380,583 results match your criteria HIV Infection


Therapeutic review of cabotegravir/rilpivirine long-acting antiretroviral injectable and implementation considerations at an HIV specialty clinic.

Pharmacotherapy 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Cabotegravir/rilpivirine (CAB/RPV) was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first complete parenteral antiretroviral (ART) regimen for treatment of people living with HIV (PLWH). As a monthly intramuscular (IM) injection, this therapy constitutes a major departure from the traditional paradigm of oral therapy requiring (at least) daily administration that has defined HIV treatment for decades. Composed of a second-generation integrase inhibitor (INSTI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), CAB/RPV has achieved high rates of sustained virologic suppression with a favorable safety profile for treatment-experienced PLWH following oral lead-in (OLI) during several clinical trials. Read More

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Impact of intensity of behavioral treatment, with or without medication treatment, for opioid use disorder on HIV outcomes in persons with HIV.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 29;132:108509. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Persons with HIV (PWH) and opioid use disorder (OUD) can have poor health outcomes. We assessed whether intensity of behavioral treatment for OUD (BOUD) with and without medication for OUD (MOUD) is associated with improved HIV clinical outcomes.

Methods: We used Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) data from 2008 to 2017 to identify PWH and OUD with ≥1 BOUD episode. Read More

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Development and external validation of a risk calculator to predict internalising symptoms among Ugandan youths affected by HIV.

Psychiatry Res 2021 May 28;302:114028. Epub 2021 May 28.

International Center for Child Health and Development, Masaka, Uganda.

The aim of the study was to develop and externally validate a model to predict individualized risk of internalizing symptoms among AIDS-affected youths in low-resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Longitudinal data from 558 Ugandan adolescents orphaned by AIDS was used to develop our predictive model. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator logistic regression was used to select the best subset of predictors using 10-fold cross-validation. Read More

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Osmolyte enhanced aqueous two-phase system for virus purification.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, USA.

Due to the high variation in viral surface properties, a platform method for virus purification is still lacking. A potential alternative to the high-cost conventional methods is aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs). However, optimizing virus purification in ATPS requires a large experimental design space, and the optimized systems are generally found to operate at high ATPS component concentrations. Read More

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Understanding Willingness to Participate in HIV Biomedical Research: A Mixed Methods Investigation.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Prevention Science and Community Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120NW 14th St. Office 1005, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Biomedical research often enrolls people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving effective treatment to complete invasive procedures. This mixed methods study characterized determinants of willingness to undergo specific biomedical procedures among PLWH. In 2017, 61 participants (77% Black) from Miami completed a quantitative assessment examining willingness to participate. Read More

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Clinician Use of HIV-Related Infographics During Clinic Visits in the Dominican Republic is Associated with Lower Viral Load and Other Improvements in Health Outcomes.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, NY, USA.

We designed an infographic intervention to help clinicians provide health information to persons living with HIV. In this study, we assessed the extent to which our intervention may improve objectively and subjectively measured health outcomes (CD4 count, viral load, and engagement with clinician among others) when integrated into routine visits in the Dominican Republic. In this pretest-posttest study, we followed participants for 9 months at 3-month intervals. Read More

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The Impact of COVID-19 on HIV Self-Management, Affective Symptoms, and Stress in People Living with HIV in the United States.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Indiana University School of Nursing, 600 Barnhill Dr., Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

COVID-19 has the potential to detrimentally impact HIV self-management in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Effective HIV-self management is critically important in managing symptoms as well as viral suppression. We examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV self-management, social support, social isolation, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress in PLHIV. Read More

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Chronic itch in African Americans: an unmet need.

Arch Dermatol Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Dr. Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Miami Itch Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Chronic pruritus carries a significant burden of disease and is associated with a negative impact on quality of life. African Americans are disproportionately burdened by chronic pruritic disorders, including but not limited to atopic dermatitis, prurigo nodularis, inflammatory scalp dermatoses, pathologic scarring, and HIV-related dermatoses. Racial differences in skin structure and function may contribute to the pathogenesis of itch in African Americans. Read More

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Clinical and echocardiographic findings in a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Enugu, Nigeria.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 May 12;32:1-7. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are implicated in cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic findings in HIV-infected adults.

Methods: One hundred HIV subjects on HAART, 100 HAART-naïve patients and 100 controls were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Read More

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Integrated transcriptomic analysis of human tuberculosis granulomas and a biomimetic model identifies therapeutic targets.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a persistent global pandemic and standard treatment has not changed for thirty years. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has undergone prolonged co-evolution with humans, and patients can control Mtb even after extensive infection, demonstrating the fine balance between protective and pathological host responses within infected granulomas. We hypothesised that whole transcriptome analysis of human TB granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection could identify therapeutic targets, and that comparison with a non-infectious granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis, would identify disease-specific pathological mechanisms. Read More

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Quality of Sex Life and Perceived Sexual Pleasure of PrEP Users in the Netherlands.

J Sex Res 2021 Jun 15:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Work & Social Psychology, Maastricht University.

Next to its benefits for HIV prevention, PrEP may have psychosocial benefits relating to improved quality of sex life. The aim of the current study was to investigate the onset of changes in the quality of sex life and sexual pleasure of PrEP users in the first months of commencing PrEP use. Moreover, we investigated what factors were related to the quality of sex life of PrEP users. Read More

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Food insecurity and frailty among women with and without HIV in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Jun;24(6):e25751

Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Introduction: Frailty is frequently observed among people with HIV, and food insecurity is associated with frailty in the general population. Evidence is scarce on the associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with HIV who may be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of food insecurity. The goal of this study was to assess associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with and without HIV. Read More

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Distinct Infection Forms of SARS-CoV-2 Among People Living With HIV.

Res Sq 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) are immunodeficient, it is vague if they are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than HIV negative individuals.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 857 PLWH and 1048 HIV negative individuals were enrolled from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. We compared the total rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the rate of COVID-19, asymptomatic carriers, and unapparent infectors in the two groups. Read More

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People Living with HIV Easily lose their Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2: Result From A Cohort of COVID-19 Cases in Wuhan, China.

Res Sq 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Background To date, whether the immune response for SARS-CoV-2 infection among people living with HIV(PLWH) is different from HIV-naïve individuals is still not clear. Methods In this cohort study, COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital in Wuhan between January 15 and April 1, 2020, were enrolled. Patients were categorized into PLWH and HIV-naïve group. Read More

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TCF1 in T cell immunity: a broadened frontier.

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Discovery and Innovation, Hackensack University Medical Center, Nutley, NJ, USA.

TCF1 and its homologue LEF1 are historically known as effector transcription factors downstream of the WNT signalling pathway and are essential for early T cell development. Recent advances bring TCF1 into the spotlight for its versatile, context-dependent functions in regulating mature T cell responses. In the cytotoxic T cell lineages, TCF1 is required for the self-renewal of stem-like CD8 T cells generated in response to viral or tumour antigens, and for preserving heightened responses to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Read More

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Glycan reactive anti-HIV-1 antibodies bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein but do not block viral entry.

Sci Rep 2021 06 14;11(1):12448. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is a focal point for vaccine immunogen and therapeutic antibody design, and also serves as a critical antigen in the evaluation of immune responses to COVID-19. A common feature amongst enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 is the propensity for displaying host-derived glycans on entry spike proteins. Similarly displayed glycosylation motifs can serve as the basis for glyco-epitope mediated cross-reactivity by antibodies, which can have important implications on virus neutralization, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, and the interpretation of antibody titers in serological assays. Read More

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Broadly neutralizing antibody responses in the longitudinal primary HIV-1 infection SPARTAC cohort.

AIDS 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London, SE1 9RT, UK Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda Projeto Praça Onze, Hospital Escola São Francisco de Assis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ 21941-901, Brazil Department of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan 20132, Italy Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK Infectious Diseases Service. Hospital Clinic-Institut d'investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Institute of Clinical Trials & Methodology St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research and The Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, Brighton, United Kingdom HIV Prevention Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa Department of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London, UK; NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford University, UK; Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, UK King's College NIHR Research Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK Current Address, Imperial College London These Authors contributed equally to the work Deceased.

Objective: Development of immunogens that elicit an anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) response will be a key step in the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Although HIV-1 bnAb epitopes have been identified and mechanisms of action studied, current HIV-1 Envelope based immunogens do not elicit HIV-1 bnAbs in humans or animal models. A better understanding of how HIV-1 bnAbs arise during infection and the clinical factors associated with bnAb development may be critical for HIV-1 immunogen design efforts. Read More

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Emtricitabine triphosphate in dried blood spots predicts future viremia in persons with HIV and identifies mismatch with self-reported adherence.

AIDS 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Colorado-AMC, Aurora, Colorado University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, Colorado Colorado Antiviral Pharmacology Laboratory and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado-AMC, Aurora, Colorado.

Objective: Emtricitabine triphosphate (FTC-TP) in dried blood spots (DBS), a measure of short-term ART adherence, is associated with viral suppression in persons with HIV (PWH). However, its ability to predict future viremia remains unknown.

Design: Prospective, observational cohort (up to 3 visits in 48 weeks). Read More

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Frequency of Post Treatment Control Varies by ART Restart and Viral Load Criteria.

AIDS 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona University of Massachusetts-Baystate, Springfield, Massachusetts University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland University of Caliornia, San Diego, San Diego, California Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Clinical trials including an analytical treatment interruption (ATI) are vital for evaluating the efficacy of novel strategies for HIV remissions. We briefly describe an interactive tool for predicting viral rebound timing in ATI trials and the impact of posttreatment controller (PTC) definitions on PTC frequency estimates. A 4-week viral load threshold of 1000 cps/ml provides both high specificity and sensitivity for PTC detection. Read More

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Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA escape symptomatology.

AIDS 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Mildmay Hospital, London, UK Unit of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy Section of Retrovirology, Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Department of HIV Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Unit of Neuroradiology, ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy University of Bari, Bari, Italy Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Department of Neurology, St. Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Neurosciences, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK Grahame Hayton Unit, I&I and Neurology Department, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK.

Objective: To characterise the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of persons with HIV (PWH) presenting with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA escape.

Design: Retrospective case review of PWH presenting with symptomatic CSF HIV RNA escape at seven tertiary HIV clinical sites in UK and Italy.

Method: PWH with symptomatic CSF HIV RNA escape episodes were identified and data obtained from medical records. Read More

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Persistently lower bone mass and bone turnover among south african children living with well-controlled HIV.

AIDS 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Rutgers School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA Empilweni Services and Research Unit, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Office of Scholarship & Research, School of Nursing, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA New York Nutrition Obesity Research Center, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Institute of Human Nutrition, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Department of Pediatrics, Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: We evaluated longitudinal trends and associations between bone mass, bone turnover and inflammatory markers among South African children living with HIV (CLHIV) and controls.

Design: We previously reported decreased bone mass among CLHIV independent of marked inflammation and increased bone turnover. The goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in bone mass, bone turnover and inflammation over two years. Read More

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AI-guided discovery of the invariant host response to viral pandemics.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jun 11:103390. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, USA; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, USA; Medicine, University of California San Diego, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) continues to challenge the limits of our knowledge and our healthcare system. Here we sought to define the host immune response, a.k. Read More

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Anfotericina B liposomal en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis visceral.

Rev Iberoam Micol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Unidad de Referencia Nacional para Enfermedades Tropicales, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España. Electronic address:

A review on the current evidence of the efficacy and security of liposomal amphotericinB (L-AmB) for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been performed. In the Indian subcontinent, a single dose of 10mg/kg has shown effectiveness in the treatment of VL due to Leishmania donovani. In contrast, higher doses of L-AmB (up to 30mg/kg) are required in Africa to treat a VL of the same etiology. Read More

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Post-vaccination HPV seroprevalence among female sexual health clinic attenders in England.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Blood Safety, Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

Background: The National HPV Immunisation Programme was introduced in England in September 2008 using the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine. We conducted serological surveillance to explore vaccination coverage levels. We also conducted a case-control study to investigate a hypothesised cross-protective effect of the HPV16/18 vaccine against genital warts. Read More

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HIV PrEP implementation: A multi-level systems approach.

Eval Program Plann 2021 May 30:101966. Epub 2021 May 30.

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment 4300 Cherry Creek South Drive, Denver, CO, 80246, United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: CO-PrIDE was a three-year Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) demonstration project to increase access to PrEP for men who have sex with men and transgender people in the Denver/Aurora Metropolitan Statistical Area. CO-PrIDE implemented a multi-level framework featuring collaboration between health systems and community organizations to link clients to PrEP prescribers and provide support services intended to help clients overcome socioeconomic barriers to PrEP uptake. These services included payment assistance, insurance navigation, and healthcare navigation. Read More

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Clinical Pharmacology of Hyperammonemia by Sodium Valproate and Carbamazepine in People Living with HIV.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):143

Argentine Society of Neuropsychopharmacology, Buenos Aires City, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction: Hyperammonaemia (HA) is observed in decompensated liver disease. The picture of hyperammonemic encephalopathy in non-cirrhotic patients was reported mostly associated with valproic acid. There are few reports of hyperammonemia in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) and they are associated with other comorbidities and few with antiretrovirals (HAART), but not as adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs associated with the virus. Read More

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Differential Alterations in the Attentional Networks of People Living with HIV and Apathy: Preliminary Results and Pharmacoclinical Impact.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):143

Maimonides University, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objective: The objective was to determine alterations in the care of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) with depressive disorder without and with apathy to determine differential parameters.

Methods: We studied 69 PLHIV, negativized viral load, of both sexes (19 women and 44 men), with depressive disorder (F32.9-DSM IV), 20 with apathy and 26 without apathy; negativized viral load, in highly effective antiretroviral treatment without therapeutic failure in the last 2 years and without protease inhibitors; without psychopharmacological treatment (except anxiolytics) or dementia due to HIV (American Academy of Neurology) or comorbidities (hepatitis C, CNS or central vascular infections). Read More

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Evaluation of Geenius HIV-1/2 Confirmatory Assay for the confirmatory and differential diagnosis of HIV-1/HIV-2 in Japan and reliability of the Geenius Reader in the diagnosis of HIV-2.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 14;21(1):569. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Safety Research on Blood and Biological Products, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: NEW LAV BLOT I and II (LAV I and LAV II), they were only option for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) confirmatory test, following HIV screening test using HIV Ag/Ab combination test in Japan. We evaluated the performance of Geenius HIV-1/2 Confirmatory Assay (Geenius), both as a confirmatory test and for differentiation between HIV-1 and HIV-2, in comparison with LAV I and LAV II.

Methods: Eighty-nine HIV-1-positive plasma specimens, one anti-HIV-1 low-titer performance panel, 10 seroconversion panels, and two anti-HIV-1/2 combo performance panels were tested. Read More

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HIV Testing and Counseling at U.S. Substance Use Treatment Facilities: A Missed Opportunity for Early Identification.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 Jun 15:appips202000524. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Weill Institute for Neurosciences (Riano, Bazazi, Mangurian), School of Medicine (Borowsky, Arnold), Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (Arnold), and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (Vittinghoff, Mangurian), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco; New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City (Olfson, Cournos); Department of Psychiatry, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons (Olfson), and Mailman School of Public Health (Cournos), Columbia University, New York City; Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research (Walkup) and Center for Health Services Research (Crystal), Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey; Kaiser Family Foundation, HIV Policy, Washington, D.C. (Dawson).

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the availability and national distribution of HIV testing and counseling at substance use treatment facilities in the United States.

Methods: Analyses of data from the 2018 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services assessed HIV testing and counseling availability in U.S. Read More

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