32 results match your criteria HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections - CNS Toxoplasmosis

Laboratory methods for diagnostics of HIV infection and HIV-associated neuroinfections.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2017 Jan;37(8):525-533

Institute of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia.

HIV Infection resulting in AIDS remains serious global public health problem. In the fight with the global health problem plays a key role a simple, reliable and fast diagnostics. An important method in diagnostics is the identification and detection of viral capside p24 antigen levels. Read More

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January 2017

[Neurological complications with HIV infection].

Brain Nerve 2013 Mar;65(3):275-81

Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center, Japan.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Neurological complications occur frequently in patients with AIDS. About 20 to 40% of all these patients develop neurological symptoms, and in about 10% of AIDS patients, the onset of the disease is characterized by neurological symptoms. Read More

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Usefulness of stereotactic biopsy and neuroimaging in management of HIV-1 Clade C associated focal brain lesions with special focus on cerebral toxoplasmosis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2013 Jul 12;115(7):995-1002. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore 560029, India.

Background: Focal brain lesions (FBL) in HIV/AIDS frequently pose a diagnostic dilemma as the etiology varies from infective (tuberculoma, toxoplasmosis and tuberculous abscesses) to neoplastic lesions like lymphoma. For determining etiology, advanced neuroimaging techniques, serological and molecular biological tests have been evolved with varying sensitivities/specificities. Stereotactic biopsy (STB) of the lesions is reserved for lesions unresponsive to appropriate therapy. Read More

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HIV-associated neurological disorders: a guide to pharmacotherapy.

CNS Drugs 2012 Feb;26(2):123-34

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287-7613, USA.

In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) continues to be a common and significant morbidity among individuals infected with HIV. The term HAND encompasses a spectrum of progressively severe CNS involvement, ranging from asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and minor neurocognitive disorder through to the most severe form of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). While the incidence of HAD has declined significantly with HAART, the milder forms of HAND persist. Read More

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February 2012

Importance of high IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii titers and PCR detection of T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of AIDS-related cerebral toxoplasmosis: a case-control study.

Braz J Infect Dis 2011 Jul-Aug;15(4):356-9

Department of Neurology, Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Brazil. In clinical practice, the initial diagnosis is usually presumptive and alternative diagnosis tools are necessary. Our objective was to evaluate whether the detection of high titers of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii and T. Read More

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February 2012

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of chemokines in HIV infected patients with and without opportunistic infection of the central nervous system.

J Neurol Sci 2009 Dec 25;287(1-2):79-83. Epub 2009 Sep 25.

Neurology Unit, University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines involved in the immune response of a wide variety of diseases. There are few studies assessing their role in opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients. In this study, we measured CC and CXC chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from 40 HIV-infected patients with or without opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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December 2009

Influence of neurotoxoplasmosis characteristics on real-time PCR sensitivity among AIDS patients in Brazil.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2010 Jan 25;104(1):24-8. Epub 2009 Aug 25.

Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis among individuals with AIDS may be difficult to diagnose and needs to be differentiated from other neurological diseases. A validation study was performed on real-time PCR for detecting the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. The study included 135 AIDS patients divided into two groups: Group I comprised 85 patients with neurotoxoplasmosis; and Group II comprised 50 patients with non-toxoplasmic neurological diseases. Read More

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January 2010

Clinical presentation and outcome of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2008 Oct;41(5):386-92

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background And Purpose: Clinical manifestations and outcome of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in patients at late stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have not been previously reported in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and radioimaging characteristics and treatment response in HIV-infected patients with TE in Taiwan.

Methods: Medical records of all HIV-infected patients who were diagnosed as having TE between June 1994 and December 2006 at the National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, were reviewed by use of a standardized case record form. Read More

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October 2008

Factors influencing cerebrospinal fluid and plasma HIV-1 RNA detection rate in patients with and without opportunistic neurological disease during the HAART era.

BMC Infect Dis 2007 Dec 21;7:147. Epub 2007 Dec 21.

Eduardo de Menezes Hospital, FHEMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Background: In the central nervous system, HIV replication can occur relatively independent of systemic infection, and intrathecal replication of HIV-1 has been observed in patients with HIV-related and opportunistic neurological diseases. The clinical usefulness of HIV-1 RNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with opportunistic neurological diseases, or the effect of opportunistic diseases on CSF HIV levels in patients under HAART has not been well defined. We quantified CSF and plasma viral load in HIV-infected patients with and without different active opportunistic neurological diseases, determined the characteristics that led to a higher detection rate of HIV RNA in CSF, and compared these two compartments. Read More

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December 2007

[Neurological manifestations of HIV-infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)].

G Arendt

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2005 Oct;73(10):577-86

Neurologische Klinik des Universitätsklinikums Düsseldorf.

After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 the neurological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infection did not decline in incidence and prevalence like the other complications of immunodeficiency; in contrast, due to the longer survival times of HAART treated HIV-1-positive individuals, prevalence of virus associated neurological disease increased during the last years, as international studies underline. Therefore, clinicians and HIV-therapists should be able to diagnose HIV-1-associated neurological disease even in early stages. This article describes symptoms and signs, neuro-imaging and cerebrospinal fluid findings as well as therapy options in primary HIV-1-associated neurological disease like encephalo- and myelopathy and polyneuropathy. Read More

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October 2005

HIV disorders of the brain: pathology and pathogenesis.

Front Biosci 2006 Jan 1;11:718-32. Epub 2006 Jan 1.

Center for Neurovirology and Cancer Biology, Laboratory of Neuropathology and Molecular Pathology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA.

Infection with HIV-1 has spread exponentially in recent years to reach alarming proportions. It is estimated than more than 33 million adults and 1.3 million children are infected worldwide. Read More

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January 2006

HLA class II involvement in HIV-associated Toxoplasmic encephalitis development.

Clin Immunol 2005 May;115(2):133-7

Servicio de Histocompatibilidad e Inmunogenética, Servicio de Inmunología y Servicio de Infectología. Hospital Julio C. Perrando, Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina.

Unlabelled: A total of 220 individuals were included in this study, 112 HIV-seronegative healthy individuals and 108 HIV-1-infected patients involving: 18 AIDS patients with Toxoplasmic encephalitis (AIDS-TE), 49 AIDS patients without TE, and 41 asymptomatic patients, were genotyping for DR and DQ loci by molecular biology techniques. Fisher's Exact test was used for statistical analysis. HLA-DQB*0402 and DRB1*08 alleles were associated with a high risk to develop opportunistic infections with neurological involvement, mainly Toxoplasma encephalitis in relationship with subjects healthy (OR = 20. Read More

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HIV-1/AIDS neuropathology in a Canadian teaching centre.

Can J Neurol Sci 2004 May;31(2):235-41

Department of Pathology, London Health Sciences Centre, University of Western Ontario, Canada.

Background: The nervous system is a major target of HIV-1 infection and site of many complications of AIDS. Most of our knowledge pertaining to the range and frequency of neuropathology in HIV-1/AIDS is from large centres outside Canada in different social and health care settings. The goal of the present study was to describe HIV-1/AIDS-associated neuropathology before and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy at a Canadian teaching centre. Read More

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[Secondary diseases in patients with HIV infection: 15-year follow-up].

Ter Arkh 2004 ;76(4):18-20

Aim: To analyse the results of a 15-year study of opportunistic diseases in AIDS patients.

Material And Methods: The spectrum of opportunistic diseases were made in AIDS patients in respect to clinical, laboratory and autopsy data for the periods: 1987-1992 (n = 27, 25 deaths--92.6%), 1993-1997 (n = 95, 58 deaths--61. Read More

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September 2005

Kaposi's sarcoma and central nervous system disease: a real association or an artifact of the control group? Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS.

AIDS 2000 May;14(8):995-1000

Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS Statistical and Data Management Center, Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455-0378, USA.

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) protects against four central nervous system (CNS) diseases in HIV-1-infected individuals.

Study Population And Design: The study population of 9404 subjects included participants in Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) protocols who were enrolled between September 1990 and September 1998. This was an observational study. Read More

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Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-associated neurological diseases.

J Neurovirol 2000 Apr;6(2):156-63

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified as mediators of brain injury in HIV-associated neurological diseases. The activity of the 72 kDa gelatinase A (MMP-2) and 92 kDa gelatinase B (MMP-9) was detected by zymography in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 138 HIV-infected patients (40 with AIDS dementia, 83 with brain opportunistic infections and 15 neurologically asymptomatic), 26 HIV-seronegative individuals with inflammatory neurological diseases (IND) and 12 HIV-seronegative subjects with noninflammatory neurological diseases (NIND). MMP-2 was present in all CSF samples from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative individuals, including those of subjects with NIND. Read More

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Clinical and biologic features of the AIDS dementia complex.

B A Navia

Neuroimaging Clin N Am 1997 Aug;7(3):581-92

Department of Neurology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is frequently associated with complications of the nervous system, involving all levels of the neuraxis. Many of these represent focal disorders, such as toxoplasmosis, lymphoma, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This article reviews the salient clinical and biological features of these disorders. Read More

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Procalcitonin as a marker of bacterial sepsis in patients infected with HIV-1.

J Infect 1997 Jul;35(1):41-6

Laboratoire de Virologie, Bâtiment I.R.F.P.P.S., CHU, Lille, France.

Procalcitonin (ProCT) is a recently described marker of severe sepsis. It was decided to assess the value of proCT as a marker of secondary infection in patients infected with HIV-1. ProCT plasma levels were measured by immunoluminometric assay in a prospective study in 155 HIV-infected individuals: 102 asymptomatic and 53 with lever or suspected secondary infections. Read More

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Natural history and spectrum of disease in adults with HIV/AIDS in Africa.

AIDS 1997 ;11 Suppl B:S43-54

Project RETRO-CI, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Progression from seroconversion to the development of AIDS in Africa may be shorter than in industrialized countries, but there are insufficient data to be certain. Although the data are not always directly comparable, survival after an AIDS diagnosis appears to be substantially shorter in African countries and this may be partly because of later diagnosis of AIDS in Africa, but may also be because of environmental factors such as increased exposure to pathogens of high virulence and lack of access to care. Tuberculosis and bacterial infections are the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Read More

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February 1998

Ophthalmologic manifestations of acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

Ophthalmology 1996 Jun;103(6):899-906

Kresge Eye Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.

Purpose: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is increasingly described as a late complication of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study is to evaluate retrospectively the ophthalmologic, clinical, and investigational aspects of AIDS-associated PML.

Methods: The authors evaluated ten patients in whom ophthalmologic manifestations developed in the course of AIDS-associated PML. Read More

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Prospective analysis of seizures occurring in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection.

J NeuroAIDS 1996 ;1(4):59-69

, Level 2, 376 Victoria Street, Syndey NSW, 2010, Australia.

A prospective, case-control study was undertaken to characterise seizures occurring in the context of human immunodeficiency type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Fifty consecutive patients with a documented seizure were enrolled along with fifty control patients. Among cases the median CD4 cell count was 8/mm3 and 84% had a prior AIDS defining illness; 14/mm3 and 80% among the control group. Read More

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AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis: an update on diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1996 ;219:209-22

Department of Infectious Diseases, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.

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December 1996

Imaging methods as a diagnostic tool in neuro-AIDS. A review.

G Arendt

Bildgebung 1995 Dec;62(4):310-9

Neurologische Klinik, Universität Düsseldorf, Germany.

Since 1983, central nervous system (CNS) involvement in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is well recognized. Imaging methods are important in diagnosing AIDS-related primary and secondary CNS processes as HIV-1-associated encephalopathy, cerebral toxoplasmosis, primary CNS lymphoma, cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), and infectious spinal cord granulomas. This paper presents a review of typical AIDS-related CNS findings as seen in morphological radiologic techniques, i. Read More

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December 1995

[Clarithromycin combined with pyrimethamine in cerebral toxoplasmosis--a report of 2 cases].

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 1995 Oct-Dec;28(4):409-13

Disciplina de Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ.

The authors report the use and the outcome of claritromycin associated with pyrimethamine in the treatment of toxoplasma encephalites in two patients with AIDS. Both patients had the diagnosis stablished on clinical grounds, positive sorology (IgG) for toxoplasmosis and computed-tomographic (CT) scan of the brain showing lesions consistent with T. gondii encephalitis. Read More

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Behçet's syndrome/AIDS/cerebral toxoplasmosis: an unusual association.

Sao Paulo Med J 1994 Jul-Sep;112(3):587-90

Department of Rheumatology, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo, Brazil.

Few cases of AIDS associated to manifestations suggesting Behçet's syndrome have been reported. This case is of a young married woman who presented, during a period of 7 years, clinical manifestations consistent with the late diagnosis of Behçet's syndrome, when she developed recurrent lymphomonocytic meningoencephalitis. At this time, she was found to be infected by HIV-1. Read More

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September 1995

Comparative analysis of intrathecal antibody synthesis and DNA amplification for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection of the central nervous system in AIDS patients.

J Neurol 1994 Jun;241(7):407-14

Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany.

We evaluated 49 paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of 35 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) for laboratory evidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The patients were grouped according to clinical criteria as probable CMV encephalitis/polyradiculomyelitis, CMV retinitis, cerebral toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, HIV-1-related cognitive/motor complex, HIV-1-associated myelopathy, and other neurological diseases. Paired CSF and serum samples were analysed for CMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific for recombinant phosphoprotein 150 (pp150) of CMV and CMV-specific serum IgM. Read More

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The mortality and pathology of HIV infection in a west African city.

AIDS 1993 Dec;7(12):1569-79

Projet RETRO-CI, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Background: HIV disease is epidemic in Africa, but associated mortality, underlying pathology and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts have not previously been evaluated in a representative study. Such data help to determine the management of HIV-positive people. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are prevalent in Côte d'Ivoire, and the pathology of HIV-2 infection in Africa is unclear. Read More

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December 1993

Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993 Oct;693:93-106

Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461.

Children with AIDS frequently have neurological manifestations due to complications of immunodeficiency or intrinsic effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on the central nervous system (CNS). The most common neurological disorders not directly related to HIV-1 infection include cerebrovascular disease and lymphoma. Global anoxic-ischemic and necrotizing encephalopathies are frequent, while CNS hemorrhages and arteriopathies are less frequent. Read More

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October 1993

[Hemiballismus disclosing cerebral toxoplasmosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

A Awada

Rev Neurol (Paris) 1993 ;149(6-7):421-3

Dept. of Neurology, King Faisal University, Dammam, Arabie Saoudite.

A 33-year-old Saudi woman presented with right hemiballismus of recent onset. Brain CT showed a left thalamo-subthalamic lesion which was thought initially to be a metastasis or a tuberculoma. The presence of severe subacute diarrhea, multiple lymphadenopathies and lymphopenia suggested an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Read More

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