75,721 results match your criteria HIV Infection Antiretroviral Therapy


Tackling protein-energy under-nutrition among resource-limited people living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi using soybean-enriched maize-based stiff porridge (nsima): A pilot study.

Nutr Diet 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Food Technology and Nutrition Group, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANAR), Lilongwe, Malawi.

Aim: The Ministry of Health in Malawi has scaled-up antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection. However, the majority of Malawians heavily depend on maize-based stiff porridge (nsima), a protein-deficient staple, a practice that exacerbates wasting and ultimately compromises the success of ART programming. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of utilising soybean-enriched nsima as a strategy for managing HIV-related wasting among resource-poor people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1747-0080.12539DOI Listing

Evaluation of Vascular Event Risk while on Long-term Anti-retroviral Suppressive Therapy [EVERLAST]: Protocol for a prospective observational study.

eNeurologicalSci 2019 Jun 5;15:100189. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Background & Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among the HIV population is high due to a combination of accelerated atherosclerosis from the pro-inflammatory milieu created by chronic HIV infection and the potentially adverse metabolic side effects from cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) medications. Although sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) bears 70% of the global burden of HIV disease, there is a relative paucity of studies comprehensively assessing CVD risk among people living with HIV on the continent. The overarching objective of the Evaluation of Vascular Event Risk while on Long-term Anti-retroviral Suppressive Therapy (EVERLAST) Study is to characterize the burden of CVD among HIV patients on ART in Ghana, and explore factors influencing it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2019.100189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460293PMC

A Rare Case of Neurosyphilis with Ocular Involvement in a Patient with HIV Infection and New Onset Syphilis.

Cureus 2019 Feb 7;11(2):e4034. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Internal Medicine, St. Barnabas Hospital, Bronx, USA.

Neurosyphilis (NS) is more frequently seen in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, especially those not on antiretroviral therapy or with a low CD4 cell count. Ocular syphilis is an unusual and early form of neurosyphilis. Lumbar puncture should be considered in all HIV infected patients who present with neurologic or ocular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456285PMC
February 2019

Predictors of Time to First Line Antiretroviral Treatment Failure among Adult Patients Living with HIV in Public Health Facilities of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2019 Mar;29(2):175-186

Arba Minch University, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy is a proven medication given for Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive individuals. However, first-line antiretroviral treatment failure becomes a public health issue and early detection of treatment failure is crucial for timely actions. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the predictors of time to first-line antiretroviral treatment failure among adult patients living with HIV in public health facilities of Arba Minch Town. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v29i2.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460441PMC

Altered neuropsychological performance and reduced brain volumetrics in people living with HIV on integrase strand transfer inhibitors.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, USA.

Objectives: Neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported in people living with HIV (PLWH) on integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in post marketing analysis. Limited data exists regarding brain integrity (function and structure) in PLWH prescribed INSTIs compared to other HIV treatment regimens.

Design: A cross-sectional analysis of PLWH on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) aged >18 years at a single institution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002236DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Clinical significance of elevated liver transaminases in HIV-infected patients.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

: Elevation of liver transaminases is common in patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Although this is usually an incidental finding during regular work-up, HIV-infected patients with transaminases elevations require additional visits for laboratory studies and clinical assessments, and often undergo interruptions and changes in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is present primarily in the liver, thus being a surrogate marker of hepatocellular injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002233DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Simplifying switch to second line ART: Predicted effect of defining failure of first-line efavirenz-based regimens in sub-Saharan Africa by a single viral load > 1000 copies/ml.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, UK.

Background: Many individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa never initiate second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) or do so after significant delay. For people on ART with a viral load (VL) > 1000 copies/ml, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a second VL measurement 3 months after the first VL and enhanced adherence support. Switch to a second-line regimen is contingent upon a persistently elevated VL > 1000 copies/ml. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002234DOI Listing

Consistent Condom Use and Associated Factors among HIV-Positive Clients on Antiretroviral Therapy in North West Ethiopian Health Center, 2016 GC.

AIDS Res Treat 2019 17;2019:7134908. Epub 2019 Mar 17.

Department of Public Health, Hawassa Health Science College, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Background: The burden of Human Immune Deficiency Virus or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is high in sub-Saharan countries including Ethiopia which have over two-thirds of the global HIV burden. Many would argue that consistent condom use is not most effective method for HIV prevention. Condoms offer protection against unwanted pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections including Human Immune Deficiency Virus, when used correctly and consistently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7134908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441518PMC

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for CYP2B6 and Efavirenz-containing Antiretroviral Therapy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Meharry Medical College School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, efavirenz, is widely used to treat HIV-1 infection. Efavirenz is predominantly metabolized into inactive metabolites by CYP2B6, and patients with certain CYP2B6 genetic variants may be at increased risk for adverse effects, particularly central nervous system toxicity and treatment discontinuation. We summarize the evidence from the literature and provide therapeutic recommendations for efavirenz prescribing based on CYP2B6 genotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1477DOI Listing

Effect of metformin on the size of the HIV reservoir in non-diabetic ART-treated individuals: single-arm non-randomised Lilac pilot study protocol.

BMJ Open 2019 Apr 20;9(4):e028444. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: People living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) do not progress to AIDS. However, they still suffer from an increased risk of inflammation-associated complications. HIV persists in long-lived CD4+ T cells, which form the major viral reservoir. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028444DOI Listing

The contribution of KSHV to mortality in hospitalized HIV-infected patients being investigated for tuberculosis in South Africa.

J Infect Dis 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Division of Medical Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Despite increasing numbers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis remains the leading cause of mortality. Approximately 25% of patients treated for tuberculosis have microbiologically unconfirmed diagnoses. We assessed whether elevated Kaposi's sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) viral load (VL) contributes to mortality in hospitalized HIV-infected patients investigated for tuberculosis. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz180DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

CD4/CD8 ratio predicts the cellular immune response to acute hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected adults.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Applied Immunology, IMSUT Hospital of the Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is a strong risk factor for death of HIV-infected patients. Immune dysfunction affects the clinical course of acute hepatitis C (AHC). CD4/CD8 ratio is a biomarker of both persistent inflammation and immunosenescence in HIV-infected adults on effective antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1341321X193009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among HIV-1 infected ART-naïve individuals in Kumasi, Ghana.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215377. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: The study assessed the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection paradigm among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients attending a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Also, the immunological and virological characterisation of these viruses, prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was investigated.

Method: A total of 400 HIV infected (HIV type-1) treatment naïve subjects ≥18 years were enrolled and tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215377PLOS
April 2019
3.234 Impact Factor

Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interaction in a Large Antiretroviral Treatment Centre in Lagos, Nigeria.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 22;26(1):e1-e19. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

University of Lagos.

   Background: An important cause of treatment failure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the potential interaction between the antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and co-prescribed drugs used concomitantly for the treatment of opportunistic infections and co-morbid ailments in HIV-infected patients. Objectives: The study evaluated potential clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs) occurring between recommended ART regimens and their co-prescribed non-antiretroviral drugs (CPD) Method: This study was carried out in a large HIV treatment centre (APIN clinic) in a Nigerian teaching hospital, in Lagos Nigeria, caring for over 20,000 registered patients. Electronic Medical Records (EMR) of 500 patients  who received treatment between 2005 and 2015, were selected using systematic random sampling, reviewed retrospectively, and evaluated for potential CSDIs using Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Database and other similar databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.26.1.1DOI Listing
January 2019

Proviral Quasispecies Diversity Is Not Associated With Virologic Breakthrough or CD4 T Cell Loss in HIV-1 Elite Controllers.

Front Microbiol 2019 2;10:673. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Laboratório de AIDS & Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Elite controllers (EC) are able to control HIV-1 replication to extremely low levels (<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. However, some EC experience CD4 T cell loss and/or lose their ability to control HIV-1 over the course of infection. High levels of HIV-1 proviral diversity, activated T cells and proinflammatory cytokines were pointed out as relevant biomarkers for detection of EC at risk of virologic/immunologic progression. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00673
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454058PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Safety and efficacy of VRC01 broadly neutralising antibodies in adults with acutely treated HIV (RV397): a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet HIV 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

US Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA; Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA; SEARCH, the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Global Health, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: HIV-1-specific broadly neutralising antibodies such as VRC01 could promote HIV remission by halting viral replication and clearing infected cells. We investigated whether VRC01 could promote sustained viral control off antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adults who initiated ART during acute HIV infection.

Methods: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre in Bangkok, Thailand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30053-0DOI Listing

Efficacy and safety of abacavir/lamivudine with raltegravir in treatment-experienced and treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1 infection: an observational, retrospective, multi-centre study.

Int J STD AIDS 2019 Apr 10;30(5):467-471. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

1 Infectious Diseases Unit, G.B. Rossi University Hospital, Verona, Italy.

Raltegravir (RAL) is an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor that is well established as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens for the treatment of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), due to its high virological efficacy and good tolerability profile. To date, limited data are available on the use of RAL with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC). We investigated retrospectively 62 HIV-1 infected patients managed by three Italian Infectious Diseases Outpatient Departments, including 57 treatment-experienced patients and 5 treatment-naïve patients, treated with ABC/3TC plus RAL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462418817049DOI Listing

HIV co-infection in HTLV-1 carriers in Spain.

Virus Res 2019 Apr 15;266:48-51. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

UNIR Health Sciences School & Medical Center, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Human retroviruses HIV and HTLV share transmission routes. HIV widely spread in Spain during the 80 s through injection drug use and sex, and nowadays HIV rates in Spain account for one of the largest in Europe. In contrast, HTLV-1 is not endemic in Spain, despite hosting huge numbers of migrants from highly endemic regions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01681702193017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Higher rates of HBsAg clearance with tenofovir-containing therapy in HBV/HIV co-infection.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215464. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Le Trait d'Union, HIV-Infection Care Center, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Introduction: Achieving functional cure of chronic HBV infection (Hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] clearance, eventually followed by acquisition of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen [Anti-HBs]) in individuals with HIV and HBV infections is a rare event. In this setting, factors related to HBV cure have not yet been fully characterized.

Methods: HIV-infected individuals with chronic HBV infection enrolled in the French Dat'AIDS cohort (NCT02898987), who started combined antiretroviral (cART)-anti-HBV treatment were retrospectively analyzed for HBsAg loss and Anti-HBs seroconversion. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215464PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Double Poisson-Tweedie Regression Models.

Int J Biostat 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Departamento de Saúde Sanitária, Paraná Federal University, Curitiba, Brazil.

In this paper, we further extend the recently proposed Poisson-Tweedie regression models to include a linear predictor for the dispersion as well as for the expectation of the count response variable. The family of the considered models is specified using only second-moments assumptions, where the variance of the count response has the form μ+ϕμp $\mu + \phi \mu^p$, where µ is the expectation, φ and p are the dispersion and power parameters, respectively. Parameter estimations are carried out using an estimating function approach obtained by combining the quasi-score and Pearson estimating functions. Read More

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http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijb.ahead-of-print/ijb-2018-
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijb-2018-0119DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Lipidome Abnormalities and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in HIV Infection.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Division of Medical Laboratory Science, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 453 W. 10th Ave. 535A Atwell Hall, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lipid abnormalities that may enhance cardiovascular disease risk (CVD).

Recent Findings: Chronic inflammation persists in HIV+ individuals, and complex relationships exist among lipids and inflammation, as immune activation may be both a cause and a consequence of lipid abnormalities in HIV infection. Advances in mass spectrometry-based techniques now allow for detailed measurements of individual lipid species; improved lipid measurement might better evaluate CVD risk compared with the prognostic value of traditional assessments. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11904-019-00442-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00442-9DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Optimizing treatment for HIV-associated lymphoma.

Authors:
Ariela Noy

Blood 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States

Cancer is the leading cause of death for HIV-infected persons in economically developed countries, even in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Lymphomas remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected patients and have increased incidence even in patients optimally treated with ART. Even limited interruptions of ART can lead to cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell nadirs and HIV viremia, and increase the risk of lymphoma. Read More

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http://www.bloodjournal.org/lookup/doi/10.1182/blood-2018-01
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-01-791400DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effect of high-intensity versus low-intensity praziquantel treatment on HIV disease progression in HIV and co-infected patients: a randomised controlled trial.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 3;3:81. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

MRC UVRI & LSHTM Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda.

It has been hypothesised that co-infection exacerbates HIV progression, and hence anthelminthic intervention in co-infected individuals will delay it. We evaluated effects of high-intensity versus low-intensity praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis on HIV disease progression among co-infected patients from fishing populations around Lake Victoria, Uganda. : Between August 2012 and September 2015, we conducted an open-label randomised, controlled trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.14683.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241569.2PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Multicenter evaluation of the cobas® HIV-1 quantitative nucleic acid test for use on the cobas® 4800 system for the quantification of HIV-1 plasma viral load.

J Clin Virol 2019 Mar 16;114:43-49. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Luxembourg. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Measurement of HIV-1 viral load (VL) is necessary to monitor treatment efficacy in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. We evaluated the performance of the cobas® HIV-1 quantitative nucleic acid test for use on the cobas® 4800 system ("cobas 4800 HIV-1").

Methods: Limit of detection, linearity, accuracy, precision, and specificity of cobas 4800 HIV-1, COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® Taqman® HIV-1 version 2. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13866532193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.03.008DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

A potential long-acting bictegravir loaded nano-drug delivery system for HIV-1 infection: A proof-of-concept study.

Antiviral Res 2019 Apr 13;167:83-88. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

School of Pharmacy & Health Professions, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178, USA; School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178, USA. Electronic address:

Bictegravir (BIC), a newly FDA-approved integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), as a single tablet regimen has proven efficacious in treating HIV-1 and SIV viruses, with reduced resistance. BIC clinical trials have not investigated its prophylaxis potency. This study investigates the HIV prevention potency of a novel long-acting BIC nano-formulation aimed to improve adherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.04.007DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Acceptability of Cell and Gene Therapy for Curing HIV Infection among People Living with HIV in the Northwestern United States: A Qualitative Study.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Washington, Medicine , Harborview Medical Center, Box 359929 , 325 9th Avenue , Seattle, Washington, United States , 98104 ;

Multiple strategies to cure HIV infection are under investigation, including cell and gene therapy approaches. Research, and ultimately treatment, with these novel strategies will require patients' willingness to participate. To elicit the perspectives of people living with HIV (PLWH) specific to these novel approaches, we conducted four focus group discussions with a diverse group of 19 English-speaking men and women living with HIV in care at a large academic HIV clinic in the northwestern U. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2019.0021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0021DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads
2.325 Impact Factor

Evaluation of a routine point-of-care intervention for early infant diagnosis of HIV: an observational study in eight African countries.

Lancet HIV 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: In 2017, there were 180 000 estimated new HIV infections in children aged 0-14 years. Without early diagnosis and treatment, half of infants with HIV die by age 2 years, with peak mortality around age 8-10 weeks. Conventional early infant diagnosis (EID) systems have not consistently returned results in a timely manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30033-5DOI Listing

Comparison of the prevalence, severity, and risk factors for hepatic steatosis in HIV-infected and uninfected people.

BMC Gastroenterol 2019 Apr 15;19(1):52. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medicine and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Hepatic steatosis is prevalent in Western countries, but few studies have evaluated whether the frequency and severity of steatosis are greater in the setting of HIV infection. We compared the prevalence and severity of hepatic steatosis between HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected persons and identified factors associated with greater steatosis severity within both groups.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among participants without cardiovascular disease who participated in a substudy of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-019-0969-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466708PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Predictors of Perinatal HIV Transmission Among Women Without Prior Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting: The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 May;38(5):508-512

From the Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: To investigate potential risk factors for perinatal (intrauterine and intrapartum) mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in women unexposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy.

Methods: We compared factors according to perinatal MTCT outcome among 2275 ART-naive (until the onset of labor) HIV-infected women in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition study (2004-2010) in Lilongwe, Malawi. Factors included HIV viral load during pregnancy, food security, demographic characteristics, hematologic and blood chemistry measures, medical history and physical factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002220DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Strengthening service integration for effective linkage of HIV-positive mothers to antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in two military health facilities in Kaduna, Nigeria, 2014.

Pan Afr Med J 2019 25;32(Suppl 1):15. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Global Public Health Solutions, Atlanta GA, USA.

Introduction: strong PMTCT-ART service linkages ensure continuity of care for healthier mothers and children born HIV free. Program data showed weak PMTCT- ART linkages in military health facilities. We conducted a study to assess the PMTCT-adult ART service linkage in two Nigerian military health facilities in Kaduna State. Read More

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http://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/series/32/1/15
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2019.32.1.13315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445331PMC
April 2019
6 Reads

Predictors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV patients in secondary health care facilities in Kano State- Nigeria: a case-control study.

Pan Afr Med J 2019 21;32(Suppl 1). Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Global Public Health Solutions.

Introduction: Treatment success requires both a sustainable supply of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) to clinics and lifelong adherence to treatment by patients. Poor adherence to medication may lead to treatment failure as a result of developing HIV resistance strains. Based on WHO 2014 guideline, over 26 million people will be additionally enrolled globally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2019.32.1.13746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445334PMC

Pursuing use of optimal formulations for paediatric HIV epidemic control - a look at the use of LPV/r oral pellets and oral granules.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Apr;22(4):e25267

United States Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, USA.

Introduction: Despite a significant reduction in mother-to-child transmission of HIV, an estimated 180,000 children were infected with HIV in 2017, and only 52% of children under 15 years of age living with HIV (CLHIV) are on life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Without effective treatment, half of CLHIV die before the age of two years and only one in five survives to five years of age.

Discussion: Over the past four years, the United States Food and Drug Administration tentatively approved new formulations of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the form of oral pellets and oral granules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462808PMC

A model-based comparative meta-analysis of the efficacy of dolutegravir-based and efavirenz-based regimens in HIV-infected patients.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Drug Delivery Research, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshidashimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan; Department of Applied Pharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshidashimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Currently, combinations of typical types of antiretroviral agents have been adopted as chemotherapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, comprising two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus one of a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor, and a protease inhibitor. Although several meta-analyses have been conducted to determine first-line combination antiretroviral therapy, this has yet to be confirmed due to the technical limitation associated. In the present study, we applied a model-based meta-analysis (MBMA) approach, because it allows integration of information from clinical trials with varying dosing, duration, and sampling time points, resulting in enlargement of available data sources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.03.015DOI Listing

The Promise of Long-Acting Antiretroviral Therapies: From Need to Manufacture.

Trends Microbiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5880, USA.

Antiretroviral therapy has transformed human immunodeficiency virus infections from certain death to a manageable chronic disease. Achieving strict adherence to drug regimens that limit toxicities and viral resistance is an achievable goal. Success is defined by halting viral transmission and by continuous viral restriction. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0966842X193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2019.02.009DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Health Considerations for HIV-Infected International Travelers.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Apr 12;21(5):16. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of The Review: International travel continues to steadily increase, including leisure travel, travel to one's country of origin to visit friends and relatives, travel for service work, and business travel. Travelers with HIV may have an increased risk for travel-associated infections. The pre-travel medical consultation is an important means of assessing one's risk for travel-related health issues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0672-yDOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Increased Plasma Levels of the TH2 chemokine CCL18 associated with low CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-1-infected Patients with a Suppressed Viral Load.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 12;9(1):5963. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

The chemokine (C-C motif) chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) is a structural homolog of CCL3 primarily produced by monocyte-derived cells with an M2 phenotype. Elevated levels of CCL18 have been observed in several diseases associated with malignancies and chronic inflammation. The role of CCL18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41588-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461658PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Impact of HIV-1 subtype and Korean Red Ginseng on AIDS progression: comparison of subtype B and subtype D.

J Ginseng Res 2019 Apr 20;43(2):312-318. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Division of AIDS, Center for Immunology and Pathology, Korea National Institute of Health, Chung-buk, Republic of Korea.

Background: To date, no study has described disease progression in Asian patients infected with HIV-1 subtype D.

Methods: To determine whether the disease progression differs in patients infected with subtypes D and B prior to starting combination antiretroviral therapy, the annual decline (AD) in CD4 T cell counts over 96 ± 59 months was retrospectively analyzed in 163 patients and compared in subtypes D and B based on the gene.

Results: CD4 T cell AD was significantly higher in the six subtype D-infected patients than in the 157 subtype B-infected patients irrespective of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) treatment ( < 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2018.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437552PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Increased mucosal neutrophil survival is associated with altered microbiota in HIV infection.

PLoS Pathog 2019 04 11;15(4):e1007672. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal dysfunction predicts and likely contributes to non-infectious comorbidities and mortality in HIV infection and persists despite antiretroviral therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain incompletely understood. Neutrophils are important for containment of pathogens but can also contribute to tissue damage due to their release of reactive oxygen species and other potentially harmful effector molecules. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007672
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007672DOI Listing
April 2019
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Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics of Metformin Following Coadministration With Doravirine in Healthy Volunteers.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Doravirine is a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. In vitro and clinical data suggest that doravirine is unlikely to cause significant drug-drug interactions via major drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters. As a common HIV-1 infection comorbidity, type 2 diabetes mellitus is often treated with metformin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.685DOI Listing
April 2019
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A role for antibodies in natural HIV control.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Virus and Immunity Unit, Control of Chronic Viral Infections (CIVIC) Group, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Purpose Of Review: Rare patients naturally control HIV replication without antiretroviral therapy. Understanding the mechanisms implicated in natural HIV control will inform the development of immunotherapies against HIV. Elite controllers are known for developing efficient antiviral T-cell responses, but recent findings suggest that antibody responses also play a significant role in HIV control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000554DOI Listing
April 2019
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Specific activation of HIV-1 by a bromodomain inhibitor from monocytic cells in humanized mice under ART in vivo.

J Virol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599

The combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively suppresses HIV-1 replication and enables HIV-infected individuals to live long productive lives. However, the persistence of HIV-1 reservoirs of both T and myeloid cells with latent or low-replicating HIV-1 in patients under cART makes HIV-1 infection an incurable disease. Recent studies have focused on the development of strategies to activate and purge these reservoirs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00233-19DOI Listing
April 2019
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Application of CRISPR/Cas9-Based Gene Editing in HIV-1/AIDS Therapy.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 22;9:69. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Despite the fact that great efforts have been made in the prevention and therapy of HIV-1 infection, HIV-1/AIDS remains a major threat to global human health. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can suppress virus replication, but it cannot eradicate latent viral reservoirs in HIV-1/AIDS patients. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system has been engineered as an effective gene-editing technology with the potential to treat HIV-1/AIDS. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00069
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439341PMC
March 2019
9 Reads

Circulating LPS and (1→3)-β-D-Glucan: A Folie à Deux Contributing to HIV-Associated Immune Activation.

Front Immunol 2019 18;10:465. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Chronic Viral Illness Service, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Immune activation is the driving force behind the occurrence of AIDS and non-AIDS events, and is only partially reduced by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Soon after HIV infection, intestinal CD4+ T cells are depleted leading to epithelial gut damage and subsequent translocation of microbes and/or their products into systemic circulation. Bacteria and fungi are the two most abundant populations of the gut microbiome. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00465
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430738PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV/HBV-coinfected Patients on Tenofovir therapy: Relevance for Screening Strategies.

J Hepatol 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Background And Aims: Robust data on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence among HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are needed to inform HCC screening strategies. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of HCC among HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-containing ART in a large multi-cohort study.

Methods: We included all HIV-infected adults with a positive hepatitis B surface antigen followed in one of four prospective European cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.03.032DOI Listing
April 2019
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Association of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis With Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Individuals at High Risk of HIV Infection.

JAMA 2019 04;321(14):1380-1390

Disease Elimination Program, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Importance: Emerging evidence suggests that risk of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increases among gay and bisexual men following initiation of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

Objective: To describe STI incidence and behavioral risk factors among a cohort of predominantly gay and bisexual men who use PrEP, and to explore changes in STI incidence following PrEP commencement.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Expanded (PrEPX) Study, a multisite, open-label intervention study, was nested within the Australian Collaboration for Coordinated Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance (ACCESS) clinic network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.2947DOI Listing
April 2019
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Antiretroviral Adherence Following Prison Release in a Randomized Trial of the imPACT Intervention to Maintain Suppression of HIV Viremia.

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

The Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Many people living with HIV (PLWH) pass through correctional facilities each year, a large proportion of whom do not maintain viral suppression following release. We examined the effects of imPACT, an intervention designed to promote post-release viral suppression, on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. PLWH awaiting release from prisons in two southern states were randomized to imPACT (consisting of motivational interviewing, care linkage coordination, and text message medication reminders) versus standard care (SC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02488-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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Lentiviral Vector-Based Dendritic Cell Vaccine Suppresses HIV Replication in Humanized Mice.

Mol Ther 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Microbiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

HIV-1-infected individuals are treated with lifelong antiretroviral drugs to control the infection. A means to strengthen the antiviral T cell response might allow them to control viral loads without antiretroviral drugs. We report the development of a lentiviral vector-based dendritic cell (DC) vaccine in which HIV-1 antigen is co-expressed with CD40 ligand (CD40L) and a soluble, high-affinity programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) dimer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2019.03.008DOI Listing
March 2019
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Phylogenetic inference for the study of within-host HIV-1 dynamics and persistence on antiretroviral therapy.

Lancet HIV 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, USA.

Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective at inhibiting HIV-1 replication and preventing AIDS, it cannot eradicate the infection. Many studies have used viral genetic information from single-genome and deep sequencing of blood and tissue samples to investigate the mechanisms that sustain the HIV-1 reservoir. Sequence data are analysed by use of measurements of population diversity and divergence and by exploration of phylogenetic associations. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23523018193005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30051-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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Diversity of HIV-1 genotypes and high prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Shanghai, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 8;19(1):313. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Fudan University (Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center), Shanghai, China.

Background: Genetic variability and liability to develop drug-resistant mutations are the main characteristics of HIV-1, which can not only increase the risk of antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure, but also can lead to the spread of resistant strains. We aim to investigate the distribution of HIV-1 genotypes and prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) in ART-naïve HIV-1 infected patients in Shanghai China.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among the newly diagnosed ART-naive HIV-1 infected patients during the period from January 2017 to November 2017 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3927-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454613PMC
April 2019
4 Reads