35 results match your criteria HIV-1 Associated Cerebrovascular Complications

Neurocognition and the Aging Brain in People With HIV: Implications for Screening.

Top Antivir Med 2022 Dec-Jan;29(5):423-429

University of California San Francisco, CA, USA.

The introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has converted HIV infection from a lethal disease to a manageable chronic condition for most people. The drastic improvement in life expectancy of people with HIV has led to an expansion of the aging population of people with HIV globally. Recent research indicates that people with HIV on suppressive ART still sustain persistent, albeit alleviated, systemic and cerebral immune activation that can facilitate age-related causes of cognitive impairment (CI), including neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. Read More

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February 2022

Cerebrovascular Disease Correlates With Longitudinal Brain Atrophy in Virally Suppressed Older People Living With HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 08;87(4):1079-1085

Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California San Francisco, CA.

Background: Mild cognitive difficulties and progressive brain atrophy are observed in older people living with HIV (PLWH) despite persistent viral suppression. Whether cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume correspond to the observed progressive brain atrophy is not well understood.

Methods: Longitudinal structural brain atrophy rates and WMH volume were examined among 57 HIV-infected participants and 40 demographically similar HIV-uninfected controls over an average (SD) of 3. Read More

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HIV Associated Risk Factors for Ischemic Stroke and Future Perspectives.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 26;21(15). Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.

Although retroviral therapy (ART) has changed the HIV infection from a fatal event to a chronic disease, treated HIV patients demonstrate high prevalence of HIV associated comorbidities including cardio/cerebrovascular diseases. The incidence of stroke in HIV infected subjects is three times higher than that of uninfected controls. Several clinical and postmortem studies have documented the higher incidence of ischemic stroke in HIV infected patients. Read More

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Targeting the HIV-infected brain to improve ischemic stroke outcome.

Nat Commun 2019 05 1;10(1):2009. Epub 2019 May 1.

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

HIV-associated cerebrovascular events remain highly prevalent even in the current era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesize that low-level HIV replication and associated inflammation endure despite antiretroviral treatment and affect ischemic stroke severity and outcomes. Using the EcoHIV infection model and the middle cerebral artery occlusion as the ischemic stroke model in mice, we present in vivo analysis of the relationship between HIV and stroke outcome. Read More

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Chronic kidney disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in an urban cohort.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215575. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Nephrology Training Program at Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Background And Objectives: HIV-infected patients are at risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Our purpose was to understand the genesis of CKD in HIV patients from a large urban clinic in Houston, Texas, USA, and to characterize progression of CKD in the cohort. Read More

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January 2020

Cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 escape according to different thresholds and underlying comorbidities: is it time to assess the definitions?

AIDS 2019 03;33(4):759-762

Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino.

: No consensus has been reached on how to define cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 escape (CSF-E). We describe its prevalence in 1095 paired CSF-plasma HIV-RNA measurements from antiretroviral-treated patients according to several definitions and neurological affections. CSF-E prevalence varied substantially (9. Read More

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NeuroAIDS in children.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;152:99-116

Department of Infectious Diseases, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2. Read More

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September 2018

Moyamoya syndrome in a pediatric patient with congenital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection resulting in intracranial hemorrhage.

J Infect Chemother 2018 Mar 11;24(3):220-223. Epub 2017 Nov 11.

National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Japan.

In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Read More

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Changing clinical phenotypes of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

Ned Sacktor

J Neurovirol 2018 04 27;24(2):141-145. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Neurology School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, 4940 Eastern Avenue, 301 Building, Suite 2100, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a common cause of cognitive impairment and persists in 15-55% of HIV+ individuals in the combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) era. CART is now the primary treatment for HAND, but it is effective in only a subset of patients. In the pre-CART era, HIV-associated dementia was the most common form of HAND. Read More

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Neurologic Complications in Treated HIV-1 Infection.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2016 07;16(7):62

Departments of Neurology and Medicine (Infectious Diseases), University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Effective combination antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease, with HIV-infected individuals living longer and reaching older age. Neurological disease remains common in treated HIV, however, due in part to ongoing inflammation and immune activation that persist in chronic infection. In this review, we highlight recent developments in our understanding of several clinically relevant neurologic complications that can occur in HIV infection despite treatment, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, symptomatic CSF escape, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy. Read More

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Moyamoya Syndrome in South African Children With HIV-1 Infection.

J Child Neurol 2016 07 9;31(8):1010-7. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Department of Paediatric Neurology, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

A national multicenter study identified 17 South African children with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection and HIV-associated vasculopathy. Five of the children (all indigenous African ancestry) had progressive vascular disease, consistent with moyamoya syndrome. Median presentation age 5. Read More

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Cerebrovascular disease in children with HIV-1 infection.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2016 05 18;58(5):452-60. Epub 2016 Feb 18.

Department of Paediatric Neurology, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

An estimated 3.2 million children worldwide have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in prolonged survival, leading to an increase in complications previously recognized in adults. Read More

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Cytomegalovirus coinfection is associated with an increased risk of severe non-AIDS-defining events in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients.

J Infect Dis 2015 Jan 31;211(2):178-86. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

San Paolo Hospital.

Background: Chronic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been associated with immunosenescence and immunoactivation in the general population. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, CMV coinfection, in addition to residual HIV replication and microbial translocation, has been proposed as a key factor in sustaining immune activation, even in individuals with a controlled HIV load.

Methods: Patients from the ICONA Study with at least 1 CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) test available without active CMV disease were included in the analysis. Read More

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January 2015

Characterization of platelet-monocyte complexes in HIV-1-infected individuals: possible role in HIV-associated neuroinflammation.

J Immunol 2014 May 11;192(10):4674-84. Epub 2014 Apr 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642.

HIV-1-associated neuroinflammation persists even with effective combined antiretroviral therapy, and it is associated with the presence of activated monocytes/macrophages within the CNS. To infiltrate the CNS, monocytes transmigrate across the selectively permeable blood-brain barrier, which is compromised during HIV-1 infection. Interestingly, platelet-derived excess soluble CD40 ligand found in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-1-infected individuals with cognitive impairment has previously been implicated in increased blood-brain barrier permeability. Read More

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Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in HIV-infected patients: report of 2 cases.

Pan Afr Med J 2013 4;16. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular disease; however Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST) is rarely associated with HIV-related cerebrovascular events. We describe two cases of HIV-positive patients who, at the same time, presented to our hospital with deep cerebral venous thrombosis and stroke. Read More

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November 2014

Immuno-virological discordance and the risk of non-AIDS and AIDS events in a large observational cohort of HIV-patients in Europe.

PLoS One 2014 31;9(1):e87160. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Department of Medicine I, Infectious Diseases Unit, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The impact of immunosuppression despite virological suppression (immuno-virological discordance, ID) on the risk of developing fatal and non-fatal AIDS/non-AIDS events is unclear and remains to be elucidated.

Methods: Patients in EuroSIDA starting at least 1 new antiretroviral drug with CD4<350 cells/µl and viral load (VL)>500 copies/mL were followed-up from the first day of VL< = 50 copies/ml until a new fatal/non-fatal non-AIDS/AIDS event. Considered non-AIDS events included non-AIDS malignancies, pancreatitis, severe liver disease with hepatic encephalopathy (>grade 3), cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and end-stage renal disease. Read More

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October 2014

Risk of cardiovascular disease associated with HCV and HBV coinfection among antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected individuals.

Antivir Ther 2014 16;19(3):309-17. Epub 2014 Jan 16.

Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: The increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV is well established. Despite high prevalence of viral hepatitis coinfection with HIV, there are few studies on the risk of CVD amongst antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated coinfected patients.

Methods: Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study participants who initiated ART without prior CVD events were analysed. Read More

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January 2015

Transient hypercapnia reveals an underlying cerebrovascular pathology in a murine model for HIV-1 associated neuroinflammation: role of NO-cGMP signaling and normalization by inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase-5.

J Neuroinflammation 2012 Nov 20;9:253. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 672, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Background: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is known to be dysregulated in persons with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), for uncertain reasons. This is an important issue because impaired vasoreactivity has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, elevated overall cardiovascular risk and cognitive impairment.

Methods: To test whether dysregulation of CBF might be due to virally-induced neuroinflammation, we used a well-defined animal model (GFAP-driven, doxycycline-inducible HIV-1 Tat transgenic (Tat-tg) mice). Read More

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November 2012

Neurocognitive functioning in HIV-1 infection: effects of cerebrovascular risk factors and age.

Clin Neuropsychol 2010 Feb;24(2):265-85

UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA 90095-8353, USA.

This study examined the interactive effects of cerebrovascular risks, advancing age, and HIV infection on neurocognition, and explored whether pharmacological treatment of cerebrovascular risk factors attenuated neurocognitive dysfunction. Participants included 98 HIV-seropositive adults (cerebrovascular risk: 23.5%; age > 50: 27. Read More

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February 2010

Cerebrovascular ischemic events in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: incidence and risk factors.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2009 24;27(6):559-63. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

Stroke Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Stroke risk is increased in AIDS patients, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may accelerate atherosclerosis, but little is known about the incidence and risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients under HAART. We have studied the incidence, types of stroke and possible risk factors for cerebrovascular ischemic events in a large cohort of HIV-1-infected patients treated with HAART.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks occurring in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients treated with HAART from 1996 to 2008. Read More

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September 2009

HIV-associated vascular diseases: structural and functional changes, clinical implications.

Int J Cardiol 2009 Apr 7;133(3):293-306. Epub 2009 Jan 7.

AP-HP, Hôpital René Muret, Policlinique médicale, Université Paris, Sevran, France.

After more than two decades of AIDS epidemic, the spectrum of HIV-associated vascular diseases has mainly evolved from infectious and inflammatory vasculitides to premature atherosclerosis, its related contributing conditions (metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance syndrome) and complications (acute coronary and cerebrovascular syndromes). Today, as the AIDS epidemic further progresses worldwide and as the life expectancy of HIV-infected patients treated with effective antiviral regimens has dramatically increased, more than 10% of patients experience cardiovascular manifestations. The complex interplay between viral infection, inflammatory and cytokines pathways, protease inhibitors-induced hyperlipidemia and direct effects on endothelial cells has not, by far, been integrated in a single comprehensive pathogenesis network. Read More

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Giant serpentine aneurysm of vertebrobasilar artery mimicking dolichoectasia--an unusual complication of pediatric AIDS. Report of a case with review of the literature.

Clin Neuropathol 2008 Jan-Feb;27(1):37-52

Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India.

Central nervous system manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in children differ strikingly from adults. Developmental delay, subacute AIDS encephalitis and basal ganglia calcification are common in children, in contrast to opportunistic infections and dementia in adults. Intracranial aneurysms are being recognized with increasing frequency in pediatric AIDS. Read More

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Cerebellar degeneration and immune thrombocytopenic purpura associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV).

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007 Dec;65(4A):1010-1

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Napoleão de Barros 566/93, SP, Brazil.

Cerebellar disorders associated with HIV infection are usually caused by opportunistic infections, central nervous system lymphoma, and toxic effects of medicines, nutritional and metabolic disorders, and cerebrovascular disease. We present an unusual association of cerebellar degeneration and immune thrombocytopenic purpura in a 28-years-old woman HIV infected. An autoimmune aetiology is likely. Read More

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December 2007

Cerebrovascular disease in patients with HIV-1 associated pulmonary hypertension.

J NeuroAIDS 1999 ;2(2):57-64

Department of Neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 673, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

We report two young adults with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one who presented with multiple ischemic cerebral infarctions and the other who presented with multiple episodes of transient neurologic deficit. Both patients had pulmonary hypertension and a patent foramen ovale (PFO) by echocardiogram. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing HIV-associated pulmonary hypertension and PFO in HIV infected patients with presumed embolic cerebrovascular disease. Read More

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September 2006

Management of HIV-associated focal brain lesions in developing countries.

QJM 2004 Jul;97(7):413-21

Division of Radiology, Department of Radiation Sciences, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: HIV-associated focal brain lesions (HFBL) are caused by opportunistic infections, neoplasms, or cerebrovascular diseases. In developed countries, toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) is the most frequent cause, followed by primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Guidelines based on these causes however are poorly suited to developing countries, where treatable infections predominate as causes of HFBL. Read More

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Cognitive impairment in older HIV-1-seropositive individuals: prevalence and potential mechanisms.

AIDS 2004 Jan;18 Suppl 1:S79-86

University of Hawaii, NeuroAIDS Specialized Neuroscience Research Program, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii 96816, USA.

Individuals over 50 years of age comprise 11% of AIDS cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A higher prevalence of AIDS in older individuals has been reported in certain states including Hawaii (20%) and Florida (13%). Although life expectancy in individuals with AIDS has increased with advances in antiretroviral therapy, it is likely that there are health consequences both of long-term infection and chronic antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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January 2004

[Aids: is it a risk factor in cerebrovascular disease?].

Rev Neurol 2002 Nov 1-15;35(9):808-11

Policlinico Docente "Heroes del Moncada". Municipio de Salud Plaza, La Habana, Cuba.

Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has become an important health problem throughout the world. It is generally one the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, especially in developed countries. In these countries the frequency with which it appears is linked with the progress reached in the organisation of the public health system and the higher economic and social standards of their populations, which have given rise to prolonged life expectancy and a greater number of elderly people. Read More

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Aging and neuro-AIDS conditions and the changing spectrum of HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality.

J Clin Epidemiol 2001 Dec;54 Suppl 1:S35-43

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1400 NW 10th Ave, #803-A, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Older individuals (>50 years of age) now comprise over 11% of patients with AIDS in the United States. This percentage is expected to continue to grow, due both to the improved longevity of patients prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to new infections among older individuals. This review focuses on the neuropsychiatric and neurological conditions that are most likely to be affected by advancing age-HIV-1-associated cognitive-motor disorder, peripheral neuropathy, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, primary CNS lymphoma, and risk for cerebrovascular accident. Read More

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December 2001

Development of an in vitro blood-brain barrier model to study molecular neuropathogenesis and neurovirologic disorders induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

J Hum Virol 2000 Nov-Dec;3(6):324-34

Center for Human Virology, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

Objective: An in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) system was developed using primary cultures of human brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs), macrophages, neuronal cells, and human fetal astrocytes. This BBB system simulates important morphologic and permeability characteristics of the BBB in vivo. This system could be used to study human neurologic/neurovirologic disorders. Read More

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Neurological and developmental problems in pediatric HIV infection.

M Mintz

J Nutr 1996 10;126(10 Suppl):2663S-2673S

Cooper Hospital/University Medical Center, Camden, New Jersey 08103, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-associated neurologic disease, known as "HIV-1-associated progressive encephalopathy" (PE), is a common concomitant in the progression towards AIDS. PE, characterized by a triad of symptoms including impaired brain growth, progressive motor dysfunction, and loss or plateau of developmental milestones, is believed to result from both direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection on the central nervous system (CNS). Consequent to the hallmark systemic immune deficiency of HIV infection, the CNS becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections which add further morbidity and mortality, and may contribute either directly or indirectly to neurologic symptoms which can often mimic PE. Read More

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October 1996