328,518 results match your criteria HIV Infection


Outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

J Card Surg 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiac Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: With early and effective antiretroviral therapy and improved survival for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection (PLHIV), this patient population now faces an increasingly elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the data on outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for revascularization of coronary artery disease (CAD) in HIV+ patients is limited.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 16 patients undergoing isolated CABG at the Medical University of Vienna from 2005 to 2018, who were HIV+ on admission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.14828DOI Listing

Prevalence and correlates of obstructive lung disease among people who inject drugs, San Diego, California.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Jul 2;214:108158. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Pulmonary tissue damage leading to obstructive lung disease (OLD) could result from intravenous administration of insoluble particles found in illicit drugs. This study described the prevalence and identified correlates of OLD among people who inject drugs (PWID).

Methods: In 2012-2016, a community-based cohort of PWID who had injected within the past month were enrolled in a study to assess HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) andMycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections and their related risk factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108158DOI Listing

Evaluation of Rapid Testing Algorithms for Venue-based Anonymous HIV Testing among Non-HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS), 2017.

J Community Health 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, 3033, USA.

HIV rapid testing algorithms (RTAs) using any two orthogonal rapid tests (RTs) allow for on-site confirmation of infection. RTs vary in performance characteristics therefore the selection of RTs in an algorithm may affect identification of infection, particularly if acute. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) assessed RTAs among men who have sex with men recruited using anonymous venue-based sampling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00871-3DOI Listing

Hemophilus influenzae and Parainfluenza Virus Pneumonia in a Patient with AIDS.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Jul 11;21:e923132. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, NJ, USA.

BACKGROUND Parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are known to cause mild respiratory tract infections in immunocompetent patients but can cause severe infections in immune-compromised patients such as transplant recipients and children with HIV. PIV infection in HIV-infected adults has rarely been reported. We report a case of PIV pneumonia in an adult with AIDS who was successfully treated with oral ribavirin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.923132DOI Listing

Unusual Case of Granuloma Annulare Associated with Diabetes Mellitus.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2020 Jul;28(1):45-46

Associate Professor Suzana Ljubojević Hadžavdić, MD, PhD, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Šalata 4, 10000 Zagreb , Croatia;

Dear Editor, Granuloma annulare (GA) is an asymptomatic, chronic, and relatively common granulomatous skin condition which presents with annular papules usually slowly progressing into plaques on the extremities and the trunk. It usually presents with non-scaly, erythematous, annular plaques on the distal extremity (1,2). The pathogenesis of GA is still unknown, although a variety of possible factors contributing the disease have been reported, including drugs (3), insect bites, sun exposure, trauma, vaccinations, and viral infections (e. Read More

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Addressing advanced HIV disease and mortality in global HIV programming.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 Jul 10;17(1):40. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Global HIV and TB, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, US 1-1, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Introduction: The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was launched to increase access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and to prevent new HIV infections globally. As new infections have decreased in many PEPFAR-supported countries, PEPFAR is increasingly focusing on understanding and decreasing mortality among PLHIV, specifically by addressing advanced HIV disease (AHD) and its attendant opportunistic infections (OIs). Several developments in identifying AHD, in preventing, diagnosing, and treating selected OIs, and in PEPFAR's support for mortality surveillance make this an opportune moment for PEPFAR to address HIV-related mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00296-xDOI Listing

M-Sec facilitates intercellular transmission of HIV-1 through multiple mechanisms.

Retrovirology 2020 Jul 10;17(1):20. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Infection & Hematopoiesis, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811, Japan.

Background: HIV-1 promotes the formation of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) that connect distant cells, aiding cell-to-cell viral transmission between macrophages. Our recent study suggests that the cellular protein M-Sec plays a role in these processes. However, the timing, mechanism, and to what extent M-Sec contributes to HIV-1 transmission is not fully understood, and the lack of a cell line model that mimics macrophages has hindered in-depth analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-020-00528-yDOI Listing

Assessing the psychometric properties of the French WHOQOL-HIV BREF within the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort's QuAliV ancillary study.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Jul 10;18(1):220. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Univ Bordeaux, ISPED, Inserm Bordeaux Population Health, team MORPH3EUS, UMR 1219, CIC-EC 1401, F-33000, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy has prolonged the lives of those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the effects of chronic infection on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remain a concern. Numerous instruments have been developed to measure HRQoL, yet evidence of their cross-cultural equivalence and continued applicability is limited. We adapted the WHOQOL-HIV BREF to French and assessed its psychometric properties in a sample of community-dwelling adults living with HIV who were mostly virally suppressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01451-8DOI Listing

Testing the regulatory framework in South Africa - a single-blind randomized pilot trial of commercial probiotic supplementation to standard therapy in women with bacterial vaginosis.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 10;20(1):491. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases HIV risk and adverse reproductive outcomes. Standard-of-care (SOC) for BV are antibiotics; however, cure rates are low. Probiotics for vaginal health may be useful in improving cure and recurrence although the regulatory framework governing probiotics and the conduct of randomized clinical trials to evaluate these has not been established in South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05210-4DOI Listing

Presenting Features and Early Mortality from SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Cancer Patients during the Initial Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Europe.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Oncology, University of Piemonte Orientale and Maggiore della Carita' Hospital, 28100 Novara, Italy.

We describe the outcomes in cancer patients during the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 in Europe from the retrospective, multi-center observational OnCovid study. We identified 204 cancer patients from eight centers in the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain aged > 18 (mean = 69) and diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 26th and April 1st, 2020. A total of 127 (62%) were male, 184 (91%) had a diagnosis of solid malignancy, and 103 (51%) had non-metastatic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071841DOI Listing

Epidemiological Impact of Novel Preventive and Therapeutic HSV-2 Vaccination in the United States: Mathematical Modeling Analyses.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;8(3). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha 24144, Qatar.

This study aims to inform herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaccine development, licensure, and implementation by delineating the population-level impact of vaccination. Mathematical models were constructed to describe the transmission dynamics in presence of prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines assuming 50% efficacy, with application to the United States. Catch-up prophylactic vaccination will reduce, by 2050, annual number of new infections by 58%, incidence rate by 60%, seroprevalence by 21%, and avert yearly as much as 350,000 infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030366DOI Listing

Serum (1,3)-Beta-D-Glucan has suboptimal performance for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in cancer patients and correlates poorly with respiratory burden as measured by quantitative PCR.

J Infect 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Objective: Non-HIV immunocompromised patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) have lower fungal load than those with AIDS, potentially affecting the accuracy of diagnostic biomarkers. Therefore, we investigated the performance of serum (1,3)-Beta-D-Glucan (BDG) in conjunction with quantitative Pneumocystis jirovecii PCR (qPCR) in non-HIV cancer patients.

Methods: We reviewed records of non-HIV cancer patients and classified them as definite, probable, or possible PCP cases, according to clinicoradiological features, microscopy findings, and qPCR results in bronchoscopy specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.07.003DOI Listing

Female adolescents' reproductive health decision-making capacity and contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa: What does the future hold?

PLoS One 2020 10;15(7):e0235601. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Population and Health, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Introduction: Given the social, economic, and health consequences of early parenthood, unintended pregnancy, and the risks of HIV infection and subsequent transmission, there is an urgent need to understand how adolescents make sexual and reproductive decisions regarding contraceptive use. This study sought to assess the association between female adolescents' reproductive health decision-making capacity and their contraceptive usage.

Materials And Methods: Data was obtained from pooled current Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235601PLOS

Epidemiologic treatment of contacts to Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in STD clinic patients in Seattle, WA 1994-2018.

Sex Transm Dis 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Introduction: Current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines recommend that clinicians empirically treat the sex partners of persons with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) or Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection before confirming that they are infected. It is possible that this practice, known as epidemiological treatment, results in overtreatment of uninfected persons and may contribute to development of antimicrobial resistance. We sought to quantify the number of patients who received epidemiologic treatment and the proportion overtreated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001234DOI Listing

Trends in Women With an HIV Diagnosis at Delivery Hospitalization in the United States, 2006-2014.

Public Health Rep 2020 Jul 10:33354920935074. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

1242 National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objectives: The risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission can be reduced to ≤0.5% if the mother's HIV status is known before delivery. This study describes 2006-2014 trends in diagnosed HIV infection documented on delivery discharge records and associated sociodemographic characteristics among women who gave birth in US hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354920935074DOI Listing

Use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a patient with G6PD deficiency for treating Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia without haemolysis: Case report and literature review.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan.

What Is Known And Objective: A fixed dose of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) is the first-line therapy for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). Other alternative regiments have shown a suboptimal cure rate. However, TMP/SMZ has been reported to cause haemolyses when administered to patients with G6DP deficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13220DOI Listing

The potential impacts of early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on KSHV-infected cells.

J Med Virol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients such as HIV+ individuals. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases in the world. The risk of developing TB is dramatically higher in people living with HIV than among those without HIV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26291DOI Listing

Combination HIV Prevention Strategies Among Montreal Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in the PrEP Era: A Latent Class Analysis.

AIDS Behav 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) became publicly available in Quebec for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in 2013. We used baseline data from Engage, a cohort of GBM recruited by respondent-driven sampling, to examine patterns of combination HIV prevention use among Montreal GBM since PrEP became available. Latent class analysis, stratified by HIV status, was used to categorize GBM by self-reported use of biomedical and behavioural prevention strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02965-4DOI Listing

Neural sensitivity to risk in adults with co-occurring HIV infection and cocaine use disorder.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Box 102848, Durham, NC, 27708, USA.

Persons with co-occurring HIV infection and cocaine use disorder tend to engage in riskier decision-making. However, the neural correlates of sensitivity to risk are not well-characterized in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural interaction effects of HIV infection and cocaine use disorder to sensitivity to risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-020-00806-4DOI Listing

Recurrent Talaromyces marneffei Infection Presenting with Intestinal Obstruction in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Mycopathologia 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Dermatology, The Eastern Division of The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 183 Huangpu Rd. E., Guangzhou, 510700, People's Republic of China.

Talaromyces marneffei is an important opportunistic pathogen mainly afflicting the HIV-infected patients, in rare instance, it could cause infection in non-HIV-infected individuals. We report a 51-year-old Chinese woman who, with histories of SLE for 14 years and disseminated talaromycosis for 4 years, occurred partial intestinal obstruction that was demonstrated to be caused by Talaromyces marneffei infection. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA results of paraffin-embedded tissues from both the present episode and the previous infection suggested that the present infection was a recurrent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-020-00469-2DOI Listing

Emergent Viral Infections of the CNS.

Authors:
Clayton A Wiley

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

From the Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Biological evolution of the microbiome continually drives the emergence of human viral pathogens, a subset of which attack the nervous system. The sheer number of pathogens that have appeared, along with their abundance in the environment, demand our attention. For the most part, our innate and adaptive immune systems have successfully protected us from infection; however, in the past 5 decades, through pathogen mutation and ecosystem disruption, a dozen viruses emerged to cause significant neurologic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa054DOI Listing

Antimicrobial activity of cephalosporin-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2020 Jun 12;15(3):203-210. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, KSA.

Objectives: We conducted this study to test the susceptibility of to the routinely used drugs and to the two recently available antimicrobial agents, ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftolozane-tazobactam.

Methods: We isolated the non-replicate strains of from inpatients between December 2018 and April 2019. The VITEK® MS system was used for phenotypic identification and VITEK 2 for initial antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2020.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335999PMC

Therapeutic vaccine-mediated Gag-specific CD8 T-cell induction under anti-retroviral therapy augments anti-virus efficacy of CD8 cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11394. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8640, Japan.

Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can inhibit HIV proliferation but not achieve virus eradication from HIV-infected individuals. Under ART-based HIV control, virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses are often reduced. Here, we investigated the impact of therapeutic vaccination inducing virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses under ART on viral control in a macaque AIDS model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68267-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347614PMC

Adolescent Sexual Minority Males, Relationship Functioning, and Condomless Sex.

J Adolesc Health 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island.

Purpose: Adolescent sexual minority males (SMMs) are at a high risk of contracting HIV through condomless sex. Many develop serious partnerships, and sex with main partners accounts for many new infections. Previous research with adolescent SMMs largely focused on relationship seriousness and found a positive association with sexual HIV risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.05.052DOI Listing

Outpatient treatment of COVID-19 with steroids in the phase of mild pneumonia without the need for admission as an opportunity to modify the course of the disease: A structured summary of a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jul 9;21(1):632. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Neumology Department, Hospital Universitario de Burgos, Avda Islas Baleares, 3, Burgos, Spain.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness and safety of oral corticosteroids (prednisone) in the treatment of early stage SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia in patients who do not yet meet hospital admission criteria.

Trial Design: Randomized clinical trial, controlled, open, parallel group, to evaluate the effectiveness of steroids in adult patients with confirmed COVID-19, with incipient pulmonary involvement, without hospital admission criteria. Patients will be stratified by the presence or not of radiological data on pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04575-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344042PMC

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated vacuolar encephalomyelopathy with granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease improved after antiretroviral therapy: a case report.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 Jul 9;17(1):38. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagasaki University Hospital, Sakamoto 1-7-1, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki, 852-8501, Japan.

Background: Vacuolar encephalomyelopathy, a disregarded diagnosis lately, was a major neurological disease in the terminal stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in the pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) was classically identified as a non-infectious complication of common variable immunodeficiency; however, it is now being recognized in other immunodeficiency disorders. Here, we report the first case of GLILD accompanied by vacuolar encephalomyelopathy in a newly diagnosed HIV-infected man. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00295-yDOI Listing

Acceptability of a hypothetical preventative HIV vaccine among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 9;20(1):1081. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: As research on HIV vaccines continues to advance, studies exploring the feasibility of this intervention are necessary to inform uptake and dissemination strategies with key populations, including people who use drugs (PWUD).

Methods: We conducted 25 in-depth qualitative interviews examining HIV vaccine acceptability among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Participants were recruited from an ongoing prospective cohort of HIV-negative PWUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09202-6DOI Listing

Effect of a multi-dimensional case management model on anti-retroviral therapy-related outcomes among people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Beijing, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 9;20(1):489. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: This paper introduces a comprehensive case management model uniting doctors, nurses, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in order to shorten the time from HIV diagnosis to initiation of antiviral therapy, improve patients' adherence, and ameliorate antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related outcomes.

Methods: All newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases at Beijing YouAn Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013 were selected as the control group, while all newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients from January 2015 to December 2016 were selected as the intervention group, receiving the comprehensive case management model.

Results: 4906 patients were enrolled, of which 1549 were in the control group and 3357 in the intervention group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05219-9DOI Listing

Consensus document on enhancing medication adherence in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus receiving antiretroviral therapy.

Farm Hosp 2020 Jul 1;44(4):163-173. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona. Spain..

Adherence to treatment in patients living with HIV remains the focus of attention of health professionals and researchers. However, patient profiles and the  available therapeutic arsenal have changed greatly over the last decade.  Inadequate adherence not only to antiretroviral therapy but also to other  prescribed drugs remains the main cause of therapeutic failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7399/fh.11441DOI Listing

Estimating the Consensus hepatitis C Cascade of Care among people who inject drugs in Australia: Pre and post availability of direct acting antiviral therapy.

Int J Drug Policy 2020 Jul 6;83:102837. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background Monitoring the hepatitis C virus (HCV) cascade of care (CoC) among people who inject drugs (PWID) is an essential component of the response to World Health Organisation's (WHO) hepatitis elimination goals. This study aimed to estimate the Consensus hepatitis C CoC among PWID using data collected in Australia prior to and after the introduction of unrestricted direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in March 2016. Methods The Australian Needle Syringe Program Survey is a cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveillance system that recruits >2000 PWID annually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102837DOI Listing

Impact of Effective Global Tuberculosis Control on Health and Economic Outcomes in the United States.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Stanford University, 6429, Department of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, United States.

Rationale: Most United States residents who develop tuberculosis were born abroad, and US TB incidence is increasingly driven by infection risks in other countries.

Objectives: To estimate the potential impact of effective global TB control on health and economic outcomes in the United States.

Methods: We estimated outcomes using linked mathematical models of TB epidemiology in the United States and migrants' birth countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202003-0526OCDOI Listing

HIV antiretroviral therapy and prevention use in US blood donors: A new blood safety concern.

Blood 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, UCSF, United States.

Context: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection are effective tools to help end the HIV epidemic. However, their use could affect HIV transfusion-transmission risk.

Objectives: Three different ART/PrEP prevalence analyses in blood donors were conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006890DOI Listing

Prevalence of non-communicable diseases among individuals with HIV infection by antiretroviral therapy status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235542. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Long-term antiretroviral therapy has modified the clinical course of HIV infection to a chronic condition associated with increased risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Information is scant, from sub-Saharan Africa, on the prevalence of NCDs and associated factors among individuals on ART.

Methodology: We consecutively enrolled individuals with HIV infection who were ART naïve and those on ART for ≥5 years (LTART) attending health facilities in Dar es Salaam. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235542PLOS

Current pharmacological modalities for management of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the rationale for their utilization: A review.

Rev Med Virol 2020 Jul 9:e2136. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Garden OB/GYN, Mercy Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a pandemic which is putting strain on the health-care system and global economy. There is much pressure to develop both preventative and curative therapies for SARS-CoV-2 as there is no evidence to support therapies to improve outcomes in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Medications that inhibit certain steps of virus life cycle that are currently used to treat other illnesses such as Malaria, Ebola, HIV and Hepatitis C are being studied for use against SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2136DOI Listing

Acute HIV infection in a large teaching hospital in western China: clinical, virological and molecular epidemiological characteristics.

J Med Virol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, P. R. China.

Objective: To provide information on clinical, virological and molecular epidemiological characteristics for early identification, diagnosis and treatment of acute HIV infection (AHI).

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with AHI patients from 2012 to 2017 in West China Hospital.

Results: A total of 47 patients with AHI were found using a fourth-generation kit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26282DOI Listing

interaction of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, didanosine with calf-thymus DNA: Insights from spectroscopic studies.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2020 Jul 9:1-12. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

Many antivirals interact with DNA and alter their expression profile. Thus, it is necessary to understand the binding mode. Didanosine, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is used to treat HIV infection in patients with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15257770.2020.1780435DOI Listing

Mechanistic insights into antiretroviral drug-induced liver injury.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2020 Aug;8(4):e00598

Division of Chemical and System Biology, Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

All classes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been implicated to induce adverse drug reactions such drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and immune-mediated adverse reactions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals. Patients that develop adverse drug reactions tend to have prolonged stays in hospital and may require to change to alternative regimens if reactions persist upon rechallenge or if rechallenge is contraindicated due to severity of the adverse reaction. Diagnosis of DILI remains a huge obstacle that delays timely interventions, since it is still based largely on exclusion of other causes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.598DOI Listing

Mainstreaming health impact assessments in environmental impact statements into planning obligations in post dam construction in Metolong, Lesotho: A qualitative investigation.

Heliyon 2020 Jul 2;6(7):e04362. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Environmental Health, National University of Lesotho, P. O. Roma 180, Lesotho.

Health impact assessment (HIA) is internationally identified as a mechanism for ensuring that potential health impacts of project proposals are considered before project implementation. This study examined the inclusion of HIAs in environmental impact statement (EIS) and their translation into planning obligations of a dam project in Lesotho. A framework premised on the general systems theory, and integrating EIS contents, environmental management plans and monitoring obligations in post dam construction was used as the analytic lens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334426PMC

Endothelial dysfunction and carotid atherosclerosis in Malawian adults: A cross-sectional study.

eNeurologicalSci 2020 Sep 28;20:100252. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Background And Objective: In sub-Saharan Africa, data on prevalence, risk factors and pathobiology of carotid atherosclerosis are scarce. We aimed to investigate the relationship between biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and carotid atherosclerosis.

Methods: Carotid ultrasound was performed in 66 patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334363PMC
September 2020

Standard precaution adherence among clinical medical students in HIV and non-HIV ward in Indonesia.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 28;9:122. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Introduction: Health-care workers, especially medical intern, are at risk of exposed to blood and other body fluids in the course of their work. To reduce the risk, standard precaution (SP) is introduced. Among all communicable diseases that could be transmitted, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the most stigmatized disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_45_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325780PMC

Falsely positive fourth generation ADVIA Centaur® HIV Antigen/Antibody Combo assay in the presence of autoimmune hepatitis type I (AIH).

IDCases 2020 25;21:e00886. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, MountainView Regional Medical Center, Las Cruces, NM, 88011, USA.

A 51-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain, jaundice, and transaminitis. The patient's laboratory results showed elevated liver enzymes, high antinuclear antibodies (ANA) titer, positive anti-smooth muscle antibody, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Given risk factors for HIV infection, an ADVIA Centaur® HIV Antigen/Antibody Combo assay was performed showing a reactive sample with a follow up HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT) proving to be negative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334457PMC

Mycobacterium szulgai pulmonary infection in a woman with anorexia nervosa.

IDCases 2020 20;21:e00883. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Irvine, CA, USA.

A 40-year-old woman with severe anorexia nervosa was found to have a bilateral pulmonary infection with rare atypical mycobacterium Of note, she had no preexisting structural lung disease or history of tuberculosis, smoking, or HIV. Current data suggest that both impaired cell-mediated immunity and altered respiratory mechanics are risk factors for mycobacterial infection in patients with anorexia nervosa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332519PMC

Plasma proteomics reveals markers of metabolic stress in HIV infected children with severe acute malnutrition.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 8;10(1):11235. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

The Childhood Acute Illness & Nutrition (CHAIN) Network, Nairobi, Kenya.

HIV infection affects up to 30% of children presenting with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and is associated with increased mortality. Children with SAM are treated similarly regardless of HIV status, although mechanisms of nutritional recovery in HIV and/or SAM are not well understood. We performed a secondary analysis of a clinical trial and plasma proteomics data among children with complicated SAM in Kenya and Malawi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68143-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343797PMC

Subclinical CMV and EBV Shedding is associated with increasing HIV DNA Molecular Diversity in Peripheral Blood during Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

J Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) almost universally infects persons with HIV (PWH), and it is a driver of persistent inflammation and HIV persistence. The mechanisms underlying the association between CMV (and possibly other herpes viruses) and HIV persistence are unclear. Serially collected blood samples were obtained from men who have sex with men (MSM) who started ART within 1 year of their estimated date of HIV infection (EDI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00927-20DOI Listing

Murine leukemia virus P50 protein counteracts APOBEC3 by blocking its packaging.

J Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL

Apolipoprotein B editing, catalytic subunit 3 (APOBEC3) family members are cytidine deaminases that play important roles in intrinsic responses to retrovirus infection. Complex retroviruses like HIV-1 encode the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein to counteract APOBEC3 proteins. Vif induces degradation of APOBEC3G and other APOBEC3 proteins and thereby prevents their packaging into virions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00032-20DOI Listing

Modelling patient flows and resource use within a sexual health clinic through discrete event simulation to inform service redesign.

BMJ Open 2020 Jul 8;10(7):e037084. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Objectives: Continuous improvement in the delivery of health services is increasingly being demanded in the UK at a time when budgets are being cut. Simulation is one approach used for understanding and assessing the likely impact of changes to the delivery of health services. However, little is known about the usefulness of simulation for analysing the delivery of sexual health services (SHSs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037084DOI Listing

A/C study protocol: a cross-sectional study of HIV epidemiology among African, Caribbean and Black people in Ontario.

BMJ Open 2020 Jul 8;10(7):e036259. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) communities are disproportionately infected by HIV in Ontario, Canada. They constitute only 5% of the population of Ontario yet account for 25% of new diagnoses of HIV. The aim of this study is to understand underlying factors that augment the HIV risk in ACB communities and to inform policy and practice in Ontario. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036259DOI Listing