16,250 results match your criteria Haemophilus Influenzae Infections


Do combined upper airway cultures identify lower airway infections in children with chronic cough?

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Obtaining lower airway specimens is important for guiding therapy in chronic lung infection but is difficult in young children unable to expectorate. While culture-based studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal specimens for identifying lower airway infection, none have used both together. We compared respiratory bacterial pathogens cultured from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cultures as the "gold standard" to better inform the diagnosis of lower airway infection in children with chronic wet cough. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24336DOI Listing

The Gut Microbiome Signatures Discriminate Healthy From Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 3;9:90. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Translational Medicine Research Center, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Cross talk occurs between the human gut and the lung through a gut-lung axis involving the gut microbiota. However, the signatures of the human gut microbiota after active infection have not been fully understood. Here, we investigated changes in the gut microbiota in tuberculosis (TB) patients by shotgun sequencing the gut microbiomes of 31 healthy controls and 46 patients. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00090
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456665PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Today's vaccination policies in Italy: The National Plan for Vaccine Prevention 2017-2019 and the Law 119/2017 on the mandatory vaccinations.

Ann Ig 2019 Mar-Apr;31(2 Supple 1):54-64

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Messina, Italy.

The National Plan for Vaccine Prevention 2017-2019 has expanded the vaccination offer including new vaccines, enlarging the target population and introducing for the first time in Italy a life-course approach to vaccination. A "lifetime immunization schedule" is aimed to reduce the burden and the related costs of vaccine-preventable diseases through effective vaccination programs. However, to counteract the national steady downward trend in the uptake of vaccinations that caused a drop of the vaccination coverage below the 95% threshold to allow herd immunity, it was decided to make 10 vaccinations mandatory by the law 119/2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7416/ai.2019.2277DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

High-density Bacterial Nasal Carriage in Children Is Transient and Associated With Respiratory Viral Infections-Implications for Transmission Dynamics.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 May;38(5):533-538

From the School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, Education Centre, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: This longitudinal study describes the associations between respiratory viral infections, rhinitis and the prevalence and density of the common nasopharyngeal bacterial colonizers, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Staphylococcus aureus.

Methods: In an observational cohort study, 161 children attending day care centers in Bristol, United Kingdom, were recruited. Monthly nasopharyngeal swabs were taken and stored frozen in Skim-milk, tryptone, glucose and glycerin broth (STGG) broth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002256DOI Listing

Bacterial Resistance in Pneumonia in Developing Countries-A Role for Iron Chelation.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 10;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 1X5, Canada.

Pneumonia represents one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries and is associated with high mortality, in particular in children under the age of five. The main causative bacterial agents are and type B, accounting for 33% and 16%, respectively, of the mortality in under-fives. Iron modulates the immune response in infectious diseases and increased iron levels can lead to complications such as sepsis and multiorgan failure. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/4/2/59
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020059DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Population Pharmacokinetics of Doripenem in Pediatric Patients and Monte-Carlo Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Simulations for Dosing Regimen Assessment.

J Pharm Sci 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Clinical Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics, Project Management Department, Shionogi & Co., Ltd.

The aims of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of doripenem (Finibax®, Doribax®, S-4661), a parenteral carbapenem antibiotic, in pediatric patients based on concentrations of doripenem in plasma after administration of 20 mg/kg two or three times daily and to evaluate the dosing regimens by using Monte-Carlo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic simulations. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by using 190 plasma concentrations of doripenem from 99 patients (2months - 13years old). The two-compartment model well described the doripenem plasma concentrations in pediatric patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Circulating innate and adaptive immunity against anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b.

Hum Antibodies 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are one of most dangerous microbes that occupies the paediatric nasopharyngeal as a commensal opportunistic bacterium, which may lead to meningitis in uncontrolled infection. Colonisation of pharyngeal tissues is the starting point for most H. influenzae infections, which may develop into invasive diseases, such meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-190373DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

[Respiratory pathogen spectrum in pulmonary exacerbation of bronchiectasis in adults and its association with disease severity].

Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2019 Apr;42(4):254-261

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

To determine the pattern of respiratory pathogens at bronchiectasis exacerbation and its associations with disease severity. A total of 119 steady-state bronchiectasis patients [42 males, 77 females, age range 19 to 74 years, mean age (45±14)years], diagnosed by a compatible history combined with evidence of bronchial dilatation on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), were recruited prospectively from out-patient clinics in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University between September 2012 and March 2013. A comprehensive history taking, radiologic appearance, spirometry, sputum bacterial culture and 16 respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum samples by PCR assays were collected at steady-state bronchiectasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Antecedent infections in Fisher syndrome: sources of variation in clinical characteristics.

J Neurol 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi, 755-8505, Japan.

The clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are highly variable, according to the type of antecedent infection. Although a major GBS phenotype, Fisher syndrome (FS), has been shown to be preceded by infections similar to those preceding GBS, whether or not the clinical features in FS also vary according to antecedent infection remains unclarified. Frequent antecedent infections among this study of 70 FS patients included Haemophilus influenzae [n = 15 (21%)], Campylobacter jejuni [n = 10 (14%)], and cytomegalovirus (CMV) [n = 6 (8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09308-xDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Antibacterial activity against porcine respiratory bacterial pathogens and in vitro biocompatibility of essential oils.

Arch Microbiol 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Groupe de Recherche en Écologie Buccale (GREB), Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Université Laval, 2420 Rue de la Terrasse, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.

Bacterial respiratory infections affecting pigs such as pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pleurisy, are a major health concern in the swine industry and are associated with important economic losses. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activities of essential oils against major swine respiratory pathogens with a view to developing a potential alternative to antibiotics. Their synergistic interactions with the bacteriocin nisin was also examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-019-01655-7DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Investigation of the susceptibility trends in Japan to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobial agents in a nationwide collection of clinical isolates: A longitudinal analysis from 1994 to 2016.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Toho University School of Medicine, Japan.

The susceptibilities of clinical isolates to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobial agents were surveyed to obtain an accurate understanding of trends in incidence and antimicrobial resistance. The samples were collected from across Japan, biennially or triennially, between 1994 and 2016 and a defined level of resistance to fluoroquinolone was determined. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae exhibited stable and high rates of susceptibility to fluoroquinolones over the period examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.03.008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Isolation and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of from Nasopharynx of Children under Five Years Attending Maternal and Child Health Clinic in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2019 3;2019:6542919. Epub 2019 Mar 3.

Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.

remains an organism of a major public health challenge worldwide despite the availability of the Hib vaccine, particularly among children under 5 years. Information on the current carriage status and antibiotic susceptibility is key on proper health-care provision. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine carriage rate and antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates among the children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6542919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421742PMC

hicap: serotyping of the capsule locus.

J Clin Microbiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Australia.

exclusively colonises the human nasopharynx and can cause a variety of respiratory infections as well as invasive diseases including meningitis and sepsis. A key virulence determinant of is the polysaccharide capsule of which six serotypes are known, each encoded by a distinct variation of the capsule biosynthesis locus (-a to -f). type b (Hib) was historically responsible for the majority of invasive disease and prevalence has been markedly reduced in countries that have implemented vaccination programs targeting this serotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00190-19DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Lung Surfactant Lipids Provide Immune Protection Against Respiratory Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 18;10:458. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Non-typeable (NTHi) causes persistent respiratory infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), probably linked to its capacity to invade and reside within pneumocytes. In the alveolar fluid, NTHi is in contact with pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex that protects the lung against alveolar collapse and constitutes the front line of defense against inhaled pathogens and toxins. Decreased levels of surfactant phospholipids have been reported in smokers and patients with COPD. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00458
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431623PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Crystal structure of VapBC-1 from nontypeable and the effect of PIN domain mutations on survival during infection.

J Bacteriol 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Office of the Dean, College of Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene pairs have been identified in nearly all bacterial genomes sequenced to date and are thought to facilitate persistence and antibiotic tolerance. TA loci are classified into various types based upon the characteristics of their antitoxins, with those in type II expressing proteic antitoxins. Many toxins from type II modules are ribonucleases that maintain a PilT N-terminus (PIN) domain containing conserved amino acids considered essential for activity. Read More

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http://jb.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JB.00026-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00026-19DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Uptake of sialic acid by non-typeable increases complement resistance through decreasing IgM-dependent complement activation.

Infect Immun 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Section Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands

Although non-typeable (NTHi) is a human-specific nasopharyngeal commensal bacterium, it also causes upper respiratory tract infections in children and lower respiratory tract infections in the elderly, resulting in frequent antibiotics use. The transition from symbiotic colonizing bacterium to opportunistic pathogen is not completely understood. Incorporation of sialic acids into lipooligosaccharides is thought to play an important role in bacterial virulence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00077-19DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The monocyte-dependent immune response to bacteria is suppressed in smoking-induced COPD.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Medical Clinic V, Ludwig-Maximilians-University LMU, Munich, Germany.

COPD patients have an increased susceptibility to bacterial airway infections that can induce exacerbations. In response to infections, circulating monocytes become recruited to the infected tissue and secrete cytokines. We hypothesized that this cytokine response is reduced in COPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-019-01778-wDOI Listing
March 2019
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Modulation of opportunistic species Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Prevotella denticola, Prevotella melaninogenica, Rothia dentocariosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae by intranasal administration of Streptococcus salivarius 24SMBc and Streptococcus oralis 89a combination in healthy subjects.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019 Mar;23(1 Suppl):60-66

Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Probiotics S. salivarius 24SMBc and S. oralis 89a comprised in the nasal spray Rinogermina are known to exert inhibition of harmful pathogens and ameliorate the outcome of patients with chronic upper airways infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_201903_17351DOI Listing

Cross-sectional study of adenoidal biofilms in a paediatric population and its clinical implications.

Otolaryngol Pol 2018 Oct;73(1):1-5

Departamento de Saúde Ambiental, Unidade de Investigação e Desenvolvimento, INSA, Avenida Padre Cruz,1649‑016 Lisbon, Portugal.

Introduction: Adenoids are nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue with a relevant role in host defence against infection of upper respiratory tract. Nevertheless, adenoids are also a reservoir of microorganisms that can cause infections of upper respiratory tract and otitis particularly in children.

Objective: Evaluate and compare the association between biofilm assembly on adenoids and the incidence of recurrent infections in a paediatric population submitted to adenoidectomy by either infectious or non-infectious indication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0012.5278DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Metabolic analyses reveal common adaptations in two invasive Haemophilus influenzae strains.

Pathog Dis 2019 Mar;77(2)

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Australian Infectious Disease Research Centre, Centre for Metals in Biology, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia QLD 4072, Australia.

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major pathogen in upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans, and is increasingly also associated with invasive disease. We have examined two unrelated NTHi invasive disease isolates, R2866 and C188, in order to identify metabolic and physiological properties that distinguish them from respiratory tract disease isolates such as Hi2019. While the general use of the Hi metabolic network was similar across all three strains, the two invasive isolates secreted increased amounts of succinate, which can have anti-inflammatory properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftz015DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial on low-dose azithromycin prophylaxis in patients with primary antibody deficiencies.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Lacking protective antibodies, patients with primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) experience frequent respiratory tract infections, leading to chronic pulmonary damage. Macrolide prophylaxis has proved effective in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of orally administered low-dose azithromycin prophylaxis in patients with PADs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00916749193038
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.01.051DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Antibiotic resistance among ocular pathogens: current trends from the ARMOR surveillance study (2009-2016).

Clin Optom (Auckl) 2019 12;11:15-26. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular micRoorganisms study is an ongoing surveillance study that tracks antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates from ocular infections across the United States. We report antibiotic resistance rates and trends from 2009 through 2016.

Materials And Methods: , coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), , , and from various ocular infections were obtained from participating United States centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTO.S189115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419597PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Endophthalmitis following Suture Removal - Clinical Outcomes and Microbiological Profile.

Semin Ophthalmol 2019 16;34(2):115-123. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

b Smt Kanuri Santhamma Center for Vitreo- Retina diseases , Hyderabad , India.

Aims: To review the clinical profile and report the microbiology and treatment outcomes of endophthalmitis following suture removal.

Methods: In this multi-center, retrospective interventional case series, 11 eyes of 11 patients who developed endophthalmitis following suture removal from January 2006 to December 2017 were reviewed.

Results: Nine of the 11 patients developed a culture-proven, acute onset endophthalmitis [5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2019.1590605DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
1.196 Impact Factor

The Efficacy of Aminomethyl Spectinomycins against Complex Upper Respiratory Tract Bacterial Infections.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105

The most frequent ailment for which antibiotics are prescribed is otitis media (ear infections), which is most commonly caused by , , and Treatment of otitis media is complicated by the fact that the bacteria in the middle ear typically form biofilms, which can be recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, bacterial respiratory infections can be greatly exacerbated by viral co-infection, particularly evidenced by the synergy between influenza and In this study we sought to ascertain the efficacy of aminomethyl spectinomycin lead 1950, an effective antibacterial agent both and against in the context of complex respiratory infections and acute otitis media. A single dose of 1950 significantly reduced bacterial burden in the respiratory tract for all three pathogens, even when species were present in a co-infection model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02096-18DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

The effects of cycled inhaled aztreonam on the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome.

J Cyst Fibros 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: To improve clinical outcomes, cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are prescribed inhaled anti-pseudomonal antibiotics. Although, a diverse microbial community exists within CF airways, little is known about how the CF microbiota influences patient outcomes. We hypothesized that organisms within the CF microbiota are affected by inhaled-antibiotics and baseline microbiome may be used to predict therapeutic response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2019.02.010DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Chronic Bacterial Infection Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Characteristics: A Bronchiectasis Population-Based Prospective Study.

J Clin Med 2019 Mar 6;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Pulmonology Department, Centro Hospitalar S. João, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

Background: Few data are available on chronic bacterial infections (CBI) in bronchiectasis patients. Given that CBI seems to trigger longer hospital stays, worse outcomes, and morbimortality, this study was undertaken to assess CBI prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors in outpatients with bronchiectasis.

Methods: A total of 186 patients followed in a bronchiectasis tertiary referral centre in Portugal were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8030315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463080PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Analysis of invasive non-typeable isolates reveals a selection for the expression state of particular phase-variable lipooligosaccharide biosynthetic genes.

Infect Immun 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

Non-typeable (NTHi) is a major human pathogen, responsible for several acute and chronic infections of the respiratory tract. The incidence of invasive infections caused by NTHi is increasing world-wide. NTHi is able to colonise the nasopharynx asymptomatically, and the exact change(s) responsible for transition from benign carriage to overt disease are not understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00093-19DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Characterization of serotypes and virulence genes of Haemophilus parasuis isolates from Central Vietnam.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Mar 4;230:117-122. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Cooperative Innovation Center of Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan, 430070, China; International Research Center for Animal Diseases (MOST), Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Haemophilus parasuis is a commensal Gram-negative bacterial pathogen in the upper respiratory tract of pigs, which causes Glässer's disease. More than 15 serotypes of H. parasuis have been identified with apparent differences in virulence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.02.008DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Surveillance of omadacycline activity tested against clinical isolates from the United States and Europe: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme, 2017.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA, United States.

Objectives: Omadacycline is an aminomethylcycline antibacterial (oral and intravenous once-daily formulation) that recently (October 2018) received FDA approval for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) against selected organism groups. In this study, omadacycline and comparators were tested against 14000 non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected prospectively during 2017 from medical centres in Europe (EUR; 7000 isolates) and the United States (USA; 7000 isolates).

Methods: Omadacycline was tested by broth microdilution following CLSI M07-A11 (2018) methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2019.02.017DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Parasitic infections during pregnancy need not affect infant antibody responses to early vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae, diphtheria, or Haemophilus influenzae type B.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 28;13(2):e0007172. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Lucille Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Background: Globally, vaccine-preventable diseases remain a significant cause of early childhood mortality despite concerted efforts to improve vaccine coverage. One reason for impaired protection may be the influence of prenatal exposure to parasitic antigens on the developing immune system. Prior research had shown a decrease in infant vaccine response after in utero parasite exposure among a maternal cohort without aggressive preventive treatment. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007172
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413956PMC
February 2019
10 Reads

Drivers of year-to-year variation in exacerbation frequency of COPD: analysis of the AERIS cohort.

ERJ Open Res 2019 Feb 25;5(1). Epub 2019 Feb 25.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

The association between exacerbation aetiology and exacerbation frequency is poorly understood. We analysed 2-year follow-up data from a prospective observational study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (www.clinicaltrials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00248-2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387989PMC
February 2019
1 Read

The Changing Prevalence of Lower Airway Infections in Young Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Erasmus MC, Medical University Rotterdam, Pediatrics, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Rationale: Historical studies suggest that airway infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) initiates with Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae with later emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aspergillus species are regarded as relatively infrequent, late occurring infections.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence and change in prevalence of early lower airway infections in a modern cohort of children with CF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201810-1919OCDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The Adenoids but Not the Palatine Tonsils Serve as a Reservoir for Bacteria Associated with Secretory Otitis Media in Small Children.

mSystems 2019 Jan-Feb;4(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Acute otitis media (AOM), secretory otitis media (SOM), and acute pharyngotonsillitis are the most frequent reasons for visits to general practitioners, pediatricians, and otolaryngologists. Microbial colonization of the epithelial lining of Waldeyer's lymphatic tissues, consisting of the palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils, adenoids, and Eustachian tube tonsil, is a well-known clinical challenge during infancy due to frequent episodes of upper respiratory tract infections. However, no previous studies have investigated the combined role of the palatine tonsils and the adenoids as a reservoir for pathogens associated with SOM in small children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00169-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372837PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Serum concentrations of antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37 in patients with bacterial lung infections.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2018 31;43(4):453-457. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Experimental Immunology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Nowadays, data indicate that antimicrobial peptides play an important role in immunological defense. Human cathelicidin LL-37 possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and is thereby an important component of defense mechanisms within the respiratory tract. In this study, we determined the LL-37 serum level in patients with pneumonia caused by different bacteria species in comparison with healthy subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2018.81355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384432PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Evaluation of a stepwise approach using microbiota analysis, species-specific qPCRs and culture for the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Apr 20;38(4):747-754. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Haaglanden Medical Centre Bronovo, 2597 AX, The Hague, The Netherlands.

In clinical practice, the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is based on culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a stepwise approach using microbiota analysis, species-specific quantitative real-time (q)PCRs and culture has the potential to be a more accurate and efficient diagnostic approach than culture alone. Sixty-two sputa obtained in a routine clinical setting from patients with a suspected LRTI were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03511-4DOI Listing

[Pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with lower respiratory tract infection].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Feb;21(2):144-149

Department of Pediatrics, Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: To study the features of pathogens in children with lower respiratory tract infection.

Methods: A total of 108 children who were hospitalized due to lower respiratory tract infection and underwent fiber bronchoscopy between January 2017 and June 2018 were enrolled. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected. Read More

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February 2019
9 Reads

[Infective Endocarditis in Right Ventricle( RV)-Pulmonary Artery( PA) Conduit Late after the Ross Procedure;Report of a Case].

Kyobu Geka 2019 Feb;72(2):156-159

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Japan.

Ross procedure has been found to have a lower incidence of infective endocarditis compared to other aortic replacement procedure using prosthetic valves. We report a case of 25-year-old man who underwent Ross procedure for congenital aortic stenosis and regurgitation when he was 7 years old. He presented with fever and was highly suspected of infective endocarditis. Read More

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February 2019
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Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Children With Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Identification of Bacteria With Potential Disease-Promoting and Protective Effects.

Front Microbiol 2019 28;10:11. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.

The risk of suffering from some infectious diseases can be related to specific microbiota profiles. Specifically, the nasopharyngeal microbiota could play a role as a risk or protective factor in the development of invasive disease caused by . We analyzed the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and that of healthy controls matched by age, sex, and seasonality from Catalonia, Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360994PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections in children with sickle cell disease.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 Jun 5;66(6):e27642. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk for invasive infection with encapsulated bacteria. Antibiotic prophylaxis and immunizations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) have decreased the overall incidence of invasive infections and have shifted distribution of serotypes causing disease toward those not covered by immunizations. We sought to determine the current incidence of invasive H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472970PMC

Acute otitis media in infants younger than two months of age: Epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Apr 23;119:123-130. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Division of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the epidemiology, microbiology, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes distribution and serious bacterial infections (SBIs) occurrence in infants <2 months of age with tympanocentesis-documented acute otitis media (AOM), before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs).

Methods: The medical records of all hospitalized infants with AOM who underwent tympanocentesis during 2005-2014 were reviewed.

Results: Of the 303 infants with AOM who were diagnosed by an ENT specialist, 182 underwent tympanocentesis, 92 during 2005-2009 (prevaccine period) and 90 during 2010-2014 (postvaccine period). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.01.031DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

New insights into culture negative endophthalmitis by unbiased next generation sequencing.

Sci Rep 2019 Jan 29;9(1):844. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Jhaveri Microbiology Centre, Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

The proof-of-concept, study to investigate the presence of microorganisms in presumed infectious endophthalmitis using Next generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out in vitreous biopsies from 34 patients with endophthalmitis, and thirty patients undergoing surgery for non-infectious retinal disorders as controls. Following DNA extraction using the Qiagen mini kit and PCR amplification of the V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA and ITS 2 region of fungus, they samples were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 Machine. Paired reads were curated, taxonomically labeled, and filtered. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-37502-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37502-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351655PMC
January 2019
12 Reads

Panax Notoginseng Extract Possesses Significant Antibacterial Activity against Pathogenic Streptococci.

Pharmacology 2019 28;103(5-6):221-227. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan,

Background: In traditional Chinese medicine, Panax notoginseng is used to treat inflammation and bleeding but has not been shown to affect bacterial pathogens.

Objectives: Our aim was to assess the antibacterial potential of Panax notoginseng extract (PNE) against bacterial pathogens.

Methods: PNE was dissolved in autoclaved distilled water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496830DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Bacterial and Viral Identification Rate in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Korea.

Yonsei Med J 2019 Feb;60(2):216-222

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The most common cause of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is respiratory infection. Most studies of bacterial or viral cause in AECOPD have been conducted in Western countries. We investigated bacterial and viral identification rates in AECOPD in Korea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2019.60.2.216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342712PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

High-Depth RNA-Seq Data Sets for Studying Gene Expression Changes Mediated by Phase-Variable DNA Methyltransferases in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2019 Jan 10;8(2). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major bacterial pathogen that causes multiple infections. We report high-depth-coverage RNA-Seq data from three NTHi strains, each of which encodes a different phase-variable methyltransferase. Major gene expression differences occur, commensurate with phase variation, and data will serve as an important resource for future studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01500-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328670PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Respiratory Pathogens in Infants Diagnosed with Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western India Using Multiplex Real Time PCR.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Pediatrics, T.N. Medical College & B.Y.L. Nair Hospital, Mumbai, India.

Objective: To determine the frequency of respiratory pathogens in infants diagnosed with acute lower respiratory tract infections.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted in infants hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI), in a tertiary care hospital in a metropolitan city of Western India. Nasopharyngeal swabs were analyzed by multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction, for 18 viruses and 3 bacteria (H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2840-8DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Biofilm production by Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the nasopharynx of children with acute otitis media.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jan 11;19(1):44. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Bactériologie, Hôpital Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75679, Paris Cedex 14, France.

Background: Biofilm production by Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been implicated in the pathogenesis of otitis media, mainly in chronic and recurrent cases. We studied the "in vitro" biofilm production by these 2 species isolated alone or together from the nasopharynx of children with acute otitis media.

Methods: The studied strains were from 3 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) periods: pre-PCV7, post-PCV7/pre-PCV13 and post-PCV13. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3657-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329076PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Respiratory Bacterial Culture Sampling in Expectorating and Non-expectorating Patients With Cystic Fibrosis.

Front Pediatr 2018 18;6:403. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Pulmonology and Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Cystic Fibrosis Clinic, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Different respiratory sampling methods exist to identify lower airway pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), of which bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and expectorated sputum are considered the "gold standard." Because BAL cannot be repeated limitless, the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections in non-expectorating patients is challenging. Other sampling techniques are nasal swab, cough swab, and induced sputum. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fped.2018.00403/
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305441PMC
December 2018
10 Reads

EF-Tu From Non-typeable Is an Immunogenic Surface-Exposed Protein Targeted by Bactericidal Antibodies.

Front Immunol 2018 18;9:2910. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Clinical Microbiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Non-typeable (NTHi), a commensal organism in pre-school children, is an opportunistic pathogen causing respiratory tract infections including acute otitis media. Adults suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are persistently colonized by NTHi. Previous research has suggested that, in some bacterial species, the intracellular elongation factor thermo-unstable (EF-Tu) can moonlight as a surface protein upon host encounter. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02910
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305414PMC
December 2018
16 Reads

HRV16 Impairs Macrophages Cytokine Response to a Secondary Bacterial Trigger.

Front Immunol 2018 18;9:2908. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Institut Cochin, Inserm U1016, Paris, France.

Human rhinovirus is frequently seen as an upper respiratory tract infection but growing evidence proves the virus can cause lower respiratory tract infections in patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition to airway epithelial cells, macrophages are crucial for regulating inflammatory responses to viral infections. However, the response of macrophages to HRV has not been analyzed in detail. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305396PMC
December 2018
2 Reads