89,401 results match your criteria HIV Infection Antiretroviral Therapy


Outcomes of flucytosine-containing combination treatment for cryptococcal meningitis in a South African national access programme: a cross-sectional observational study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mycoses, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, UK; MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK; Division of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Although flucytosine is a key component of WHO-recommended induction treatment for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis, this antifungal agent is not widely available in low-income and middle-income countries due to limited production and cost. In 2018, a national flucytosine access programme was initiated in South Africa. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of flucytosine-containing induction regimens in routine care to motivate for the urgent registration of flucytosine and its inclusion in treatment guidelines. Read More

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From surviving to thriving: integrating mental health care into HIV, community, and family services for adolescents living with HIV.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Information Systems, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.

Adolescents are a crucial generation, with the potential to bring future social and economic success for themselves and their countries. More than 90% of adolescents living with HIV reside in sub-Saharan Africa, where their mental health is set against a background of poverty, familial stress, service gaps, and an HIV epidemic that is now intertwined with the COVID-19 pandemic. In this Series paper, we review systematic reviews, randomised trials, and cohort studies of adolescents living with and affected by HIV. Read More

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Effect of Switching Antiretroviral Treatment Regimen in Patients With Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Infection: Retrospective Observational Cohort Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2022 Jun 24;8(6):e33429. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Evidence on the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen switches on the mortality of patients with HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is limited.

Objective: We aim to provide policy guidance for ART regimen selection and evaluate the effectiveness of ART regime switches for people living with HIV and HIV-1 drug resistance.

Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included 179 people living with HIV and HIV-1 drug resistance from 2011 to 2020. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: Clinical course among subjects HIV-1-infected in Sao Paulo.

Curr HIV Res 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Dermatology Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo.

Introduction: People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are ander risk for co-infection with SARS-CoV-2. This population may be more prone to complications from COVID-19 due to persistent inflammation caused by HIV and higher incidence of metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, and malignancies, as well as being considered elderly at 50 years of age. The objective of this study was to report SARS-CoV-2 infection frequency, clinical evolution, and mortality in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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Immunometabolic Reprogramming in Response to HIV Infection Is Not Fully Normalized by Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

Viruses 2022 Jun 15;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Background: HIV infection results in immunometabolic reprogramming. While we are beginning to understand how this metabolic reprogramming regulates the immune response to HIV infection, we do not currently understand the impact of ART on immunometabolism in people with HIV (PWH).

Methods: Serum obtained from HIV-infected ( = 278) and geographically matched HIV seronegative control subjects ( = 300) from Rakai Uganda were used in this study. Read More

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Mechanism of Viral Suppression among HIV Elite Controllers and Long-Term Nonprogressors in Nigeria and South Africa.

Viruses 2022 Jun 10;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Clinical Science Department, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos 100001, Nigeria.

A subgroup among people living with HIV (PLHIV) experience viral suppression, sometimes to an undetectable level in the blood and/or are able to maintain a healthy CD4+ T-cell count without the influence of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. One out of three hundred PLHIV fall into this category, and a large sample of this group can be found in areas with a high prevalence of HIV infection such as Nigeria and South Africa. Understanding the mechanism underpinning the nonprogressive phenotype in this subgroup may provide insights into the control of the global HIV epidemic. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Infection Is Associated with Uncontrolled HIV Viral Load in Non-Hospitalized HIV-Infected Patients from Gugulethu, South Africa.

Viruses 2022 Jun 3;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 3.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

In South Africa, high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 occurs primarily in densely populated, low-income communities, which are additionally burdened by highly prevalent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). With the aim to assess SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and its association with HIV-related clinical parameters in non-hospitalized patients likely to be highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2, this observational cross-sectional study was conducted at the Gugulethu Community Health Centre Antiretroviral clinic between October 2020 and June 2021, after the first COVID-19 wave in South Africa and during the second and beginning of the third wave. A total of 150 adult (median age 39 years [range 20-65 years]) HIV-infected patients (69% female; 31% male) were recruited. Read More

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HIV Latency in Myeloid Cells: Challenges for a Cure.

Pathogens 2022 May 24;11(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) treatment has been highly successful in controlling plasma viremia to undetectable levels. However, a complete cure for HIV is hindered by the presence of replication-competent HIV, integrated in the host genome, that can persist long term in a resting state called viral latency. Resting memory CD4+ T cells are considered the biggest reservoir of persistent HIV infection and are often studied exclusively as the main target for an HIV cure. Read More

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Impact of HAART Therapy and HIV Infection over Fetal Growth-An Anthropometric Point of View.

Microorganisms 2022 May 30;10(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Mother and Child's Health-Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Gr. T. Popa), 700115 Iasi, Romania.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cannot be completely eliminated from the body because the virus integrates its genetic code into that of the host cell. The prevalence of pregnancy in women with HIV infection has increased due to the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Placental insufficiency is associated with a reduction in blood flow and circulatory redistribution, resulting in fetal hypoxia and nutrient deprivation as a consequence of an altered placental function, and it can result in a lower birthweight. Read More

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HPV and HIV Coinfection in Women from a Southeast Region of Romania-PICOPIV Study.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jun 3;58(6). Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Center for Research and Development of the Morphological and Genetic Studies of Malignant Pathology, Ovidius University of Constanta, 145 Tomis Blvd., 900591 Constanta, Romania.

: Romania faces one of the highest cervical cancer burdens in Europe though it is a preventable cancer through population screening by cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection. Also, it has one of the highest incidences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HPV and HIV coinfection are frequently encountered. Read More

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Association of High Ratio of CSF/Plasma HIV-1 RNA with Central Nervous System Co-Infection in HIV-1-Positive Treatment-Naive Patients.

Brain Sci 2022 Jun 16;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Infectious Disease, Chongqing Public Health Medical Center, Chongqing 400036, China.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) ribonucleic acid (RNA) at higher levels than in plasma has been observed in HIV-1-positive patients and defined as CSF/plasma discordance or CSF escape. Discordance is particularly seen in untreated patients with antiretroviral agents. Quantitative data regarding its association with blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and intracranial co-infection with other pathogens are limited. Read More

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Methamphetamine Dysregulates Macrophage Functions and Autophagy to Mediate HIV Neuropathogenesis.

Biomedicines 2022 May 27;10(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

HIV-neurocognitive impairment (HIV-NCI) can be a debilitating condition for people with HIV (PWH), despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Substance use disorder is often a comorbidity with HIV infection. The use of methamphetamine (meth) increases systemic inflammation and CNS damage in PWH. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-infected patients: potential role in the high mutational load of the Omicron variant emerging in South Africa.

Geroscience 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Transfusion Medicine, Semmelweis University, Nagyvárad tér 4, Budapest, 1089, Hungary.

A new variant of SARS-CoV-2 named Omicron (B.1.1. Read More

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The combination of low level laser therapy and efavirenz drastically reduces HIV infection in TZM-bl cells.

Biomed J 2021 Dec 4;44(6S1):S37-S47. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Physics, University of South Africa, Florida, South Africa.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a global health challenge despite the use of antiretroviral therapy, which has led to a significant decline in the mortality rates. Owing to the unavailability of an effective treatment to completely eradicate the virus, researchers continue to explore new methods. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely used to treat different medical conditions and involves the exposure of cells or tissues to low levels of red and near infrared light. Read More

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December 2021

Transmission and Drug Resistance Characteristics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Strain Using Medical Information Data Retrieval System.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 13;2022:2173339. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Infection and Immunology, The First Hospital of Changsha City, Changsha, 410000 Hunan, China.

This study was aimed at exploring the transmission and drug resistance characteristics of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). The query expansion algorithm based on Candecomp Parafac (CP) decomposition was adopted to construct a data information retrieval system for semantic web and tensor decomposition. In the latent variable model based on tensor decomposition, the three elements in the triples generated feature vectors to calculate the training samples. Read More

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Glutamine antagonist JHU083 improves psychosocial behavior and sleep deficits in EcoHIV-infected mice.

Brain Behav Immun Health 2022 Aug 9;23:100478. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Johns Hopkins Drug Discovery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Combined antiretroviral therapy ushered an era of survivable HIV infection in which people living with HIV (PLH) conduct normal life activities and enjoy measurably extended lifespans. However, despite viral control, PLH often experience a variety of cognitive, emotional, and physical phenotypes that diminish their quality of life, including cognitive impairment, depression, and sleep disruption. Recently, accumulating evidence has linked persistent CNS immune activation to the overproduction of glutamate and upregulation of glutaminase (GLS) activity, particularly in microglial cells, driving glutamatergic imbalance with neurological consequences. Read More

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HIV and AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in the state of Qatar: A cohort population-based retrospective study covering 17 years (2000-2016).

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2022 Jun 20;78:103842. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hamad Medical Corporation, P.O 3050, Doha, Qatar.

Background And Introduction: Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a major health problem since discovery of the virus in 1981. Globally, since introduction of antiretroviral therapy, AIDS-related mortality was reduced by 47% since 2010. Also, HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) became less common, especially with use of prophylaxis to prevent such infections. Read More

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Willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccination among people living with HIV in a high HIV prevalence community.

BMC Public Health 2022 Jun 22;22(1):1239. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston, USA.

Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) may have a poorer prognosis with COVID-19 infection and are an important population for COVID-19 vaccination. We assessed the willingness and reasons for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance or hesitancy among PLWH in South Africa.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of telephone interviews with a randomly selected subset of participants enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study evaluating a decentralized antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery program in South Africa. Read More

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Longitudinal Effects of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy on Cognition and Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Treatment-Naïve People with HIV.

Neurology 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Neurology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY USA.

Background And Objectives: While combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has dramatically increased the life expectancy of people with HIV (PWH), nearly 50% develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). This may be due to previously uncontrolled HIV viral replication, immune activation maintained by residual viral replication or activation from other sources, or cART-associated neurotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cART on cognition and neuroimaging biomarkers markers in people with HIV (PWH) before and after initiation of cART compared to HIV negative controls (HC) and HIV elite controllers (EC) who remain untreated. Read More

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Burden of tuberculosis and hepatitis co-infection among people living with HIV in Nepal: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sex Health 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

People living with HIV (PLHIV) are prone to tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis co-infections, which cause substantial burden on morbidity and mortality. However, data on the burden of HIV co-infection from a specific low- and middle-income country are limited. To address this gap in evidence, a meta-analysis of published literature and country surveillance report was conducted to estimate the burden of TB, hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection among PLHIV in Nepal. Read More

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Provider perspectives on the use of motivational interviewing and problem-solving counseling paired with the point-of-care nucleic acid test for HIV care.

PLoS One 2022 22;17(6):e0270302. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Aims: To evaluate provider perspectives on the use of a point-of-care nucleic acid test (POC NAT) and preferential opinions for motivational interviewing (MI) or problem-solving counseling (PSC) as an ultra-brief intervention for patients experiencing challenges to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence.

Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among providers at an HIV care clinic in Seattle, Washington. Ten in-depth interviews with HIV care providers were completed, which explored determinants of acceptability, feasibility and preferences for a combined adherence counseling and POC NAT intervention for patients living with HIV. Read More

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[New reality in HIV therapy: Long-acting, injectable drugs].

MMW Fortschr Med 2022 Jun;164(Suppl 2):44-51

MUC Research GmbH, Waltherstraße 32, 80337, München, Germany.

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[What to do after HIV exposure].

Authors:
Ulrich Seybold

MMW Fortschr Med 2022 Jun;164(Suppl 2):24-29

Medizinische Klinik u. Poliklinik IV / Sektion Klinische Infektiologie, Klinikum Innenstadt der LMU München, Pettenkoferstraße 8 a, 80336, München, Germany.

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Socioeconomic status largely explains integrase inhibitors-related body composition differences in chronically infected men living with HIV.

Antivir Ther 2022 Jun;27(3):13596535221109748

Department of Neurology, 7548Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Substantial body composition alterations have been reported after starting combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). We characterized a cohort of chronically infected and virologically suppressed (VL < 50 copies/ml) men (≥50 years old) living with HIV (MLWH) who were switched to integrase inhibitors (INSTI), and compared their body composition parameters and proinflammatory/endocrine profiles to age-matched MLWH on integrase inhibitor free (non-INSTI) regimens, taking into account neighborhood-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES). In addition, we used previously published HIV-seronegative men of the same age as controls. Read More

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A role for CD4 helper cells in HIV control and progression.

Authors:
Igor M Rouzine

AIDS 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Objective: It remains unclear why HIV persists in most untreated individuals, and why a small minority of individuals can control the virus, either spontaneously or after an early treatment. Striking differences have been discovered between patient cohorts in CD4+ T-cell avidity but not in CD8+ T-cell avidity. The present work has the aim to explain the diverse outcome of infection and identify the key virological and immunological parameters predicting the outcome. Read More

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Drug use stigma, antiretroviral therapy use, and HIV viral suppression in a community-based sample of people with HIV who inject drugs.

AIDS 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Objective: To examine the association of drug use stigma with antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and HIV viral suppression among people with HIV who inject drugs in India.

Design: Cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey.

Methods: Between 08/2016 and 05/2017, persons aged ≥18 years who reported injection drug use in the past two years were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in 12 Indian cities (n≈1000/city). Read More

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"It's only fatness, it doesn't kill": a qualitative study on perceptions of weight gain from use of dolutegravir-based regimens in women living with HIV in Uganda.

BMC Womens Health 2022 06 21;22(1):246. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of International Public Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.

Background: Dolutegravir (DTG)-based regimens have been recommended by the WHO as the preferred first-line and second-line HIV treatment in all populations. Evidence suggests an association with weight gain, particularly among black women. Our study investigated perceptions of weight gain from DTG-based regimen use on body image and adherence of antiretroviral therapy in women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Uganda. Read More

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Clinicopathological Features and Mortality in Patients With Kaposi Sarcoma and HIV: A Retrospective Analysis of a Thirty-Year Study From a Peruvian Oncologic Center.

JCO Glob Oncol 2022 Jun;8:e2100379

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Purpose: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferative disease. In Peru, the implementation of the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) program was in 2005, the model for treating patients with HIV-positive KS shifted to a potential cure. In this study, we aim to compare clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors associated with outcomes in patients with HIV-positive KS. Read More

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[Survival analysis since diagnosis of HIV-positive injecting drug users aged 15 years and above in China].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2022 Jun;43(6):860-864

Division of Epidemiology, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

To understand death's mortality and risk factors among HIV-positive injecting drug users (IDU) aged 15 or above in China and provide further reference to future prevention and treatment policies. Retrospective cohort study was conducted to calculate the mortality rate of HIV-positive IDU based on HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System. Cox proportion hazards regression model was performed to assess the risk factors for deaths. Read More

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