96,221 results match your criteria HIV-1 Associated Acute Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy


CCR5 structural plasticity shapes HIV-1 phenotypic properties.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007432. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Viral Pathogenesis Unit, Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. It exists in diverse conformations and oligomerization states. We interrogated the significance of the CCR5 structural diversity on HIV-1 infection. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men in Taiwan from 2013 to 2015.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0202622. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Center for Infectious Disease and Cancer Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Men who have sex with men (MSM) is the major risk population of HIV-1 infection in Taiwan, and its surveillance has become critical in HIV-1 prevention. We recruited MSM subjects from 17 high-risk venues and 4 community centers in northern and southern Taiwan for anonymous HIV-1 screening during 2013-2015. Blood samples were obtained for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis, and a questionnaire survey covering demographic variables and social behavior was conducted. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Blocking Tyr265 nitration of protein phosphatase 2A attenuates nitrosative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction in renal microvessels.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201800885RR. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Protein tyrosine (Tyr) nitration, the covalent addition of a nitro group (NO) to Tyr residues, is emerging as a candidate mechanism of endothelial dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that Tyr nitration is primarily induced by nitrosative stress, a process characterized by the production of reactive nitrogen species, especially peroxynitrite anion (ONOO), which is considered a secondary product of NO in the presence of superoxide radicals (O). However, the impact of nitrosative stress-induced Tyr nitration on endothelial dysfunction has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Read More

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December 2018

A virus-packageable CRISPR screen identifies host factors mediating interferon inhibition of HIV.

Elife 2018 Dec 6;7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Divisions of Human Biology and Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Washington, United States.

Interferon (IFN) inhibits HIV replication by inducing antiviral effectors. To comprehensively identify IFN-induced HIV restriction factors, we assembled a CRISPR sgRNA library of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) into a modified lentiviral vector that allows for packaging of sgRNA-encoding genomes into budding HIV-1 particles. We observed that knockout of Zinc Antiviral Protein (ZAP) improved the performance of the screen due to ZAP-mediated inhibition of the vector. Read More

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December 2018

M918: A novel cell penetrating peptide for effective delivery of HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins into eukaryotic cell lines.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Pilot Nano-Biotechnology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran. Iran.

Background: HIV-1 Nef protein is a possible attractive target in development of therapeutic HIV vaccines including protein-based vaccines. The most important disadvantage of protein-based vaccines is their low immunogenicity which can be improved by heat shock proteins (Hsps) as an immunomodulator, and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as a carrier.

Methods: In this study, the HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins were generated in E. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

The interaction of HIV set-point viral load and subtype on disease progression.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

NIAID, LIR , 855 North Wolfe St. , Rangos Building, Room 538A , Baltimore, Maryland, United States , 21205.

HIV-1 subtype and viral load set-point have been implicated as strong predictors of HIV-1 disease progression; however the relationship between these two variables has not been investigated. We used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study to investigate whether the association between viral load set-point and disease progression is modified by HIV subtype. Time to AIDS or AIDS-related death was investigated through Cox proportional hazards regression with an interaction term between viral load set point and HIV subtype. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Noninvasive western lowland gorilla's health monitoring: A decade of simian immunodeficiency virus surveillance in southern Cameroon.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 25;8(22):10698-10710. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

TransVIHMI Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM) Université de Montpellier Montpellier France.

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVgor) causes persistent infection in critically endangered western lowland gorillas () from west central Africa. SIVgor is closely related to chimpanzee and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpz and HIV-1, respectively). We established a noninvasive method that does not interfere with gorillas' natural behaviour to provide wildlife pathogen surveillance and health monitoring for conservation. Read More

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November 2018

Identification of a HIV Gp41-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibody With Potent Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.

Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2613. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

AIDS Institute, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism of protection against viral infections . Identification of HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with potent ADCC activity may help develop an effective HIV-1 vaccine. In present study, we isolated such human mAb, designated E10, from an HIV-1-infected patient sample by single B cell sorting and single cell PCR. Read More

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November 2018

Neutralization Synergy between HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor Fostemsavir and Anti-CD4 Binding Site Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against HIV.

J Virol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Attachment inhibitor (AI) BMS-626529 (Fostemsavir) represents a novel class of antiretrovirals which targets human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 and blocks CD4-induced conformational changes required for viral entry. It is now in Phase III clinical trials and is expected to be approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the near future. Although Fostemsavir is very potent against HIV in vitro and in vivo, there are already a number of resistant mutants identified. Read More

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December 2018

Histidine-rich glycoprotein inhibits HIV-1 infection in a pH-dependent manner.

J Virol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Retrovirus y SIDA (INBIRS), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an abundant plasma protein with a multidomain structure allowing its interaction with many ligands including phospholipids, plasminogen, fibrinogen, IgG antibodies, and heparan sulfate. HRG has shown to regulate different biological responses such as angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Here, we found that HRG almost completely abrogated the infection of GHOST, Jurkat, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages by HIV-1 at low pH (range 6. Read More

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December 2018

CRISPR-Cas9-based Genome Engineering to Generate Jurkat Reporter Models for HIV-1 Infection with Selected Proviral Integration Sites.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 14(141). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology; Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF);

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrates its proviral DNA non-randomly into the host cell genome at recurrent sites and genomic hotspots. Here we present a detailed protocol for the generation of novel in vitro models for HIV infection with chosen genomic integration sites using CRISPR-Cas9-based genome engineering technology. With this method, a reporter sequence of choice can be integrated into a targeted, chosen genomic locus, reflecting clinically relevant integration sites. Read More

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November 2018

Broadening our knowledge of the differences between HIV-2 and HIV-1 innate sensing: HIV-2 infected cells selectively express B7-H6 and engage NKp30 on natural killer cells.

AIDS 2019 Jan;33(1):153-154

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

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January 2019

Tenofovir 1% vaginal gel for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women in South Africa (FACTS-001): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 24;18(11):1241-1250. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Wits RHI, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Young women in southern Africa have substantial risk of HIV acquisition. Female-controlled biomedical interventions are needed to mitigate this risk. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a pericoitally applied tenofovir 1% gel. Read More

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November 2018

Does region of origin influence the timing and outcome of first-line antiretroviral therapy in France?

HIV Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Antoine Béclère Hospital, Clamart, France.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess whether the timing of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation, the choice of cART and virological response differ in migrants versus European natives in the north and east of Paris area, after dissemination of French recommendations for universal treatment.

Methods: Antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected adults with at least two follow-up visits at one of 15 participating centres between 1 January 2014 and 31 March 2015 were included in the study. Factors associated with cART initiation before 31 March 2015, with protease inhibitor (PI)-containing cART among individuals initiating cART, and with 1-year virological success after cART initiation were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. Read More

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December 2018
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An in silico pharmacological approach toward the discovery of potent inhibitors to combat drug resistance HIV-1 protease variants.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Computer Aided Drug Design and Molecular Modeling, Department of Bioinformatics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, India.

Protease inhibitors (PIs) are crucial drugs in highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infections. However, resistance owing to mutations challenge the long-term efficacy in the medication of HIV-1-infected individuals. Lopinavir (LPV) and darunavir (DRV), two second-generation drugs are the most potent among PIs, hustling the drug resistance when mutations occur in the active and nonactive site of the protease (PR). Read More

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December 2018

Metabolically Healthy or Metabolically Unhealthy Obese HIV-Infected Patients: Mostly a Matter of Age?

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 16;9:681. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, EPE, Porto, Portugal.

Life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has increased with antiretroviral treatment (ART). Chronic diseases associated with aging, including metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are becoming more prevalent in this population. We aimed to evaluate the association of obesity and aging with cardiometabolic comorbidities and metabolic health status among patients with HIV infection. Read More

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November 2018

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Coinfection in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Brazil: Clinical Profile and Outcomes.

Microbiol Insights 2018 27;11:1178636118813367. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Universidade Positivo Medical School, Curitiba, Brazil.

Worldwide, the convergence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection epidemics is a public health challenge. In Brazil, TB is the leading cause of death by infectious disease in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to report the clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and laboratory data for TB in PLWH. Read More

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November 2018

The attenuation of HIV-1 Tat-induced neurotoxicity by Salvianic acid A and Danshen granule.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Cancer Biomarkers and Liquid Biopsy, Pharmaceutical College of Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China. Electronic address:

The neurotoxicity of HIV-1 Tat protein contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of HAND, and hence the attractive therapeutic strategies focusing on Tat-induced neurotoxicity are warranted. Salvia miltiorrhiza have been known to antioxidant property and neuroprotective effects. The Danshen granule is the pharmaceutical dosage forms of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvianic acid A is an essential chemical constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Read More

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November 2018

Trivalent RING Assembly on Retroviral Capsids Activates TRIM5 Ubiquitination and Innate Immune Signaling.

Cell Host Microbe 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. Electronic address:

TRIM5 is a RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase with potent antiretroviral function. TRIM5 assembles into a hexagonal lattice on retroviral capsids, causing envelopment of the infectious core. Concomitantly, TRIM5 initiates innate immune signaling and orchestrates disassembly of the viral particle, yet how these antiviral responses are regulated by capsid recognition is unclear. Read More

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November 2018

Pre-treatment drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in infants from Argentina with and without exposure to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Retrovirus, Hospital de Pediatría "Juan P. Garrahan"-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence and patterns of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) and HIV-1 subtype in infants from Argentina with exposure to different antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT).

Patients And Methods: HIV-1 genotyping was performed in 115 infants (median age = 2.3 months) born between 2007 and 2014 to screen for drug resistance mutations (DRMs) before starting first-line ART. Read More

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December 2018
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Absence of cytomegalovirus in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis in HIV-1 patients in Northern Brazil.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Nov-Dec;51(6):809-812

Departamento de Periodontologia, Centro Universitário do Estado do Pará, Belém, PA, Brasil.

Introduction: The influence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) on the progression of chronic periodontitis in HIV patients is poorly investigated.

Methods: ELISA was used for anti-CMV antibody IgG titer measurements and real-time polymerase chain reaction for qualitative and quantitative CMV detection. Data on the CD4 + T lymphocyte count and plasma HIV viral load were obtained from patient records. Read More

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February 2018

Novel variants of human herpesvirus 2 from Brazilian HIV-1 coinfected subjects.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 3;113(12):e180328. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Virologia Molecular, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

BACKGROUND Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2) have DNA genome with a limited genetic variability and have been classified into two clades. OBJECTIVES To identify and characterise six HHV-2 isolates derived from Brazilian women. METHODS HHV-2 isolates were performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 2250 pb of the glycoprotein B (gB) coding regions. Read More

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December 2018

Higher prevalence of viral control in HIV-1-infected women in serodiscordant relationships.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0208401. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Background: HIV-1-discordant couples that remain discordant despite repeated exposure may differ from the general population in their distribution of transmission risk factors, including low plasma viral load (PVL) in the infected partner even in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods: We followed two cohorts of HIV-1-infected Kenyan women: females in discordant couples (FDC) and female sex workers (FSW). We compared the distribution of undetectable (<150 copies/mL) and low PVL (<1,000 copies/mL) between the cohorts using bootstrap methods and exact Poisson regression. Read More

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December 2018

The journey of HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) from lab to clinic.

J Med Chem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is now pandemic. Targeting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) has been considered one of the most successful targets for the development of anti-HIV treatment. Among the HIV-1 RT inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have gained a definitive place due to their unique antiviral potency, high specificity and low toxicity in antiretroviral combination therapies used to treat HIV. Read More

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December 2018

Highlights from the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018), 22-27 July 2018, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

J Virus Erad 2018 Oct 1;4(4):238-247. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Infection and Immunity, Royal Free Hospital and University College, London, UK.

Important data on the social, epidemiological and clinical aspects of HIV-1, comorbidities and hepatitis as well as data on novel antiretroviral agents and the cure agenda were presented at AIDS 2018. This report covers some of the highlights. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Regulatory T cells: the ultimate HIV reservoir?

J Virus Erad 2018 Oct 1;4(4):209-214. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Despite significant advances in the understanding of HIV-1 infection, a cure remains out of reach. This is, in part, due to a long-lived HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells, which do not express viral antigens, and thus are invisible to the immune system. These latently infected cells carry replication-competent proviruses and can cause rebound viraemia if antiretrovirals are interrupted. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Structural mechanism for HIV-1 TAR loop recognition by Tat and the super elongation complex.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and California Institute of Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720;

Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a key regulatory step in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) transcription and thus in the reversal of HIV latency. By binding to the nascent transactivating response region (TAR) RNA, HIV-1 Tat recruits the human super elongation complex (SEC) to the promoter and releases paused Pol II. Structural studies of TAR interactions have been largely focused on interactions between the TAR bulge and the arginine-rich motif (ARM) of Tat. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

[PSB0739 inhibits formation of semen-derived amyloid fibril].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2018 Nov;38(11):1338-1343

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Objective: To explore the inhibitory effect of PSB0739 on the formation of semen-derived amyloid fibrils.

Methods: PAP248-286 (440 μmol/L) was incubated with PSB0739 at different concentrations, and at different time points of incubation, aliquots were taken from each sample for Congo red staining to detect the formation of amyloid fibers. The morphology of amyloid fibrils incubated in the presence or absence of PSB0739 was visualized using transmission electron microscope. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Synthesis and evaluation of 2,5-diamino and 2,5-dianilinomethyl pyridine analogues as potential CXCR4 antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. Electronic address:

CXCR4 and its cognate ligand CXCL12 has been linked to various pathways such as cancer metastasis, inflammation, HIV-1 proliferation, and auto-immune diseases. Small molecules have shown potential as CXCR4 inhibitors and modulators, and therefore can mitigate diseases related to the CXCR4-CXCL12 pathway. We have designed and synthesized a series of 2,5-diamino and 2,5-dianilinomethyl pyridine derivatives as potential CXCR4 antagonists. Read More

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November 2018

Identification of Diaryl-Quinoline Compounds as Entry Inhibitors of Ebola Virus.

Viruses 2018 Nov 30;10(12). Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, The University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Ebola virus is the causative agent of Ebola virus disease in humans. The lethality of Ebola virus infection is about 50%, supporting the urgent need to develop anti-Ebola drugs. Glycoprotein (GP) is the only surface protein of the Ebola virus, which is functionally critical for the virus to attach and enter the host cells, and is a promising target for anti-Ebola virus drug development. Read More

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November 2018

Implications of HIV-1 Nef for "Shock and Kill" Strategies to Eliminate Latent Viral Reservoirs.

Viruses 2018 Nov 30;10(12). Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.

Finding a cure for HIV is challenging because the virus is able to integrate itself into the host cell genome and establish a silent state, called latency, allowing it to evade antiviral drugs and the immune system. Various "shock and kill" strategies are being explored in attempts to eliminate latent HIV reservoirs. The goal of these approaches is to reactivate latent viruses ("shock"), thereby exposing them to clearance by viral cytopathic effects or immune-mediated responses ("kill"). Read More

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November 2018

[Treatment of HIV in Pregnancy - Progress Over One Decade].

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Bonn.

Introduction: Worldwide, 37 million people are infected with HIV; more than 50% are women. Currently, MTCT (mother-to-child transmission) can be reduced to<1%. The intention of the present study was to analyze the development of (1) the course of pregnancy of HIV-infected women, (2) the mode of delivery and (3) the post-exposure prophylaxis of the newborn over the last decade. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

HIV-1 DNA is Maintained in Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Subsets in Patients on Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy Regardless of Recurrent Antigen Exposure.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

St. Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, HIV Immunovirology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Memory CD4+ T cells (mCD4s) containing integrated HIV DNA are considered the main barrier to a cure for HIV infection. Here we analysed HIV DNA reservoirs in antigen-specific subsets of mCD4s to delineate the mechanisms by which HIV reservoirs persist during ART.

Methods/results: HIV Gag, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Tetanus Toxoid (TT) specific mCD4s were isolated from peripheral blood samples obtained from 11 individual subjects, 2-11 years after commencing ART. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Autophagy-Virus Interplay: From Cell Biology to Human Disease.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2018 19;6:155. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Virology, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation process that targets protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Autophagy is also implicated in numerous viral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), influenza A (IAV) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Depending on the virus, autophagy can restrict or promote viral replication, and play key roles in modulating inflammation and cell survival. Read More

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November 2018

Strongyloidosis Hyperinfection Syndrome in an HIV-Infected Patient: A Rare Manifestation of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2018 28;2018:6870768. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Medicine, Poona Hospital and Research Center, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Parasitic infections such as and HIV have been reported to coexist, particularly in resource-limited settings such as India. In an immunocompromised host, can progress to strongyloidiasis hyperinfection syndrome (SHS). However, SHS is not common in patients with advanced HIV disease. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Euclidean Distance Analysis Enables Nucleotide Skew Analysis in Viral Genomes.

Comput Math Methods Med 2018 30;2018:6490647. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Nucleotide skew analysis is a versatile method to study the nucleotide composition of RNA/DNA molecules, in particular to reveal characteristic sequence signatures. For instance, skew analysis of the nucleotide bias of several viral RNA genomes indicated that it is enriched in the unpaired, single-stranded genome regions, thus creating an even more striking virus-specific signature. The comparison of skew graphs for many virus isolates or families is difficult, time-consuming, and nonquantitative. Read More

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October 2018

Global and regional molecular epidemiology of HIV-1, 1990-2015: a systematic review, global survey, and trend analysis.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Strategic Information Department, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Global genetic diversity of HIV-1 is a major challenge to the development of HIV vaccines. We aimed to estimate the regional and global distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants during 1990-2015.

Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL (Ebscohost), and Global Health (Ovid) for HIV-1 subtyping studies published between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 2015. Read More

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November 2018

Global molecular epidemiology of HIV-1: the chameleon challenge.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Hygiene Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 115 27, Greece.

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November 2018

Production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody to Herpes Simplex Virus glycoprotein D for immunoaffinity purification of tagged proteins.

J Immunol Methods 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biomolecular Engineering, The University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA. Electronic address:

We have developed a stable Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) to a short protein sequence derived from the N-terminus of human herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D (HSV-1 gD). The antibody (designated r34.1) provides a useful tool for the immunoaffinity purification of HSV-1 gD tagged proteins, and provides a generic purification system by which various proteins and peptides can be purified. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

HIV-1 T cell epitopes targeted to Rhesus macaque CD40 and DCIR: A comparative study of prototype dendritic cell targeting therapeutic vaccine candidates.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(11):e0207794. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Vaccine Research Institute, Université Paris-Est, Faculté de Médecine, INSERM U955, Créteil, France.

HIV-1 infection can be controlled by anti-retroviral drug therapy, but this is a lifetime treatment and the virus remains latent and rapidly rebounds if therapy is stopped. HIV-1-infected individuals under this drug regimen have increased rates of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmunity due to compromised immunity. A therapeutic vaccine boosting cellular immunity against HIV-1 is therefore desirable and, possibly combined with other immune modulating agents, could obviate the need for long-term drug therapies. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase/d4TTP complex: novel DNA cross-linking site and pH-dependent conformational changes.

Protein Sci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, 08854.

Stavudine (d4T, 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine) was one of the first chain-terminating nucleoside analogs used to treat HIV infection. We present the first structure of the active, triphosphate form of d4T (d4TTP) bound to a catalytic complex of HIV-1 RT/dsDNA template-primer. We also present a new strategy for disulfide (S-S) chemical cross-linking between N of a modified adenine at the second overhang base to I63C in the fingers subdomain of RT. Read More

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November 2018

Multiple components of the nuclear pore complex interact with the amino-terminus of MX2 to facilitate HIV-1 restriction.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Nov 29;14(11):e1007408. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Immunology & Microbial Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Human myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2/MXB) is an interferon-induced post-entry inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. While the precise mechanism of viral inhibition remains unclear, MX2 is localized to the nuclear envelope, and blocks the nuclear import of viral cDNAs. The amino-terminus of MX2 (N-MX2) is essential for anti-viral function, and mutation of a triple arginine motif at residues 11 to 13 abrogates anti-HIV-1 activity. Read More

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November 2018

Apolipoprotein E is an HIV-1-inducible inhibitor of viral production and infectivity in macrophages.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Nov 29;14(11):e1007372. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) belongs to a class of cellular proteins involved in lipid metabolism. ApoE is a polymorphic protein produced primarily in macrophages and astrocytes. Different isoforms of ApoE have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases including Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Darunavir population pharmacokinetic model based on HIV outpatient data.

Ther Drug Monit 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Darunavir is a second-generation protease inhibitor and is registered for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -1 infection. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a darunavir population pharmacokinetic model based on data from daily practice.

Methods: Datasets were obtained from two hospitals: ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco University Hospital, Italy (hospital A) and University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands (hospital B). Read More

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November 2018

Identification of a Novel HIV-1 Second-generation Recombinant Form (CRF01_AE/07_BC) in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing Center for Preventive Medical Research, Institute for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention , HEPINGLIZHONGJIE , Beijing, China , 100013 ;

HIV-1 CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC have been two mainly circulating HIV-1 strains in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population in Beijing for years. These two subtypes together were accounting for 78.1% of HIV-1 positive cases newly diagnosed in Beijing, 2016. Read More

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November 2018

Decreased plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as a novel biomarker for HIV-1 disease progression.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institut Cochin, 55648, Infection, Immunity and Inflammation , 22 rue Mechian , Paris, France , 75014 ;

HIV-1 mucosal transmission in genital epithelia occurs via infection of Langerhans cells (LCs) and subsequent trans-infection of CD4+ T-cells. We previously reported that the vasodilator neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), secreted upon activation of sensory peripheral neurons that innervate all mucosal epithelia, significantly inhibits trans-infection. To investigate the association between CGRP and HIV-1 during infection, we evaluated circulating CGRP levels in HIV-1-infected patients. Read More

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November 2018

Closing and opening holes in the glycan shield of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein SOSIP trimers can redirect the neutralizing antibody response to the newly unmasked epitopes.

J Virol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA

In HIV-1 vaccine research, native-like, soluble envelope glycoprotein SOSIP trimers are widely used for immunizing animals. The epitopes of autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced by the BG505 and B41 SOSIP trimers in rabbits and macaques have been mapped to a few holes in the glycan shields that cover most of the protein surfaces. For BG505 trimers, the dominant autologous NAb epitope in rabbits involves residues that line a cavity caused by the absence of a glycan at residue 241. Read More

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November 2018
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Crosstalk in competing endogenous RNA networks reveals new circular RNAs involved in the pathogenesis of early HIV infection.

J Transl Med 2018 Nov 29;16(1):332. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

NHC Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology (China Medical University), Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No 155, Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning, China.

Background: The events in early HIV infection (EHI) are important determinants of disease severity and progression rate to AIDS, but the mechanisms of pathogenesis in EHI have not been fully understood. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been verified as "microRNA sponges" that regulate gene expression through competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks, but circRNA expression profiles and their contribution to EHI pathogenesis are still unclear.

Methods: Two different libraries were constructed with RNA from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 3 HARRT-naive EHI patients and 3 healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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November 2018

T = 4 Icosahedral HIV-1 Capsid As an Immunogenic Vector for HIV-1 V3 Loop Epitope Display.

Viruses 2018 Nov 26;10(12). Epub 2018 Nov 26.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China.

The HIV-1 mature capsid (CA) assumes an amorphous, fullerene conical configuration due to its high flexibility. How native CA self-assembles is still unclear despite having well-defined structures of its pentamer and hexamer building blocks. Here we explored the self-assembly of an engineered capsid protein built through artificial disulfide bonding (CA N21C/A22C) and determined the structure of one fraction of the globular particles. Read More

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November 2018

Assessment of rapid diagnostic tests and fourth-generation Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in the screening of Human Immunodeficiency and Hepatitis B virus infections among first-time blood donors in Libreville (Gabon).

J Clin Lab Anal 2018 Nov 28:e22824. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, Franceville, Gabon.

Background: Blood transfusion is a pathway for the transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) from donors to recipients in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Gabon. The study aimed to compare the performance of four rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs: Alere DETERMINE, BIOSYNEX Exacto Pro HIV, MEDIFF HIV 1&2, and BIOSYNEX IMMUNOQUICK HBsAg) with results of 4th-generation immunoenzymatic assays COBAS 6000 e601 and EVOLIS BioRad for the detection of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors in Libreville, Gabon.

Methods: Reactive and nonreactive blood samples for HIV and HBsAg were selected using fourth-generation ELISA COBAS 6000 e601 and EVOLIS BioRad. Read More

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November 2018