81,121 results match your criteria HIV Infection Antiretroviral Therapy


History of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Korea.

Infect Chemother 2020 Jun;52(2):234-244

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

The first human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was reported in Korea in 1985. The number of HIV-infected persons domestically increased in the 1990s showing epidemic indigenousization. Since then, the number of new infections gradually increased every year, and recently more than 1,000 newly infected cases were reported per year. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2020.52.2.234DOI Listing

A mobile health-facilitated behavioural intervention for community health workers improves exclusive breastfeeding and early infant HIV diagnosis in India: a cluster randomized trial.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jul;23(7):e25555

School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: India's national AIDS Control Organization implemented World Health Organization's option B+ HIV prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines in 2013. However, scalable strategies to improve uptake of new PMTCT guidelines to reduce new infection rates are needed. This study assessed impact of Mobile Health-Facilitated Behavioral Intervention on the uptake of PMTCT services. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25555DOI Listing

Immune status, and not HIV infection or exposure, drives the development of the oral microbiota.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10830. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Even with antiretroviral therapy, children born to HIV-infected (HI) mothers are at a higher risk of early-life infections and morbidities including dental disease. The increased risk of dental caries in HI children suggest immune-mediated changes in oral bacterial communities, however, the impact of perinatal HIV exposure on the oral microbiota remains unclear. We hypothesized that the oral microbiota of HI and perinatally HIV-exposed-but-uninfected (HEU) children will significantly differ from HIV-unexposed-and-uninfected (HUU) children. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67487-4DOI Listing

Author Correction: HIV and antiretroviral therapy-related fat alterations.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2020 Jul 2;6(1):54. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Sorbonne Université, Faculty of Medicine, Inserm UMR_S938, Saint- Antoine Research Centre, FRM EQU201903007868, ICAN, RHU CARMMA, Paris, France.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0197-6DOI Listing

Establishment of reference range of CD4 T-lymphocyte in healthy Nepalese adults.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Jul 2;13(1):316. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Central Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Objective: CD4 T lymphocytes are the most widely used cellular markers to assess the course of HIV infection, clinical staging and, monitoring the effect of antiretroviral therapy. The regional reference range for Eastern, Central and Western development region of Nepal had already been established whereas the same was still lacking in Mid-western and Far-western development region. The objective of this study was to establish reference range of CD4 T lymphocyte in the remaining two development regions and finally the national reference range using data from previous study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05156-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330941PMC

Tuberculin skin test positivity among HIV-infected alcohol drinkers on antiretrovirals in south-western Uganda.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235261. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among people living with HIV (PLWH), and current evidence suggests that heavy alcohol users have an increased risk of developing TB disease compared to non-drinkers. Not known is whether the increased risk for TB disease among alcohol users may reflect higher rates of latent TB infection (LTBI) among this population. We assessed the latent TB infection prevalence based on tuberculin skin testing (TST) and examined association with current alcohol use among HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in south-western Uganda. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235261PLOS

Treatment modification after starting cART in people living with HIV: retrospective analysis of the German ClinSurv HIV Cohort 2005-2017.

Infection 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department I for Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Herderstraße 52-54, 50931, Cologne, Germany.

Objective: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has markedly increased survival and quality of life in people living with HIV. With the advent of new treatment options, including single-tablet regimens, durability and efficacy of first-line cART regimens are evolving.

Methods: We analyzed data from the prospective multicenter German Clinical Surveillance of HIV Disease (ClinSurv) cohort of the Robert-Koch Institute. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01469-6DOI Listing

Clinical targeting of HIV capsid protein with a long-acting small molecule.

Nature 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.

Oral antiretroviral agents provide life-saving treatments for millions of people living with HIV, and can prevent new infections via pre-exposure prophylaxis. However, some people living with HIV who are heavily treatment-experienced have limited or no treatment options, owing to multidrug resistance. In addition, suboptimal adherence to oral daily regimens can negatively affect the outcome of treatment-which contributes to virologic failure, resistance generation and viral transmission-as well as of pre-exposure prophylaxis, leading to new infections. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2443-1DOI Listing

Risk-based screening to identify reproductive tract infection among HIV-infected women desiring use of intrauterine contraceptives.

BMJ Sex Reprod Health 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, yet RTI testing remains limited in resource-constrained settings. We assessed performance of an existing RTI risk assessment screening tool among women living with HIV (WLHIV) considering intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) use.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among WLHIV screened for participation in an IUC trial in Cape Town, South Africa (NCT01721798). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2019-200494DOI Listing

Doravirine and Its Potential in the Treatment of HIV: An Evidence-Based Review of the Emerging Data.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2020 10;12:201-210. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

University of Illinois, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Section of Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

The utility of doravirine in the management of HIV-1 infection is approved for use in patients who are antiretroviral-naïve as well as patients who have achieved stable virologic suppression and are interested in replacing their current antiretroviral therapy. The role of doravirine continues to evolve as data emerges on the potential for new combination therapy with the investigational agent, islatravir, as well as a potential strategy to minimize post-marketing safety concerns with recommended first-line agents, such as integrase inhibitors. The goal of this review is to assess recent and emerging data on the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, doravirine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S184018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293906PMC

Increased Virological Failure and Determinants Among HIV Patients on Highly Active Retroviral Therapy in Adigrat General Hospital, Northern Ethiopia, 2019: Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 18;13:1863-1872. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Unit of Medical Parasitology, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University, Tigrai, Ethiopia.

Background: In Ethiopia, despite the integrated implementation of antiretroviral therapy since 2005, the human immunodeficiency virus remains a public health concern. Managing and detecting antiretroviral treatment response is important to monitor the effectiveness of the therapy for individuals who experience failed virological response. An increased viral load indicating drug resistance or rapid progression of viral replication needs early detection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S251619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308120PMC

Single atom changes in newly synthesized HIV protease inhibitors reveal structural basis for extreme affinity, high genetic barrier, and adaptation to the HIV protease plasticity.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 30;10(1):10664. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, 20892, MD, United States.

HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), such as darunavir (DRV), are the key component of antiretroviral therapy. However, HIV-1 often acquires resistance to PIs. Here, seven novel PIs were synthesized, by introducing single atom changes such as an exchange of a sulfur to an oxygen, scission of a single bond in P2'-cyclopropylaminobenzothiazole (or -oxazole), and/or P1-benzene ring with fluorine scan of mono- or bis-fluorine atoms around DRV's scaffold. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65993-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326966PMC

Can HIV recent infection surveillance help us better understand where primary prevention efforts should be targeted? Results of three pilots integrating a recent infection testing algorithm into routine programme activities in Kenya and Zimbabwe.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jun;23 Suppl 3:e25513

University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Introduction: Surveillance of recent HIV infections in national testing services has the potential to inform primary prevention programming activities. Focusing on procedures required to accurately determine recent infection, and the potential for recent infection surveillance to inform prevention efforts, we present the results of three independent but linked pilots of recency testing.

Methods: To distinguish recently acquired HIV infection from long-standing infection, in 2018 we applied a Recent Infection Testing Algorithm that combined a laboratory-based Limiting Antigen Avidity Enzyme Immunoassay with clinical information (viral-load; history of prior HIV diagnosis; antiretroviral therapy-exposure). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325505PMC

Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Patients Admitted with Acute Stroke.

Cureus 2020 May 26;12(5):e8296. Epub 2020 May 26.

Neurology, University Hospital Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, USA.

Introduction Stroke is a leading cause of chronic disability and death in both developing and developed countries. A significant proportion of stroke patients are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. About half of the HIV patients experience some sort of neurological deficit in their lifetimes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317133PMC

Successful Pregnancy and Delivery with Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in HIV-Serodiscordant Couple: the First Case in Korea.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Jun 29;35(25):e197. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

With highly active antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered to be a manageable chronic disease. The improved prognosis increases the desire of individuals with HIV to have biological offspring. With the establishment of washing protocol, no HIV transmission has been reported among more than 11,000 assisted reproduction technology (ART) cycles. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e197DOI Listing

Covid-19 and People with HIV Infection: Outcomes for Hospitalized Patients in New York City.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Background: There have been limited data regarding the clinical impact of COVID-19 disease on people with HIV (PWH). In this study we compared outcomes for PWH with COVID-19 disease to a matched comparison group.

Design: We identified 88 PWH hospitalized with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 in our hospital system in New York between March 12 and April 23, 2020. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa880DOI Listing

HIV-exposed uninfected infant morbidity and mortality within a nationally representative prospective cohort of mother-infant pairs in Zimbabwe.

AIDS 2020 Jul;34(9):1339-1346

Division of Global HIV and TB, Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Objective: To examine morbidity and mortality risk among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants.

Design: Secondary data analysis of HEU infants in a prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs.

Methods: Infants were recruited from immunization clinics (n = 151) in Zimbabwe from February to August 2013, enrolled at 4-12 weeks age, and followed every 3 months until incident HIV-infection, death, or 18-month follow-up. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002567DOI Listing

Identification, management and outcomes of combination antiretroviral treatment failure in adolescents with perinatal HIV infection in Asia.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Australia.

Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) failure is a major threat to HIV programs, with implications for individual- and population-level outcomes. Adolescents with perinatally-acquired HIV infection (PHIVA) should be a focus for treatment failure given their poorer outcomes compared to children and adults.

Methods: Data (2014-2018) from a regional cohort of Asian PHIVA who received at least 6 months of continuous cART were analyzed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa872DOI Listing

Effects of HIV on the Tumor Microenvironment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1263:45-54

Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Oncomodulatory viruses can affect the tumor microenvironment (TME) by triggering inflammation, suppressing apoptosis, initiating angiogenesis, altering tumor metabolism, and stimulating tumor cell signaling pathways, leading to tumor growth, proliferation, and invasion. The higher incidence of malignancies among people with HIV (PWH), despite the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), suggests a more complex relation than HIV-associated immune deregulation. Viral cooperation can have synergistic effect on tumorigenesis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44518-8_4DOI Listing
January 2020

Emergent Resistance to Dolutegravir Among INSTI-Naïve Patients on First-line or Second-line Antiretroviral Therapy: A Review of Published Cases.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Jun 2;7(6):ofaa202. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

None of the licensing studies of dolutegravir (DTG) reported any treatment-emergent resistance among DTG-treated individuals, though virological failure in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced, integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-naïve individuals has been reported in clinical practice. While the spectrum of dolutegravir-selected mutations and their effects on clinical outcome have been described, the clinical characteristics of these rare but important virological failure cases are often overlooked. In this perspective piece, we focus on key clinical aspects of emergent resistance to DTG among treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced INSTI-naïve patients, with an aim to inform clinical decision-making. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304932PMC

Purifying Selection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Gene in Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Children Harboring Discordant Immunological Response and Virological Nonresponse to Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy.

J Clin Med Res 2020 Jun 4;12(6):369-376. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Laboratoire de Virologie, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP) and Universite de Paris, Paris Sorbonne Cite, Paris, France.

Background: Biological monitoring of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pediatric population remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term HIV-1 genetic diversity in gene in HIV-1-infected children in virological failure under antiretroviral regimen adapted according to the successive World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for resource-constrained settings.

Methods: HIV-1 diversity in gene was assessed in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents born from HIV-infected mothers (median age at follow-up: 13. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295550PMC

Missed opportunity to diagnose HIV with pneumonia as its sequela.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jun 24;13(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Acute Medicine, The Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, United Kingdom.

pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic infection of the lung occurring primarily in patients with HIV infection with a CD4 cell count <200 mm, solid organ transplant recipients and those taking immunosuppressive therapy. The 1980s heralded the HIV pandemic, turning PCP into a major medical and public health problem worldwide. Manifestations of unusual infections such as pneumocystis and Kaposi's sarcoma, were, after all, the first signs of the emerging pandemic to be recognised and may indeed, be the presenting feature of a previously undiagnosed HIV infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-235386DOI Listing

Elevated N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide among persons living with HIV in a South African peri-urban township.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Aims: Efforts to improve access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) have shifted morbidity and mortality among persons living with HIV (PLWH) from AIDS to non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, contemporary data on CVD among PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa in the current ART era are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of cardiac stress among PLWH in South Africa via measurement of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12849DOI Listing

The role of CAMKK2 polymorphisms in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in South Africans.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Jun 15;416:116987. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, Curtin University, Bentley, Australia; Brain Function Research Group, School of Physiology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common neurological complication of HIV infection. It affected 57% of South African patients whose antiretroviral therapy (ART) included stavudine and was influenced by genotypes of the P2X-block (P2X7R, P2X4R and CAMKK2). We investigate associations between HIV-SN and P2X-block genotypes in patients who never received stavudine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116987DOI Listing

Klotho-HIV and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Klotho in Cardiovascular Disease Under HIV Infection-A Review.

DNA Cell Biol 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Molecular Immunobiology, Biomedical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Torreon, Mexico.

Combined antiretroviral therapy has improved quality and life expectancy of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, this therapy increases oxidative stress (OS), which in turn causes alterations in lipid and carbon metabolism, kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The Klotho gene has been implicated in cardiovascular risk increase. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2020.5444DOI Listing
June 2020
2.055 Impact Factor

[Think also of the heart of HIV-infected people].

Authors:
Stefan Esser

MMW Fortschr Med 2020 Jun;162(Suppl 2):20-23

HIV/STD-Ambulanz, Institut für HIV Forschung Essen, Klinik für Dermatologie und Venerologie, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, D-45122, Essen, Deutschland.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15006-020-0641-2DOI Listing

Modeling the role of macrophages in HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy.

J Math Biol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

HIV preferentially infects activated CD4+ T cells. Current antiretroviral therapy cannot eradicate the virus. Viral infection of other cells such as macrophages may contribute to viral persistence during antiretroviral therapy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00285-020-01513-xDOI Listing

Antiretroviral Treatment for HIV Elite Controllers?

Pathog Immun 2020 19;5(1):121-133. Epub 2020 May 19.

Division of Infectious Diseases; Center for AIDS Research; Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals; Cleveland Medical Center; Cleveland, Ohio.

In most HIV-infected persons, the natural history of untreated infection is one of sustained viremia, progressive CD4 T cell depletion with resultant morbidity and mortality. The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) that controls HIV replication has altered this landscape dramatically. Yet a rare population of HIV-infected persons-elite controllers (EC)-can control HIV replication such that plasma levels of virus are "undetectable" without ART. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.20411/pai.v5i1.364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307444PMC

Regulation of Cas9 by viral proteins Tat and Rev for HIV-1 inactivation.

Antiviral Res 2020 Jun 21:104856. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

While combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has had a great impact on the treatment of HIV-1 infection, the persistence of long-lived cells with an intact provirus precludes virus eradication and sterilizing cure. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has become an efficient tool to eradicate HIV-1 genome or prevent replication. Furthermore, regulation of Cas9 gene expression by HIV can induce mutations that could inactivate the proviral genome, making a gene therapy safe by preventing the induction of non-specific mutations, which could compromise the integrity of healthy cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104856DOI Listing

Predictors of incomplete viral response and virologic failure in patients with acute and early HIV infection. Results of Italian Network of ACuTe HIV InfectiON (INACTION) cohort.

HIV Med 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Policlinico Maggiore Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that can influence an incomplete viral response (IVR) after acute and early HIV infection (AEHI).

Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study including patients with AEHI (Fiebig stages I-V) diagnosed between January 2008 and December 2014 at 20 Italian centres. IVR was defined by: (1) viral blip (51-1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL after achievement of < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL); (2) virologic failure [> 1000 copies/mL after achievement of < 200 copies/mL, or ≥ 200 copies/mL after 24 weeks on an antiretroviral therapy (ART)]; (3) suboptimal viral response (> 50 copies/mL after 48 weeks on ART or two consecutive HIV-1 RNA levels with ascending trend during ART). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12885DOI Listing

Treatment with buprenorphine prior to EcoHIV infection of mice prevents the development of neurocognitive impairment.

J Leukoc Biol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA.

Approximately 15-40% of people living with HIV develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, HAND, despite successful antiretroviral therapy. There are no therapies to treat these disorders. HIV enters the CNS early after infection, in part by transmigration of infected monocytes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.5AB0420-531RDOI Listing

Quantifying the dynamics of HIV decline in perinatally-infected neonates on antiretroviral therapy.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Mathematical modeling has provided important insights into HIV infection dynamics in adults undergoing antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, much less is known about the corresponding dynamics in perinatally-infected neonates initiating early ART.

Setting: From 2014-2017, HIV viral load (VL) was monitored in 122 perinatally-infected infants identified at birth and initiating ART within a median of two days. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002425DOI Listing

Neurocognitive impairment and gray matter volume reduction in HIV-infected patients.

J Neurovirol 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Although neuropsychological studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have demonstrated heterogeneity in neurocognitive impairment and neuroimaging studies have reported diverse brain regions affected by HIV, it remains unclear whether individual differences in neurocognitive impairment are underpinned by their neural bases. Here, we investigated spatial distribution patterns of correlation between neurocognitive function and regional gray matter (GM) volume across patients with HIV. Thirty-one combination antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected Japanese male patients and 33 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the analysis after strict exclusion criteria, especially for substance use. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00865-wDOI Listing

Factors associated with immunosenescence during early adulthood in HIV-infected patients after durable efficient combination antiretroviral therapy.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 22;10(1):10057. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Centro di Ricerca Emato-oncologica AIL (CREA), Diagnostic Department, ASST Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Perinatally HIV-infected patients face the consequences of both chronic infection effects per se and long-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on immunosenescence. Aims of our study were to evaluate which factors independently contribute to immunosenescence in HIV-infected young adults with a very different HIV infection duration (perinatally HIV-infected young individuals -pHIVy- and age-matched non perinatally HIV-infected youths -npHIVy), after durable  efficient cART. We considered low thymic and bone marrow output, respectively evaluated by quantifying T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), K-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs), and shorter telomeres lenght (TL) as surrogate biomarkers of immunosenescence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67100-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308364PMC

Timing of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected patients with moderate to severe Pneumocystis pneumonia: study protocol for a multi-centre prospective randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 22;21(1):551. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Chongqing Public Health Medical Center, 109 Baoyu Road, Shapingba District, Chongqing, China.

Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related opportunistic infection. Recent reports estimate that more than 400,000 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) develop PCP each year globally. However, the timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for HIV-infected patients with PCP is still controversial, and the benefits and risks of early initiation of ART are not completely clear. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04450-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310256PMC

Assessing the effects of maternal HIV infection on pregnancy outcomes using cross-sectional data in Malawi.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 22;20(1):974. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Statistics, University of Pennyslvania, Pennyslvania, USA.

Background: Several studies have shown that maternal HIV infection is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and perinatal mortality. However, the association is conflicted with the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the pregnancy outcomes and it remains unexamined. If the association is confirmed then it would guide policy makers towards more effective prevention of mother to child HIV transmission interventions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09046-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310115PMC

Coinfection with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China: A 12-person case series.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, and Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Given the magnitude of the global COVID-19 pandemic, persons living with HIV (PLWH) may become co-infected with SARS-COV-2.

Setting: We conducted a survey in Wuhan, China, to characterize the status of co-infected PLWH, their time to clinical improvement, and clinical prognoses.

Methods: Using a Wuhan shipping service for antiretroviral medications, the Wuhan LGBT Center screened 2900 PLWH shipping addresses and cross-referenced 36 of them to quarantine sites or hospitals, suggesting possible COVID-19 cases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002424DOI Listing

Cryptococcal meningitis: a review of cryptococcal antigen screening programs in Africa.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant contributor to AIDS-related mortality despite widened access to antiretroviral therapy. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) can be detected in the blood prior to the development of meningitis. The development of highly sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic CrAg tests has helped facilitate the adoption of CrAg screening programs in 19 African countries. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2020.1785871DOI Listing

Partial recovery of disturbed V-J pairing profiles of T-cell receptor in people living with HIV receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy.

Sci China Life Sci 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Institute of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100015, China.

Chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection not only causes a gradual loss of CD4 T cells but also leads to a disturbance of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. In people living with HIV (PLWH), monitoring TCR repertoire is challenged by the inconsistency of complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) and limited cell numbers in clinical samples. Thus, a quantitative method is necessary for monitoring the TCR repertoire in PLWH. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1718-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306449PMC

[Using linear mixed-effects model to analyze the progression of HIV disease, among men who have sex with men].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 Jun;41(6):861-865

Department of Epidemiology, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

To understand the progression of CD(4)(+) T cells (CD(4)) declining rate in different age groups among MSM and to further explore the pathogenesis of HIV infection. Data regarding MSM who were diagnosed as HIV positive, aged ≥15 years, with homosexual route of transmission and with more than two records of CD(4) count retained before antiretroviral therapy (ART), were collected from the National AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Information System until May 31, 2019. Linear mixed effect model was used to fit the linear elimination relationship between the square root of CD(4) cell count and infection time before taking up the ART. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20190918-00679DOI Listing

[Survival analysis on HIV-infected children aged 14 years old and younger in China].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 Jun;41(6):850-855

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

To understand the survival status and related influencing factors of HIV-infected children aged ≤14 years old, in China. HIV-infected children were selected from the China's HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System (CRIMS). A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the situation of survival on infected children. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20191129-00844DOI Listing

Modelling integrated antiretroviral treatment and harm reduction services on HIV and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jun;23 Suppl 1:e25493

Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Introduction: The HIV epidemic in Tijuana, Mexico is concentrated in key populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID). However, HIV interventions among PWID are minimal, and federal funding was provided for compulsory abstinence programmes associated with HIV and overdose. Alternatively, opioid agonist therapy reduces overdose, reincarceration, HIV, while improving antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305416PMC

Earlier treatment initiation is associated with a decreased number of HIV-1 subtype A1 transmissions in Greece.

Sex Transm Infect 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Objectives: Subtypes A1 and B are the most prevalent HIV-1 clades in Greece. Subtype A1 epidemic is highly monophyletic and corresponds to transmissions that occurred locally. Our aim in this molecular epidemiology analysis was to investigate the role of early treatment in preventing new HIV-1 transmissions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2020-054509DOI Listing
June 2020
3.401 Impact Factor

Hemophagocytic syndrome in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: A study of 15 consecutive patients.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Cristina Carranza Rodríguez. Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Medicina Tropical. Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria. Av. Marítima del Sur s/n 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Spain.

Objective: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is characterized by various clinical and biological data derived from cytokine hyperproduction and cell proliferation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the epidemiological, etiological, clinical and evolutionary characteristics of patients diagnosed with hemophagocytic syndrome and HIV infection, as well as their comparison with data from the literature.

Methods: A retrospective descriptive observational study was performed, including all adult patients with a diagnosis of HPS and HIV infection treated in the Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit of the Hospital Universitario Insular, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria from June 1, 1998 to December 31, 2018. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.37201/req/037.2020DOI Listing

Summary of the NACI Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Statement for 2020-2021.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 May 7;46(5):132-137. Epub 2020 May 7.

NACI Influenza Working Group Vice Chair.

Background: Evidence on influenza vaccination is continually evolving. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) provides annual recommendations to the Public Health Agency of Canada regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines.

Objective: To summarize NACI's recommendations regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines for the 2020-2021 influenza season and to highlight new and updated recommendations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i05a06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279128PMC

Systematic or Test-Guided Treatment for Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults.

N Engl J Med 2020 06;382(25):2397-2410

From the Department of Respiratory Medicine, L'Institut du Thorax, Nantes University Hospital, and the Medical School, University of Nantes, Nantes (F.-X.B.), INSERM Unité 1219, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (A.D.B., D.G., X.A.), Relations Translationnelles sur le VIH et les Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, University of Montpellier, INSERM (M.B.), and Research Unit 1058 Pathogenesis and Control Chronical Infections, INSERM, French Blood Center, University of Montpellier (D.L.), Montpellier, and the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes (D.L.) - all in France; Programme ANRS (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les Hépatites Virales) Coopération Côte d'Ivoire, ANRS research site (A.D.B., E.M., S.J.), and Félix Houphouët-Boigny University (S.P.E., S.K.D.) - both in Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Epicentre (M.B., N.N.) and Mbarara University of Science and Technology (C.M.) - both in Mbarara, Uganda; the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (S.S.), Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (L.B.), and Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope (S.T.) - all in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital (B.D.N.) and ANRS, Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital (A.D., D.R.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; and the Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (S.D.L.).

Background: In regions with high burdens of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many HIV-infected adults begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) when they are already severely immunocompromised. Mortality after ART initiation is high in these patients, and tuberculosis and invasive bacterial diseases are common causes of death.

Methods: We conducted a 48-week trial of empirical treatment for tuberculosis as compared with treatment guided by testing in HIV-infected adults who had not previously received ART and had CD4+ T-cell counts below 100 cells per cubic millimeter. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1910708DOI Listing

Leveraging routine viral load testing to integrate diabetes screening among patients on antiretroviral therapy in Malawi.

Int Health 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Dignitas International, Zomba, Malawi.

Background: People living with HIV are at an increased risk of diabetes mellitus due to HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite this, integrated diabetes screening has not been implemented commonly in African HIV clinics. Our objective was to explore the feasibility of integrating diabetes screening into existing routine HIV viral load (VL) monitoring and to determine a group of HIV patients that benefit from a targeted screening for diabetes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihaa030DOI Listing

HIV and antiretroviral therapy-related fat alterations.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2020 Jun 18;6(1):48. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Sorbonne Université, Faculty of Medicine, Inserm UMR_S938, Saint-Antoine Research Centre, FRM EQU201903007868, ICAN, RHU CARMMA, Paris, France.

Early in the HIV epidemic, lipodystrophy, characterized by subcutaneous fat loss (lipoatrophy), with or without central fat accumulation (lipohypertrophy), was recognized as a frequent condition among people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. The subsequent identification of thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as the cause of lipoatrophy led to the development of newer antiretroviral agents; however, studies have demonstrated continued abnormalities in fat and/or lipid storage in PLWH treated with newer drugs (including integrase inhibitor-based regimens), with fat gain due to restoration to health in antiretroviral therapy-naive PLWH, which is compounded by the rising rates of obesity. The mechanisms of fat alterations in PLWH are complex, multifactorial and not fully understood, although they are known to result in part from the direct effects of HIV proteins and antiretroviral agents on adipocyte health, genetic factors, increased microbial translocation, changes in the adaptive immune milieu after infection, increased tissue inflammation and accelerated fibrosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0181-1DOI Listing

Prevalence of Opportunistic Infections and Associated Factors in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy in Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam: A Case-Control Study.

Am J Mens Health 2020 May-Jun;14(3):1557988320926743

Laboratory Centre, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Objective: To investigate the distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) and factors associated with acquiring OIs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in comparison to those of heterosexual patients.

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 82 HIV-infected MSM and 120 HIV-infected heterosexual men in Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. Demographical characteristics and clinical data were collected and analyzed using appropriate statistics (Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988320926743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307406PMC