1,412 results match your criteria HIV Nephropathy

Genetic Variants of Are Major Determinants of Kidney Failure in People of African Ancestry With HIV.

Kidney Int Rep 2022 Apr 25;7(4):786-796. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

King's College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Variants of the gene are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people of African ancestry, although evidence for their impact in people with HIV are sparse.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study investigating the association between renal risk alleles and kidney disease in people of African ancestry with HIV in the UK. The primary outcome was end-stage kidney disease (ESKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] of <15 ml/min per 1. Read More

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Characterization of HIV-1 Infection in Microglia-Containing Human Cerebral Organoids.

Viruses 2022 Apr 16;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Translational Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The achievement of an HIV cure is dependent on the eradication or permanent silencing of HIV-latent viral reservoirs, including the understudied central nervous system (CNS) reservoir. This requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HIV's entry into the CNS, latency establishment, persistence, and reversal. Therefore, representative CNS culture models that reflect the intercellular dynamics and pathophysiology of the human brain are urgently needed in order to study the CNS viral reservoir and HIV-induced neuropathogenesis. Read More

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To Screen for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Type 2 Diabetes and its Correlation with Hscrp Levels and Microvascular Complications.

J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Apr;70(4):11-12

Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore.

The prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 2-4% in the general population but high among diabetics. Since intermittent hypoxia has shown to exert adverse effects on glucose metabolism, OSA increases the risk of developing T2DM and contributes to poor glycemic control. Studies show that people with diabetes with severe OSA had higher HbA1c levels compared to non-apneic people. Read More

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Treatment of pneumonia in non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients using a combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and caspofungin.

World J Clin Cases 2022 Mar;10(9):2743-2750

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Dongyang Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang 322100, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: pneumonia (PJP) is an infectious disease common in immunocompromised hosts. However, the currently, the clinical characteristics of non-HIV patients with PJP infection have not been fully elucidated.

Aim: To explore efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and caspofungin for treatment of non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected PJP patients. Read More

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Patterns of biopsy-proven renal disease in people living with HIV: 10 years experience in Sydney, Australia.

BMC Nephrol 2022 04 18;23(1):148. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Acute and chronic kidney diseases are important comorbidities in People Living With HIV (PLWH). Biopsy is often pursued in this cohort with ongoing renal impairment without a clear aetiology, in order to establish the diagnosis and to guide management. Despite the importance of renal disease in PLWH, there is a paucity of biopsy data-especially in the Australian setting. Read More

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Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Kidney Disease in HIV Infected Individuals - A Qualitative Systematic Review.

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2022 Jan-Dec;21:23259582221089194

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 232890Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, New York, USA.

Kidney disease is the fourth most common cause of non-AIDS-related mortality in people living with HIV. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains the cornerstone of treatment. However, little is known about the impact of cART on disease outcomes in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and HIV-immune complex kidney disease (HIVICK). Read More

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The spectrum of kidney biopsy findings in Chinese HIV-infected patients.

HIV Med 2022 03;23 Suppl 1:23-31

Department of Infectious Disease, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Objectives: HIV-associated kidney disease is common but data on the pathology spectrum of kidney biopsy in China is lacking. This study aimed to illustrate the clinical presentation, laboratory findings and pathological spectrum of different subtypes of HIV-associated kidney disease in China.

Methods: Eighteen HIV patients with renal biopsy indications at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2002 to October 2021 were retrospectively enrolled. Read More

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Antiretrovirals for People with HIV on Dialysis.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2022 03;36(3):86-96

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Missouri, USA.

In the era of widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), people with HIV (PWH) have a near-normal life expectancy. However, PWH have high rates of kidney diseases and progression to end-stage renal disease at a younger age. PWH have multiple risks for developing acute and chronic kidney diseases, including traditional risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and HIV-related factors such as HIV-associated nephropathy and increased susceptibility to infections and exposure to nephrotoxic medications. Read More

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Ocular manifestations and full house membranous nephropathy as a rare presentation of secondary syphilis.

IDCases 2022 2;28:e01461. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Syphilis is an often-overlooked diagnosis and without timely diagnosis and treatment, can have serious repercussions. Although its prevalence had decreased with the introduction of penicillin, it has had a resurgence over the years. Discerning the proper patient population to test for syphilis should be led by a patient's risk factors. Read More

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Digital spatial profiling of collapsing glomerulopathy.

Kidney Int 2022 05 26;101(5):1017-1026. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Kidney Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA. Electronic address:

Collapsing glomerulopathy is a histologically distinct variant of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis that presents with heavy proteinuria and portends a poor prognosis. Collapsing glomerulopathy can be triggered by viral infections such as HIV or SARS-CoV-2. Transcriptional profiling of collapsing glomerulopathy lesions is difficult since only a few glomeruli may exhibit this histology within a kidney biopsy and the mechanisms driving this heterogeneity are unknown. Read More

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The evolving story of apolipoprotein L1 nephropathy: the end of the beginning.

Nat Rev Nephrol 2022 May 25;18(5):307-320. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Genetic coding variants in APOL1, which encodes apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), were identified in 2010 and are relatively common among individuals of sub-Saharan African ancestry. Approximately 13% of African Americans carry two APOL1 risk alleles. These variants, termed G1 and G2, are a frequent cause of kidney disease - termed APOL1 nephropathy - that typically manifests as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and the clinical syndrome of hypertension and arterionephrosclerosis. Read More

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FIBER-ML, an Open-Source Supervised Machine Learning Tool for Quantification of Fibrosis in Tissue Sections.

Am J Pathol 2022 May 17;192(5):783-793. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Université de Paris, INSERM, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Paris, France; Department of Radiology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Pathologic fibrosis is a major hallmark of tissue insult in many chronic diseases. Although the amount of fibrosis is recognized as a direct indicator of the extent of disease, there is no consentaneous method for its quantification in tissue sections. This study tested FIBER-ML, a semi-automated, open-source freeware that uses a machine-learning approach to quantify fibrosis automatically after a short user-controlled learning phase. Read More

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Similarities and Differences between COVID-19-Associated Nephropathy and HIV-Associated Nephropathy.

Kidney Dis (Basel) 2022 Jan 29;8(1):1-12. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicineat Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Kidney disease is a major complication of viral infection, which can cause both acute and chronic kidney diseases via different mechanisms such as immune-mediated injury, kidney cell injury from a direct viral infection, systemic effects, and antiviral drug-induced nephrotoxicity. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), characterized by collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS), has been described 2 decades ago as a major complication of acquired-immunodeficiency syndrome. The pathogenesis of HIVAN has been well studied, including viral entry, host response, and genetic factors. Read More

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January 2022

VV-ECMO combined with prone position ventilation in the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jan;101(1):e28482

Intensive Care Unit, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, PR China.

Introduction: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) occurs in immunocompromised hosts. It is classified as PJP with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (HIV-PJP) and PJP without HIV infection (non-HIV PJP). Compared with HIV-PJP, non-HIV PJP is more likely to develop rapidly into respiratory failure, with difficult diagnosis and high mortality. Read More

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January 2022

Profiling Biomarkers in HIV Glomerular Disease - Potential for the Non-Invasive Diagnosis of HIVAN?

Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 2021 8;14:427-440. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Department of Internal Medicine Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: There is a wide spectrum of kidney pathology in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, affecting all structures of the kidney. The histology of HIV chronic kidney disease (CKD) is diverse, ranging from HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) to focal glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-immune complex disease (HIV-ICD), other glomerulopathies and tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Definitive diagnosis is by kidney biopsy, an invasive procedure. Read More

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December 2021

GWAS in Mice Maps Susceptibility to HIV-Associated Nephropathy to the Locus.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2022 01 10;33(1):108-120. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York

Background: To gain insight into the pathogenesis of collapsing glomerulopathy, a rare form of FSGS that often arises in the setting of viral infections, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) among inbred mouse strains using a murine model of HIV-1 associated nephropathy (HIVAN).

Methods: We first generated F1 hybrids between HIV-1 transgenic mice on the FVB/NJ background and 20 inbred laboratory strains. Analysis of histology, BUN, and urinary NGAL demonstrated marked phenotypic variation among the transgenic F1 hybrids, providing strong evidence for host genetic factors in the predisposition to nephropathy. Read More

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January 2022

JC polyomavirus DNA detection in clinical practice.

J Clin Virol 2022 01 1;146:105051. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Inflammation Center, Helsinki University Hospital and Helsinki University, Finland.

Background: There are limited data about the use and clinical value of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) DNA detection in various clinical indications.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of 410 patients from whom cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma, urine, or tissue samples had been collected for JCPyV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between 2012 and 2018.

Results: JCPyV DNA was analyzed in 224 plasma, 190 CSF-, 32 urine and 10 tissue samples. Read More

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January 2022

Rare Association Between Idiopathic Multicentric Castleman Disease, Nephrotic Syndrome and Polyneuropathy in an Immunocompetent Patient.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 20;8(10):002831. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Internal Medicine Department, Hospital da Luz, Lisboa, Portugal.

Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) represents a group of poorly understood lymphoproliferative disorders related to proinflammatory hypercytokinaemia. In immunocompetent patients the aetiology is still unknown, hence the designation of idiopathic MCD (iMCD). To successfully diagnose iMCD, diagnostic criteria must be fulfilled and a large array of alternative diagnoses excluded. Read More

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October 2021

Mechanisms of Proteinuria in HIV.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 13;8:749061. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States.

Proteinuria is common in the setting of HIV infection, and may reflect comorbid kidney disease, treatment-related nephrotoxicity, and HIV-related glomerular diseases. The mechanisms of podocyte and tubulointerstial injury in HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) have been the subject of intense investigation over the past four decades. The pathologic contributions of viral gene expression, dysregulated innate immune signaling, and ancestry-driven genetic risk modifiers have been explored in sophisticated cellular and whole animal models of disease. Read More

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October 2021

Considerations in the Management of a Kidney Transplant Patient With HIV.

Cureus 2021 Oct 13;13(10):e18744. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Medical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, GBR.

In the wake of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), kidney transplantation has become common practice in HIV-positive recipients. However, management is more complex than that of a seronegative recipient in the pre-operative, peri-operative, and post-operative periods. Although the standard HAART regimen is often modified to improve outcomes and reduce interactions with the post-transplant immunosuppressive regimen, kidney transplantation in HIV-positive individuals is feasible, with high graft survival rates comparable to those in their seronegative counterparts. Read More

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October 2021

A Case of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis With Immune Complexes: Is HIV, Hepatitis B, or Crack the Culprit?

Cureus 2021 Aug 20;13(8):e17335. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Internal Medicine, St. Vincent Charity Medical Center, Cleveland, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals are at an increased risk for kidney diseases, including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV immune complex disease of the kidney (HIVICK), and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Non-modifiable factors such as age and genetics, as well as modifiable factors such as illicit drug use and compliance, define the progression to renal failure. The patient is a 64-year-old African American male with HIV, treated latent syphilis, chronic kidney disease stage 3a, and cocaine use disorder who presented with shortness of breath, bilateral lower extremities swelling, and fatigue with normal vitals and a physical exam remarkable for bibasilar inspiratory crackles with peripheral edema. Read More

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Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in an HIV positive Mexican cohort.

BMC Nephrol 2021 09 23;22(1):317. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Universidad de Guadalajara, Instituto de Investigación en Inmunodeficiencias y VIH (InIVIH), Centro Universitario de Ciencias de La Salud, Jalisco, México.

Background: HIV subjects have several kidney pathologies, like HIV-associated nephropathy or antiretroviral therapy injury, among others. The global prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is 8-16%; however, in HIV subjects, the prevalence varies between geographic regions (2-38%). The aim was to determine the prevalence of CKD and identify the associated risk factors. Read More

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September 2021

HIV Viremia Is Associated With Variants and Reduced JC-Viruria.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 27;8:718300. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Variants in the () gene (G1-rs60910145, rs73885319, G2-rs71785313) are common in Africans and in individuals of recent African ancestry and are associated with an increased risk of non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in particular of HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN). In light of the significantly increased risk of HIVAN in carriers of two risk alleles, a role in HIV infectivity has been postulated in the mechanism of associated kidney disease. Herein, we aim to explore the association between HIV viremia and genotype. Read More

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Secondary immunodeficiencies: An overview.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 12 3;127(6):617-626. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Section of Allergy, Immunology and Retrovirology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Texas Children's Hospital, The Woodlands, Texas. Electronic address:

Objective: To review the different causes of secondary immunodeficiencies and provide clinicians with an updated overview of potential factors that contribute to immunodeficiency.

Data Sources: Recent published literature obtained through PubMed database searches, including research articles, review articles, and case reports.

Study Selections: PubMed database searches were conducted using the following keywords: immunodeficiency, antibody deficiency, immunosuppressive drugs, genetic syndrome, malignancy, HIV infection, viral infection, secondary immunodeficiency, nutrition, prematurity, aging, protein-losing enteropathy, nephropathy, trauma, space travel, high altitude, and ultraviolet light. Read More

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December 2021


Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(7):1552-1558


Objective: The aim is to verify and describe the morphological substrate of renal impairment in HIV/HCV co-infection among patients receiving ART to assess and predict the morphogenesis of immunocomplex lesions.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: To assess and predict the morphogenesis of immunocomplex renal disease, we examined retrospectively the kidney tissue samples of 15 patients, who died with HIV/HCV co-infection and received ART. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical research methods were used. Read More

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September 2021

Recessive, gain-of-function toxicity in an APOL1 BAC transgenic mouse model mirrors human APOL1 kidney disease.

Dis Model Mech 2021 08 5;14(8). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

People of recent sub-Saharan African ancestry develop kidney failure much more frequently than other groups. A large fraction of this disparity is due to two coding sequence variants in the APOL1 gene. Inheriting two copies of these APOL1 risk variants, known as G1 and G2, causes high rates of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-associated nephropathy and hypertension-associated end-stage kidney disease. Read More

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Regional and Racial Disparities in HIV-Related Kidney Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 3;199:106-113. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Clinical Background and Epidemiology: Worldwide, an estimated 38 million people are living with HIV infection. The classic kidney disease of HIV infection, commonly known as HIV-associated nephropathy, is a collapsing form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis that almost exclusively affects individuals of African descent with advanced HIV disease. People living with HIV are also at risk for immune-complex kidney diseases, antiretroviral nephrotoxicity, and kidney disease due to co-infections and comorbidities. Read More

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Circulating fibroblast growth factor-2 precipitates HIV nephropathy in mice.

Dis Model Mech 2021 07 26;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Child Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

People of African ancestry living with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) are at risk of developing HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Children with HIVAN frequently show high plasma fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) levels; however, the role of circulating FGF-2 in the pathogenesis of childhood HIVAN is unclear. Here, we explored how circulating FGF-2 affected the outcome of HIVAN in young HIV-Tg26 mice. Read More

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Primary membranous glomerulonephritis with negative serum PLA2R in haemophilia A successfully managed with rituximab - case report and review of the literature.

BMC Nephrol 2021 07 22;22(1):268. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause a wide range of glomerular pathologies. In people with haemophilia, transfusion-associated infections with these viruses are common and definitive pathological diagnosis in this population is complicated by the difficulty of safely obtaining a renal biopsy. Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of adult onset nephrotic syndrome occurring in both primary and secondary forms. Read More

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The epidemiology of kidney disease in people of African ancestry with HIV in the UK.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Aug 8;38:101006. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

King's College London, King's College Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, Weston Education Center (Rm 2.50), Cutcombe Road, London SE5 9RJ, UK.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The risk of CKD is increased in people of African ancestry and with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between region of ancestry (East, Central, South or West Africa) and kidney disease in people of sub-Saharan African ancestry with HIV in the UK between May 2018 and February 2020. Read More

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