340,112 results match your criteria HIV Medicine[Journal]


Action research improves services for child sexual abuse in one Caribbean nation: An example of good practice.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 8;88:225-234. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute of Gender and Development Studies, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a multi-dimensional problem. The search for best practice must consider the complexities surrounding CSA and its management in any particular society.

Objective: Data previously gathered from service providers on CSA service provision in Trinidad and Tobago identified key deficient issues in policy and practice. Read More

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December 2018

Estimating marginal proportions and intraclass correlations with clustered binary data.

Biom J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Biostatistics, Department of Basic Clinical Practice, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

A logistic regression with random effects model is commonly applied to analyze clustered binary data, and every cluster is assumed to have a different proportion of success. However, it could be of interest to obtain the proportion of success over clusters (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

HIV Disease Progression: Overexpression of the Ectoenzyme CD38 as a Contributory Factor?

Bioessays 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Laboratory of Integrative Immunology, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER), Calzada de Tlalpan 4502, 14080 Mexico City, Mexico.

Despite abundant evidence associating CD38 overexpression and CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection, no causal relation has been investigated. To address this issue, a series of mechanisms are proposed, supported by evidence from different fields, by which CD38 overexpression can facilitate CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection. According to this model, increased catalytic activity of CD38 may reduce CD4 T cells' cytoplasmic nicotin-amide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), leading to a chronic Warburg effect. Read More

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December 2018
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Neonatal influenza-specific effector CTLs retain elevated CD31 levels at the site of infection and have decreased IFN-γ production.

J Leukoc Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

The underlying mechanisms that regulate neonatal immune suppression are poorly characterized. CD31 (PECAM1) is highly expressed on neonatal lymphocytes and is a known modulator of TCR signaling. To further characterize the role of CD31 in the neonatal CTL response, 3-d and 7-d-old murine neonates were infected with influenza virus and compared to adults. Read More

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December 2018

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: A 5-year tertiary care centre experience.

J Clin Apher 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Introduction: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is associated with high mortality if not managed timeously with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). TTP secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is unique to sub-Saharan Africa. The management and outcome of TTP in the era of improved access to therapy has not been described. Read More

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December 2018

Malignant Vascular Tumors of the Liver in Adults.

Semin Liver Dis 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Radiology, BCLC Group, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Hepatic angiosarcoma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) might be clinically considered a spectrum since, although more frequently presenting indolent behavior, EHE occasionally evolves to high-grade neoplasms. However, in most circumstances, pathological and immunohistochemical patterns define this differential diagnosis. More recently, molecular pathways for angiosarcoma and for EHE from other organs and from soft tissue have been proved different, paving the way for future morpho-molecular assessment of their hepatic counterpart. Read More

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December 2018

Congenital Conundrum.

Authors:
Sean Price

Tex Med 2018 Jul 1;114(7):42-43. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Physicians fight Texas' stubborn rates of congenital infections. Syphillis, CMV, and HIV are the top three. Read More

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HIF-1α-derived cell-penetrating peptides inhibit ERK-dependent activation of HIF-1 and trigger apoptosis of cancer cells under hypoxia.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Biopolis, 41500, Larissa, Greece.

Hypoxia is frequently encountered in the microenvironment of solid tumors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), the main effectors of cell response to hypoxia, promote cancer cell survival and progression. HIF-1α, the oxygen-regulated subunit of HIF-1, is often correlated with oncogenesis and represents an attractive therapeutic target. Read More

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December 2018

Extrapyramidal motor signs in older adults with HIV disease: frequency, 1-year course, and associations with activities of daily living and quality of life.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Age and HIV disease have additive effects on neural systems that support motor functioning. The current study examined the combined impact of aging and HIV on extrapyramidal motor functions, which were hypothesized to influence on activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QoL). Participants included 336 adults classified by HIV serostatus and age. Read More

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December 2018

Barriers to Retention in Care are Overcome by Adolescent-Friendly Services for Adolescents Living with HIV in South Africa: A Qualitative Analysis.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

To assess facilitators and barriers to retention in care for adolescents living with HIV, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with adolescents ages 13 to 24 years who were living with HIV and being cared for in either an adolescent-friendly or standard government-supported clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We used inductive content analysis approach based on grounded theory derived from reviewing, coding, and interpreting data. We interviewed 28 adolescents living with HIV (16 in the adolescent clinic and 12 from the pediatric clinic) and 14 of their caregivers. Read More

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December 2018

Demand and Supply Motivations for Antiretroviral Drugs in Illicit Street Markets: The Case of Atlanta, Georgia.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Stetson School of Business and Economics, Mercer University, 1501 Mercer University Drive, Macon, GA, 31207, USA.

We studied the motivations behind supply and demand of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in the illicit street markets of the metropolitan statistical area of Atlanta, Sandy Springs, and Roswell, Georgia. We found that these two market actions were largely interdependent: 39.53% of participants said that they sold their ARVs to pay for personal needs, and 20. Read More

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December 2018

Drug Use Mediates the Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Adherence to ART Among Recently Incarcerated People Living with HIV.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Depression is a known risk factor for antiretroviral therapy (ART) non-adherence, but little is known about the mechanisms explaining this relationship. Identifying these mechanisms among people living with HIV (PLHIV) after release from prison is particularly important, as individuals during this critical period are at high risk for both depression and poor ART adherence. 347 PLHIV recently released from prison in North Carolina and Texas were included in analyses to assess mediation of the relationship between depressive symptoms at 2 weeks post-release and ART adherence (assessed by unannounced telephone pill counts) at weeks 9-21 post-release by the hypothesized explanatory mechanisms of alcohol use, drug use, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence motivation (measured at weeks 6 and 14 post-release). Read More

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December 2018

How Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials Incorporate Behavioral and Social Sciences Research: A Typology of Approaches.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Social Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

In the field of biomedical HIV prevention, researchers have meaningfully incorporated behavioral and social sciences research (BSSR) into numerous clinical trials, though the timing and degree of integration have been highly variable. The literature offers few frameworks that systematically characterize these collaborations. To fill this gap, we developed a typology of BSSR approaches within biomedical HIV prevention research. Read More

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December 2018
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Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of chalcone and amino-analogues.

Parasitol Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Parasitologia, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610-000, Brazil.

Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can lead to serious consequences in reproductive health, cancer, and HIV acquisition. The current approved treatment present adverse effects and drug resistance data on this neglected parasitic infection is underestimated. Chalcones are a family of molecules that present biological applications, such as activity against many pathogenic organisms including protozoan pathogens. Read More

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December 2018
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Pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics of CNS penetration of efavirenz and its metabolites.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: There are limited data on the pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics of the CNS penetration of efavirenz.

Objectives: We investigated genetic polymorphisms associated with CSF concentrations of efavirenz and its metabolites and explored the relationships with neurocognitive performance.

Methods: We included 47 HIV-infected South African black adults with and without HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder on efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine and collected paired plasma-CSF samples. Read More

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December 2018
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HIV exposed uninfected infants: surviving and thriving or overlooked by success?

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Family Clinical Research Unit (FAMCRU), Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.

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December 2018

Impact of the mutational load on the virological response to a first-line rilpivirine-based regimen.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

INSERM U1043 - CNRS UMR5282 - Toulouse University Paul Sabatier, CPTP, Toulouse, France.

Objectives: To determine how the load of rilpivirine-resistant variants (mutational load) influences the virological response (VR) of HIV-1-infected patients to a rilpivirine-based first-line regimen.

Patients And Methods: Four hundred and eighty-nine patients infected with HIV-1 whose reverse transcriptase gene had been successfully resistance genotyped using next-generation sequencing were given a first-line regimen containing rilpivirine. Variables associated with the VR at 12 months were identified using a logistic model. Read More

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December 2018

A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Sitagliptin for Reducing Inflammation and Immune Activation in Treated and Suppressed HIV Infection.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have pleotropic anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects in addition to their glucoregulatory actions. We evaluated inflammation and immune markers in suppressed HIV infection during treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin.

Methods: Virologically suppressed adults with HIV without diabetes mellitus on stable ART with ≥100/mm 3 CD4 cells were randomized to 16 weeks of sitagliptin 100 mg/d vs. Read More

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December 2018

Integrase strand transfer inhibitors and neuropsychiatric adverse events in a large prospective cohort.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Martinique University Hospital, Fort-de-France, France.

Objectives: To analyse the frequency and causes of treatment discontinuation in patients who were treated with an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), with a focus on neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs).

Methods: Patients in 18 HIV reference centres in France were prospectively included in the Dat'AIDS cohort. Data were collected from all patients starting an INSTI-containing regimen between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Determining the origins of HIV-1 drug-resistant minority variants in people who are recently infected using phylogenetic reconstruction.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Drug-resistant minority variants (DRMinVs) detected in patients who recently acquired HIV-1 can be transmitted, generated de novo through virus replication, or technical errors. The first are likely to persist and result in treatment failure while the latter two could be stochastic and transient.

Methods: Ultra-deep sequencing of plasma samples from 835 individuals with recent HIV-1 infection in the UK was performed to detect DRMinVs at mutation frequency between 2-20%. Read More

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December 2018

[Cryptococcosis in Hospital Carlos Van Buren, Valparaiso: a clinical serie].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2018 Aug;35(4):420-423

Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

Background: Cryptococcosis is a severe opportunistic mycotic infection, caused mainly by Cryptococcus neoformans. It can present as meningitis, pneumonia or cryptococcemia.

Aim: To characterize patients with Cryptococcus infection between January 1°, 2013 and June 30, 2016, in Hospital Carlos van Buren, Valparaíso, Chile. Read More

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[Factors related to oral candidiasis in HIV children and adolescents, species characterization and antifungal susceptibility].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2018 Aug;35(4):377-385

División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Facultad de Odontología, UNAM, México.

Background: Factors associated with candidiasis and colonization in HIV-positive children and adolescents in developing countries are not well understood.

Aim: To identify the factors associated with oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in institutionalized HIV-positive children and adolescents in Tijuana, México, as well as the response of the isolates to antifungals.

Materials And Methods: Sample of the oral mucosa of 30 HIV positive children and adolescents were obtained to isolate and identify Candida species by culture and metabolic profile. Read More

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[Immunological and virological condition of adult patients with HIV infection at the beginning of antiretroviral therapy at Carlos van Buren Hospital. Comparison of 2013 and 2015 periods].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2018 ;35(3):326-328

Unidad de Infectología, Hospital Carlos van Buren, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile.

Introduction: Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients has shown reduction in morbidity and mortality, and decrease in contagious risk. International recommendations include early initiation of ART, irrespectively of CD4 cell count.

Objective: To describe the impact of ART initiation in CD4 cell count and viral load at the end of the first year of HIV treatment, for patients who entered the program at 2013 and 2015. Read More

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January 2018

[Persons living with HIV/AIDS: ethnic and sociocultural differences in Chile].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2018 ;35(3):276-282

Fundación Arriarán, Hospital San Borja Arriarán, Temuco, Chile.

Background: The association between ethnicity and HIV/AIDS is an emerging and unexplored issue in Chile.

Aim: To determine the profile of patients with HIV/AIDS by ethnicity and socioeconomic factors associated with diagnostic-therapeutic opportunity in the Araucania and Metropolitan regions.

Methods: Cross-sectional study with 558 patients from two centers of HIV/AIDS in Chile. Read More

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January 2018
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Relationship between HIV integrase polymorphisms and integrase inhibitor susceptibility: An analysis.

Heliyon 2018 Dec 1;4(12):e00956. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

Integrase (IN) plays an essential role in HIV-1 replication, by mediating integration of the viral genome into the host cell genome. IN is a potential target of antiretroviral (ARV) therapeutic drugs such as ALLINI, Raltegravir (RAL), and Elvitegravir (EVG). The effect of IN polymorphisms on its structure and binding affinity to the integrase inhibitors (INIs) is not well understood. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of pre-travel consultation on clinical management and outcomes of travelers' diarrhea: a retrospective cohort study.

Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2018 4;4:16. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 USA.

Background: International travelers are at high risk of acquiring travelers' diarrhea. Pre-travel consultation has been associated with lower rates of malaria, hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The objective was to study the impact of pre-travel consultation on clinical management and outcomes of travelers' diarrhea. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on reduction of depressive symptoms among HIV-seropositive pregnant women: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2018 26;17:49. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

6Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya.

Background: Globally, it is known that HIV-infected pregnant women are prone to depressive symptoms. Research evidences also suggest that nutrient deficiencies may enhance the depressive illness, and that fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may alleviate the depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fish oil omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid-rich supplements on depressive symptoms among HIV-seropositive pregnant women. Read More

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November 2018

Association of Diverse Genotypes and Phenotypes of Immune Cells and Immunoglobulins With the Course of HIV-1 Infection.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2735. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Disease progression among HIV-1-infected individuals varies widely, but the mechanisms underlying this variability remains unknown. Distinct disease outcomes are the consequences of many factors working in concert, including innate and adaptive immune responses, cell-mediated and humoral immunity, and both genetic and phenotypic factors. Current data suggest that these multifaceted aspects in infected individuals should be considered as a whole, rather than as separate unique elements, and that analyses must be performed in greater detail in order to meet the requirements of personalized medicine and guide optimal vaccine design. Read More

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November 2018

New strains of hepatitis B virus genotype E circulating in Nigeria.

Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2018 Nov-Dec;12(6):25-29

Department of Biological Sciences (Microbiology), College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria.

Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not uncommon among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Severity of HBV infection and treatment outcome are associated with specific HBV genotypes. No study has reported the types of HBV genotypes circulating among HIV-infected subjects in Nigeria. Read More

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December 2018

Extensive Nicolau Syndrome Following Intramuscular Injection of Paracetamol in a Patient Who Is HIV Positive.

J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2018 Jul-Sep;11(3):136-139

Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India.

Nicolau syndrome (NS) is a type of adverse skin reaction occurring after parenteral drug injection. In certain conditions, it can cause ischemic necrosis of the skin and the underlying adipose tissue. The actual cause of NS is not clear though inflammation, vasospasm, and thromboembolic occlusion of blood vessels have been proposed. Read More

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December 2018

Draft Genome Sequence of subsp. Serotype Typhimurium Sequence Type 313, Isolated from India.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Aug 30;7(8). Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Enteric Diseases Division, Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium sequence type 313 (ST313) is most commonly associated with invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in Africa among patients with HIV infection and malignancy. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of S. Read More

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Polymorphisms in KSHV-encoded microRNA sequences affect levels of mature viral microRNA in Kaposi Sarcoma lesions.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 9;9(88):35856-35869. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA.

Background: We previously reported Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) microRNA sequence variants in clinical samples correlated with increased risk of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). We then demonstrated that microRNAs with variant sequence have different maturation and mature microRNA expression . Here, we illustrate the association between microRNA sequence and changes in mature microRNA levels within Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions. Read More

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November 2018

Factors associated with DAA virological treatment failure and resistance-associated substitutions description in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

World J Hepatol 2018 Nov;10(11):856-866

Univ. Bordeaux, ISPED, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, team MORPH3EUS, UMR 1219, CIC-EC 1401, Bordeaux F-33000, France.

Aim: To describe factors associated with treatment failure and frequency of resistance-associated substitutions (RAS).

Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients starting a first direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen before February 2016 and included in the French ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort were eligible. Failure was defined as: (1) non-response [HCV-RNA remained detectable during treatment, at end of treatment (EOT)]; and (2) relapse (HCV-RNA suppressed at EOT but detectable thereafter). Read More

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November 2018

Sensitivity analyses for effect modifiers not observed in the target population when generalizing treatment effects from a randomized controlled trial: Assumptions, models, effect scales, data scenarios, and implementation details.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(12):e0208795. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background: Randomized controlled trials are often used to inform policy and practice for broad populations. The average treatment effect (ATE) for a target population, however, may be different from the ATE observed in a trial if there are effect modifiers whose distribution in the target population is different that from that in the trial. Methods exist to use trial data to estimate the target population ATE, provided the distributions of treatment effect modifiers are observed in both the trial and target population-an assumption that may not hold in practice. Read More

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December 2018

Factors Related to Advanced Stage of Cancer Presentation in Botswana.

J Glob Oncol 2018 Dec(4):1-9

Chidinma Anakwenze, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; Rohini Bhatia, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY; William Rate, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC; Lame Bakwenabatsile, Ari Ho-Foster, and Surbhi Grover, Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana, and Philadelphia, PA; Kebatshabile Ngoni, Mohan Narasimhamurthy, and Doreen Ramogola-Masire, University of Botswana; Surbhi Grover, Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana; Sarah Rayne, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Preet Dhillon, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurgaon, Haryana, India; and Ari Ho-Foster, Doreen Ramogola-Masire and Surbhi Grover, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: Botswana, a country with a high prevalence of HIV, has an increasing incidence of cancer-related mortality in the post-antiretroviral therapy era. Despite universal access to free health care, the majority of Botswana patients with cancer present at advanced stages. This study was designed to explore the factors related to advanced-stage cancer presentation in Botswana. Read More

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December 2018

Coinfections between Persistent Parasitic Neglected Tropical Diseases and Viral Infections among Prisoners from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

J Trop Med 2018 6;2018:7218534. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Division of Prison Health, Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

In Swiss prisons, more than 70% of detained people are foreigners and over one-third originate from sub-Saharan Africa or Latin America. These two regions are endemic for various tropical diseases and viral infections, which persist after migration to nonendemic countries. Parasitic infections (schistosomiasis; strongyloidiasis) and cooccurrent viral infections (HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV)) are especially of concern for clinical care but have been neglected in empirical research. Read More

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November 2018
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Myeloid Cells in Intact Human Cervical Explants Capture HIV and Can Transmit It to CD4 T Cells.

Front Immunol 2018 23;9:2719. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

The importance of myeloid cells in HIV transmission in the female genital tract is uncertain. Because it is difficult to study the early events in HIV transmission in humans, most of our knowledge is based on animal models of SIV infection in Rhesus macaques and more recently HIV infection in humanized mice. However, these models may not accurately recapitulate transmission in the human genital tract. Read More

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November 2018

Knowledge and risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and relevant health care services among high school students in the Platfontein San community, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Adolesc Health Med Ther 2018 16;9:189-197. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Health Information Systems Program, Waterkloof Ridge, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: The historically marginalized Platfontein San youths have a high rate of teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of male and female school-going youths in Platfontein of STIs and HIV/AIDS, and the health care services that are available to them.

Participants And Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey with a sample of 201 learners in grades 6-12 at the !Xunkwesa Combined School in Platfontein was conducted in July 2007. Read More

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November 2018

Aging with HIV: what effect on mortality and loss to follow-up in the course of antiretroviral therapy? The IeDEA West Africa Cohort Collaboration.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2018 16;10:239-252. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

INSERM, Centre INSERM U1219-Epidémiologie-Biostatistique, Bordeaux, France,

Background: Reporting mortality and lost to follow-up (LTFU) by age is essential as older HIV-positive patients might be at risk of long-term effects of living with HIV and/or taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). As age effects might not be linear and might impact HIV outcomes in the oldest more severely, people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged 50-59 years and PLHIV aged >60 years were considered separately.

Setting: Seventeen adult HIV/AIDS clinics spread over nine countries in West Africa. Read More

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November 2018

Regulation of in vivo behavior of TAT-modified liposome by associated protein corona and avidity to tumor cells.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 15;13:7441-7455. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Laboratory of Experimental Surgical Oncology, Section of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands,

Introduction: PEGylated liposomes are widely used and studied as carriers for chemotherapeutics. While pharmacokinetics of the encapsulated drug is drastically altered resulting in favorable circulation time, improved tumor accumulation, and better manageable or reduced side effects, therapeutic efficacy has been disappointing. Major drawbacks are a failure to reach the tumor cell, limited penetration depth, and impaired uptake by tumor cells. Read More

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November 2018

CRNC10: Refining Custom Made Ocular Prosthesis in Rehabilitation of Phthisis Bulbi Secondary to HIV Infection.

J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2018 Oct;18(Suppl 1):S49

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya.

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October 2018

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-based Genotyping of from Autopsy-Proven Cases of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-associated Cerebral Toxoplasmosis.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018 Oct-Dec;21(4):250-255

Department of Microbiology, Kidwai Cancer Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Context: Published data on genetic characterization of () from clinical cases of toxoplasmosis from India is lacking.

Aims: The present study was aimed at identifying genetic types of in fatal cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT) associated with HIV, from India.

Settings And Design: Archived tissues of CT were obtained postmortem from 25 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients between 2000 and 2014. Read More

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December 2018

Knowledge, interest, and anticipated barriers of pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and adherence among gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men who are incarcerated.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0205593. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Criminal justice (CJ) settings disproportionately include populations at high risk for acquiring HIV, and CJ-involved individuals are often at the intersection of multiple overlapping risk factors. However, few studies have examined attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among incarcerated men who have sex with men (MSM). This study explored interest in, knowledge of, and barriers to PrEP uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men at the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Read More

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December 2018

The DREAMS core package of interventions: A comprehensive approach to preventing HIV among adolescent girls and young women.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0208167. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator and Health Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC, United States of America.

In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are 5 to 14 times more likely to be infected with HIV than their male peers. Every day, more than 750 AGYW are infected with HIV. Many factors make girls and young women particularly vulnerable to HIV, including gender-based violence, exclusion from economic opportunities, and a lack of access to secondary school. Read More

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December 2018

Associations between sex work laws and sex workers' health: A systematic review and meta-analysis of quantitative and qualitative studies.

PLoS Med 2018 Dec 11;15(12):e1002680. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Sex workers are at disproportionate risk of violence and sexual and emotional ill health, harms that have been linked to the criminalisation of sex work. We synthesised evidence on the extent to which sex work laws and policing practices affect sex workers' safety, health, and access to services, and the pathways through which these effects occur.

Methods And Findings: We searched bibliographic databases between 1 January 1990 and 9 May 2018 for qualitative and quantitative research involving sex workers of all genders and terms relating to legislation, police, and health. Read More

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December 2018

Understanding the burden of bacterial sexually transmitted infections and Trichomonas vaginalis among black Caribbeans in the United Kingdom: Findings from a systematic review.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0208315. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: In the UK, people of black Caribbean (BC) ethnicity continue to be disproportionately affected by bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between bacterial STIs/TV and ethnicity (BC compared to white/white British (WB)) accounting for other risk factors; and differences between these two ethnic groups in the prevalence of risk factors associated with these STIs, sexual healthcare seeking behaviours, and contextual factors influencing STI risk.

Methods: Studies presenting relevant evidence for participants aged ≥14 years and living in the UK were eligible for inclusion. Read More

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December 2018

Could HIV drugs treat AD?

Authors:
Ian Fyfe

Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Nature Reviews Neurology, .

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December 2018

An Ethical Framework for Research in Maternal-Fetal Intervention in the Presence of Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus or Hepatitis B and C Infection.

Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, and the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York.

Maternal-fetal interventions continue to be a groundbreaking and rapidly expanding area. In this article, we examine whether it is ethically permissible to conduct investigation into the expansion of inclusion criteria for existing maternal-fetal interventions to include pregnant patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B or C infection with low or undetectable viral loads. We addressed this ethical question by appealing to ethical principle of respect for the autonomy of the pregnant patient; the patient status of the fetus; the balance of overall benefits and risks of the procedure(s) to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients; and to the ethical principle of justice. Read More

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December 2018
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