84,365 results match your criteria HIV Infection Antiretroviral Therapy


No need for secondary Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in adult people living with HIV from Europe on ART with suppressed viraemia and a CD4 cell count greater than 100 cells/µL.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Jun;24(6):e25726

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PjP) is one of the most frequent opportunistic AIDS-defining infections. The Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) has shown that primary Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (PjP) prophylaxis can be safely withdrawn in patients with CD4 counts of 100 to 200 cells/µL if plasma HIV-RNA is suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy. Whether this holds true for secondary prophylaxis is not known, and this has proved difficult to determine due to the much lower population at risk. Read More

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What is the burden of heterosexually-acquired HIV due to HSV-2? Global and regional model-based estimates of the proportion and number of HIV infections attributable to HSV-2 infection.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, School of Public Health, Imperial College London. Department of Respiratory Sciences, University of Leicester. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom Department of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal (QC), Canada Bristol Veterinary School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Biological and epidemiological evidence suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) elevates HIV acquisition and transmission risk. We improved previous estimates of the contribution of HSV-2 to HIV infections by using a dynamic-transmission model.

Setting: WHO regions. Read More

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Taking therapeutic apheresis services to patients in South Africa: An eight year review of SANBS mobile therapeutic apheresis service, 2013-2020.

Transfus Apher Sci 2021 May 21:103167. Epub 2021 May 21.

Sanquin Blood Supply, The Netherlands.

Introduction: A 20 year review of health and health care presents the multiple challenges faced by South Africans. Health and poverty is highlighted with 45% of population living on approximately US$ 2 per day and 10 million living on less than US$ 1 per day. Widening disparities in health care provision between public and private sector hospital services exist. Read More

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Inflammation and microbial translocation measured prior to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and long-term probability of clinical progression in people living with HIV.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12;21(1):557. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, "ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, Milan, Italy.

Background: Despite the effectiveness of cART, people living with HIV still experience an increased risk of serious non-AIDS events, as compared to the HIV negative population. Whether pre-cART microbial translocation (MT) and systemic inflammation might predict morbidity/mortality during suppressive cART, independently of other known risk factors, is still unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of pre-cART inflammation and MT as predictors of clinical progression in HIV+ patients enrolled in the Icona Foundation Study Cohort. Read More

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Dolutegravir/lamivudine as a first-line regimen in a test-and-treat setting for newly diagnosed people living with HIV.

AIDS 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL, USA Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Desert AIDS Project, Palm Springs, CA, USA Bliss Healthcare Services, Orlando, FL, USA Infectious Disease Specialists of Atlanta, Decatur, GA, USA Midway Immunology and Research Center, Fort Pierce, FL, USA ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK ViiV Healthcare, Brentford, UK Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Objectives: Dolutegravir/lamivudine (DTG/3TC) is indicated for treatment-naive and experienced people with HIV; however, questions remain about its utility in a test-and-treat setting because of potential transmitted resistance and baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection. We present feasibility and efficacy of DTG/3TC in newly diagnosed individuals in a test-and-treat setting.

Design: The single-arm STAT study evaluated DTG/3TC in a US test-and-treat setting. Read More

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TNF-alpha inhibition in the setting of undiagnosed HIV infection: a call for enhanced screening guidelines.

AIDS 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Hospital Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Gastroenterology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Experimental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Despite the risks of immunosuppression, recommendations regarding screening for HIV infection prior to initiation of biologic therapies targeting common rheumatologic disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and inflammatory arthritides, are limited. Few cases of patients started on biologics while living with undiagnosed HIV infection have been reported.

Methods: We report 3 cases of patients initiated on biologics in the absence of recent or concurrent HIV screening who developed refractory disease or unanticipated complications and were later found to have undiagnosed chronic HIV infection. Read More

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Coordinated Fc-effector and neutralization functions in HIV-infected children define a window of opportunity for HIV vaccination.

AIDS 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg South Africa Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa HIV Pathogenesis Programme, The Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, UK Antibody Immunity Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objectives: Antibody function has been extensively studied in HIV infected adults but is relatively understudied in children. Emerging data suggests enhanced development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in children, but Fc effector functions in this group are less well-defined. Here, we profiled overall antibody function in HIV infected children. Read More

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Effect of aprepitant on kynurenine to tryptophan ratio in cART treated and cART naïve adults living with HIV.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e25313

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute.

Abstract: Changes in tryptophan metabolism affect human physiology including the immune system, mood, and sleep and are associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. This study investigates whether the treatment of HIV-infected individuals with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, alters tryptophan metabolism.This study utilized archival samples from 3 phase 1B clinical trials "Anti-HIV Neuroimmunomodulatory Therapy with Neurokinin-1 Antagonist Aprepitant"-2 double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and 1 open-label study. Read More

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Peer Mobilization and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Partner Notification Services Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in Coastal Kenya Identified a High Number of Undiagnosed HIV Infections.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 29;8(6):ofab219. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Program, Kilifi, Kenya.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) partner notification services (HPN), peer mobilization with HIV self-testing, and acute and early HIV infection (AEHI) screening among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and transgender women (TGW) were assessed for acceptability, feasibility, and linkage to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) services.

Methods: Between April and August 2019, peer mobilizers mobilized clients by offering HIV oral self-tests and immediate clinic referral for clients with AEHI symptoms. Mobilized participants received clinic-based rapid antibody testing and point-of-care HIV RNA testing. Read More

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Chemotherapy with paclitaxel for recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum in an HIV-infected patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 10;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Oncology, Highland Hospital w UCSF affiliation, Oakland, California, USA.

Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral skin infection seen in children, sexually active adults and immunocompromised populations. It is usually a self-limiting illness that typically spontaneously resolves without therapeutic intervention. However, when the papules are extensive or refractory causing complications or aesthetic issues, multiple treatment modalities exist to relieve symptoms, limit spread and decrease the social stigma associated with visible lesions. Read More

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Mental health symptoms and inflammatory markers among HIV infected patients in Tanzania.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 10;21(1):1113. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: HIV and mental disorders are predicted to be the leading causes of illness worldwide by the year 2030. HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental disorders which are significantly associated with negative clinical outcomes and propagation of new HIV infections. There is little evidence that links inflammation to development of mental disorders among HIV patients. Read More

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Chronic Cystoisospora belli infection in a Colombian patient living with HIV and poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Biomedica 2021 05 31;41(Supl. 1):17-22. Epub 2021 May 31.

Centro Nacional de Secuenciación Genómica, Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

Cystoisospora belli is an intestinal Apicomplexan parasite associated with diarrheal illness and disseminated infections in humans, mainly immunocompromised individuals such as those living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). An irregular administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients may increase the risk of opportunistic infections like cystoisosporiasis. We describe here a case of C. Read More

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Ibalizumab-uiyk as a bridge therapy for a patient with drug-resistant HIV-1 infection receiving chemotherapy: A case report.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

What Is Known And Objective: Treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in persons with AIDS consists of chemotherapy alongside antiretroviral therapy (ART). To determine optimal HIV treatment, drug-drug interactions, toxic effects and ART resistance must be considered.

Case Description: A 40-year-old man with drug-resistant HIV and DLBCL initiating chemotherapy which had drug interactions with his ART. Read More

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Correlates of infant feeding practices among HIV-positive mothers and controls in northeast Nigeria.

Curr HIV Res 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Health Policy and Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Tennessee, United States.

Background: Despite the global decline in pediatric HIV infections, infants in sub-Saharan Africa still acquire HIV infection through inappropriate feeding.

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare knowledge and predictors of infant feeding behavior between mothers living with HIV and controls of unknown HIV status in Gombe, northeast Nigeria.

Method: A cross-section of clinic-based samples of 84 HIV-positive mothers and 170 controls of unknown status were interviewed using validated questionnaires. Read More

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Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Nigeria: Six Years Experience from a Tertiary Institution.

Curr HIV Res 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Africa Center of Excellence for Population Health and Policy (ACEPHAP), Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: In line with global standards and progress made in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT), an assessment of the outcome of Early Infant Diagnosis in northern Nigeria is necessary to evaluate progress towards a zero Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection rate among children.

Objectives: This study assessed the infection rate and risk factors for mother-to-child HIV transmission among HIV-exposed children in Kano, northwest Nigeria.

Method: Using a retrospective cohort design, pregnant HIV-positive women and their exposed infants were recruited over a period of six years (2010 to 2016). Read More

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Association of Maternal Viral Load and CD4 Count with Perinatal HIV-1 Transmission Risk during Breastfeeding in the PROMISE Postpartum Component.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Washington, DC, Makerere University - Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, , University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe Clinical Trials Research Centre, Harare, Zimbabwe, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Immunology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, FHI 360, Durham, NC, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, University of North Carolina Project-Malawi, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi, Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa and School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College and Johns Hopkins Clinical Trials Unit, Pune, India, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Department of Pediatrics, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre and Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Chris Baragwanath Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa, Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.

Background: Breastfeeding mothers with HIV infection not qualifying for antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on country-specific guidelines at the time of the PROMISE trial and their uninfected neonates were randomized to maternal ART (mART) or infant nevirapine prophylaxis (iNVP) postpartum. HIV transmission proportions were similar (< 1%) in the two arms. We assessed whether maternal viral load (MVL) or CD4 cell counts were associated with breastfeeding HIV transmission. Read More

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Persistence of HIV after allogeneic bone marrow transplant in a dually-infected individual.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Johns Hopkins University, 1466, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Allogeneic bone marrow transplant (alloBMT) with continuous antiretroviral therapy alone has not been shown to completely eradicate HIV, possibly due to HIV persistence in rare residual host cells or infection of donor cells. Within a trial of alloBMT in individuals with hematologic malignancies and HIV (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01836068), we measured HIV reservoirs longitudinally using a quantitative viral outgrowth assay. Read More

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ALTERED WHITE MATTER TRACTS IN THE SOMATOSENSORY, SALIENCE, MOTOR AND DEFAULT MODE NETWORKS IN 7-year old CHILDREN LIVING WITH HIV - A TRACTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS.

Brain Connect 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Cape Town, 37716, Biomedical Engineering Research Centre, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Human Biology, Observatory, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.

Introduction: Even with the increased access and early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), children with perinatally acquired HIV (CPHIV) continue to demonstrate white matter alterations. Children perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (CHEU) alike show differences in white matter integrity compared to children who are HIV-unexposed and uninfected (CHUU).

Objectives: Mapping white matter connections that link grey matter regions that form resting-state (RS) functional networks may demonstrate whether structural and functional connectivity alterations in HIV infection and exposure may be related. Read More

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CROI 2021: Neurologic Complications of HIV-1 Infection or COVID-19.

Top Antivir Med 2021 Apr-May;29(2):334-343

University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

The 2021 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured a timely review of the neurologic complications of COVID-19 as well as new research findings on mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 may affect the brain. CROI included new and important findings about the neurologic complications of HIV-1, human polyomavirus 2 (also known as JC Virus), and cryptococcus. New long-term analyses of cognition in people with HIV-1 identified that cognitive decline over time is associated with multimorbidity, particularly diabetes, chronic lung disease, and vascular disease risk conditions. Read More

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CROI 2021: Metabolic and Other Complications of HIV Infection or COVID-19.

Top Antivir Med 2021 Apr-May;29(2):328-333

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Comorbid conditions have a major impact on the health, quality of life, and survival in people with HIV, particularly as they age. The 2021 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections featured excellent science related to specific comorbidities as well as multimorbidity. A number of presentations related to comorbidities in women with HIV reflected a new wave of research aimed at understanding how the epidemiology and pathogenesis of comorbidities may differ by sex. Read More

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CROI 2021: Epidemiologic Trends in the HIV and SARS-CoV-2 Pandemics and HIV Prevention Research.

Top Antivir Med 2021 Apr-May;29(2):309-327

San Francisco Department of Public Health and University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

At the 2021 virtual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections ,several speakers described the disparities in both HIV and SARS-CoV-2 in-fections and outcomes in racial and ethnic minorities. A household survey suggested that there may have been more than 39 million SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United States by October 30, 2020, with an estimated infection fatality ratio of 0.64%; this compares with an estimated 7. Read More

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Nanoparticle delivery system, highly active antiretroviral therapy, and testicular morphology: The role of stereology.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 May;9(3):e00776

Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, School of Laboratory Medicine & Medical Sciences, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

The conjugation of nanoparticles (NPs) with antiretroviral drugs is a drug delivery approach with great potential for managing HIV infections. Despite their promise, recent studies have highlighted the toxic effects of nanoparticles on testicular tissue and their impact on sperm morphology. This review explores the role of stereological techniques in assessing the testicular morphology in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when a nanoparticle drug delivery system is used. Read More

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Treatment outcomes in HIV infected patients older than 50 years attending an HIV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe: A cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0253000. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Newlands Clinic, Newlands, Harare, Zimbabwe.

There is a growing number of older people living with HIV (OPLHIV). While a significant proportion of this population are adults growing into old age with HIV, there are also new infections among OPLHIV. There is a lack of data describing the outcomes of OPLHIV who commenced antiretroviral therapy (ART) after the age of 50 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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Mechanistic basis of post-treatment control of SIV after anti-α4β7 antibody therapy.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 9;17(6):e1009031. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America.

Treating macaques with an anti-α4β7 antibody under the umbrella of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during early SIV infection can lead to viral remission, with viral loads maintained at < 50 SIV RNA copies/ml after removal of all treatment in a subset of animals. Depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes in controllers resulted in transient recrudescence of viremia, suggesting that the combination of cART and anti-α4β7 antibody treatment led to a state where ongoing immune responses kept the virus undetectable in the absence of treatment. A previous mathematical model of HIV infection and cART incorporates immune effector cell responses and exhibits the property of two different viral load set-points. Read More

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Hematological parameters abnormalities and associated factors in HIV-positive adults before and after highly active antiretroviral treatment in Goba Referral Hospital, southeast Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

SAGE Open Med 2021 28;9:20503121211020175. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Objectives: Hematological abnormalities of the major blood cell lines are frequently reported in patients with HIV-1 infection, in patients without antiretroviral therapy, and during the advanced stages of the disease. Chronic immune activation and inflammation results in the progressive depletion of CD4+ T-cells play a significant role in the clinical progression and pathogenesis of this infection. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of hematological abnormalities and their associated factors before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in adults with HIV-1 infection in a referral hospital. Read More

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Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transfusion in immune non-responders with AIDS: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Jun 9;6(1):217. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Treatment and Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

We examined the safety and efficacy of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUC-MSC) infusion for immune non-responder (INR) patients with chronic HIV-1 infection, who represent an unmet medical need even in the era of efficient antiretroviral therapy (ART). Seventy-two INR patients with HIV were enrolled in this phase II randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, placebo-controlled, dose-determination trial (NCT01213186) from May 2013 to March 2016. They were assigned to receive high-dose (1. Read More

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[CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HERPESVIRUS DISEASES ON THE BACKGROUND OF HIV].

Georgian Med News 2021 Apr(313):89-93

V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Immunology, School of Medicine, Ukraine.

Herpesvirus infections (HI) are the most common HIV-associated diseases. Due to the development of the HIV pandemic, the incidence of HI against the background of HIV infection is steadily increasing, and the implantation of HAART makes certain changes in the course of diseases of this category. The aim of the study was to compare clinical and immunological data in different forms of HI in HIV-positive patients and in patients with normal immune status. Read More

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Patients living with HIV and cirrhosis: the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma after direct-acting antivirals for HCV.

AIDS 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Azienda Ospedaliera di Parma, Parma, Italy Infectious Diseases Unit, Rimini-Forlì-Cesena Hospitals, Italy Infectious Diseases Unit, Ferrara Hospital, Italy Infectious Diseases Unit, Ravenna Hospital, Italy Infectious Diseases Unit, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio nell'Emilia, Italy Department of Infectious Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico of Modena, Modena, Italy.

Objectives: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a major issue in coinfected HIV/HCV patients with liver cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the rate of HCC occurrence after a Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAAs) treatment and to evaluate the factors associated with the risk of HCC in this population.

Design: We conducted a retrospective multi-center observational study including cirrhotic HIV/HCV coinfected patients treated with DAAs, between October 2014 and January 2017. Read More

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Survival following screening and preemptive antifungal therapy for subclinical cryptococcal disease in advanced HIV infection.

AIDS 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States Health Services Department, City of Harare, Harare, Zimbabwe Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.

Objectives: Our study's primary objective was to compare 1-year survival rates between serum cryptococcal antigen (sCrAg)-positive and sCrAg-negative HIV-positive individuals with CD4 counts <100 cells/μl without symptoms of meningitis in Zimbabwe.

Design: This was a prospective cohort study.

Methods: Participants were enrolled as either sCrAg-positive or sCrAg-negative and followed up for ≤52 weeks, with death as the outcome. Read More

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Overt IL-32 Isoform Expression at Intestinal Level during HIV-1 Infection is Negatively Regulated by IL-17A.

AIDS 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

CHUM Research Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada Department de microbiologie, infectiologie et immunologie, Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Québec, Canada Chronic Viral Illness Service and Hematology Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Objectives: Untreated HIV infection was previously associated with IL-32 overexpression in gut epithelial cells (IEC). Here, we explored IL-32 isoform expression in the colon of people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and IL-32 triggers/modulators in IEC.

Design: Sigmoid colon biopsies (SCB) and blood were collected from ART-treated PLWH (HIV + ART; n = 17; mean age: 56 years; CD4 counts: 679 cells/μl; time on ART: 72 months) and age-matched HIV-uninfected controls (HIVneg; n = 5). Read More

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