312,931 results match your criteria HIV Infection


No Difference in Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance between Injection Drug Users and Non-Injection Drug Users: A Cross-Sectional Study among Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve HIV Patients.

Intervirology 2019 Apr 24:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of AIDS Prevention and Treatment, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China,

Objectives: The epidemiological evidence is inconsistent about whether HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) are at higher risk of developing antiretroviral resistance than any other HIV-positive populations. This study aims to investigate and compare transmitted drug resistance (TDR) between IDUs and non-IDUs in Lingshan County, an HIV-hit region in Guangxi, China, where IDU and heterosexual transmission were the two dominant transmission routes and roughly equally contributed to the local HIV transmission.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among newly diagnosed and antiretroviral-treatment (ART)-naïve HIV-1 patients from Lingshan County. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499367DOI Listing

p62-mediated Selective autophagy endows virus-transformed cells with insusceptibility to DNA damage under oxidative stress.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Apr 24;15(4):e1007541. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, United States of America.

DNA damage response (DDR) and selective autophagy both can be activated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), and both are of paramount importance in cancer development. The selective autophagy receptor and ubiquitin (Ub) sensor p62 plays a key role in their crosstalk. ROS production has been well documented in latent infection of oncogenic viruses including Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007541DOI Listing
April 2019
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"Real life" use of raltegravir during pregnancy in France: The Coferal-IMEA048 cohort study.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0216010. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

INSERM IAME UMR-S 1137, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Introduction: Limited "real life" data on raltegravir (RAL) use during pregnancy are available. Thus, we aimed at describing effectiveness and safety of RAL-based combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in this setting.

Methods: HIV-1-infected women receiving RAL during pregnancy between 2008 and 2014 in ten French centers were retrospectively analysed for: (1) proportion of women receiving RAL anytime during pregnancy who achieved a plasma HIV-RNA (pVL) < 50 copies/mL at delivery, and (2) description of demographics, immuno-virological parameters and safety in women and new-borns. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216010PLOS

HIV infection is an independent risk factor for decreased 6-minute walk test distance.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0212975. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Background: Ambulatory function predicts morbidity and mortality and may be influenced by cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Persons living with HIV (PLWH) suffer from a high prevalence of cardiac and pulmonary comorbidities that may contribute to higher risk of ambulatory dysfunction as measured by 6-minute walk test distance (6-MWD). We investigated the effect of HIV on 6-MWD. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212975PLOS
April 2019
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Does choice of antiretroviral drugs matter for inflammation?

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 24:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a HIV Infection Unit, Infectious Diseases Department , Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau Institut de Recerca del Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau , Barcelona , Spain.

Introduction: The massive implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has forever changed the landscape of HIV infection. This unprecedented success has turned HIV infection into a manageable chronic disease. The increased survival of people living with HIV is, however, shadowed by a high burden of aging-related comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2019.1605902DOI Listing

The impact of concurrent HIV and type II diabetes on immune maturation, immune regulation and immune activation.

APMIS 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Viro-Immunology Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, 2100 Kbh Ø, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Tingstedt JL, Hove-Skovsgaard M, Gaardbo J, Ullum H, Nielsen SD, Gelpi M. The impact of concurrent HIV and type II diabetes on immune maturation, immune regulation and immune activation. Chronic immune activation and inflammation are constant findings in people living with HIV (PLWH) and contribute to the risk of non-AIDS-related morbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12956DOI Listing

Anemia, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Supplementation in Relation to Mortality among HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Tanzania.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Anemia in HIV-infected patients improves with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, it may still be associated with mortality among patients receiving treatment. We examined the associations of anemia severity and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) at HAART initiation and during monthly prospective follow-up with mortality among 40,657 adult HIV-infected patients receiving HAART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of anemia severity and IDA at HAART initiation and during follow-up with mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0096DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Primary health care: an opportunity for early identification of people living with undiagnosed HIV infection.

HIV Med 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense C, Denmark.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the fraction of HIV-diagnosed individuals who had primary health care (PHC) contacts 3 years prior to HIV diagnosis and whether the risk of HIV diagnosis and degree of immunodeficiency were associated with the frequency of visits or procedures performed.

Methods: We used data from national registries to conduct a population-based nested case-control study. Cases were individuals diagnosed with HIV infection in Denmark from 1998 to 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12735DOI Listing

HIV and Alzheimer's disease: complex interactions of HIV-Tat with amyloid β peptide and Tau protein.

J Neurovirol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Section of Infections of the Nervous System, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10; Room 7C-103, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

In patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the HIV-Tat protein may be continually produced despite adequate antiretroviral therapy. As the HIV-infected population is aging, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how HIV-Tat may interact with proteins such as amyloid β and Tau which accumulate in the aging brain and eventually result in Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we examine the in vivo data from HIV-infected patients and animal models and the in vitro experiments that show how protein complexes between HIV-Tat and amyloid β occur through novel protein-protein interactions and how HIV-Tat may influence the pathways for amyloid β production, degradation, phagocytosis, and transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00736-zDOI Listing

Addressing the rising rates of gonorrhea and drug-resistant gonorrhea: There is no time like the present.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Feb 7;45(2-3):54-62. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Bacterial Pathogens Division, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB.

Increasing rates of gonococcal (GC) infection and antimicrobial resistant (AMR) GC, are a serious public health concern for Canada and around the world. Previously recommended treatments are ineffective against many of the gonorrhea strains circulating today. The current recommendation for combination therapy is now being threatened by globally emerging and increasingly resistant strains. Read More

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https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/servic
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i23a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461120PMC
February 2019
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A 12-year study of fungal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

Rev Iberoam Micol 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia da Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Serviço de Dermatologia da Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Ambulatório de Dermatologia Sanitária da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Background: The number of fungal infections has increased in recent years in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Epidemiological studies are important for proper control of infections.

Aims: To evaluate the etiology of fungal infections in patients in RS, from 2003 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.riam.2018.10.006DOI Listing

Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Isolated from cat Feces in Songkhla, Southern Thailand.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2018 Aug 24;13:105-109. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand.

The genotype of Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively studied to determine whether its characteristics may influence the course of toxoplasmosis. Recent genotyping studies in South America have found Toxoplasma hybrid isolates or atypical strains which were more virulent and highly diverse than North American and European species. Although, the high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women and HIV-infected patients from Songklanagarind Hospital, Songkhla, Southern Thailand has been previously reported, there is no reported study of human genotyping data on T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.04.005DOI Listing

The interplay between viruses & host microRNAs in cancer - An emerging role for HIV in oncogenesis.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2019 May 15;137:108-114. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Division of Haematology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory, 7925, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Human cancers attributed to viral infections represent a growing proportion of the global cancer burden, with these types of cancers being the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in some regions. The concept that viruses play a causal role in human cancers is not new, but the mechanism thereof, while well described for some viruses, still remains elusive and complex for others, especially in the case of HIV-associated B-cell derived cancers. In the last decade, compelling evidence has demonstrated that cellular microRNAs are deregulated in cancers, with an increasing number of studies identifying microRNAs as potential biomarkers for human cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic targets or tools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.02.007DOI Listing

Population-level mathematical modeling of antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 24;17(1):81. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA.

Background: Mathematical transmission models are increasingly used to guide public health interventions for infectious diseases, particularly in the context of emerging pathogens; however, the contribution of modeling to the growing issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains unclear. Here, we systematically evaluate publications on population-level transmission models of AMR over a recent period (2006-2016) to gauge the state of research and identify gaps warranting further work.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature search of relevant databases to identify transmission studies of AMR in viral, bacterial, and parasitic disease systems. Read More

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https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1291
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1314-9DOI Listing
April 2019
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Talaromyces marneffei infection in a lung cancer patient: a rare case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 24;19(1):336. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, China.

Background: Talaromyces marneffei is an invasive, and thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus, whose infection is life threatening in human. Although immunocompromised patients, such as patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and recipients of organ transplant, are susceptible hosts, infections have been recently reported in people with normal immune function. Patients with cancer may also be susceptible hosts but no case of T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3968-5DOI Listing

Impact of physical exercises on immune function, bone mineral density, and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 24;19(1):340. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Fakultaat III, Hochschhule Hannover University of Applied Sciences & Arts, Expo Plaza 12, 30539, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Compromised immune function, associated with human immune deficiency virus(HIV) infection, is improved by antiretroviral therapy(ART) which also decreases bone mineral density(BMD), and possibly the quality of life(QoL). However, physical(aerobic/resistance) exercises, were reported to induce reverse effects in uninfected individuals and were appraised in the literature for evidence of similar benefits in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA). The main study objective was to evaluate the impact of physical (aerobic and resistance) exercises on CD count, BMD and QoL in PLWHA. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3916-4DOI Listing
April 2019
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'Sometimes it is not about men': Gendered and generational discourses of caregiving HIV transmission in a rural South African setting.

Glob Public Health 2019 Apr 23:1-13. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

b American University , Washington , DC , USA.

In this paper, we examine a prominent interpretation of HIV risk in a rural South African setting experiencing a severe HIV epidemic well into older ages: the discourse of caregiving HIV transmission. By caregiving transmission, we refer to HIV infection resulting from caring for family members who are living with HIV and may be sick with AIDS-related illnesses. We draw on individual life history and community focus group interviews with men and women aged 40-80+, as well as interviews with health workers providing HIV counselling and testing services at local health facilities in their communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2019.1606265DOI Listing

Schistosoma and Other Relevant Helminth Infections in HIV-Positive Individuals-an Overview.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 12;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Leipzig University Hospital, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

For many years, researchers have postulated that helminthic infections may increase susceptibility to HIV, and that immune activation may have contributed to the extensive spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In the meantime, immunological studies have provided some evidence in support of this hypothesis, while cross-sectional clinical studies were able to further support the assumed association between HIV infection and selected helminthic co-infections. However, as many of the helminthic infections relevant to HIV-infected patients belong to the group of "neglected tropical diseases", as defined by the World Health Organization, a certain lack of attention has inhibited progress in fully scaling up treatment and prevention efforts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020065DOI Listing

[Dialyzed leukocyte extracts for the treatment of recurrent and severe infections in pediatric patients with cellular immunodeficiency: 15 years of experience].

Rev Alerg Mex 2019 Jan-Mar;66(1):27-37

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Especialidades 25, Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad, Nuevo León, México.

Background: Dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLE) have been used to treat several cellular immunodeficiency.

Objective: To review the experience of a tertiary hospital in the use of DLE for the treatment of recurrent or severe infections in children with acquired cellular immunodeficiency not due to HIV.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all children who received treatment with EDL of human or bovine origin between 1986 and 2000 to detect recurrent or severe infections without response to a specific antimicrobial therapy and with a quantitative or qualitative deficit in the cellular immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v66i1.531DOI Listing

Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the Tapajós region, Amazon, Brazil: Self-collected vs. clinician-collected samples.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215001. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

The anogenital prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the use of cervico-vaginal self-collected vs. clinician-collected samples were evaluated for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the Tapajós region, Amazon, Brazil. We recruited 153 women for a cross-sectional study (112 HIV-uninfected and 41 HIV-infected) who sought health services. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215001PLOS

Tackling protein-energy under-nutrition among resource-limited people living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi using soybean-enriched maize-based stiff porridge (nsima): A pilot study.

Nutr Diet 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Food Technology and Nutrition Group, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANAR), Lilongwe, Malawi.

Aim: The Ministry of Health in Malawi has scaled-up antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection. However, the majority of Malawians heavily depend on maize-based stiff porridge (nsima), a protein-deficient staple, a practice that exacerbates wasting and ultimately compromises the success of ART programming. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of utilising soybean-enriched nsima as a strategy for managing HIV-related wasting among resource-poor people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1747-0080.12539DOI Listing

Effectiveness of blood donor screening by HIV, HCV, HBV-NAT assays, as well as HBsAg and anti-HBc immunoassays in Germany (2008-2015).

Vox Sang 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Safety of Medicinal Products and Medical Devices, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany.

Background And Objectives: In Germany, in addition to standard blood donor screening, further mandatory tests were introduced for HCV-RNA, HIV-1-RNA and for anti-HBc. Screening for HBV-DNA is optional. This study investigates the benefits of these additional tests for the detection of HIV, HCV, and HBV infections among German blood donors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.12770DOI Listing

Evaluation of Vascular Event Risk while on Long-term Anti-retroviral Suppressive Therapy [EVERLAST]: Protocol for a prospective observational study.

eNeurologicalSci 2019 Jun 5;15:100189. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Background & Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among the HIV population is high due to a combination of accelerated atherosclerosis from the pro-inflammatory milieu created by chronic HIV infection and the potentially adverse metabolic side effects from cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) medications. Although sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) bears 70% of the global burden of HIV disease, there is a relative paucity of studies comprehensively assessing CVD risk among people living with HIV on the continent. The overarching objective of the Evaluation of Vascular Event Risk while on Long-term Anti-retroviral Suppressive Therapy (EVERLAST) Study is to characterize the burden of CVD among HIV patients on ART in Ghana, and explore factors influencing it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2019.100189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460293PMC

Single-Chain Variable Fragment-Based Bispecific Antibodies: Hitting Two Targets with One Sophisticated Arrow.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2019 Sep 23;14:38-56. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Human Antibody Lab, Innovation Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Despite the success of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to treat some disorders, the monospecific molecular entity of mAbs as well as the presence of multiple factors and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of disorders, such as various malignancies, infectious diseases, and autoimmune disorders, and resistance to therapy have restricted the therapeutic efficacy of mAbs in clinical use. Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), by concurrently recognizing two targets, can partly circumvent these problems. Serial killing of tumor cells by bsAb-redirected T cells, simultaneous blocking of two antigens involved in the HIV-1 infection, and concurrent targeting of the activating and inhibitory receptors on B cells to modulate autoimmunity are part of the capabilities of bsAbs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2019.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463744PMC
September 2019

A Rare Case of Neurosyphilis with Ocular Involvement in a Patient with HIV Infection and New Onset Syphilis.

Cureus 2019 Feb 7;11(2):e4034. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Internal Medicine, St. Barnabas Hospital, Bronx, USA.

Neurosyphilis (NS) is more frequently seen in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, especially those not on antiretroviral therapy or with a low CD4 cell count. Ocular syphilis is an unusual and early form of neurosyphilis. Lumbar puncture should be considered in all HIV infected patients who present with neurologic or ocular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456285PMC
February 2019

[Hydrocephaly resulting from thrombophlebitis of the superior sagittal sinus due to osteitis of the cranial vault caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in an immunocompetent patient].

Pan Afr Med J 2018 9;31:97. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Service de Neurochirurgie CHU Yopougon, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

This case study presents an unusual pathogenic association among several cranioencephalic lesions characterized by the association of osteitis of the cranial vault, due to Aspergillus fumigatus, with underlying thrombophlebitis complicated by intracranial hypertension resulting from hydrocephalus. The study involved a 43-year old HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) negative man with multi-recurrent infection of the frontal scalp. The patient was successfully treated with cerebrospinal fluid diversion (CFD), Ketoconazole and low molecular weight heparin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.97.14251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462154PMC
October 2018

Addressing missed opportunities for HIV testing by including rapid-HIV self-testing kits with patient-delivered partner therapy.

Authors:
Steven A John

Sex Res Social Policy 2018 Dec 8;15(4):387-397. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Center for HIV Educational Studies & Training (CHEST), Hunter College, City University of New York (CUNY), New York, New York, USA.

Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) is the practice of providing patients diagnosed with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) medication to give directly to their partner for treatment, which can result in missed opportunities for partner HIV testing. Fifteen STI clinic patients were asked about their opinions of including HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits with PDPT. Interview data fit well into constructs of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13178-017-0316-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474367PMC
December 2018

Management Approaches to Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination Nonresponse.

Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) 2019 Feb;15(2):93-99

Dr Yanny is a health science clinical instructor of medicine and Mr Konyn is a medical student in the Department of Medicine at the University of California at Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California. Ms Najarian is a premedical student in the Department of Surgery at the University of California at Los Angeles. Ms Mitry is a graduate student at Claremont Graduate University in Riverside, California.

Despite the availability of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination, HBV remains a cause of significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Immunologic response and the development of immunity to the HBV vaccine vary significantly among patients. Multiple studies have looked at patients who are at risk of nonresponse and have offered their own approaches to patients who do not respond. Read More

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February 2019

Community outbreak of invasive group A streptococcus infection in Ontario, Canada.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Jul 5;44(7-8):182-188. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Middlesex-London Health Unit, London, ON.

Background: Outbreaks of invasive group A streptococcal infection (iGAS) have historically occurred in institutional settings. Increasingly, community-based outbreaks have been reported, often among marginalized populations, yet few guidelines exist for managing iGAS outbreaks in such settings.

Objective: To describe the ongoing outbreak of iGAS in Middlesex-London, Ontario, and the challenges that arose while applying current guidelines to a marginalized population in a community setting. Read More

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Barriers to and facilitators of hepatitis C virus screening and testing: A scoping review.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Jul 5;44(7-8):166-172. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Background: As part of the global effort to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV), it is important to understand the barriers to and facilitators of HCV screening and testing.

Objective: To examine the barriers and facilitators experienced by health care providers offering HCV screening and testing and patients seeking HCV testing.

Methods: A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and Scopus databases to collect studies published between January 2012 and July 2017. Read More

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Predictors of Time to First Line Antiretroviral Treatment Failure among Adult Patients Living with HIV in Public Health Facilities of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2019 Mar;29(2):175-186

Arba Minch University, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy is a proven medication given for Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive individuals. However, first-line antiretroviral treatment failure becomes a public health issue and early detection of treatment failure is crucial for timely actions. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the predictors of time to first-line antiretroviral treatment failure among adult patients living with HIV in public health facilities of Arba Minch Town. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v29i2.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460441PMC

Sexual network characteristics of men who have sex with men with syphilis and/or gonorrhoea/chlamydia in Lima, Peru: network patterns as roadmaps for STI prevention interventions.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Objective: While men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by Peru's overlapping HIV and STI epidemics, there are few data on how partnership-level and network-level factors affect STI transmission in Peru. We explored partnership-level and network-level factors associated with gonorrhoea/chlamydia ( and/or (NG/CT)) and/or syphilis infection among MSM in Peru.

Methods: We present the results of a cross-sectional secondary analysis of MSM (n=898) tested for syphilis and NG/CT infection as part of the screening process for two STI control trials in Lima, Peru. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2018-053865DOI Listing

Preparing for PrEP: estimating the size of the population eligible for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in England.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Blood Safety, Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV Service, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

Objectives: The size of the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) who may be eligible for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (HIV-PrEP) in England remains unknown. To plan for a national PrEP implementation trial, we estimated the number of MSM attending sexual health clinics (SHCs) that may be eligible for HIV-PrEP in England.

Methods: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance data from 2010 to 2015 from the GUMCAD surveillance system were used to estimate the annual number of HIV-negative MSM who may be eligible for HIV-PrEP in England. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2019-054009DOI Listing

Frailty phenotype in older people living with HIV: concepts, prevention and issues.

Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Visage Study Group, COREVIH, Hôpital de la Conception, Marseille, France, Centre d'étude et de recherche sur les services de santé et la qualité de vie, EA 3279, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

The life-span of people aging with HIV (PHIV) tends to reach people without infection, reflecting the effectiveness and tolerance of antiretroviral treatment and improvement of multidisciplinary management. Comorbidities or HIV-inflammaging seems to be the main determinants of frailty phenotype in PHIV. Prevalence of frailty in PHIV is frequent (5% from 28%) and appears earlier than in general population (50 versus 65 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/pnv.2019.0795DOI Listing

[The current situation with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Niamey (Niger)].

Rev Mal Respir 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Laboratoire national de référence VIH/tuberculose, Niamey, Niger.

Tuberculosis is a major public health problem and the main reason for hospital admission in developing countries. No study of tuberculosis has been undertaken in the pulmonary/tuberculosis service of Lamordé National Hospital in Niamey since its foundation in April 2009. The aim of our study is to assess the current situation of sputum positive new and relapsed cases of tuberculosis and to determine their epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmr.2018.07.009DOI Listing

Contact tracing for hepatitis C: The case for novel screening strategies as we strive for viral elimination.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

NYU School of Medicine, United States.

Contact tracing has been a key element of the public health response to infectious diseases for decades. These practices have been powerful in slowing the spread of tuberculosis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Despite success in other contexts, contact tracing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has historically been considered infeasible because of a long asymptomatic period, which often makes it difficult to pinpoint the time of acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Follow-up losses of people with HIV infection: A weak point in the continuum of care.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Universidad de Alcalá, IRYCIS, Madrid, España. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Emerging and reemerging fungal infections.

Semin Diagn Pathol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Fungal infections throughout the world appear to be increasing. This may in part be due to the increase in the population of patients that are susceptible to otherwise rare fungal infections resulting from the use of immune modulating procedures such as hematopoietic stem cell transplants and drugs like tissue necrosis factor antagonists. Histoplasma capsulatum, an endemic fungus throughout North and South America, is reemerging among HIV+ patients in Central and South America and among patients taking tissue necrosis factor antagonists and other biologics in North America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2019.04.010DOI Listing

Humoral Response to the HIV-1 Envelope V2 Region in a Thai Early Acute Infection Cohort.

Cells 2019 Apr 19;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.

Reduced risk of HIV-1 infection correlated with antibody responses to the envelope variable 1 and 2 regions in the RV144 vaccine trial. To understand the relationship between antibody responses, V2 sequence, and structure, plasma samples (n = 16) from an early acute HIV-1 infection cohort from Thailand infected with CRF01_AE strain were analyzed for binding to V2 peptides by surface plasmon resonance. Five participants with a range of V2 binding responses at week 24 post-infection were further analyzed against a set of four overlapping V2 peptides that were designed based on envelope single-genome amplification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8040365DOI Listing

The Contribution of Host Cells to Immunity: An Update.

Pathogens 2019 Apr 19;8(2). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

AFGrica Medical Mycology Research Unit, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

is a ubiquitous atypical fungus that is distributed globally. The genus comprises morphologically similar but genetically heterogeneous species that have co-evolved with specific mammalian hosts as obligate intra-pulmonary pathogens. In humans, is the causative organism of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals, a serious illness frequently leading to life-threatening respiratory failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020052DOI Listing

Herpes Simplex Virus Proctitis Masquerading as Rectal Cancer.

Diseases 2019 Apr 21;7(2). Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the leading cause of proctitis in HIV-infected individuals. However, no cases of rectal masses secondary to HSV infection have been reported to date. Herein, we present the case of a 45-year-old man with HIV infection who developed rectal pain and bleeding, along with dysuria and voiding difficulty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diseases7020036DOI Listing

Serological Markers for Syphilis Among Persons Presenting with Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections Results from the Zimbabwe STI Etiology Study.

Sex Transm Dis 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Syphilis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa appears to be stable or declining but is still the highest globally. Ongoing sentinel surveillance in high-risk populations is necessary to inform management and detect changes in syphilis trends. We assessed serological syphilis markers among persons with sexually transmitted infections in Zimbabwe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001006DOI Listing

Altered neuropsychological performance and reduced brain volumetrics in people living with HIV on integrase strand transfer inhibitors.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, USA.

Objectives: Neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported in people living with HIV (PLWH) on integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in post marketing analysis. Limited data exists regarding brain integrity (function and structure) in PLWH prescribed INSTIs compared to other HIV treatment regimens.

Design: A cross-sectional analysis of PLWH on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) aged >18 years at a single institution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002236DOI Listing
April 2019
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Clinical significance of elevated liver transaminases in HIV-infected patients.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

: Elevation of liver transaminases is common in patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Although this is usually an incidental finding during regular work-up, HIV-infected patients with transaminases elevations require additional visits for laboratory studies and clinical assessments, and often undergo interruptions and changes in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is present primarily in the liver, thus being a surrogate marker of hepatocellular injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002233DOI Listing
April 2019
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Simplifying switch to second line ART: Predicted effect of defining failure of first-line efavirenz-based regimens in sub-Saharan Africa by a single viral load > 1000 copies/ml.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, UK.

Background: Many individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa never initiate second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) or do so after significant delay. For people on ART with a viral load (VL) > 1000 copies/ml, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a second VL measurement 3 months after the first VL and enhanced adherence support. Switch to a second-line regimen is contingent upon a persistently elevated VL > 1000 copies/ml. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002234DOI Listing

A novel hepatitis B virus recombinant genotype D4/E identified in a South African population.

Heliyon 2019 Apr 6;5(4):e01477. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

HIV and Hepatitis Research Unit, Department of Virology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University and National Health Laboratory Services, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Genetic diversity is a characteristic trait of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and has been associated with different clinical outcomes. In South Africa, HBV infection is a major public health concern. Most HBV infections are caused by genotype A strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453802PMC

Clinical Profile and Visual Outcomes of Ocular Syphilis: A Five-year Review in Hospital Universiti Sains, Malaysia.

Cureus 2019 Feb 5;11(2):e4015. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Ophthalmology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, MYS.

Introduction Ocular syphilis is a sight-threatening condition. It can occur at any stage of syphilis infection, which present either with acute inflammation during the primary, secondary, and early latent stages or with chronic inflammation during tertiary infection, affecting virtually every ocular structure. This study was to report on the clinical presentation of ocular syphilis that presented to eye clinic Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453624PMC
February 2019