104,349 results match your criteria HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections - CNS Toxoplasmosis


Utility of the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis from Blood Samples in Ethiopia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Mekelle University College of Health Sciences, Mekelle, Ethiopia.

Rapid and accurate diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is needed to initiate prompt treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of VL from blood in an endemic area in Ethiopia. LAMP was positive in 117/122 confirmed VL cases and negative in 149/152 controls, resulting in a sensitivity of 95. Read More

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Circulating fibroblast growth factor-2 precipitates HIV nephropathy in mice.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Jul 26;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Child Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

People of African ancestry living with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) are at risk of developing HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Children with HIVAN frequently show high plasma fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) levels; however, the role of circulating FGF-2 in the pathogenesis of childhood HIVAN is unclear. Here, we explored how circulating FGF-2 affected the outcome of HIVAN in young HIV-Tg26 mice. Read More

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DING Protein Inhibits Transcription of HIV-1 Gene through Suppression of Phosphorylation of NF-κB p65.

J HIV AIDS 2020 Aug 31;6(1). Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, USA.

Introduction: Novel plant DING proteins (full-length 38 kDa p38SJ, and 27 kDa p27SJ) exhibit phosphatase activity and modulate HIV-1 gene transcription. Previously, we demonstrated that DING regulates HIV-1 gene transcription by dephosphorylation and inactivation of CTD RNA polymerase II, the major elongating factor of HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeats (LTR). Because the transcription of HIV-1 is controlled by several viral and cellular factors, including p65/p50 subunits of NF-κB, we hypothesized that DING phosphatase can also affect the phosphorylation and activity of p65 NF-κB, in addition to C-terminal Domain (CTD) of RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII), to suppress HIV-1 gene transcription and inhibit HIV-1 infection. Read More

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Erratum to "Development of Delivery Systems Enhances the Potency of Cell-Based HIV-1 Therapeutic Vaccine Candidates".

J Immunol Res 2021 7;2021:9763540. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Hepatitis and AIDs, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2021/5538348.]. Read More

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Syphilis Testing as a Proxy Marker for a Subgroup of Men Who Have Sex With Men With a Central Role in HIV-1 Transmission in Guangzhou, China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 7;8:662689. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The objectives of this study were to distinguish the role of men who have sex with men (MSM) with or without syphilis testing in HIV-1 transmission and to provide molecular evidence of syphilis testing as a proxy marker for identifying the subgroup of MSM. HIV-1 transmission clusters were constructed by HIV-TRACE and Cluster Picker using HIV-1 pol sequences from 729 newly diagnosed HIV-infected MSM from 2008 to 2012 in Guangzhou, China. The role of MSM in HIV-1 transmission networks was determined by a node influence measurement and centrality analysis. Read More

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HIV-1 Hijacking of Host ATPases and GTPases That Control Protein Trafficking.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:622610. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Center for Virology Research, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) modifies the host cell environment to ensure efficient and sustained viral replication. Key to these processes is the capacity of the virus to hijack ATPases, GTPases and the associated proteins that control intracellular protein trafficking. The functions of these energy-harnessing enzymes can be seized by HIV-1 to allow the intracellular transport of viral components within the host cell or to change the subcellular distribution of antiviral factors, leading to immune evasion. Read More

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Corrigendum: Complement-Opsonized HIV Modulates Pathways Involved in Infection of Cervical Mucosal Tissues: A Transcriptomic and Proteomic Study.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:730130. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology, Department of Biomedicine and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021. Read More

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Phenotypic and Genotypic Co-receptor Tropism Testing in HIV-1 Epidemic Region of Tanzania Where Multiple Non-B Subtypes Co-circulate.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:703041. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

HIV human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) entry inhibitor potency is dependent on viral co-receptor tropisms and thereby tropism determination is clinically important. However, phenotypic tropisms of HIV-1 non-B subtypes have been poorly investigated and the genotypic prediction algorithms remain insufficiently validated. To clarify this issue, we recruited 52 treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients in Tanzania, where multiple HIV-1 non-B subtypes co-circulate. Read More

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Safety and Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Long-Acting Injectable Antiretroviral Drugs for HIV-1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials.

Front Pharmacol 2021 7;12:664875. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

To investigate the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of long-acting injectable pre-exposure prophylaxis (LAI PrEP), notably cabotegravir (CAB-LA) and rilpivirine (RPV-LA), for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Eligible randomized trials of LAI PrEP in HIV-uninfected and/or healthy patients were included and assessed with the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. Where feasible, a meta-analysis was performed for safety outcomes by using a random-effects model with risk ratios and their 95% confidence intervals as the common effect measure. Read More

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Cadinane-type sesquiterpenes with potential anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV activities from the stems and leaves of .

Nat Prod Res 2021 Jul 24:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, P. R. China.

Eight cadinane-type sesquiterpenes, including a new cadinane-type sesquiterpene, named as mappianiodene (), and seven known analogues (-), were isolated and identified from the stems and leaves of . The chemical structure and absolute configurations of was elucidated by extensive spectral methods and the known compounds were identified by comparing their experimental spectral data with the reported spectral data in the literature. The anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV activities of those isolated cadinane-type sesquiterpenes were tested. Read More

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Fixed-dose combination bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in adolescents and children with HIV: week 48 results of a single-arm, open-label, multicentre, phase 2/3 trial.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Virology Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.

Background: Bictegravir is a potent integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (INSTI) with a high genetic barrier to resistance. Bictegravir, coformulated with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide, is recommended by key European and US HIV treatment guidelines as the preferred single-tablet regimen for adults and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of switching to this regimen in virologically suppressed children and adolescents with HIV. Read More

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Amyloidogenic, neuroinflammatory and memory dysfunction effects of HIV-1 gp120.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Jul 23;44(7):689-701. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Osongsaengmyeong 1-ro, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 28160, Republic of Korea.

Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection can cause several HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders a variety of neurological impairments characterized by the loss of cortical and subcortical neurons and decreased cognitive and motor function. HIV-1 gp120, the major envelope glycoprotein on viral particles, acts as a binding protein for viral entry and is known to be an agent of neuronal cell death. To determine the mechanism of HIV-1 gp120-induced memory dysfunction, we performed mouse intracerebroventricular (i. Read More

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Stochastic pausing at latent HIV-1 promoters generates transcriptional bursting.

Nat Commun 2021 07 23;12(1):4503. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, University of Montpellier, CNRS, Montpellier, France.

Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II is a key process regulating gene expression. In latent HIV-1 cells, it prevents viral transcription and is essential for latency maintenance, while in acutely infected cells the viral factor Tat releases paused polymerase to induce viral expression. Pausing is fundamental for HIV-1, but how it contributes to bursting and stochastic viral reactivation is unclear. Read More

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Predicting in vivo escape dynamics of HIV-1 from a broadly neutralizing antibody.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(30)

Institut für Biologische Physik, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne, Germany;

Broadly neutralizing antibodies are promising candidates for treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infections. Such antibodies can temporarily suppress viral load in infected individuals; however, the virus often rebounds by escape mutants that have evolved resistance. In this paper, we map a fitness model of HIV-1 interacting with broadly neutralizing antibodies using in vivo data from a recent clinical trial. Read More

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Lentiviral-driven discovery of cancer drug resistance mutations.

Cancer Res 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Eugene McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Identifying resistance mutations in a drug target provides crucial information. Lentiviral transduction creates multiple types of mutations due to the error-prone nature of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Here we optimized and leveraged this property to identify drug resistance mutations, developing a technique we term LentiMutate. Read More

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Multiplexed technologies for sexually transmitted infections: global evidence on patient-centered and clinical health outcomes.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jul;6(7)

Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Introduction: Conventional care packages around screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) entail multiple clinic visits and precipitate losses to follow-up. To prevent these losses, multiplexed technologies for STIs (immunochromatographic tests/devices/assays and molecular assays that can screen multiple pathogens or multiple strains of one STI) can yield same-day results in a single visit. Research evidence of patient-centred (preference, satisfaction) and clinical health outcomes (feasibility, case positivity, uptake, impact) has not been synthesised. Read More

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Anti-HIV and Anti-Candidal Effects of Methanolic Extract from .

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 7;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Departamento de Medicina y Patología Oral y Maxilofacial, División de Estudios de Postgrado e Investigación, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Institutos s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico.

Nowadays, the HIV pandemic is far from controlled. HIV+/AIDS patients show a serious risk of developing resistance to HIV antiretroviral drugs and to be orally colonized by and non- strains resistant to antifungals. As a consequence, new drugs that possess anti-candidal and anti-HIV effects would represent an alternative in the comprehensive treatment of HIV+/AIDS patients. Read More

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Structural Insights into the Mechanism of Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Gag Targeting to the Plasma Membrane for Assembly.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jul 21;433(19):167161. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. Electronic address:

Retroviral Gag targeting to the plasma membrane (PM) for assembly is mediated by the N-terminal matrix (MA) domain. For many retroviruses, Gag-PM interaction is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P). However, it has been shown that for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Gag binding to membranes is less dependent on PI(4,5)P than HIV-1, suggesting that other factors may modulate Gag assembly. Read More

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Prevalence of gp160 polymorphisms known to be related to decreased susceptibility to temsavir in different subtypes of HIV-1 in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV Sequence Database.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

ViiV Healthcare, 36 East Industrial Road, Branford, CT 06405, USA.

Background: Fostemsavir, a prodrug of the gp120-directed attachment inhibitor temsavir, is indicated for use in heavily treatment-experienced individuals with MDR HIV-1. Reduced susceptibility to temsavir in the clinic maps to discrete changes at amino acid positions in gp160: S375, M426, M434 and M475.

Objectives: To query the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) HIV Sequence Database for the prevalence of polymorphisms at gp160 positions of interest. Read More

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Chemically sulfated polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murill: Synthesis, characterization and anti-HIV activity.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Beijing University of Technology, College of Life Science and Bio-engineering, Pingleyuan No. 100, Chaoyang District, 100124, Beijing, CHINA.

AIDS, caused by HIV-1, is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new drugs with more potent bioactivities, less toxicity and higher tolerability for controlling the viral load, particularly by using the raw materials that are widely available. Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM), known in China as jisongrong, is of great importance as a food source and as a health-promoting supplement for immunomodulation. Read More

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An insight into the binding mechanism of Viprinin and its morpholine and piperidine derivatives with HIV-1 Vpr: molecular dynamics simulation, principal component analysis and binding free energy calculation study.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Jul 23:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Life Sciences, Presidency University, Kolkata.

HIV-1 Vpr is an accessory protein responsible for a plethora of functions inside the host cell to promote viral pathogenesis. One of the major functions of Vpr is the G cell cycle arrest. Among several small molecule inhibitors, Viprinin, a coumarin derivative, has been shown to specifically inhibit the G cell cycle arrest activity of Vpr thus making it an excellent choice for a lead molecule to design antiretroviral drug. Read More

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HIV-1-Specific CAR-T Cells With Cell-Intrinsic PD-1 Checkpoint Blockade Enhance Anti-HIV Efficacy .

Front Microbiol 2021 6;12:684016. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Engineering Research Center of Gene Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Adoptive cellular immunotherapy therapy using broadly neutralizing antibody-based chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (bNAb-based CAR-T) has shown great potency and safety for the functional cure of HIV. The efficacy of bNAb-based CAR-T cells could be compromised by adaptive resistance during HIV chronic infection according to the phenomenon that cellular exhaustion was observed in endogenous cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) along with upregulated expression of PD-1. Here, we created HIV-specific CAR-T cells using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and a 3BNC117-DNR CAR (3BD CAR) construct that enables the expression of PD-1 dominant negative receptor (DNR) and the single-chain variable fragment of the HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117 to target native HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env). Read More

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Prevalence of human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*57:01 in individuals with HIV in West and Central Africa.

BMC Immunol 2021 Jul 22;22(1):48. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Département de Dermatologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, UFR des Sciences Médicales, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Background: The presence of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*57:01 is associated with the development of a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir (ABC). Limited data exist on HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in individuals with HIV-1 in Africa. This study aimed to estimate HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in individuals with HIV-1 in West and Central Africa. Read More

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Effectiveness, Durability, and Safety of Dolutegravir and Lamivudine Versus Dolutegravir, Lamivudine, and Abacavir in a Real-Life Cohort of HIV-Infected Adults.

Ann Pharmacother 2021 Jul 22:10600280211034176. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Alcalá University, Alcalá de Henares, Spain.

Background: Dolutegravir (DTG) plus lamivudine (2-DR) is suggested as an initial and switch option in HIV-1 treatment.

Objective: To analyze the effectiveness, durability, and safety of 2-DR compared with DTG plus abacavir/lamivudine (3-DR).

Methods: This was an observational, ambispective study that included all treatment-naïve (TN) and treatment-experienced (TE) patients who started 2-DR or 3-DR between July 1, 2018, and November 30, 2020. Read More

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A highly potent and safe pyrrolopyridine-based allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitor targeting host LEDGF/p75-integrase interaction site.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009671. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) are a class of experimental anti-HIV agents that target the noncatalytic sites of the viral integrase (IN) and interfere with the IN-viral RNA interaction during viral maturation. Here, we report a highly potent and safe pyrrolopyridine-based ALLINI, STP0404, displaying picomolar IC50 in human PBMCs with a >24,000 therapeutic index against HIV-1. X-ray structural and biochemical analyses revealed that STP0404 binds to the host LEDGF/p75 protein binding pocket of the IN dimer, which induces aberrant IN oligomerization and blocks the IN-RNA interaction. Read More

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Association between frailty phenotype, quantification of plasma HIV-1 RNA, CD4 cell count and HAART in HIV-positive subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

AIDS Care 2021 Jul 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Investigative Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil.

HIV infection causes a constant activation of the immune system and contributes to an enhanced systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu, which has been associated with premature aging and frailty. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze whether the HIV-1 RNA load, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and exposure to HAART in HIV-positive subjects are associated with frailty phenotype. Searches were performed in PubMed, SCOPUS, Lilacs, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and OpenThesis databases. Read More

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Association of HIV-1 Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy With Type 2 Diabetes in the Hispanic Population of the Rio Grande Valley, Texas, USA.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 5;8:676979. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Valley AIDS Council, Harlingen, TX, United States.

The Rio Grande Valley (RGV) in South Texas has one of the highest prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the United States (US). We report for the first time the T2D prevalence in persons with HIV (PWH) in the RGV and the interrelationship between T2D, cardiometabolic risk factors, HIV-related indices, and antiretroviral therapies (ART). The PWH in this study received medical care at Valley AIDS Council (VAC) clinic sites located in Harlingen and McAllen, Texas. Read More

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Interleukin-27 promotes autophagy in human serum-induced primary macrophages via an mTOR- and LC3-independent pathway.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14898. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Human Retrovirology and Immunoinformatics, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Building 550, Room 126, P.O. Box B, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA.

Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a cytokine that suppresses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in macrophages and is considered as an immunotherapeutic reagent for infectious diseases. It is reported that IL-27 suppresses autophagy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages; however, a role for IL-27 on autophagy induction has been less studied. In this study, we investigated the impact of IL-27 in both autophagy induction and HIV-1 infection in macrophages. Read More

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Dolutegravir or Darunavir in Combination with Zidovudine or Tenofovir to Treat HIV.

N Engl J Med 2021 07;385(4):330-341

From the Infectious Diseases Translational Research Programme and Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore (N.I.P.); the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (N.I.P.); the Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University (J.M., S.W., A.H., A.B., A. Kaimal, J.A., B.C., A. Kiragga, A. Kambugu), the Joint Clinical Research Centre (JCRC) (C.K., H.M.), and the Makerere University Walter Reed Project (G.M.), Kampala, JCRC, Mbarara (P.T.), and JCRC, Fort Portal (G.A.) - all in Uganda; the University of Zimbabwe Clinical Research Centre, Harare (J.H.); and the Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya (A.S.).

Background: The World Health Organization recommends dolutegravir with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for second-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Evidence is limited for the efficacy of this regimen when NRTIs are predicted to lack activity because of drug resistance, as well as for the recommended switch of an NRTI from tenofovir to zidovudine.

Methods: In a two-by-two factorial, open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned patients for whom first-line therapy was failing (HIV-1 viral load, ≥1000 copies per milliliter) to receive dolutegravir or ritonavir-boosted darunavir and to receive tenofovir or zidovudine; all patients received lamivudine. Read More

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Glycolysis downregulation is a hallmark of HIV-1 latency and sensitizes infected cells to oxidative stress.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 Jul 20:e13901. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Italian Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

HIV-1 infects lymphoid and myeloid cells, which can harbor a latent proviral reservoir responsible for maintaining lifelong infection. Glycolytic metabolism has been identified as a determinant of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, but its role in the development and maintenance of HIV-1 latency has not been elucidated. By combining transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses, we here show that transition to latent HIV-1 infection downregulates glycolysis, while viral reactivation by conventional stimuli reverts this effect. Read More

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