355,975 results match your criteria HIV Infection

Epigenetic Reprogramming Leads to Downregulation of CD4 and Functional Changes in African Green Monkey Memory CD4 T Cells.

J Immunol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Barrier Immunity Section, Lab of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD;

African green monkeys (AGMs), are a natural host for a lentivirus related to HIV, SIV. SIV-infected AGMs rarely progress to AIDS despite robust viral replication. Though multiple mechanisms are involved, a primary component is the animals' ability to downregulate CD4 expression on mature CD4 Th cells, rendering these cells resistant to infection by SIV. Read More

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Outcomes of flucytosine-containing combination treatment for cryptococcal meningitis in a South African national access programme: a cross-sectional observational study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mycoses, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, UK; MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK; Division of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Although flucytosine is a key component of WHO-recommended induction treatment for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis, this antifungal agent is not widely available in low-income and middle-income countries due to limited production and cost. In 2018, a national flucytosine access programme was initiated in South Africa. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of flucytosine-containing induction regimens in routine care to motivate for the urgent registration of flucytosine and its inclusion in treatment guidelines. Read More

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From surviving to thriving: integrating mental health care into HIV, community, and family services for adolescents living with HIV.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Information Systems, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.

Adolescents are a crucial generation, with the potential to bring future social and economic success for themselves and their countries. More than 90% of adolescents living with HIV reside in sub-Saharan Africa, where their mental health is set against a background of poverty, familial stress, service gaps, and an HIV epidemic that is now intertwined with the COVID-19 pandemic. In this Series paper, we review systematic reviews, randomised trials, and cohort studies of adolescents living with and affected by HIV. Read More

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Integrating HIV and mental health interventions to address a global syndemic among men who have sex with men.

Lancet HIV 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya; Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

In this Series paper, we review evidence on the co-occurring and synergistic epidemics (syndemic) of HIV and mental health problems worldwide among men who have sex with men (MSM). The multilevel determinants of this global syndemic include structural factors that enable stigma, systematic bias, and violence towards MSM across geographical and cultural contexts. Cumulative exposure to these factors over time results in population-level inequities in the burden of HIV infections and mental health problems among MSM. Read More

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Advancing Precision Vaccinology by Molecular and Genomic Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in Germany, 2021.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Systems Medicine of Infectious Disease (P5), Robert Koch-Institute, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Comprehensive pathogen genomic surveillance represents a powerful tool to complement and advance precision vaccinology. The emergence of the Alpha variant in December 2020 and the resulting efforts to track the spread of this and other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern led to an expansion of genomic sequencing activities in Germany.

Methods: At Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the German National Institute of Public Health, we established the "Integrated Molecular Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2" (IMS-SC2) network to perform SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance at the national scale, SARS-CoV-2 positive samples from laboratories distributed across Germany regularly undergo whole-genome sequencing at RKI. Read More

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HIV-1 Nef-mediated downregulation of CD155 results in viral restriction by KIR2DL5+ NK cells.

PLoS Pathog 2022 Jun 24;18(6):e1010572. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Leibniz Institute of Virology (LIV), Hamburg, Germany.

Antiviral NK cell activity is regulated through the interaction of activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors with their ligands on infected cells. HLA class I molecules serve as ligands for most killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), but no HLA class I ligands for the inhibitory NK cell receptor KIR2DL5 have been identified to date. Using a NK cell receptor/ligand screening approach, we observed no strong binding of KIR2DL5 to HLA class I or class II molecules, but confirmed that KIR2DL5 binds to the poliovirus receptor (PVR, CD155). Read More

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Effect of Switching Antiretroviral Treatment Regimen in Patients With Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Infection: Retrospective Observational Cohort Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2022 Jun 24;8(6):e33429. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Evidence on the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen switches on the mortality of patients with HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is limited.

Objective: We aim to provide policy guidance for ART regimen selection and evaluate the effectiveness of ART regime switches for people living with HIV and HIV-1 drug resistance.

Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included 179 people living with HIV and HIV-1 drug resistance from 2011 to 2020. Read More

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Contraception among HIV-positive women in Latvia- knowledge, experience and factors influencing the choice.

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2022 Jun 24:1-7. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.

Objectives: Latvia has one of the highest numbers of new HIV cases in the EU. The latest SRH national survey confirmed low effective contraceptive prevalence in the general population, no data were available about women living with HIV (WLHIV). The study aimed to assess knowledge on the use of different contraceptives, to identify factors in choosing contraception, to assess the availability of family planning health care services, and to investigate contraception habits. Read More

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Treatment of Hepatitis Delta and HIV Infection.

Liver Int 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Public Health Regional Laboratory, Hospital Isabel Zendal, Madrid, Spain.

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective agent that only infects individuals with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Around 5-10% of chronic hepatitis B patients worldwide are superinfected with HDV, which means 15-25 million people. Hepatitis delta is the most severe of all chronic viral hepatitis, leading to cirrhosis, liver cancer and/or transplantation in most patients. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: Clinical course among subjects HIV-1-infected in Sao Paulo.

Curr HIV Res 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Dermatology Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo.

Introduction: People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are ander risk for co-infection with SARS-CoV-2. This population may be more prone to complications from COVID-19 due to persistent inflammation caused by HIV and higher incidence of metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, and malignancies, as well as being considered elderly at 50 years of age. The objective of this study was to report SARS-CoV-2 infection frequency, clinical evolution, and mortality in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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Sexually transmitted infection prevention behaviours: health impact, prevalence, correlates, and interventions.

Psychol Health 2022 Jun 24:1-26. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major public health threat, disproportionately affecting young people, and men who have sex with men. In this narrative review of the current state of behavioural science research on STI prevention, we consider the definition, health impacts, correlates and determinants, and interventions to promote STI prevention behaviour. Research on STI prevention behaviour has extended from a focus on abstinence, partner reduction and condom use, to also include novel preventive behaviours, notably treatment-as-prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis (i. Read More

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Attitudes Toward Gender-Based Violence Among Sexually Active Adult Men at High Risk for HIV in Rustenburg, South Africa.

Am J Mens Health 2022 May-Jun;16(3):15579883221106331

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Gender-based violence (GBV) toward women is widespread and has been associated with increased HIV risk. We investigated attitudes toward GBV among men living in Rustenburg, South Africa, who were enrolled in a longitudinal HIV incidence study. Participants were 18 to 49 years old, reported high risk sexual activity in the last 3 months, and were HIV-uninfected. Read More

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Preliminary Study on the Possibility to Detect Virus Nucleic Acids in Post-Mortem Blood Samples.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2022 Jun;27(6):183

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Legal Medicine Section, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Background: In many forensic cases, the medical records of the deceased are not available at the time of the autopsy; therefore, no information about the deceased's state of health, including any infectious diseases contracted during life, is accessible. The detection of some of the principal viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), could contribute to determining causes of death and interesting applications could be found in medico-legal practice, such as occupational risk assessment. To date, accurate and sensitive serological and molecular assays capable of detecting these viruses have been validated on biological samples taken from living beings, while their efficiency on forensic post-mortem biological samples has yet to be thoroughly assessed. Read More

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Characterization of species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis by MALDI-TOF with antifungal susceptibility profiles.

Curr Med Mycol 2021 Dec;7(4):6-11

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.

Background And Purpose: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an opportunistic infection due to species, one of the most common genital tract diseases among reproductive-age women. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of VVC among non-pregnant women and identify the epidemiology of the involved species with the evaluation of antifungal susceptibilities.

Materials And Methods: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was performed to identify species isolated from the genital tract of 350 non-pregnant women. Read More

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December 2021

Significance of Adopting Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique for Blood Donor Screening in a Resource Limited Setting: A Study from a Single Centre in South India.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2022 Jul 27;38(3):571-576. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Statistics, Apollo Hospital Education and Research Foundation, Hyderabad, Telangana India.

Nucleic acid Amplification testing (NAT) has helped improve blood safety and detect window period and Occult Hepatitis B infections (OBI) This study was aimed at determining the following in blood donors: 1. seroprevalence of HIV, HBV & HCV, malarial parasite and Syphlis 2. NAT and seroyield for HIV, HBV and HCV 3. Read More

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Prevalence of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among HIV Infected Patients on Anti-Retroviral Treatment in a Tertiary Hospital in Ethiopia.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2022 17;14:297-309. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Anti-retroviral treatment has improved mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, which is offset by an increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Data regarding prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV infected patients in Ethiopia are very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CVD risks and associated factors in patients with HIV. Read More

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Economic-related inequalities in hepatitis B virus infection among 115.8 million pregnant women in China from 2013 to 2020.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Jul 20;49:101465. Epub 2022 May 20.

School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global health problem and China has the largest disease burden. Literatures focusing on economic-related inequalities in HBV infection among pregnant women are scarce. We aimed to quantify the economic-related inequalities and the change over time in HBV infection among pregnant women in mainland China from 2013 to 2020 to inform strategies considering economic-related inequalities. Read More

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An Eye-Opening Presentation of Syphilis.

Cureus 2022 May 19;14(5):e25132. Epub 2022 May 19.

Infectious Diseases, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, USA.

Syphilis has been called "the great masquerader." In this case report, we present a case of an HIV-negative patient with left eye redness and decreased vision. Syphilitic anterior uveitis as a complication of neurosyphilis was subsequently diagnosed and the patient showed marked improvement with treatment. Read More

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Immunometabolic Reprogramming in Response to HIV Infection Is Not Fully Normalized by Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

Viruses 2022 Jun 15;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Background: HIV infection results in immunometabolic reprogramming. While we are beginning to understand how this metabolic reprogramming regulates the immune response to HIV infection, we do not currently understand the impact of ART on immunometabolism in people with HIV (PWH).

Methods: Serum obtained from HIV-infected ( = 278) and geographically matched HIV seronegative control subjects ( = 300) from Rakai Uganda were used in this study. Read More

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Global Burden of Infection and Associated Risk Factors in People Living with HIV and/or AIDS.

Viruses 2022 Jun 12;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51666-14766, Iran.

infections remain one of the most common protozoan opportunistic causes of gastrointestinal diseases and diarrhea among people living with HIV and/or AIDS (PLWHA). This study was conducted to provide a summary of the evidence on the global burden of infection and associated risk factors among PLWHA. , and were searched up to February 2022. Read More

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Mechanism of Viral Suppression among HIV Elite Controllers and Long-Term Nonprogressors in Nigeria and South Africa.

Viruses 2022 Jun 10;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Clinical Science Department, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos 100001, Nigeria.

A subgroup among people living with HIV (PLHIV) experience viral suppression, sometimes to an undetectable level in the blood and/or are able to maintain a healthy CD4+ T-cell count without the influence of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. One out of three hundred PLHIV fall into this category, and a large sample of this group can be found in areas with a high prevalence of HIV infection such as Nigeria and South Africa. Understanding the mechanism underpinning the nonprogressive phenotype in this subgroup may provide insights into the control of the global HIV epidemic. Read More

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Characterization of Chronic Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Immunocompetent Rabbits.

Viruses 2022 Jun 9;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Division of HIV/AIDS and Sex-Transmitted Virus Vaccines, Institute for Biological Product Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing 102629, China.

Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is frequently reported in immunocompromised patients, but has also been increasingly reported in non-immunocompromised individuals. We characterized the course of chronic HEV infection in immunocompetent rabbits. In two independent experiments, 40 specific-pathogen-free rabbits were infected with a rabbit HEV genotype 3 strain in serial diluted titers (10 to 10 copies/mL). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Infection Is Associated with Uncontrolled HIV Viral Load in Non-Hospitalized HIV-Infected Patients from Gugulethu, South Africa.

Viruses 2022 Jun 3;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 3.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

In South Africa, high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 occurs primarily in densely populated, low-income communities, which are additionally burdened by highly prevalent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). With the aim to assess SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and its association with HIV-related clinical parameters in non-hospitalized patients likely to be highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2, this observational cross-sectional study was conducted at the Gugulethu Community Health Centre Antiretroviral clinic between October 2020 and June 2021, after the first COVID-19 wave in South Africa and during the second and beginning of the third wave. A total of 150 adult (median age 39 years [range 20-65 years]) HIV-infected patients (69% female; 31% male) were recruited. Read More

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Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Lithuania: Situation before Introduction of the National Screening Programme.

Viruses 2022 May 30;14(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Gastroenterology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT50161 Kaunas, Lithuania.

In 2022, the Lithuanian health authorities decided to pay general practitioners a fee for performing serological tests for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies in the population born from 1945 to 1994 once per life and annual HCV testing for PWID and HIV infected patients. This study aimed to assess trends in HCV-related mortality in the country and the prevalence of HCV infection among patients with liver diseases and evaluate possibilities of screening for HCV infection at a primary health care center. Age-standardized mortality rates in 2010-2020 were calculated for deaths caused by chronic hepatitis C and some liver diseases. Read More

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The Penis, the Vagina and HIV Risk: Key Differences (Aside from the Obvious).

Viruses 2022 May 27;14(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada.

Globally, most Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV) transmission occurs through vaginal-penile sex (heterosexual transmission). The local immune environment at the site of HIV exposure is an important determinant of whether exposure during sex will lead to productive infection, and the vaginal and penile immune milieus are each critically shaped by the local microbiome. However, there are key differences in the microbial drivers of inflammation and immune quiescence at these tissue sites. Read More

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NK Cells in Protection from HIV Infection.

Viruses 2022 May 25;14(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC), Montreal, QC H4A3J1, Canada.

Some people, known as HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals, remain uninfected despite high levels of exposure to HIV. Understanding the mechanisms underlying their apparent resistance to HIV infection may inform strategies designed to protect against HIV infection. Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells whose activation state depends on the integration of activating and inhibitory signals arising from cell surface receptors interacting with their ligands on neighboring cells. Read More

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Adenovirus DNA Polymerase Loses Fidelity on a Stretch of Eleven Homocytidines during Pre-GMP Vaccine Preparation.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.

In this study, we invented and construct novel candidate HIV-1 vaccines. Through genetic and protein engineering, we unknowingly constructed an HIV-1-derived transgene with a homopolymeric run of 11 cytidines, which was inserted into an adenovirus vaccine vector. Here, we describe the virus rescue, three rounds of clonal purification and preparation of good manufacturing practise (GMP) starting material assessed for genetic stability in five additional virus passages. Read More

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Antiviral Activities of HIV-1-Specific Human Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Are Isotype-Dependent.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 6;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 6.

CIRI-Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Team GIMAP, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Inserm, U1111, CNRS, UMR530, CIC 1408 Vaccinology, 42023 Saint-Etienne, France.

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) offer promising opportunities for preventing HIV-1 infection. The protection mechanisms of bNAbs involve the Fc domain, as well as their Fab counterpart. Here, different bNAb isotypes including IgG1, IgA1, IgA2, and IgA122 (IgA2 with the hinge of IgA1) were generated and then produced in CHO cells. Read More

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Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Potential COVID-19 Early Detection Method: A Review and Future Perspective.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;22(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a worldwide health anxiety. The rapid dispersion of the infection globally results in unparalleled economic, social, and health impacts. The pathogen that causes COVID-19 is known as a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Tenofovir and Tenofovir Alafenamide for HIV-1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Foreskin Tissue.

Pharmaceutics 2022 Jun 16;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, UK.

Background: HIV-1 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has focused predominantly on protective efficacy in receptive sex, with limited research on the dosing requirements for insertive sex. We pre-clinically assessed the ex vivo pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) profile of tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in foreskin tissue.

Methods: Inner and outer foreskin explants were exposed to serial dilutions of TFV or TAF prior to addition of HIV-1 at a high (HVT) or a low viral titer (LVT). Read More

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