13 results match your criteria HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections - Cytomegalovirus Encephalitis

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[Neurological complications with HIV infection].

Brain Nerve 2013 Mar;65(3):275-81

Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center, Japan.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Neurological complications occur frequently in patients with AIDS. About 20 to 40% of all these patients develop neurological symptoms, and in about 10% of AIDS patients, the onset of the disease is characterized by neurological symptoms. Read More

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HIV-associated neurological disorders: a guide to pharmacotherapy.

CNS Drugs 2012 Feb;26(2):123-34

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287-7613, USA.

In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) continues to be a common and significant morbidity among individuals infected with HIV. The term HAND encompasses a spectrum of progressively severe CNS involvement, ranging from asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and minor neurocognitive disorder through to the most severe form of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). While the incidence of HAD has declined significantly with HAART, the milder forms of HAND persist. Read More

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February 2012

[Secondary diseases in patients with HIV infection: 15-year follow-up].

Ter Arkh 2004 ;76(4):18-20

Aim: To analyse the results of a 15-year study of opportunistic diseases in AIDS patients.

Material And Methods: The spectrum of opportunistic diseases were made in AIDS patients in respect to clinical, laboratory and autopsy data for the periods: 1987-1992 (n = 27, 25 deaths--92.6%), 1993-1997 (n = 95, 58 deaths--61. Read More

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September 2005

The urokinase receptor is overexpressed in the AIDS dementia complex and other neurological manifestations.

Ann Neurol 2004 May;55(5):687-94

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, University of Milan, Italy.

The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play an important role in extracellular matrix degradation and cell migration in the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate the role of the uPA/uPAR system in the pathophysiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex (ADC), we measured soluble uPAR (suPAR) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients and controls. CSF suPAR levels were significantly higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in controls and in patients with ADC or opportunistic CNS infections (CNS-OIs) than in neurologically asymptomatic patients, irrespective of HIV-1 disease stage. Read More

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Isolation of cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV type 1-infected subjects.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2000 Aug;16(12):1157-62

Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10016, USA.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be an important opportunistic infection in HIV-1-infected patients, particularly when the CD4+ T-cell count drops below 50 lymphocytes/mm3. CMV-associated disease, including retinitis, pneumonitis, gastroenteritis, and encephalitis, is estimated to affect up to 40% of AIDS patients. We have studied the cellular immune response to CMV in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-1-infected patients. Read More

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Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-associated neurological diseases.

J Neurovirol 2000 Apr;6(2):156-63

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified as mediators of brain injury in HIV-associated neurological diseases. The activity of the 72 kDa gelatinase A (MMP-2) and 92 kDa gelatinase B (MMP-9) was detected by zymography in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 138 HIV-infected patients (40 with AIDS dementia, 83 with brain opportunistic infections and 15 neurologically asymptomatic), 26 HIV-seronegative individuals with inflammatory neurological diseases (IND) and 12 HIV-seronegative subjects with noninflammatory neurological diseases (NIND). MMP-2 was present in all CSF samples from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative individuals, including those of subjects with NIND. Read More

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AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infection mimicking central nervous system tumors: a diagnostic challenge.

Clin Infect Dis 1996 Apr;22(4):626-31

Services des Maladies Infectieuses et tropicales, Hôpital de l'Institut Pasteur, Paris.

We reviewed cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) that initially masqueraded as tumors in 37 of 543 consecutive patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and CMV who were seen at the Pasteur Institute Hospital and Saint-Louis Hospital (Paris) between 1992 and 1994. We detail the clinical features of three patients who presented with ring-enhanced space-occupying lesions mimicking CNS tumors. They were all profoundly immunodepressed (mean CD4 cell count, 13/mm3). Read More

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Prospective analysis of seizures occurring in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection.

J NeuroAIDS 1996 ;1(4):59-69

, Level 2, 376 Victoria Street, Syndey NSW, 2010, Australia.

A prospective, case-control study was undertaken to characterise seizures occurring in the context of human immunodeficiency type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Fifty consecutive patients with a documented seizure were enrolled along with fifty control patients. Among cases the median CD4 cell count was 8/mm3 and 84% had a prior AIDS defining illness; 14/mm3 and 80% among the control group. Read More

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Imaging methods as a diagnostic tool in neuro-AIDS. A review.

G Arendt

Bildgebung 1995 Dec;62(4):310-9

Neurologische Klinik, Universität Düsseldorf, Germany.

Since 1983, central nervous system (CNS) involvement in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is well recognized. Imaging methods are important in diagnosing AIDS-related primary and secondary CNS processes as HIV-1-associated encephalopathy, cerebral toxoplasmosis, primary CNS lymphoma, cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), and infectious spinal cord granulomas. This paper presents a review of typical AIDS-related CNS findings as seen in morphological radiologic techniques, i. Read More

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December 1995

Comparative analysis of intrathecal antibody synthesis and DNA amplification for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection of the central nervous system in AIDS patients.

J Neurol 1994 Jun;241(7):407-14

Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany.

We evaluated 49 paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of 35 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) for laboratory evidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The patients were grouped according to clinical criteria as probable CMV encephalitis/polyradiculomyelitis, CMV retinitis, cerebral toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, HIV-1-related cognitive/motor complex, HIV-1-associated myelopathy, and other neurological diseases. Paired CSF and serum samples were analysed for CMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific for recombinant phosphoprotein 150 (pp150) of CMV and CMV-specific serum IgM. Read More

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The mortality and pathology of HIV infection in a west African city.

AIDS 1993 Dec;7(12):1569-79

Projet RETRO-CI, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Background: HIV disease is epidemic in Africa, but associated mortality, underlying pathology and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts have not previously been evaluated in a representative study. Such data help to determine the management of HIV-positive people. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are prevalent in Côte d'Ivoire, and the pathology of HIV-2 infection in Africa is unclear. Read More

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December 1993

Neuropathology of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): report of 39 autopsies from Vancouver, British Columbia.

Can J Neurol Sci 1992 Nov;19(4):442-52

Department of Pathology, UCLA Center for Health Sciences 90024-1732.

Neuropathological findings from 39 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) autopsies of primarily neurologically symptomatic patients and 7 brain biopsies from AIDS patients performed at St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia are reported. Autopsy findings included human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-type multinucleated giant cell (MNGC)-associated encephalitis seen in 17 patients, toxoplasmosis in 7 patients, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis and/or microglial nodule-associated nuclear inclusions in brain parenchyma in 9 patients. Read More

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November 1992

Increased neopterin levels in brains of patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

J Neurochem 1992 Oct;59(4):1541-6

Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455-0323.

Postmortem levels of native neopterin (D-erythro-neopterin) were measured in cerebral cortical samples from 44 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and eight uninfected, nonneurological control patients. Cerebral cortical gray and white matter neopterin levels for the controls ranged from 0.5 to 7. Read More

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October 1992
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