology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Objective: The microbiology of pediatric complicated acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) has evolved, and our current understanding of pathogenic organisms is limited. The objectives of this study are to describe the incidence of pathogens causing complicated ARS requiring surgical intervention at our institution over a 10-year period as well as their associated treatment outcomes.
Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Read More
Vaccine 2019 Jan 23;37(1):41-48. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS), Rome, Italy. Electronic address:
Background: Vaccine-preventable invasive bacterial diseases (IBDs) caused by Neisseria meningitidis (Nm), Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), and Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) have been notified in Italy since 2007 without assessing reporting completeness.
Methods: Our study compared the number of cases of IBDs identified from the Italian Hospital Discharge Records (HDRs), using specific diagnostic ICD-9-CM codes, with those notified to the National Surveillance System (NSS) from 2007 to 2016. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to impute the aetiology of all discharges with a diagnosis of unspecified bacterial meningitis. Read More
Respirology 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.
Bronchiectasis has received increased attention recently, including an emphasis on preventing infective exacerbations that are associated with disease progression and lung function decline. While there are several bacteria and viruses associated with bronchiectasis, licensed vaccines are only currently available for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae protein D as a conjugate in a pneumococcal vaccine), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus. Read More
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2018 Nov 23;95:27-35. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Microorganisms in Animals, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:
Introduction: Haemophilus parasuis, one of the major swine pathogens, has at least fifteen different types, all of which have significant economic effects on the global swine industry. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental intraperitoneal infection model for H. parasuis in neutropenic guinea pigs. Read More
Infect Disord Drug Targets 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz. Iran.
Introduction: Infertility considered as a social and public health issue and estimated that the most of these infertile couple are residents of developing countries. Infectious diseases including the history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may impact on male reproductive function. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of bacterial contaminants of semen and probable association with sperm quality of infertile men in Iranian population. Read More
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Nov 23;17(1):41. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, School of Dentistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.
Background: Fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (FRHI) has been reported worldwide but remain unclear in China.
Methods: A total of 402 H. influenzae isolates collected from 2016 to 2017 were included. Read More
BMC Infect Dis 2018 Nov 22;18(1):592. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Riesbeck Lab, Clinical Microbiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 59, SE20502, Malmö, Sweden.
Background: Several different IgA-proteases exist in Haemophilus influenzae. The variants have been suggested to play differential roles in pathogenesis, but there is limited information on their distribution in clinical isolates. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of IgA-protease genotypes in H. Read More
Infect Drug Resist 2018 31;11:2063-2067. Epub 2018 Oct 31.
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan,
was the main causative organism for acute epiglottitis in the pre- type b (Hib) vaccine era. However, with current widespread Hib vaccination, the causative organisms may have changed. Here, we report the case of a healthy infant with acute epiglottitis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Read More
J Surg Res 2018 Dec 14;232:293-297. Epub 2018 Jul 14.
Trauma/Critical Care Division, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas. Electronic address:
Background: The spleen is the second most commonly injured solid organ during blunt abdominal trauma. Although total splenectomy is frequently performed for injury, splenic rupture can also be managed by splenic embolization. For these patients, current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations indicate that if 50% or more of the splenic mass is lost, patients should be treated as though they are asplenic. Read More
PLoS One 2018 21;13(11):e0205124. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
National Influenza Centre, Virology Unit, Pasteur Institute of Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Background: Few comprehensive data exist regarding the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in low income countries. This study aimed at identifying etiologies and describing clinical features of SARI-associated hospitalization in Madagascar.
Methods: It is a prospective surveillance of SARI in 2 hospitals for 3 years. Read More
Pan Afr Med J 2018 22;30:164. Epub 2018 Jun 22.
Service de Microbiologie, CHU Mohammed VI, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Maroc.
Non-Type b Haemophilus is a rare cause of invasive secondary localization in young children. We here report the case of a child aged 11 months old who had Meningitis due to Non-Type b Haemophilus, a gram -negative bacilli of polymorphous appearance still exceptionally described in the literature, whose origin was undetermined and whose evolution was fatal. Clinicians and microbiologists should suspect the presence of these infrequent serotypes, especially on a particular case. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 5;9:2530. Epub 2018 Nov 5.
Clinical Microbiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating respiratory disease and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation due to abnormalities in the lower airway following consistent exposure to noxious particles or gases. Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are characterized by increased cough, purulent sputum production, and dyspnea. Read More
J Biol Chem 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, United States.
In nontypeable (NTHi), the oligopeptide-binding protein OppA serves as the substrate-binding protein (SBP) responsible for peptide import. As a heme auxotroph, NTHi also uses host hemoproteins as an iron source. OppA is a member of the Cluster C SBP family, and unlike other SBP families, some members recognize two distinctly different substrates. Read More
Infect Immun 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Section Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Non-typeable (NTHi) bacteria express various molecules that contribute to their virulence. The presence of phosphocholine (PCho) on NTHi lipooligosaccharide increases adhesion to epithelial cells and is an advantage for the bacterium enabling nasopharyngeal colonization, as measured in humans and animal models. However, when PCho is expressed on the lipooligosaccharide, it is also recognized by acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) and PCho-specific antibodies, both potent initiators of the classical pathway of complement activation. Read More
Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
c GSK , Wavre , Belgium.
Combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) can further reduce the number of injections in pediatric immunization schedules of countries currently using pentavalent DTaP combination vaccines. This open-label, randomized, multicenter study (NCT02096263) conducted in the United States evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine compared with concomitant administration of DTaP-HBV-IPV and Hib or DTaP-IPV/Hib and HBV vaccines. We randomized (1:1:1) infants to receive 3-dose priming with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib boosted with DTaP+ Hib, DTaP-HBV-IPV+ Hib boosted with DTaP+ Hib, or DTaP-IPV/Hib+ HBV boosted with DTaP-IPV/Hib, at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 months of age. Read More
Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med 2018 Nov 16;2(4):338-340. Epub 2018 Oct 16.
St. Lucie Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Port St. Lucie, Florida.
Historically epiglottitis has been considered a childhood disease. However, the introduction of the type B vaccine has decreased the incidence of epiglottitis in children. It is important to recognize modern epiglottitis as a disease of adults. Read More
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Nov 16;67(45):1261-1264. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, the Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1) calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage with all vaccines in the country's national immunization schedule by 2020. This report updates previous reports (2,3) and presents global, regional, and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends as of 2017. It also describes the number of infants surviving to age 1 year (surviving infants) who did not receive the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), a key indicator of immunization program performance (4,5), with a focus on the countries with the highest number of children who did not receive DTP3 in 2017. Read More
Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 15:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 15.
m St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine , The Catholic University of Korea , Suwon , The Republic of Korea.
We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a three-dose primary vaccination schedule with the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Korean infants. In this phase III open-label, multicenter study (NCT01309646), healthy infants aged 42-69 days (randomized 1:1) received three doses of either pentavalent DTPa-IPV/Hib (DTPa-IPV/Hib group) or DTPa-IPV and Hib vaccines administered separately (DTPa-IPV+Hib group) at 2, 4, 6 months of age. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of DTPa-IPV/Hib compared to DTPa-IPV+Hib vaccines in terms of immune responses to all vaccine antigens, 1 month post-dose 3. Read More
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018 Nov;15(Supplement_3):S216-S226
4 Marsico Lung Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
A spectrum of intrapulmonary airway diseases, for example, cigarette smoke-induced bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, can be categorized as "mucoobstructive" airway diseases. A common theme for these diseases appears to be the failure to properly regulate mucus concentration, producing mucus hyperconcentration that slows mucus transport and, importantly, generates plaque/plug adhesion to airway surfaces. These mucus plaques/plugs generate long diffusion distances for oxygen, producing hypoxic niches within adherent airway mucus and subjacent epithelia. Read More
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Over the last few decades, advances in our understanding of microbial ecology have allowed us to appreciate the important role of microbial communities in maintaining human health. While much of this research has focused on gut microbes, microbial communities in other body sites and from the environment are increasingly recognized in human disease. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of host-microbiota interactions in the development and manifestation of asthma focusing on three distinct microbial compartments. Read More
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.
Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium.
Haemophilus influenzae, a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tract, is the causative agent of several clinically important infections. In cases that require therapeutic intervention, laboratory susceptibility testing can detect beta-lactam antibiotic resistance and guide the best treatment course. In the absence of a beta-lactamase, beta-lactam resistance may be due to an altered form of the PBP3 protein, encoded by the ftsI gene. Read More
Microbiome 2018 Nov 13;6(1):204. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA, 91109, USA.
Background: The International Space Station (ISS) is an ideal test bed for studying the effects of microbial persistence and succession on a closed system during long space flight. Culture-based analyses, targeted gene-based amplicon sequencing (bacteriome, mycobiome, and resistome), and shotgun metagenomics approaches have previously been performed on ISS environmental sample sets using whole genome amplification (WGA). However, this is the first study reporting on the metagenomes sampled from ISS environmental surfaces without the use of WGA. Read More
J Clin Med 2018 Nov 9;7(11). Epub 2018 Nov 9.
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 82 Gumi-ro, 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, Korea.
The applications of the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing has expanded our knowledge of the respiratory tract microbiome originally obtained using conventional, culture-based methods. In this study, we employed DNA-based molecular techniques for examining the sputum microbiome in bronchiectasis patients, in relation to disease severity. Of the sixty-three study subjects, forty-two had mild and twenty-one had moderate or severe bronchiectasis, which was classified by calculating the FACED score, based on the FEV₁ (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, %) (F, 0⁻2 points), age (A, 0⁻2 points), chronic colonization by (C, 0⁻1 point), radiographic extension (E, 0⁻1 point), and dyspnoea (D, 0⁻1 point). Read More
J Autoimmun 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 3, Haus 27, 24105, Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:
Dysbiosis¸ i.e. changes in microbial composition at a mucosal interface, is implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Read More
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.
Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
This study presents a triplex real-time PCR assay that allows for the direct detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae in one reaction without DNA extraction, with similar sensitivity and specificity to singleplex assays. This approach saves time, specimen volume and reagents while achieving a higher testing throughput. Read More
Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 8;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 8.
Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.
Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) plays an important role in inflammation. Recently we have reported that roflumilast as a PDE4-selective inhibitor, synergizes with nontypeable (NTHi) to up-regulate PDE4B expression in vitro and in vivo. Clinical evidence and our previous results suggest that synergistic induction of PDE4B could be counterproductive for suppressing inflammation or may contribute to tolerance to roflumilast. Read More