16 results match your criteria HIV-1 Associated Vacuolar Myelopathy

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Human immunodeficiency virus-associated vacuolar encephalomyelopathy with granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease improved after antiretroviral therapy: a case report.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 07 9;17(1):38. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagasaki University Hospital, Sakamoto 1-7-1, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki, 852-8501, Japan.

Background: Vacuolar encephalomyelopathy, a disregarded diagnosis lately, was a major neurological disease in the terminal stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in the pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) was classically identified as a non-infectious complication of common variable immunodeficiency; however, it is now being recognized in other immunodeficiency disorders. Here, we report the first case of GLILD accompanied by vacuolar encephalomyelopathy in a newly diagnosed HIV-infected man. Read More

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HIV-Associated Vacuolar Myelopathy and HIV-Associated Dementia as the Initial Manifestation of HIV/AIDS.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2019 15;2019:3842425. Epub 2019 Sep 15.

Internal Medicine Residency Training Program, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy (HIV-VM) is the most common cause of spinal disease in HIV/AIDS. HIV-VM causes progressive spastic paraparesis, sensory ataxia, and autonomic dysfunction. It is a progressive myelopathy that shares features with subacute combined degeneration seen in vitamin B12 deficiency as well as other neurological diseases and can occur synchronously with HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Read More

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September 2019

[Neurological complications with HIV infection].

Brain Nerve 2013 Mar;65(3):275-81

Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center, Japan.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Neurological complications occur frequently in patients with AIDS. About 20 to 40% of all these patients develop neurological symptoms, and in about 10% of AIDS patients, the onset of the disease is characterized by neurological symptoms. Read More

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Genotypical diversity of HIV clades and central nervous system impairment.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2011 Dec;69(6):964-72

Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

The central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system are considered major target organs for HIV infection. The neurological manifestations directly related to HIV are acute viral meningitis, chronic meningitis, HIV associated dementia, vacuolar myelopathy and involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Changes in diagnosis and clinical management have changed the aspect of HIV infection so that it is no longer a fatal disease, and has become a chronic disease requiring sustained medical management. Read More

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December 2011

Human immunodeficiency virus and the central nervous system.

Braz J Infect Dis 2006 Feb 2;10(1):41-50. Epub 2006 Jun 2.

Neurology Unit, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

The pandemic of HIV/AIDS continues to grow daily. Incident cases among women, intravenous drug users and ethnic minorities comprise the fastest growing segment of the HIV-infected population, and the number of HIV-infected individuals over the age of 50 is growing rapidly. Today, the central nervous system and the immune system are seen as main targets of HIV infection. Read More

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February 2006

Neuropathology of HIV/AIDS with an overview of the Indian scene.

Indian J Med Res 2005 Apr;121(4):468-88

Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore 560 029, India.

Neurological manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS are being recognized with a frequency that parallels the increasing number of AIDS cases. Next to sub-Saharan Africa, India has the second largest burden of HIV related pathology, essentially caused by HIV-1 clade C in both the geographic locales, in contrast to USA and Europe. But the true prevalence of HIV related neuroinfections and pathology is not available due to inadequate medical facilities, social stigma and ignorance that lead to underdiagnosis. Read More

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Oligodendrocyte-specific expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef in transgenic mice leads to vacuolar myelopathy and alters oligodendrocyte phenotype in vitro.

J Virol 2003 Nov;77(21):11745-53

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada.

Vacuolar myelopathy (VM) is a frequent central nervous system complication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We report here that transgenic (Tg) mice expressing even low levels of Nef in oligodendrocytes under the regulation of the myelin basic protein (MBP) promoter (MBP/HIV(Nef)) developed VM similar to the human disease in its appearance and topography. The spinal cords of these Tg mice showed lower levels of the myelin proteins MAG and CNPase and of the 21-kDa isoform of MBP prior to the development of vacuoles. Read More

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November 2003

Clinicopathologic correlations of HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy: an autopsy-based case-control study.

Neurology 1994 Nov;44(11):2159-64

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

To determine the clinical correlates of HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy (VM), we designed a case-control study based on 215 AIDS autopsies in which we examined the spinal cord. We defined a case as an individual dying with AIDS and with VM present at autopsy; we defined a control as an individual dying with AIDS without VM. VM was found in 100 of 215 (46. Read More

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November 1994

Cytokine expression of macrophages in HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy.

Neurology 1993 May;43(5):1002-9

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Macrophages are frequently present within the periaxonal and intramyelinic vacuoles that are located primarily in the posterior and lateral funiculi of the thoracic spinal cord in HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy. But the role of these macrophages in the formation of the vacuoles is unclear. One hypothesis is that cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, are produced locally by macrophages and have toxic effects on myelin or oligodendrocytes. Read More

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Microglia and cytokines in neurological disease, with special reference to AIDS and Alzheimer's disease.

Glia 1993 Jan;7(1):75-83

Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461.

Microglia are associated with central nervous system (CNS) pathology of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In AD, microglia, especially those associated with amyloid deposits, have a phenotype that is consistent with a state of activation, including immunoreactivity with antibodies to class II major histocompatibility antigens and to inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha). Evidence from other studies in rodents indicate that microglia can be activated by neuronal degeneration. Read More

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January 1993

Human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Hum Pathol 1992 May;23(5):513-9

Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021.

We describe two cases of serologically confirmed human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy involving North American men coinfected by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Our first patient suffered from a gradually progressive spastic paraparesis for 10 years prior to presenting with Kaposi's sarcoma, while our second patient developed subacutely progressive spastic paraparesis in the setting of full-blown acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Autopsy examination of the spinal cords from these two cases revealed widespread axonal loss and demyelination principally involving the lateral columns of case no. Read More

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Other neurological diseases in HIV-1 infection: clinical aspects.

Baillieres Clin Neurol 1992 Apr;1(1):175-209

Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

HIV-1-related neurological diseases, excluding opportunistic infections and HIV encephalitis, are considered here. Most occur in severely immunosuppressed patients, with CD4 counts of under 200 x 10(6) l-1. Primary brain lymphoma and metastases from systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the second commonest cause of cerebral mass lesions in AIDS, are usually aggressive B cell tumours. Read More

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Spinal cord disease in children with HIV-1 infection: a combined molecular biological and neuropathological study.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1990 Aug;16(4):317-31

Department of Pathology, UMD-New Jersey Medical School, Newark 07103.

An autopsy study was performed on spinal cords from 18 children who died with HIV-1 infection, using standard histopathologic techniques as well as in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry for HIV-1. Of 16 spinal cords examined by histology, nine had inflammatory cell infiltrates and six had multinucleated cells; both types of lesion are associated with the presence of HIV-1 in central nervous system tissue. HIV-1 type lesions were often present in the spinal cord and brain from the same patient. Read More

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Steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy in a man dually infected with HIV-1 and HTLV-I.

Neurology 1990 Jun;40(6):938-44

Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD.

Two human retroviruses, HIV-1 and HTLV-I, have been associated with myelopathies in addition to other neurologic disorders. We report an American dually infected with HIV-1 and HTLV-I who developed steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy. This 28-year-old bisexual man developed interstitial pneumonitis and a transient midthoracic sensory level followed by the evolution of a slowly progressive spastic paraparesis and sensorimotor neuropathy. Read More

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Dissociation of AIDS-related vacuolar myelopathy and productive HIV-1 infection of the spinal cord.

Neurology 1989 Jul;39(7):892-6

Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021.

Although merging clinically within the spectrum of the AIDS dementia complex, vacuolar myelopathy is a pathologically distinct entity detected in up to 30% of autopsied patients succumbing to the late complications of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect an HIV-1 core protein and viral mRNA, respectively, in tissue sections, and culture isolation to assess infectious virus in tissue homogenates, we found that vacuolar myelopathy was independent of productive HIV-1 infection of the spinal cord and brain. These results indicate that AIDS-associated vacuolar myelopathy is either not related directly to spinal cord HIV-1 infection or involves nonproductive infection and pathobiological processes distinct from those responsible for the multinucleated-cell inflammatory infiltrates that serve as histopathologic markers of productive CNS HIV-1 infection. Read More

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[Neuropathology of human type 1 immunodeficiency virus infection].

D Hénin J J Hauw

Presse Med 1988 Nov;17(40):2129-33

Laboratoire de Neuropathologie R. Escourolle, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Paris.

The nervous system may be affected at any stage in the course of HIV-1 infection. Acute or subacute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies occur often early and improve spontaneously. Distal symmetrical axonal, predominantly sensory, painful polyneuropathies occur in the late stages of the disease. Read More

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November 1988
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