339,935 results match your criteria HIV Infection


Analysis of interaction between sulfated polysaccharides and HIV oligopeptides by surface plasmon resonance.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Bio and Environmental Chemistry, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507, Japan. Electronic address:

This study aims to quantitatively investigate the interaction between sulfated polysaccharides with potent anti-HIV activity, dextran and curdlan sulfates with negatively charged sulfate groups, and poly-l-lysine as a model protein and oligopeptides from a HIV surface glycoprotein gp120 with positively charged amino acids using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to elucidate the anti-HIV mechanism of sulfated polysaccharides. The apparent association- (k) and dissociation rate (k) constants of dextran and curdlan sulfates against poly-l-lysine were k = 6.92 × 10-2. Read More

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December 2018

Past and future trends of Cryptosporidium in vitro research.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Molecular and Evolutionary Parasitology, RAPID Group, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidium is a genus of single celled parasites capable of infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Cryptosporidium species are members of the phylum apicomplexa, which includes well-known genera such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Cryptosporidium parasites cause a severe gastro-intestinal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Read More

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December 2018
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Identification of risk factors and diagnostic methodology in serositis by M. tuberculosis

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):364-370. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Secretaría de Salud, Hospital General de México “Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”, Unidad de Neumología y Cirugía de Tórax. Ciudad de México, México

Background: Tuberculosis is a public health problem, extrapulmonary presentations have increased, it is difficult to diagnose because of the low bacillary load.

Objective: To identify risk factors and to evaluate the efficiency of diagnostic methods in pleural, meningeal, peritoneal and pericardial tuberculosis.

Methods: Prospective study of cases and controls. Read More

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November 2018

Psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in concurrent problem alcohol and illicit drug users.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 5;12:CD009269. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

BC Centre on Substance Use, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, 611 Powell Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6A 1H2.

Background: Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

CCR5 structural plasticity shapes HIV-1 phenotypic properties.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007432. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Viral Pathogenesis Unit, Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. It exists in diverse conformations and oligomerization states. We interrogated the significance of the CCR5 structural diversity on HIV-1 infection. Read More

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December 2018

Identifying missed clinical opportunities for the earlier diagnosis of HIV in Australia, a retrospective cohort data linkage study.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208323. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Infectious Diseases, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Treatment as prevention approaches for HIV require optimal HIV testing strategies to reduce undiagnosed HIV infections. In most settings, HIV testing strategies still result in unacceptably high rates of missed and late diagnoses. This study aimed to identify clinical opportunities for targeted HIV testing in persons at risk to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis in New South Wales, Australia; and to assess the duration between the diagnosis of specific conditions and HIV diagnosis. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men in Taiwan from 2013 to 2015.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0202622. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Center for Infectious Disease and Cancer Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Men who have sex with men (MSM) is the major risk population of HIV-1 infection in Taiwan, and its surveillance has become critical in HIV-1 prevention. We recruited MSM subjects from 17 high-risk venues and 4 community centers in northern and southern Taiwan for anonymous HIV-1 screening during 2013-2015. Blood samples were obtained for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis, and a questionnaire survey covering demographic variables and social behavior was conducted. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cluster randomized trial of comprehensive gender-based violence programming delivered through the HIV/AIDS program platform in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: Tathmini GBV study.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0206074. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

United States Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, United States of America.

The Tathmini GBV study was a cluster randomized trial to assess the impact of a comprehensive health facility- and community-based program delivered through the HIV/AIDS program platform on reduction in gender-based violence and improved care for survivors. Twelve health facilities and surrounding communities in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Population-level effects were measured through two cross-sectional household surveys of women ages 15-49, at baseline (n = 1,299) and at 28 months following program scale-out (n = 1,250). Read More

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December 2018
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Blocking Tyr265 nitration of protein phosphatase 2A attenuates nitrosative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction in renal microvessels.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201800885RR. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Protein tyrosine (Tyr) nitration, the covalent addition of a nitro group (NO) to Tyr residues, is emerging as a candidate mechanism of endothelial dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that Tyr nitration is primarily induced by nitrosative stress, a process characterized by the production of reactive nitrogen species, especially peroxynitrite anion (ONOO), which is considered a secondary product of NO in the presence of superoxide radicals (O). However, the impact of nitrosative stress-induced Tyr nitration on endothelial dysfunction has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Read More

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December 2018

Hatching success and survival of fish early life stages in a chronic exposure to nevirapine: a case study of the Mozambique tilapia.

Int J Environ Health Res 2018 Dec 6:1-16. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Department of Zoology , University of Johannesburg , Johannesburg , South Africa.

The anti-retroviral nevirapine has been detected in surface waters throughout South Africa and its effects on non-target aquatic animals are still unknown. The aim was to investigate the potential effects of nevirapine on the hatching success and survival of Oreochromis mossambicus early life stages through a chronic exposure. The exposer started with newly fertilized O. Read More

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December 2018
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Resistance testing for integrase-strand-transfer inhibitors in naïve HIV infected individuals.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Spain.

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December 2018

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men having sex with men in Togo: a national cross-sectional survey.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Université de Lomé, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Département de Santé Publique, Lomé, Togo.

Background: Sub-Saharan Africa is a region of both high HIV and anal cancer incidence. We conducted the first national study in Togo to assess HPV, HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) prevalence among Men having Sex with Men (MSM).

Methods: A multicentric cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM recruited in four Togolese cities based on the respondent-driven sampling method. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of HLA allele-KIR pairs on HIV clinical outcome in South Africa.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: HLA class I contributes to HIV immune control through antigen presentation to both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. However, by contrast with investigations of CTL, studies of NK cells in HIV control through HLA-killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) interactions remain sparse in African cohorts.

Methods: 312 treatment naïve, chronically HIV-infected adults were recruited from South Africa, and the effects of HLA-KIR pairs on clinical outcome were statistically analyzed. Read More

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December 2018
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Loss of CXCR4 on non-classical monocytes in participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with subclinical atherosclerosis.

Cardiovasc Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

La Jolla Institute of Immunology, La Jolla, California, USA.

Aims: To test whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD) are associated with expression of CXCR4 and other surface markers on classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes in women.

Methods And Results: sCVD was defined as presence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid artery in 92 participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants were stratified into 4 sets (n = 23 each) by HIV and sCVD status (HIV-/sCVD-, HIV-/sCVD+, HIV+/sCVD-, HIV+/sCVD+) matched by age, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Read More

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December 2018

Everything in its right place: resident memory CD8+ T cell immunosurveillance of HIV infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To introduce emerging concepts in tissue resident CD8 T cell immunosurveillance and their relevance to control HIV infection.

Recent Findings: It is well appreciated that HIV preferentially infects and persists in CD4 T cells located in gut and in lymphoid tissue, yet the majority of known immunological correlates of HIV control are derived from peripheral blood. Instead, tissue-based immunological surveillance likely dictates the course of infection. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A virus-packageable CRISPR screen identifies host factors mediating interferon inhibition of HIV.

Elife 2018 Dec 6;7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Divisions of Human Biology and Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Washington, United States.

Interferon (IFN) inhibits HIV replication by inducing antiviral effectors. To comprehensively identify IFN-induced HIV restriction factors, we assembled a CRISPR sgRNA library of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) into a modified lentiviral vector that allows for packaging of sgRNA-encoding genomes into budding HIV-1 particles. We observed that knockout of Zinc Antiviral Protein (ZAP) improved the performance of the screen due to ZAP-mediated inhibition of the vector. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum is associated with macrolide consumption.

Authors:
Chris Kenyon

J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

1​HIV/STI Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

We hypothesized that the large global variations in the prevalence of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum are related to differences in population-level macrolide consumption. The hypothesis was tested by, at a country-level, regressing the peak prevalence of macrolide resistance against the national macrolide consumption in the year prior to this, controlling for the year of the resistance prevalence estimate. A strong association was found between the per capita consumption of macrolides and macrolide resistance (coefficient 0. Read More

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December 2018
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How actively should we screen for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM and other high-ST-prevalence populations as we enter the era of increasingly untreatable infections? A viewpoint.

Authors:
Chris Kenyon

J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

2​Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7700, South Africa.

A number of national and international organizations are advocating more intensive screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in high-prevalence populations as a way to reduce the prevalence of these infections. In this article, we review the available evidence and conclude that there is a paucity of evidence to support this approach. We further hypothesize that increasing screening intensity in high-prevalence populations will result in a considerable risk for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other pathobionts. Read More

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December 2018

Updating guidance for preventing and treating cryptococcal disease: how evidence and decisions interface.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Nov;11:ED000130

Department of HIV and Global Hepatitis Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

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November 2018

Simplifying the ShangRing technique for circumcision in boys and men: use of the no-flip technique with randomization to removal at 7 days versus spontaneous detachment.

Asian J Androl 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

EngenderHealth, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.

To assess safety of the no-flip ShangRing male circumcision technique and to determine clinical course and safety of spontaneous detachment (i.e., allowing the device to fall off), we conducted a case series of no-flip ShangRing circumcision combined with a randomized controlled trial of removal 7 days postcircumcision versus spontaneous detachment at two health facilities in Kenya. Read More

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November 2018

Synthesis, Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potency of N-Substituted-2-Sulfanylidene-1,3-Thiazolidin-4-one Derivatives and QSAR Study.

Med Chem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Faculty of Agrobiotehnical Sciences Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek. Croatia.

Background: Rhodanine is known for its potential and important role in the medicinal chemistry since its derivatives exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, antitubercular, anti-HIV, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-proliferative and anthelmintic agents.

Objectives: Since N-substituted rhodanine synthons are rarely commercially available, it is desirable to develop a straight forward synthetic approach for the synthesis of these key building blocks. The objective was to synthesize a series of rhodanine derivatives and to investigate their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Read More

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December 2018
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The Effect of MSM and CD4+ Count on the Development of Cancer AIDS (AIDS-defining Cancer) and Non-cancer AIDS in the HAART Era.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan . Canada.

Background: The HIV epidemic is increasing among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) and the risk for AIDSdefining cancer (ADC) is higher among them.

Objective: To examine the effect of MSM and CD4+ count on time to cancer AIDS (ADC) and non-cancer AIDS in competing risks setting in the HAART era.

Method: Using Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study data, HIV-positive adults diagnosed between January 1997 and October 2012 having baseline CD4+ counts ≤ 500 cells/mm3 were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

M918: A novel cell penetrating peptide for effective delivery of HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins into eukaryotic cell lines.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Pilot Nano-Biotechnology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran. Iran.

Background: HIV-1 Nef protein is a possible attractive target in development of therapeutic HIV vaccines including protein-based vaccines. The most important disadvantage of protein-based vaccines is their low immunogenicity which can be improved by heat shock proteins (Hsps) as an immunomodulator, and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as a carrier.

Methods: In this study, the HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins were generated in E. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

The interaction of HIV set-point viral load and subtype on disease progression.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

NIAID, LIR , 855 North Wolfe St. , Rangos Building, Room 538A , Baltimore, Maryland, United States , 21205.

HIV-1 subtype and viral load set-point have been implicated as strong predictors of HIV-1 disease progression; however the relationship between these two variables has not been investigated. We used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study to investigate whether the association between viral load set-point and disease progression is modified by HIV subtype. Time to AIDS or AIDS-related death was investigated through Cox proportional hazards regression with an interaction term between viral load set point and HIV subtype. Read More

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December 2018
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Commentary on Madah-Amiri et al. (2019): Beyond saturation.

Addiction 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Center on Community and Health Disparities Research, National Development and Research Institutes, New York, NY, USA.

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December 2018

Optimization strategies for HIV, hepatitis and syphilis testing in Infectious Disease Clinic and Dermatology Unit of Modena: seven-years results of collaboration experience.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico, Modena, Italy.

Background: Screening tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis infections performed in at-risk population show a higher number of positive tests compared to those carried out in the general population. "Test & Counselling" Ambulatory of Infectious Disease Clinic (T&C-IDC) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Ambulatory of Dermatology Unit (STDs-DU) of Modena began collaboration in 2010 and adopted a common diagnostic serological profile since 2013.

Objectives: The main objective was to analyse the number of screening tests performed in the T&C-IDC and STDs-DU, comparing the results obtained after the adoption of the shared protocol with the previous period. Read More

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December 2018

HIV gp120-induced neuroinflammation potentiates NMDA receptors to overcome basal suppression of inhibitory synapses by p38 MAPK.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects about half of HIV-infected patients. HIV impairs neuronal function through indirect mechanisms mainly mediated by inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic viral proteins, such as the envelope protein gp120. HIV gp120 elicits a neuroinflammatory response that potentiates NMDA receptor function and induces the loss of excitatory synapses. Read More

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December 2018

Empiric neurocognitive performance profile discovery and interpretation in HIV infection.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry, 1E.1 WC Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R7, Canada.

The measurement and determinants of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are under intense debate. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) and machine learning to define neurocognitive performance profiles and identify their associated risk factors in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Neurocognitive performance was assessed by a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Suboptimal performance of APRI and FIB-4 in ruling out significant fibrosis and confirming cirrhosis in HIV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients.

Infection 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Sciences for Health Promotion "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Purpose: We aimed to assess the diagnostic reliability of two indirect biomarkers, APRI and FIB-4, for the staging of liver fibrosis using transient elastography (TE) as reference standard, among HIV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients.

Methods: This is an observational, retrospective study on subjects who had access to the RESIST HCV from October 2013 to December 2016, a regional network encompassing 22 hospitals and academic centers throughout Sicily. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of indirect biomarkers for liver stiffness measurement (LSM) < 9. Read More

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December 2018

HIV Physicians and Chronic Opioid Therapy: It's Time to Raise the Bar.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Clinical Addiction Research and Education (CARE) Unit, Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Clinical practice that utilizes chronic opioid therapy has been recognized as one major cause of the opioid crisis. Among patients living with HIV, the risks associated with chronic opioid therapy may be complicated by factors such as co-occurring mental health diagnoses, substance use, and economic marginalization. Improving opioid prescribing practices in HIV clinics requires attention to these and other characteristics common to HIV care. Read More

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December 2018
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Older African Americans and the HIV Care Continuum: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2003-2018.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Evidence suggests that racial disparities in the HIV care continuum persist in older age groups, particularly among African Americans. The objective of this systematic review was to identify factors that facilitate or hinder older African Americans' engagement in the HIV care continuum. For studies published between 2003 and 2018, we: (1) searched databases using keywords, (2) excluded non-peer-reviewed studies, (3) limited findings to older African Americans and the HIV care continuum, and (4) retrieved and summarized data focused on barriers and facilitators of the HIV care continuum. Read More

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December 2018

Role of Macrophage Dopamine Receptors in Mediating Cytokine Production: Implications for Neuroinflammation in the Context of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA.

Despite the success of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), around 50% of HIV-infected individuals still display a variety of neuropathological and neurocognitive sequelae known as NeuroHIV. Current research suggests these effects are mediated by long-term changes in CNS function in response to chronic infection and inflammation, and not solely due to active viral replication. In the post-cART era, drug abuse is a major risk-factor for the development of NeuroHIV, and increases extracellular dopamine in the CNS. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

HIV-associated cancers: the role of a unique multidisciplinary board to optimize patient's care behalf the CANCERVIH Group.

Med Oncol 2018 Dec 5;36(1):13. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Tenon Hospital, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Since 1996, the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) has improved, while their risk of cancer is 2-3 times higher than in the general population. HIV-associated cancers remain a critical issue in this population and represent a particular care challenge due to the high risk of drug interactions and additive toxicity. The new standards of care with immunotherapy will also become a major issue for PLWHIV because of the potential impact on immunology and virology. Read More

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December 2018

A study protocol "saving futures: developing an integrated model of rehabilitation and paediatric HIV care to foster success at school".

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2018 28;4:178. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

2School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000 South Africa.

Background: A significant number of children experience disabilities as a result of living with HIV, including those on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Current paediatric HIV care does not prioritise rehabilitation. Furthermore, little attention is paid to cognitive development and educational needs, thereby placing the future of these children at risk. Read More

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November 2018

Young key affected population in Myanmar: are there any challenges in seeking information and care for HIV/sexually transmitted infections and reproductive health?

F1000Res 2018 21;7:1515. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Medical Research, Ministry of Health and Sports, Yangon, 11191, Myanmar.

Unmet needs and barriers in seeking HIV/STI and RH information and care are present especially among young key affected population (YKAP). Therefore, the study was conducted to determine the health seeking behaviors of YKAP regarding HIV/STI and RH, and challenges in seeking health information and care. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods study was conducted at two large cities in Myanmar. Read More

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September 2018

Needle lost in the haystack: multiple reaction monitoring fails to detect candidate protein biomarkers in plasma and urine samples from individuals with syphilis.

F1000Res 2018 19;7:336. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

HIV/STI Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, 2000, Belgium.

Current syphilis diagnostic strategies are lacking a sensitive manner of directly detecting antigens. A diagnostic test that could directly detect antigens in individuals with syphilis would be of considerable clinical utility, especially for the diagnosis of reinfections and for post-treatment serological follow-up. In this study, 11 candidate biomarker proteins were chosen according to their physiochemical characteristics, specificity and predicted abundance. Read More

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March 2018
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Noninvasive western lowland gorilla's health monitoring: A decade of simian immunodeficiency virus surveillance in southern Cameroon.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 25;8(22):10698-10710. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

TransVIHMI Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM) Université de Montpellier Montpellier France.

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVgor) causes persistent infection in critically endangered western lowland gorillas () from west central Africa. SIVgor is closely related to chimpanzee and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpz and HIV-1, respectively). We established a noninvasive method that does not interfere with gorillas' natural behaviour to provide wildlife pathogen surveillance and health monitoring for conservation. Read More

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November 2018

Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitor 3-AP Induces Oncogenic Virus Infected Cell Death and Represses Tumor Growth.

J Cancer 2018 31;9(23):4503-4509. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pediatrics, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, China.

Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several human malignancies, particularly Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), which preferentially arise in immunocompromised patients such as HIV+ subpopulation while still lacking of effective therapeutic options. We recently found that the ribonucleotide reductase (RR) subunit M2 is potentially regulated by the key oncogenic HGF/c-MET pathway in KSHV-related lymphoma cells. One of RR inhibitor, 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) effectively induced apoptosis of KSHV+ lymphomas and suppressed tumor progression . Read More

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October 2018

Higher likelihood of 6-months exclusive breastfeeding among HIV infected than uninfected mothers: a household survey in Kenya.

Int Breastfeed J 2018 29;13:51. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

3University of Washington, Seattle, WA USA.

Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) (breast milk feeding without additional food or drink, except medicine) is associated with deceased risk of postnatal transmission of HIV from mother to child.

Methods: This analysis used data from a household survey in Western Kenya in 2011. Participants were mothers with HIV and uninfected mothers, aged ≥14 years who gave birth in the prior year (ever breastfed) within the Kenya Medical Research Institute/US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KEMRI/CDC) Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Read More

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November 2018

Perception and practice of breastfeeding among HIV positive mothers receiving care for prevention of mother to child transmission in South-East, Nigeria.

Int Breastfeed J 2018 28;13:50. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

1Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu campus, Enugu, Nigeria.

Background: Although the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding is reduced considerably with the use of antiretroviral therapy, infant feeding by HIV positive mothers remains controversial. Weighing risks against benefits generates intense debate among policymakers, program managers and service providers in sub-Saharan Africa, considering that the major causes of infant death of malnutrition and infectious diseases, could be prevented if mothers breastfeed their babies. Whereas breastfeeding involves some risk of HIV transmission, not breastfeeding poses considerable risk to infant survival. Read More

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November 2018

Identification of a HIV Gp41-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibody With Potent Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.

Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2613. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

AIDS Institute, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism of protection against viral infections . Identification of HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with potent ADCC activity may help develop an effective HIV-1 vaccine. In present study, we isolated such human mAb, designated E10, from an HIV-1-infected patient sample by single B cell sorting and single cell PCR. Read More

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November 2018

Atypical Manifestation of Disseminated Sporotrichosis in an AIDS Patient.

Case Rep Dermatol 2018 Sep-Dec;10(3):231-237. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Sector of Dermatology and Post-Graduation Course, HUCFF-UFRJ and School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Sporotrichosis is an infection caused by fungi of the complex. The clinical lymphocutaneous presentation corresponds to the great majority of cases. With the increased incidence of sporotrichosis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, atypical clinical forms have been reported with increasing frequency, usually associated with immunosuppression. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Baseline hepatitis C virus resistance-associated substitutions present at frequencies lower than 15% may be clinically significant.

Infect Drug Resist 2018 8;11:2207-2210. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Liver Unit, Liver Disease Laboratory-Viral Hepatitis, Internal Medicine Department, Vall d'Hebron Institut of Research (VHIR)-Vall d'Hebron University Hospital(HUVH), 08035, Barcelona, Spain,

Background: Controversy is ongoing about whether a minority mutant present at frequencies below 15% may be clinically relevant and should be considered to guide treatment.

Methods: Resistance-associated substitution (RAS) studies were performed in patients before and at failure of antiviral treatments using Next-generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequencing (NGS).

Results: We have found two patients with genotype 1a infection having RAS in 3. Read More

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November 2018

Comparative study of antiretroviral drug regimens and drug-drug interactions between younger and older HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South Korea.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 12;14:2229-2241. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea,

Background: With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV have lived to older age. So they have experienced age-related illnesses and have taken non-antiretroviral (ARV) medications to manage these illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the use patterns of ARV agents in HIV-positive patients by age and to evaluate potential or contraindicated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between ARV and non-ARV. Read More

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November 2018

High Abundance of genus Prevotella in the gut of perinatally HIV-infected children is associated with IP-10 levels despite therapy.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17679. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory of AIDS Research and Immunology, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Perinatal HIV infection is characterized by faster HIV disease progression and higher initial rate of HIV replication compared to adults. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly reduced HIV replication to undetectable levels, there is persistent elevated inflammation associated with HIV disease progression. Alteration of gut microbiota is associated with increased inflammation in chronic adult HIV infection. Read More

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December 2018