75,038 results match your criteria HIV Infection Antiretroviral Therapy


Replication competence of virions induced from CD4+ lymphocytes latently infected with HIV.

Retrovirology 2019 Feb 15;16(1). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

San Diego Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA.

Latently infected CD4 lymphocytes preclude cure of HIV infection, even with the most effective antiretroviral therapy. The replication competent latent HIV reservoir has been quantified with the terminal dilution quantitative viral outgrowth assay, which induces virus propagation in CD4 T cell culture supernatants following cellular activation. Efforts to improve the sensitivity of this inefficient assay have introduced more sensitive p24 ELISA and RNA PCR based endpoints, but these more sensitive endpoints have raised the question whether they are measuring induced replication competent or defective virions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-019-0466-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Molecular epidemiology of acute HCV infection in HIV-positive patients from Hong Kong, Taipei, Tokyo.

Liver Int 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Background: Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been increasingly reported among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Asia-Pacific region. It remains unknown whether international network of HCV transmission has occurred in this region.

Methods: HIV-positive patients with acute HCV infection, defined as HCV seroconversion within a year or documented acute hepatitis with seroconversion, diagnosed in Hong Kong, Taipei, and Tokyo during 2010-2016 were included in this molecular epidemiology study. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/liv.14073
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14073DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Tanzanian HIV-infected children receiving long-term efavirenz treatment: a multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study.

Lancet HIV 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Paediatrics, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania.

Background: Efavirenz is commonly prescribed for children with HIV infection, yet little is known about risks of neuropsychiatric side-effects. We aimed to compare competence (social involvement, activities, and school performance) and psychopathology (internalising and externalising problems), cognitive performance (intelligence and working memory), and adherence in Tanzanian children on an efavirenz-based versus a non-efavirenz-based regimen.

Methods: In this multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study, we included consecutive children (aged 6-12 years) with HIV infection, on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 6 months, and with viral loads of less than 1000 copies per mL from HIV care clinics of three primary health facilities and three referral hospitals in Moshi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(18)30329-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Managing Pharmacotherapy in People Living With HIV and Concomitant Malignancy.

Ann Pharmacother 2019 Feb 15:1060028019833038. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

4 Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences University, School of Pharmacy, Worcester, MA, USA.

Objective: To describe data with selected malignancies in people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV in individuals affected by both conditions and to summarize drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with clinical recommendations for point-of-care review of combination therapies.

Data Sources: Literature searches were performed (2005 to December 2018) in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies of malignancies in PLWH in the modern era.

Study Selection And Data Extraction: Article bibliographies and drug interaction databases were reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028019833038DOI Listing
February 2019

Progressive brain atrophy in chronically infected and treated HIV+ individuals.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Public Health, Infection Unit, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Growing evidence points to persistent neurological injury in chronic HIV infection. It remains unclear whether chronically HIV-infected individuals on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) develop progressive brain injury and impaired neurocognitive function despite successful viral suppression and immunological restoration. In a longitudinal neuroimaging study for the HIV Neuroimaging Consortium (HIVNC), we used tensor-based morphometry to map the annual rate of change of regional brain volumes (mean time interval 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00723-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of ART scale-up and female migration intensity on risk of HIV acquisition: results from a population-based cohort in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

BMC Public Health 2019 Feb 14;19(1):196. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI), KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Background: Despite increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage, the incidence of HIV infection among women in rural South Africa remains high. While many socio-demographic and behavioral factors have been identified, the effect of female migration intensity on the risk of HIV acquisition before and after ART scale-up has not been evaluated in the country.

Methods: We followed 13,315 female participants aged 15-49 who were HIV-uninfected at baseline and recorded their migration events between 2004 and 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6494-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Mucosal cell populations may contribute to peripheral immune abnormalities in HIV-infected subjects introducing cART with moderate immune-suppression.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(2):e0212075. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Health Sciences, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, University of Milan, Italy.

HIV infection causes the progressive depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and profound modifications of T-cell homeostasis, which persist despite virologically-suppressive treatment and have been linked to a worse clinical outcome. Enduring alterations of the gastrointestinal tract may represent the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these phenomena. Twenty-six HIV-infected subjects were assessed over a 12-month period following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212075PLOS
February 2019

The Impact of ACA and Medicaid Expansion on Progress Toward UNAIDS 90-90-90 Goals.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 and subsequent Medicaid expansion has influenced access to HIV treatment and care in the USA. This review aims to evaluate whether the implementation of these policies has impacted progress toward UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals.

Recent Findings: Preliminary evidence has emerged suggesting that the ACA and Medicaid expansion has increased the likelihood of HIV testing and diagnosis, reduced the number of people unaware of HIV infection, and increased the number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who are virally suppressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00429-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Resistance and Tolerance to Cryptococcal Infection: An Intricate Balance That Controls the Development of Disease.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:66. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Meakins-Christie Laboratories, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

is a ubiquitous environmental yeast and a leading cause of invasive fungal infection in humans. The most recent estimate of global disease burden includes over 200,000 cases of cryptococcal meningitis each year. expresses several virulence factors that may have originally evolved to protect against environmental threats, and human infection may be an unintended consequence of these acquired defenses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361814PMC
January 2019

Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Is Not Independently Associated With Neurocognitive Impairment in People Living With HIV.

Front Microbiol 2018 28;9:3352. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Infectious Disease, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which has been linked to many neurological diseases, is common in HIV infection. However, its role in the pathogenesis of neurocognitive impairment is still not established. In this study, a total of 85 HIV infected subjects, naïve to antiretroviral therapy, were classified into two groups-those with HIV-associated neurological diseases (HAND) and those without, using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362426PMC
January 2019

Elevated Plasma Ceramides Are Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Progression of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in HIV Infection.

Circulation 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Epidemiology & Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, UNITED STATES.

Background: Ceramides have been implicated in the pathophysiology of HIV infection and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no study, to our knowledge, has evaluated circulating ceramide levels in association with subclinical CVD risk among HIV-infected individuals.

Methods: Plasma levels of four ceramide species (C16:0, C22:0, C24:0 and C24:1) were measured among 398 women (73% HIV+) and 339 men (68% HIV+) without carotid artery plaques at baseline from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Read More

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https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.037487DOI Listing
February 2019
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Tolerability of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in an HIV-Infected Cohort of Paediatric and Adolescent Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy from a Resource-Limited Setting: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Drugs Real World Outcomes 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Newlands Clinic, 56 Enterprise Road, Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Background: Treating patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to prevent development of active disease is an essential strategy for eliminating TB. There are concerns regarding the use of isoniazid due to the potential for hepatotoxicity. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of adverse hepatic events after isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) commencement in a cohort of HIV-infected paediatric and adolescent patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40801-019-0147-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40801-019-0147-3DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Dolutegravir-Rilpivirine, Dual Antiretroviral Therapy for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection.

Ann Pharmacother 2019 Feb 13:1060028019831674. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

1 Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy, AL, USA.

Objective: To review the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) with rilpivirine (RPV) as a dual therapy regimen in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

Data Sources: A literature search was performed using PubMed (1966 to January 2019) and Google Scholar (2014 to January 2019) with the search terms dolutegravir, rilpivirine, dual, and switch. Other resources included review articles and the manufacturer product label. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028019831674DOI Listing
February 2019
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An Evaluation to Determine the Strongest CD4 Count Covariates during HIV Disease Progression in Women in South Africa.

Infect Dis Ther 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Introduction: Past endeavours to deal with the obstacle of expensive Cluster of Difference 4 (CD4) count diagnostics in resource-limited settings have left a long trail of suggested continuous CD4 count clinical covariates that turned out to be a potentially important integral part of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment process during disease progression. However, an evaluation to determine the strongest candidates among these CD4 count covariates has not been well documented.

Methods: The Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) initially enrolled HIV-negative (phase 1) patients into different study cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-019-0235-4DOI Listing
February 2019

The New Orleans Alcohol Use in HIV [NOAH] Study: Launching a translational investigation of the interaction of alcohol use with biological and socioenvironmental risk factors for multi-morbidity in people living with HIV.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

LSUHSC-NO Comprehensive Alcohol-HIV/AIDS Research Center.

Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent in persons living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, potential interaction with medication pharmacodynamics, and greater risk for disease progression. Preclinical studies show that chronic binge alcohol administration accelerates disease progression and aggravates pathogenesis in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model despite viral suppression by antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: To translate preclinical findings in the rhesus macaque model of chronic binge alcohol administration and SIV infection and to address areas of uncertainty surrounding the biological mechanisms and socioenvironmental modifiers that contribute to the relationship between alcohol use and HIV-associated comorbidities, precocious aging, and disease progression, we designed a translational multi-project, longitudinal, cohort study, the New Orleans Alcohol Use in HIV [NOAH] Study. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/acer.13980
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13980DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

ART adherence and viral suppression are high among most non-pregnant individuals with early-stage, asymptomatic HIV infection: an observational study from Uganda and South Africa.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Feb;22(2):e25232

Oregon Health & Science University-Portland State University School of Public Health, Portland, OR, USA.

Introduction: The success of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) access and aspirations for an AIDS-free generation depend on high adherence in individuals initiating ART during early-stage HIV infection; however, adherence may be difficult in the absence of illness and associated support.

Methods: From March 2015 to October 2017, we prospectively observed three groups initiating ART in routine care in Uganda and South Africa: men and non-pregnant women with early-stage HIV infection (CD4 > 350 cells/μL), pregnant women with early-stage HIV infection and men and non-pregnant women with late-stage HIV infection (CD4 < 200 cells/μL). Socio-behavioural questionnaires were administered and viral loads were performed at 0, 6 and 12 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25232DOI Listing
February 2019

Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Highly Selected (Totally Free from Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Other Comorbidities) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients: A Pilot Study with Advanced Echocardiography.

J Cardiovasc Echogr 2018 Oct-Dec;28(4):228-232

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Monserrato, Italy.

Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may also be associated with cardiac dysfunction, thus negatively affecting patients' morbidity and mortality. This preliminary study aimed at evaluating whether bi-and three-dimensional (3D) strain echocardiographic facilities were able to identify alterations in the right ventricular (RV) function in highly selected - because free from cardiovascular risk factors and other comorbidities - HIV patients.

Materials And Methods: Eight of these specific HIV patients (age: 32. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_43_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341850PMC
February 2019

Cardiac Surgery in HIV Patients: State of the Art.

Can J Cardiol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Ottawa Heart Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The clinical status of HIV infection has changed dramatically with the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients with HIV are now living long enough to be susceptible to chronic illnesses, such as coronary disease and nonischemic cardiomyopathy, which can be consequences of the combined antiretroviral therapy treatment itself. Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2018.11.006DOI Listing
November 2018

Immune signatures for HIV-1 and HIV-2 induced CD4T cell dysregulation in an Indian cohort.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11;19(1):135. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Virology, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Indian Council of Medical Research, J. M. Street, Parel, Mumbai, 400012, India.

Background: HIV-2 infection is characterised by a longer asymptomatic phase and slower AIDS progression than HIV-1 infection. Identifying unique immune signatures associated with HIV-2 pathogenesis may thus provide therapeutically useful insight into the management of HIV infection. This study examined the dynamics of the CD4T cell compartment, critical in disease progression, focussing on chronic HIV-2 and HIV-1 infected individuals at various stages of disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3743-7DOI Listing
February 2019
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[Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment-naive injecting drug users infected with HIV-1 in Guangzhou, 2008-2015].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;40(2):196-201

School of Public Health, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510310, China.

To understand the prevalence of drug resistance in treatment-naive injecting drug users (IDUs) infected with HIV-1 in Guangzhou. HIV-1 RNA were extracted from the serum specimens of the newly confirmed HIV-1 positive IDUs living in Guangzhou, being infected through injecting drug use and receiving no antiretroviral therapy at the time of confirmation during 2008-2015. Full sequence of protease (PR) gene and partial sequence of reverse transcriptase (RT) gene were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) and sequenced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.02.014DOI Listing
February 2019
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Assessment and Management of HIV-Associated Cognitive Impairment: Experience from a Multidisciplinary Memory Service for People Living with HIV.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 8;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Global Health and Infection, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, BN1 9PX, UK.

As the HIV population ages, the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) is increasing, yet few services exist for the assessment and management of these individuals. Here we provide an initial description of a memory assessment service for people living with HIV and present data from a service evaluation undertaken in the clinic. We conducted an evaluation of the first 52 patients seen by the clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020037DOI Listing
February 2019

Mortality risk in the population of HIV-positive individuals in Southern China: A cohort study.

PLoS One 2019 11;14(2):e0210856. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Guangxi Health and Family Planning Committee, Nanning, China.

To evaluate the mortality risk in the HIV-positive population, we conducted an observational cohort study involving routine data collection of HIV-positive patients who presented at HIV clinics and multiple treatment centers throughout Guangxi province, Southern China in 2011. The patients were screened for tuberculosis (TB) and tested for hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infections yearly. Following the registration, the cohort was followed up for a 60-month period till the end-point (December 31, 2015). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210856PLOS
February 2019
2 Reads

Predictors of faster virological suppression in early treated infants with perinatal HIV from Europe and Thailand.

AIDS 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Institute of Clinical Trials & Methodology, University College London (UCL), London, UK.

Objective: To identify predictors of faster time to virological suppression among infants starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) early in infancy.

Design: Cohort study of infants from Europe and Thailand included in studies participating in the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC).

Methods: Infants with perinatal HIV starting cART aged <6 months with ≥1 viral load (VL) measurement within 15 months of cART initiation were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002172DOI Listing
February 2019

The impact of past and current alcohol consumption patterns on progression of carotid intima media thickness among women and men living with HIV-infection.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Colleges of Public Health and Health Professions and Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Background: The relationship between alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis has not been sufficiently examined among people living with HIV (PLWH).

Methods: We analyzed data from PLWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; n=1164) and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS; n=387) with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Repeated measures of intima-media thickness of the right common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) were assessed using B-mode ultrasound from 2004-2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13974DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

HIV Eradication Strategies: Implications for the Central Nervous System.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In addition to preventive protocols and antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 eradication has been considered as an additional strategy to help fight the AIDS epidemic. With the support of multiple funding agencies, research groups worldwide have been developing protocols to achieve either a sterilizing or a functional cure for HIV-infection.

Recent Findings: Most of the studies focus on the elimination or suppression of circulating CD4+ T cells, the best characterized HIV-1 latent reservoir. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00428-7DOI Listing
February 2019
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Dolutegravir versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir both with dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy in adults with HIV-1 infection in whom first-line therapy has failed (DAWNING): an open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3b trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Background: Doubts exist regarding optimal second-line treatment options for HIV-1-infected patients in resource-limited settings. We assessed safety and efficacy of dolutegravir compared with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in adults in whom previous first-line antiretroviral therapy with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) plus two NRTIs has failed.

Methods: DAWNING is a phase 3b, open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority, active-controlled trial done at 58 sites in 13 countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30036-2DOI Listing
February 2019
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Drug resistance mutations and viral load in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infected patients in Ghana.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Feb;98(6):e14313

Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and drug resistance studies worldwide have focused almost exclusively on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). As a result, there is limited information on ART and drug resistance in HIV-2 patients. In Ghana, the HIV epidemic is characterized by the domination of HIV-1, with cocirculating HIV-2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014313DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Syphilis co-infection is not associated with an increased risk of virologic failure among HIV-positive men who have sex with men on antiretroviral therapy.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

St. Michael's Hospital.

Background: Incidence of syphilis continues to rise among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ontario. Our objective was to determine the effect of acute syphilis on virologic failure (VF) among virally suppressed HIV-positive MSM taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and determine if the relationship is confounded by drug use.

Setting: The OHTN Cohort Study is a voluntary cohort of people receiving HIV care in Ontario. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001962DOI Listing
January 2019

A review of CCR5 antibodies against HIV: current and future aspects.

Ther Deliv 2019 Feb;10(2):107-112

Pharmacy Practice Department, Creighton University School of Pharmacy & Health Professions, Omaha, NE 68178, USA.

HIV is one of the most devastating viral infections the world has ever encountered. Ever since HIV was first identified in the 1980s, it has claimed millions of lives worldwide. There has been tremendous research and development in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/tde-2018-0072DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Mass cytometry identifies distinct CD4+ T cell clusters distinguishing HIV-1-infected patients according to antiretroviral therapy initiation.

JCI Insight 2019 Feb 7;4(3). Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Biomedicum, and.

Recent guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) to be administered as early as possible during HIV-1 infection. Few studies addressed the immunological benefit of commencing ART during the acute phase of infection. We used mass cytometry to characterize blood CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected patients who initiated ART during acute or chronic phase of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.125442DOI Listing
February 2019
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Fibrosis-4 index predicts mortality in HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in rural China.

Biosci Trends 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, and the Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education, Fudan University.

End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is among leading causes of death for people living with HIV and HCV. Little is known how liver fibrosis score predicts mortality in HIV/HCV co-infected population under combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A retrospective cohort study of 691 HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving cART in Yunnan, China from 2005 to 2016 was carried out to explore the association between Fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) and all-cause mortality. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bst/advpub/0/advpub_201
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2018.01299DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A case of late presentation of darunavir-related cholestatic hepatitis.

Int J STD AIDS 2019 Feb 5:956462419826723. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

2 Department of Gastroenterology, Tokuda Acibadem Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria.

We report a case of darunavir-induced cholestatic hepatitis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient in the third year of his combined antiretroviral therapy. During the patient's monthly follow-up with regard to his HIV infection, elevated transaminase levels were detected. The patient was subsequently hospitalised at the AIDS and gastroenterology departments. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956462419826723
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462419826723DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

[Ocular lesions in HIV-infected patients of the ophthalmic hospitals].

Vestn Oftalmol 2018 ;134(6):25-32

Perm State Medical University named after E.A. Wagner, 26 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russian Federation, 614000; Institute of Immunology and Physiology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 91 Pervomaiskaya St., Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation, 620041.

Purpose: To analyze ophthalmic pathologies in HIV-infected patients of the ophthalmic hospitals of Perm city.

Material And Methods: Medical records of 75 HIV patients registered in Perm Regional Centre for Prevention and Control of AIDS and Infectious Diseases who had received treatment in ophthalmic in-patient clinics of Perm in 2005-2015 years were analyzed retrospectively. Patient examination included traditional ophthalmological methods, as well as immunological (determination of CD4 cells and viral load), serological (detection of antibodies to herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, chlamydia, toxoplasma), general clinical methods, and consultations by allied specialists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/oftalma201813406125DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors among HIV-Positive Youth Attending ART Follow-Up in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

AIDS Res Treat 2019 2;2019:4610458. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Depression is most frequently and highly occurring common mental disorder in HIV/AIDS patients especially youth living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among youth living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) attending Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) follow-up at public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4610458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334359PMC
January 2019
1 Read

HIV-1 reservoirs in urethral macrophages of patients under suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Laboratory of Mucosal Entry of HIV-1 and Mucosal Immunity, Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Cochin Institute, CNRS UMR8104, Paris, France.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) eradication is prevented by the establishment on infection of cellular HIV-1 reservoirs that are not fully characterized, especially in genital mucosal tissues (the main HIV-1 entry portal on sexual transmission). Here, we show, using penile tissues from HIV-1-infected individuals under suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, that urethral macrophages contain integrated HIV-1 DNA, RNA, proteins and intact virions in virus-containing compartment-like structures, whereas viral components remain undetectable in urethral T cells. Moreover, urethral cells specifically release replication-competent infectious HIV-1 following reactivation with the macrophage activator lipopolysaccharide, while the T-cell activator phytohaemagglutinin is ineffective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0335-zDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

CCR5/CXCR4 Dual Antagonism for the Improvement of HIV Infection Therapy.

Molecules 2019 Feb 2;24(3). Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Ampliamento Polifunzionale, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy.

HIV entry in the host cell requires the interaction with the CD4 membrane receptor, and depends on the activation of one or both co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. Former selective co-receptor antagonists, acting at early stages of infection, are able to impair the receptor functions, preventing the viral spread toward AIDS. Due to the capability of HIV to develop resistance by switching from CCR5 to CXCR4, dual co-receptor antagonists could represent the next generation of AIDS prophylaxis drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030550DOI Listing
February 2019

The inhibitor apoptosis protein antagonist Debio 1143 Is an attractive HIV-1 latency reversal candidate.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(2):e0211746. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Immunology & Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication, but does not cure the infection because replication-competent virus persists within latently infected CD4+ T cells throughout years of therapy. These reservoirs contain integrated HIV-1 genomes and can resupply active virus. Thus, the development of strategies to eliminate the reservoir of latently infected cells is a research priority of global significance. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211746PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361451PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Validity of hemoglobin A1c for diagnosing diabetes among people with and without HIV in Uganda.

Int J STD AIDS 2019 Feb 4:956462418823406. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

4 Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is facing a growing co-epidemic of chronic HIV infection and diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (A1c) may underestimate glycemia among people living with HIV (PLWH). We estimated the validity of A1c to diagnose diabetes among PLWH and HIV-uninfected persons in rural Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462418823406DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact of antiretroviral therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on the survival of patients with HBV and HIV coinfection.

Liver Int 2019 Feb 3. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is active against both HBV and HIV. Whether introduction of TDF-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved the outcome of HIV/HBV-coinfected patients remains unclear in areas of higher HBV endemicity.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of newly diagnosed antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients between 2007 and 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14059DOI Listing
February 2019
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Adolescent Trials Network for HIV-AIDS Scale It Up Program: Protocol for a Rational and Overview.

JMIR Res Protoc 2019 Feb 1;8(2):e11204. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ, United States.

Background: The past 30 years have witnessed such significant progress in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS that an AIDS-free generation and the end to the global AIDS epidemic are ambitious, but achievable, national and global goals. Despite growing optimism, globally, youth living with HIV are markedly less likely to receive antiretroviral therapy than adults (23% vs 38%). Furthermore, marked health disparities exist regarding HIV infection risk, with young men of color who have sex with men disproportionately affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/11204DOI Listing
February 2019
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Tobacco and Antiretrovirals Modulate Transporter, Metabolic Enzyme, and Antioxidant Enzyme Expression and Function in Polarized Macrophages.

Curr HIV Res 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Pharmacy, Memphis. United States.

Background: Cigarette smoking increases systemic oxidative stress, inflammation, and viral replication in individuals with HIV. Macrophages are infected during HIV infection and serve as an important reservoir throughout the process. Macrophages exist in two phenotypes, the classically activated M1 macrophage and alternatively activated M2 macrophage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X17666190130114531DOI Listing
January 2019

Lipid Abnormalities in Persons Living With HIV Infection.

Can J Cardiol 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Division of Cardiology, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Lipid abnormalities are prevalent among persons living with HIV infection and contribute to increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with lipid abnormalities, most commonly hypertriglyceridemia, but also increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Different classes of ART, and different drugs within classes, have differing effects on lipid levels, but in general newer drugs have more favourable effects compared with older ones. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0828282X183127
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2018.11.005DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Cardiac Dysfunction Among People Living With HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JACC Heart Fail 2019 Feb;7(2):98-108

South African Medical Research Council and University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Objective: To synthesize existing epidemiological data on cardiac dysfunction in HIV.

Background: Data on the burden and risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection-associated cardiac dysfunction have not been adequately synthesized. We performed meta-analyses of extant literature on the frequency of several subtypes of cardiac dysfunction among people living with HIV. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22131779183076
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2018.10.006DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Syphilis among newly diagnosed therapy-naive HIV patients in Belém, Pará, Amazon Region of Brazil.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Universidade Federal do Pará, Laboratório de Virologia, Belem, Para, Brazil.

The incidence of syphilis has increased in people living with HIV/AIDS in recent years. Thus, this study described the prevalence and risk factors associated with syphilis in newly diagnosed individuals with HIV infection, antiretroviral-naive, in the city of Belém, Pará, northern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2016 to June 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0007DOI Listing
February 2019
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Sociobehavioral and community predictors of unsuppressed HIV viral load: multilevel results from a hyperendemic rural South African population.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):559-569

Africa Health Research Institute.

Objective: Extensive antiretroviral therapy scale-up is expected to prevent onward transmission of HIV by reducing the overall community viral load. Despite multiple studies about predictors of detectable viral load derived from clinical setting, to date, no study has established such predictors using a population-based viral load survey in a sub-Saharan African hyperendemic setting to inform interventions designed to halt HIV transmission. We used one of Africa's largest prospective cohorts in rural KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to establish the key sociodemographic, behavioral and community predictors of unsuppressed viral load at the population level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002100DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Liver Enzyme Elevation in Pregnant Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in the ANRS-French Perinatal Cohort.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AP-HP, Hôpital Louis Mourier, Colombes, 92700 France, Department of Epidemiology. Centre de Recherche en Épidémiologie et Santé des Populations, Institut National de la Santé et dDe la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1018, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre 94270, France. Univ Diderot Paris 7, Paris, France.

Background: High rates of liver enzyme elevation (LEE) in women receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) during pregnancy have been reported but causes remain unclear. We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of LEE in a national prospective multicenter cohort.

Methods: We studied 5748 pregnant women living with HIV enrolled in the French Perinatal Cohort 2005-2014, treated with ART, with no active hepatitis B or C co-infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001963DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatotropic viruses co-morbidities as the inducers of liver injury progression.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;25(4):398-410

Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, Omaha, NE 68105, United States.

Hepatotropic viruses induced hepatitis progresses much faster and causes more liver- related health problems in people co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although treatment with antiretroviral therapy has extended the life expectancy of people with HIV, liver disease induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes significant numbers of non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths in co-infected patients. In recent years, new insights into the mechanisms of accelerated fibrosis and liver disease progression in HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV co-infections have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v25.i4.398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350175PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Treatment effects of the differential first-line antiretroviral regimens among HIV/HBV coinfected patients in southwest China: an observational study.

Sci Rep 2019 Jan 30;9(1):1006. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

HIV with HBV co-infection can result in greater HIV-related immunosuppression, morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few studies to evaluate direct treatment effects on mortality and attrition rates between first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) based-on tenofovir (TDF) and/or lamivudine (3TC) in a real-world setting. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate direct treatment effects of the first-line ART containing stavudine (d4T), azidothymidine (AZT) and TDF on death and attrition among HIV patients with HBV coinfection. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-37148-8
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37148-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353888PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Identification of NK cell subpopulations that differentiate HIV-infected subject cohorts with diverse level of virus control.

J Virol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA

HIV infection is controlled immunologically in a small subset of infected individuals without antiretroviral therapy (ART), though the mechanism of control is unclear. CD8 T cells are a critical component of HIV control in many immunologic controllers. NK cells are also believed to have a role in controlling HIV infection, though their role is less well-characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01790-18DOI Listing
January 2019
4.439 Impact Factor