106,944 results match your criteria HIV-1 Associated Multiple Mononeuropathies

HIV-1 Nef-mediated downregulation of CD155 results in viral restriction by KIR2DL5+ NK cells.

PLoS Pathog 2022 Jun 24;18(6):e1010572. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Leibniz Institute of Virology (LIV), Hamburg, Germany.

Antiviral NK cell activity is regulated through the interaction of activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors with their ligands on infected cells. HLA class I molecules serve as ligands for most killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), but no HLA class I ligands for the inhibitory NK cell receptor KIR2DL5 have been identified to date. Using a NK cell receptor/ligand screening approach, we observed no strong binding of KIR2DL5 to HLA class I or class II molecules, but confirmed that KIR2DL5 binds to the poliovirus receptor (PVR, CD155). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of Switching Antiretroviral Treatment Regimen in Patients With Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Infection: Retrospective Observational Cohort Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2022 Jun 24;8(6):e33429. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Evidence on the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen switches on the mortality of patients with HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is limited.

Objective: We aim to provide policy guidance for ART regimen selection and evaluate the effectiveness of ART regime switches for people living with HIV and HIV-1 drug resistance.

Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included 179 people living with HIV and HIV-1 drug resistance from 2011 to 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: Clinical course among subjects HIV-1-infected in Sao Paulo.

Curr HIV Res 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Dermatology Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo.

Introduction: People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are ander risk for co-infection with SARS-CoV-2. This population may be more prone to complications from COVID-19 due to persistent inflammation caused by HIV and higher incidence of metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, and malignancies, as well as being considered elderly at 50 years of age. The objective of this study was to report SARS-CoV-2 infection frequency, clinical evolution, and mortality in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Preliminary Study on the Possibility to Detect Virus Nucleic Acids in Post-Mortem Blood Samples.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2022 Jun;27(6):183

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Legal Medicine Section, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Background: In many forensic cases, the medical records of the deceased are not available at the time of the autopsy; therefore, no information about the deceased's state of health, including any infectious diseases contracted during life, is accessible. The detection of some of the principal viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), could contribute to determining causes of death and interesting applications could be found in medico-legal practice, such as occupational risk assessment. To date, accurate and sensitive serological and molecular assays capable of detecting these viruses have been validated on biological samples taken from living beings, while their efficiency on forensic post-mortem biological samples has yet to be thoroughly assessed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Correction: Křížová et al. Fullerene Derivatives Prevent Packaging of Viral Genomic RNA into HIV-1 Particles by Binding Nucleocapsid Protein. 2021, , 2451.

Viruses 2022 May 30;14(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague, Czech Republic.

The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [... Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Developing Pseudovirus-Based Neutralization Assay against Omicron-Included SARS-CoV-2 Variants.

Viruses 2022 Jun 18;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Institute of Biotechnology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100071, China.

The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants poses a serious threat to human health worldwide. Recently, the emergence of Omicron has presented a new challenge to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic. A convenient and reliable in vitro neutralization assay is an important method for validating the efficiency of antibodies, vaccines, and other potential drugs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Novel Class of HIV-1 Inhibitors Targeting the Vpr-Induced G2-Arrest in Macrophages by New Yeast- and Cell-Based High-Throughput Screening.

Viruses 2022 Jun 16;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein, Vpr, arrests the cell cycle of the G2 phase, and this Vpr-mediated G2 arrest is implicated in an efficient HIV-1 spread in monocyte-derived macrophages. Here, we screened new candidates for Vpr-targeting HIV-1 inhibitors by using fission yeast- and mammalian cell-based high-throughput screening. First, fission yeast strains expressing the HIV-1 Vpr protein were generated and then treated for 48 h with 20 μM of a synthetic library, including 140,000 chemical compounds. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intraneuronal β-Amyloid Accumulation: Aging HIV-1 Human and HIV-1 Transgenic Rat Brain.

Viruses 2022 Jun 10;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

The prevalence of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is significantly greater in older, relative to younger, HIV-1 seropositive individuals; the neural pathogenesis of HAND in older HIV-1 seropositive individuals, however, remains elusive. To address this knowledge gap, abnormal protein aggregates (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Natural Immunity against HIV-1: Progression of Understanding after Association Studies.

Ma Luo

Viruses 2022 Jun 8;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3L5, Canada.

Natural immunity against HIV has been observed in many individuals in the world. Among them, a group of female sex workers enrolled in the Pumwani sex worker cohort remained HIV uninfected for more than 30 years despite high-risk sex work. Many studies have been carried out to understand this natural immunity to HIV in the hope to develop effective vaccines and preventions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Drug Interactions in Lenacapavir-Based Long-Acting Antiviral Combinations.

Viruses 2022 May 31;14(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA.

Long-acting (LA) anti-HIV regimens show promise for increasing dosing intervals and consequently, improving the patients' quality of life. The first FDA-approved LA therapy is Cabenuva, which comprises rilpivirine (a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and cabotegravir (integrase strand transfer inhibitor). Novel promising LA anti-HIV agents such as lenacapavir (a capsid-targeting antiviral) and islatravir (EFdA, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor) need to be explored as combination therapies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Beyond Inhibition: A Novel Strategy of Targeting HIV-1 Protease to Eliminate Viral Reservoirs.

Viruses 2022 May 28;14(6). Epub 2022 May 28.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA.

HIV-1 protease (PR) is a viral enzyme that cleaves the Gag and Gag-Pol polyprotein precursors to convert them into their functional forms, a process which is essential to generate infectious viral particles. Due to its broad substrate specificity, HIV-1 PR can also cleave certain host cell proteins. Several studies have identified host cell substrates of HIV-1 PR and described the potential impact of their cleavage on HIV-1-infected cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Circulating MicroRNAs as a Tool for Diagnosis of Liver Disease Progression in People Living with HIV-1.

Viruses 2022 May 24;14(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

IrsiCaixa, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08916 Badalona, Spain.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding specific cell mRNA targets, preventing their translation. miRNAs are implicated in the regulation of important physiological and pathological pathways. Liver disease, including injury, fibrosis, metabolism dysregulation, and tumor development disrupts liver-associated miRNAs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adenovirus DNA Polymerase Loses Fidelity on a Stretch of Eleven Homocytidines during Pre-GMP Vaccine Preparation.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.

In this study, we invented and construct novel candidate HIV-1 vaccines. Through genetic and protein engineering, we unknowingly constructed an HIV-1-derived transgene with a homopolymeric run of 11 cytidines, which was inserted into an adenovirus vaccine vector. Here, we describe the virus rescue, three rounds of clonal purification and preparation of good manufacturing practise (GMP) starting material assessed for genetic stability in five additional virus passages. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antiviral Activities of HIV-1-Specific Human Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Are Isotype-Dependent.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 6;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 6.

CIRI-Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Team GIMAP, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Inserm, U1111, CNRS, UMR530, CIC 1408 Vaccinology, 42023 Saint-Etienne, France.

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) offer promising opportunities for preventing HIV-1 infection. The protection mechanisms of bNAbs involve the Fc domain, as well as their Fab counterpart. Here, different bNAb isotypes including IgG1, IgA1, IgA2, and IgA122 (IgA2 with the hinge of IgA1) were generated and then produced in CHO cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Tenofovir and Tenofovir Alafenamide for HIV-1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Foreskin Tissue.

Pharmaceutics 2022 Jun 16;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, UK.

Background: HIV-1 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has focused predominantly on protective efficacy in receptive sex, with limited research on the dosing requirements for insertive sex. We pre-clinically assessed the ex vivo pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) profile of tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in foreskin tissue.

Methods: Inner and outer foreskin explants were exposed to serial dilutions of TFV or TAF prior to addition of HIV-1 at a high (HVT) or a low viral titer (LVT). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Glu143 Residue Might Play a Significant Role in T20 Peptide Binding to HIV-1 Receptor gp41: An In Silico Study.

Ahmed L Alaofi

Molecules 2022 Jun 20;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Despite the enormous efforts made to develop other fusion inhibitors for HIV, the enfuvirtide (known as T20) peptide is the only approved HIV-1 inhibitory drug so far. Investigating the role of potential residues of the T20 peptide's conformational dynamics could help us to understand the role of potential residues of the T20 peptide. We investigated T20 peptide conformation and binding interactions with the HIV-1 receptor (i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In Vitro Selection and Characterization of HIV-1 Variants with Increased Resistance to LP-40, Enfuvirtide-Based Lipopeptide Inhibitor.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 14;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

NHC Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

In our previous work, we replaced the TRM (tryptophan-rich motif) of T20 (Enfuvirtide) with fatty acid (C16) to obtain the novel lipopeptide LP-40, and LP-40 displayed enhanced antiviral activity. In this study, we investigated whether the C16 modification could enhance the high-resistance barrier of the inhibitor LP-40. To address this question, we performed an in vitro simultaneous screening of HIV-1 resistance to T20 and LP-40. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain during the First Two Years of the Pandemic: Circulating Variants, Amino Acid Conservation, and Genetic Variability in Structural, Non-Structural, and Accessory Proteins.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 7;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory, Microbiology Department and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS) in Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Red en Investigación Translacional en Infecciones Pediátricas (RITIP), 28034 Madrid, Spain.

Monitoring SARS-CoV-2's genetic diversity and emerging mutations in this ongoing pandemic is crucial to understanding its evolution and ensuring the performance of COVID-19 diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapies. Spain has been one of the main epicenters of COVID-19, reaching the highest number of cases and deaths per 100,000 population in Europe at the beginning of the pandemic. This study aims to investigate the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain and its 18 Autonomous Communities across the six epidemic waves established from February 2020 to January 2022. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association of High Ratio of CSF/Plasma HIV-1 RNA with Central Nervous System Co-Infection in HIV-1-Positive Treatment-Naive Patients.

Brain Sci 2022 Jun 16;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Infectious Disease, Chongqing Public Health Medical Center, Chongqing 400036, China.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) ribonucleic acid (RNA) at higher levels than in plasma has been observed in HIV-1-positive patients and defined as CSF/plasma discordance or CSF escape. Discordance is particularly seen in untreated patients with antiretroviral agents. Quantitative data regarding its association with blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and intracranial co-infection with other pathogens are limited. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intracerebral Plasmacytoma in a Patient with HIV-1 Infection and SARS-CoV-2 Superinfection.

Brain Sci 2022 May 30;12(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Hematology and Chemotherapy Clinic, Riga East Clinical University Hospital, Hipokrāta Street 2, LV-1038 Rīga, Latvia.

We present a rare case of intracranial solitary plasmacytoma arising in brain parenchyma in the basal nuclei. Clinical management and autopsy results of the case are described. Background: Intracranial plasmacytomas arising from brain parenchyma are extremely rare, and data from the literature are limited. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reversal of CSF HIV-1 Escape during Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis in Botswana.

Biomedicines 2022 Jun 13;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape has been poorly described among people with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. We determined the prevalence of CSF viral escape and HIV-1 viral load (VL) trajectories in individuals treated for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed using paired CSF and plasma collected prior to and during the antifungal treatment of 83 participants recruited at the Botswana site of the phase-3 AMBITION-cm trial (2018-2021). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CP-MAS and solution NMR studies of allosteric communication in CA-assemblies of HIV-1.

J Mol Biol 2022 Jun 20:167691. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Macromolecular Structure Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NW1 1AT, UK. Electronic address:

Solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy are highly complementary techniques for studying structure and dynamics in very high molecular weight systems. Here we have analysed the dynamics of HIV-1 capsid (CA) assemblies in presence of the cofactors IP6 and ATPγS and the host-factor CPSF6 using a combination of solution state and cross polarisation magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) solid-state NMR. In particular, dynamical effects on ns to µs and µs to ms timescales are observed revealing diverse motions in assembled CA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immunotherapy for visceral leishmaniasis: A trapeze of balancing counteractive forces.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 Jun 20;110:108969. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411007, India. Electronic address:

The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, residing and replicating within the cells of the monocyte-macrophage (mono-mac) lineage, causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in humans. While, Leishmania infantum, is the main causative agent for zoonotic VL, where dogs are the main reservoirs of the disease. The chemotherapy is a serious problem because of restricted repertoire of drugs, drug-resistant parasites, drug-toxicity and the requirement for parenteral administration, which is a problem in resource-starved countries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transcription Start Site Heterogeneity and Preferential Packaging of Specific Full-Length RNA Species Are Conserved Features of Primate Lentiviruses.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jun 23:e0105322. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Viral Recombination Section, HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institutegrid.48336.3a at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA.

HIV-1 must package its RNA genome to generate infectious viruses. Recent studies have revealed that during genome packaging, HIV-1 not only excludes cellular mRNAs, but also distinguishes among full-length viral RNAs. Using NL4-3 and MAL molecular clones, multiple transcription start sites (TSS) were identified, which generate full-length RNAs that differ by only a few nucleotides at the 5' end. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Selective ablation of 3' RNA ends and processive RTs facilitate direct cDNA sequencing of full-length host cell and viral transcripts.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Alternative splicing (AS) is necessary for viral proliferation in host cells and a critical regulatory component of viral gene expression. Conventional RNA-seq approaches provide incomplete coverage of AS due to their short read lengths and are susceptible to biases and artifacts introduced in prevailing library preparation methodologies. Moreover, viral splicing studies are often conducted separately from host cell transcriptome analysis, precluding an assessment of the viral manipulation of host splicing machinery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antiviral Activity and Mechanisms of Seaweeds Bioactive Compounds on Enveloped Viruses-A Review.

Mar Drugs 2022 Jun 8;20(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, MARE-Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Department of Life Sciences, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal.

In the last decades, the interest in seaweed has significantly increased. Bioactive compounds from seaweed's currently receive major attention from pharmaceutical companies as they express several interesting biological activities which are beneficial for humans. The structural diversity of seaweed metabolites provides diverse biological activities which are expressed through diverse mechanisms of actions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transmission and Drug Resistance Characteristics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Strain Using Medical Information Data Retrieval System.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 13;2022:2173339. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Infection and Immunology, The First Hospital of Changsha City, Changsha, 410000 Hunan, China.

This study was aimed at exploring the transmission and drug resistance characteristics of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). The query expansion algorithm based on Candecomp Parafac (CP) decomposition was adopted to construct a data information retrieval system for semantic web and tensor decomposition. In the latent variable model based on tensor decomposition, the three elements in the triples generated feature vectors to calculate the training samples. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Repression of HIV-1 reactivation mediated by CRISPR/dCas9-KRAB in lymphoid and myeloid cell models.

Retrovirology 2022 Jun 22;19(1):12. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Departamento de Genética, Laboratório de Virologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Av Carlos Chagas Filho 373, CCS, Bloco A, Sala 121, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-902, Brazil.

Background: Despite antiretroviral treatment efficacy, it does not lead to the complete eradication of HIV infection. Consequently, reactivation of the virus from latently infected cell reservoirs is a major challenge toward cure efforts. Two strategies targeting viral latency are currently under investigation: the "shock and kill" and the "block and lock. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cancer Gene Therapy: Development and Production of Lentiviral Vectors for Gene Therapy.

Ana S Coroadinha

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2521:297-315

iBET, Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica, Oeiras, Portugal.

Lentiviral vectors are among the most used vectors in gene therapy to treat pathologies of different origins, such as cancers, rare monogenic diseases or neurological disorders. This chapter provides an overview on lentiviral vector developments in terms of vector design and manufacture for gene therapy applications. The state of the art of vector production will be summarized face to the recent developments contributing to improve vector safety, efficacy and manufacturing robustness, focusing on human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) based lentiviral vectors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characteristics of recent HIV infection among individuals newly diagnosed as HIV-positive in South Korea (2008-2015).

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 22;12(1):10515. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Division of Viral Disease Research, Center for Infectious Diseases, Korea National Institute of Health, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.

Most HIV-positive individuals diagnosed in Korea are infected through sexual contact, with the time of HIV infection therefore often being unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of diagnosed patients near the time of HIV seroconversion to establish useful HIV intervention strategies. Cross-sectional study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF