340,352 results match your criteria HIV Early Recognition and Rapid Testing


Applying the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model to Understand PrEP Intentions and Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

Authors:
Jennifer L Walsh

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Center for AIDS Intervention Research, The Medical College of Wisconsin, 2071 N. Summit Avenue, Milwaukee, WI, 53202, USA.

Research is needed to determine targets for interventions to increase pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model has not been tested for PrEP use among men who have sex with men (MSM). Men and transgender women and men were surveyed at a community event in the Midwest in 2016 (N = 476, 60% White, M = 35). Read More

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December 2018

Translation of basic research in cognitive science to HIV-risk: a randomized controlled trial.

J Behav Med 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, 1100 NE 45th Street, Suite 300, Box 354944, Seattle, WA, 98195-4944, USA.

Many people enrolled in drug diversion programs are not receiving evidence-based prevention for HIV or hepatitis. This study translated basic research from cognitive science to increase screening for infection and condom use in this population. A parallel three-condition randomized trial was conducted in a drug diversion sample (N = 358), comparing a memory practice condition with two active control conditions. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

"Getting to zero" HIV/AIDS requires effective addressing of HIV issues in LGBT community.

Clin Ter 2018 Nov-Dec;169(6):e269-e271

Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

This communication is regarding the necessity to address the HIV-related needs of LGBTQIA+ community (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender/transsexual, Queer/Questioning, Intersex, Asexuality, and others) for attaining the 'GETTING TO ZERO' theme for zero new HIV infections, zero AIDS-related deaths and zero discrimination. Most of the times, prevention of HIV/AIDS is talked about in terms of faithfulness to one's partner, use of protective devices such as condoms, pre and post exposure prophylaxis, using anti-retroviral therapies and use of microbicides, behavior change etc. HIV-related issues are however, one of the pertinent issues that needs to be effectively addressed in the LGBTQIA+ community. Read More

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December 2018
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The efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in Africa: a systematic review.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Vaccines and Immunity Theme, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Banjul, The Gambia; Centre of International Child Health, Section of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London, UK. Electronic address:

The burden of influenza in Africa is substantial and underappreciated. Although surveillance has increased, the medical community's understanding of seasonal influenza vaccine performance remains limited. We did a systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42017058107), on the efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations within Africa with the aim of identifying key data gaps to help direct future research. Read More

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December 2018

Medical populism.

Soc Sci Med 2018 Dec 7;221:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Canberra, Australia. Electronic address:

Medical emergencies are staple features of today's 24/7 culture of breaking news. As politics becomes increasingly stylised, audiences fragmented, and established knowledge claims contested, health crises have become even more vulnerable to politicisation. We offer the vocabulary of medical populism to make sense of this phenomenon. Read More

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December 2018
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Regression of human immunodeficiency virus-associated oral Kaposi sarcoma with combined antiretroviral therapy: A case report and literature review.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Oral Pathology, Department of Stomatology, University of Sao Paulo School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most prevalent malignant neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) patients for which the primary mode of management was chemotherapy.

Methods: We have presented the case of a newly diagnosed HIV+ male patient who was diagnosed with a pedunculated nodule in the anterior region of the hard palate, measuring 3.5 cm in diameter and with 2 months of evolution. Read More

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December 2018
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Substance Use and Depression Among Recently Migrated African Gay and Bisexual Men Living in the United States.

J Immigr Minor Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 15, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Immigrant African gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at risk for substance use and adverse mental health outcomes due to negative experiences in home and host countries. Little is known about correlates of substance use and mental health outcomes in this population. We explored pre- and post-migratory factors associated with substance use and depression in recently migrated African GBM. Read More

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December 2018

Lessons from PrEP: A Qualitative Study Investigating How Clinical and Policy Experts Weigh Ethics and Evidence When Evaluating Preventive Medications for Use in Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Ethox Centre and Wellcome Centre for Ethics & Humanities, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, UK.

This study explored how multinational HIV experts weigh clinical, evidential, and ethical considerations regarding pre-exposure prophylaxis in pregnant/breastfeeding women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with experts in HIV policy, research, treatment, and implementation from three global regions. A constant comparative approach identified major themes. Read More

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December 2018
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Effectiveness of self-testing kits availability on improving HIV testing frequency for chinese men who have sex with men and their sexual partners: a protocol for a multicenter randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024423. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Xiangya Nursing School of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Introduction: HIV epidemic is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, yet HIV testing uptake remains low. As an emerging approach, HIV self-testing (HIVST) has the potential to promote HIV testing coverage and frequency in this population. However, evidence of the effectiveness on implementation of HIVST among Chinese MSM and their sexual partners is scarce. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical effectiveness of pharmacy-led versus conventionally delivered antiviral treatment for hepatitis C in patients receiving opioid substitution therapy: a study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e021443. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.

Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 0.7% of the general population, and up to 40% of people prescribed opioid substitution therapy (OST) in Scotland. In conventional care, less than 10% of OST users are tested for HCV and less than 25% of these initiate treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Postdischarge Mortality Prediction in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Pediatrics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, Maputo, Mozambique;

Background: Although the burden of postdischarge mortality (PDM) in low-income settings appears to be significant, no clear recommendations have been proposed in relation to follow-up care after hospitalization. We aimed to determine the burden of pediatric PDM and develop predictive models to identify children who are at risk for dying after discharge.

Methods: Deaths after hospital discharge among children aged <15 years in the last 17 years were reviewed in an area under demographic and morbidity surveillance in Southern Mozambique. Read More

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December 2018

Development of an Electronic Data Collection System to Support a Large-Scale HIV Behavioral Intervention Trial: Protocol for an Electronic Data Collection System.

JMIR Res Protoc 2018 Dec 14;7(12):e10777. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Background: Advancing technology has increased functionality and permitted more complex study designs for behavioral interventions. Investigators need to keep pace with these technological advances for electronic data capture (EDC) systems to be appropriately executed and utilized at full capacity in research settings. Mobile technology allows EDC systems to collect near real-time data from study participants, deliver intervention directly to participants' mobile devices, monitor staff activity, and facilitate near real-time decision making during study implementation. Read More

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December 2018

Vaccine-Induced Protection from Homologous Tier 2 SHIV Challenge in Nonhuman Primates Depends on Serum-Neutralizing Antibody Titers.

Immunity 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center and the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

Passive administration of HIV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) can protect macaques from hard-to-neutralize (tier 2) chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. However, conditions for nAb-mediated protection after vaccination have not been established. Here, we selected groups of 6 rhesus macaques with either high or low serum nAb titers from a total of 78 animals immunized with recombinant native-like (SOSIP) Env trimers. Read More

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November 2018

Inference of the HIV-1 VRC01 Antibody Lineage Unmutated Common Ancestor Reveals Alternative Pathways to Overcome a Key Glycan Barrier.

Immunity 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Immunology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Elicitation of VRC01-class broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is an appealing approach for a preventative HIV-1 vaccine. Despite extensive investigations, strategies to induce VRC01-class bnAbs and overcome the barrier posed by the envelope N276 glycan have not been successful. Here, we inferred a high-probability unmutated common ancestor (UCA) of the VRC01 lineage and reconstructed the stages of lineage maturation. Read More

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December 2018

Challenging diagnosis of congenital malaria in non-endemic areas.

Malar J 2018 Dec 14;17(1):470. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unit of Parasitology, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Piazza Sant'Onofrio 4, 00165, Rome, Italy.

Background: Congenital malaria is usually defined as the detection of asexual forms of Plasmodium spp. in a blood sample of a neonate during perinatal age if there is no possibility of postpartum infection by a mosquito bite. The incidence of congenital malaria is highly variable and seems related to several factors, such as different diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. Read More

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December 2018

Toward an enhanced understanding of psychological resilience for HIV youth populations.

AIDS Care 2018 Dec 14:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a SC SmartState Center for Healthcare Quality, Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health , University of South Carolina , Columbia , USA.

Though mother-to-child HIV transmission has been dramatically reduced in the past decade, there are currently an estimated 1.8 million children living with HIV across the globe, and over 30% of all new HIV infections occur among youth ages 15-25. While all youth experience developmental challenges, children and adolescents who are living with HIV must navigate these challenges within the context of high HIV stigma and must cope with a host of psychosocial and health-related challenges. Read More

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December 2018

A Lateral Neck Myeloid Sarcoma Presenting as Acute Otitis Externa.

Arch Iran Med 2018 Nov 1;21(11):544-546. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a solid extra-medullary tumor of immature myeloid cells which could occur before, during or after remission of acute leukemia at any site on the body. Owing to variation in differential diagnosis, pathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical staining are essential for definitive diagnosis. Rarely, MS has been shown as an isolated extramedullary relapse (iEMR) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), which often does not necessarily result in bone marrow involvement. Read More

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November 2018

Molecular targeting for treatment of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 5;109:770-778. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Surgical Oncology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is linked to adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and several other disorders. ATLL occurs in approximately 5% of the 15-20 million people infected by HTLV-1 in the world. In general, ATLL is resistant to chemotherapy, which underlines the need for new and effective therapeutic strategies. Read More

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January 2019
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2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Jan;68(1):1-4

Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, and Center for Evidence-based Practice, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia.

A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America to update the 2004 clinical practice guideline on outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) [1]. This guideline is intended to provide insight for healthcare professionals who prescribe and oversee the provision of OPAT. It considers various patient features, infusion catheter issues, monitoring questions, and antimicrobial stewardship concerns. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Promoting access equity and improving health care for women, children and people living with HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso through mHealth.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2018 Dec;40(suppl_2):ii42-ii51

Université de Montréal, CHU Sainte-Justine, Canada.

Background: In Burkina Faso, access to health services for women, children and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) remains limited. Mobile telephony offers an alternative solution for reaching these individuals. The objective of the study was to improve equity of access to health care and information among women and PLWHAs by reinforcing community participation. Read More

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December 2018

Clinico-pathological characteristics among South African women with breast cancer receiving anti-retroviral therapy for HIV.

Breast 2018 Dec 7;43:123-129. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Division, Wits Health Consortium (PTY) Ltd, 31 Princess of Wales Building, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa; Department of Medicine, University of Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, 7 York Road Johannesburg, South Africa.

Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. South Africa has the largest global burden of HIV infection and the largest anti-retroviral treatment (ART) program. This study aimed to analyse the association of HIV and ART use with breast cancer clinico-pathological characteristics. Read More

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December 2018

The helix-to-sheet transition of an HIV-1 fusion peptide derivative changes the mechanical properties of lipid bilayer membranes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, United States of America.

A short sequence on the gp41 envelope protein of HIV-1 is integral to infection by the virus. Without this sequence, termed the fusion peptide (FP), the virus is far less effective at fusing with the cellular membrane. One of the interesting features of the isolated FP is that it transitions between an α-helical conformation and a β-sheet conformation in lipid bilayer membranes as a function of lipid composition and concentration, and the transition correlates with fusion. Read More

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December 2018

Supportive interventions to improve retention on ART in people with HIV in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208814. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute for Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Objectives: To determine whether supportive interventions can increase retention in care for patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We used Cochrane Collaboration methods. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
3.234 Impact Factor

Full-genome analysis of hepatitis C virus in Japanese and non-Japanese patients coinfected with HIV-1 in Tokyo.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

AIDS Clinical Center and.

Background: Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing among HIV-1-infected individuals in Tokyo. Appropriate clinical management is needed.

Setting: To delineate the epidemiological status of HCV transmission, we analyzed stocked plasma samples of HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients seen at the largest referral center for HIV care in Tokyo. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect of Macrolide Prophylactic Therapy on AIDS-Defining Conditions and HIV-Associated Mortality.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Muntinlupa City, Philippines.

Background: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis is recommended for patients with advanced HIV infection. With the decrease in incidence of disseminated MAC infection and the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the benefits of macrolide prophylaxis were investigated. This study examined the impact of macrolide prophylaxis on AIDS-defining conditions and HIV-associated mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients on ART. Read More

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December 2018
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Individual and sexual network predictors of HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in Nigeria.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: To date, HIV incidence studies among men who have sex with men (MSM) across sub-Saharan Africa have focused on studying sexual risk practices with less focus on sexual networks.

Setting: TRUST/RV368 conducted in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria recruited MSM using respondent driven sampling (RDS) and followed HIV negative men for incident infection over 4 years.

Methods: Four-hundred forty-one HIV-uninfected MSM underwent a parallel rapid HIV testing algorithm every 3 months for up to 18 months. Read More

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December 2018
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HIV DIAGNOSIS FOLLOWING A SYPHILIS, GONORRHEA, OR REPEAT DIAGNOSIS AMONG MALES INCLUDING NON-MSM: WHAT IS THE INCIDENCE?

Sex Transm Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Child and Community Health Research (CCHR), Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The release of the first drug for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 marked the beginning of a new era of HIV prevention. Although PrEP is highly efficacious, identifying and ultimately increasing uptake among the highest risk male subgroups remains a challenge.

Methods: Public health surveillance data from 2009-2016 was used to evaluate the risk of an HIV diagnosis following a syphilis (i. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pulmonary hypertension in patients with a history of intravenous drug use.

Curr Med Res Opin 2018 Dec 14:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Cardiovascular Department , John Hunter Hospital , Newcastle NSW , Australia.

Objective: Pulmonary hypertension may be a consequence of intrinsic elevation in pulmonary vasculature resistance or complicate numerous other conditions affecting the cardiac and respiratory systems. In this review we sought to explore the relationship between pulmonary hypertension and intravenous drug use.

Methods: A narrative review was conducted using PubMed MeSH search with further papers were identified using a standard PubMed search with relevant key terms and various synonyms. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

[Clinical analysis of endoscopic sinus surgery on 12 HIV-positive patients with sinusitis].

Authors:
L Y Jiang S P Bao

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Oct;32(19):1495-1498

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head Neck Surgery, Bejing You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing,100069, China.

To explore the feasibility of endoscopic sinus surgery on HIVinfected patients. Twelve positive patients suffering from sinusitis undergoing endoscopic treatment were retrospectively analyzed. And the clinical characteristics,treatment and therapeutic effects were summarized. Read More

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October 2018

[External auditory canal HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma: a case report].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Dec;32(24):1910-1911

External auditory canal HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma is rare. A 47-year-old male patient found a lump locked in the right external auditory canal gradually enlarging during the 4 months. Preoperative examination suggested that the patient had infected with HIV. Read More

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December 2018

[The recent syndemic of HIV and injected drugs in Hermosillo, Sonora and how face it with a public policy of harm reduction].

Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):494-495

Centro Nacional para la Prevención y Control del VIH//Sida. Ciudad de México, México.

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December 2018

[The experience in the application of nikavir in the schemes of perinatal chemoprophylactics of HIV infection: evaluation of the immunological and virusological effectiveness.]

Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):212-217

Academician Ye. A. Wagner State Medical University, Perm, 614000, Russian Federation.

Objectives: The goal of this work was to study the immunological and virological efficacy of the domestic antiretroviral drug nicavir (at the optimal dose, as proven by previous clinical studies) with lamivudine, in comparison with other drugs of the group of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with kaletra in perinatal HIV chemoprophylaxis regimens.

Methods: 658 pregnant women aged 16-39 years and children born to them were examined. The first group (281 people) and the third group (66 people) received the nicavir (manufactured by AZT PHARMA KB LLC) with lamivudine in combination with calyx; the second (281 people) and the fourth (30 people) of the comparison group, stag and zidovudine, respectively, with lamivudine in combination with calyx. Read More

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January 2018

[The synchronous detection of serological markers of main herpes viral human infections].

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(1):35-40

The closed corporation "ECOlab", Elektrogorsk, Moscow oblast, Russia.

The new original national set of reagents "Line-Blot human herpesvirus-profle" was developed to detect antibodies (IgG - set 1 and IgM - set 2) to main agents of herpesvirus infections (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV) in the format of linear immunoblotting. The preliminary clinical trials were implemented using 319 samples of blood serum: HIV-infected patients (n=128), pregnant women (n=86) and persons undergoing treatment or diagnostic examination (n=105). In the case of every infection agent analyzes were implemented using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and linear immunoblotting with new set and its analogues of German manufacturer. Read More

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January 2018

High prevalence of binge drinking among people living with HIV in four African countries.

J Int AIDS Soc 2018 Dec;21(12):e25202

Service de maladies infectieuses et tropicales, CRCF, CHU de Fann, Dakar, Sénégal.

Introduction: Excessive alcohol consumption leads to unfavourable outcomes in people living with HIV (PLHIV), including reduced adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and engagement into care. However, there is limited information on alcohol consumption patterns among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional approach, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) was administered to PLHIV attending HIV clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Senegal and Zambia (2013 to 2015). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Type I IFNs in the female reproductive tract: The first line of defense in an ever-changing battleground.

J Leukoc Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Gerontology, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

The primary function of the female reproductive tract (FRT) is to enable successful reproduction, yet the biologic mechanisms required to accomplish this, which include fluctuating sex hormones and tolerance of semen and a semi-allogeneic fetus, can leave this unique mucosal environment susceptible to pathogenic challenge. Consequently, the FRT has evolved specialized innate and adaptive immune responses tailored to protecting itself from infection without compromising reproductive success. A family of innate immune cytokines that has emerged as important regulators of these immune responses is the type I IFNs. Read More

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December 2018

No Easy Answers: Avoiding Potential Pitfalls of De-implementation.

Am J Community Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Social Work, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began to de-emphasize and de-implement multiple evidence-based HIV prevention practices that had been around for 20 years, thus changing the scope of implementation across the globe. The authors provide evidence how existing interventions (e.g. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Persons living with HIV with advanced HIV disease: need for novel care models.

J Int AIDS Soc 2018 Dec;21(12):e25210

ICAP-Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Despite increasing focus on test and treat strategies for people living with HIV (PLHIV), many continue to enrol late in care and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) when they have advanced HIV disease.

Methods: We analyzed PLHIV ≥15 years of age starting ART in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania from 2005 to 2015 based on CD4+ groups at ART initiation (≥200, 100 to 199, 50 to 99 and <50 cells/mm ) to examine attrition (loss to follow-up (LTF) and death) using Kaplan-Meier estimators and Cox proportional hazards models. LTF was defined as no clinic visit >6 months; deaths were ascertained from medical records. Read More

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December 2018

Assessing the adoption of lopinavir/ritonavir oral pellets for HIV-positive children in Zimbabwe.

J Int AIDS Soc 2018 Dec;21(12):e25214

AIDS and TB Unit, The Ministry of Health and Child Care, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Introduction: Heat-stable lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) oral pellets were developed to overcome challenges with administration and storage experienced with previously available tablet and syrup forms of LPV/r prescribed to paediatric HIV patients. We report on the adoption of LPV/r pellets for infants living with HIV in the public sector antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in Zimbabwe.

Methods: Infants aged three months to three years who had been prescribed a LPV/r-based regimen (including ART-naïve patients) in fourteen facilities across the country were eligible to receive the pellets. Read More

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December 2018
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Circulating miRNA-375 as a potential novel biomarker for active Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Immunology and Molecular Oncology, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV - IRCCS, Padova, Italy.

The aim of this study was to identify circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) that could be used as biomarkers in patients at risk for or affected by AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Screening of 377 miRNAs was performed using low-density arrays in pooled plasma samples of 10 HIV/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-infected asymptomatic and 10 AIDS-KS patients before and after successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). MiR-375 was identified as a potential marker of active KS, being the most down-regulated in AIDS-KS patients after cART and the most up-regulated in naïve AIDS-KS patients compared to naïve asymptomatic subjects. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Development of an HIV-1 Integrase Genotyping Assay for HIV-1 Subtype AE.

J Med Virol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.

An HIV-1 integrase (IN) genotyping assay was developed to evaluate clinical samples from patients infected with HIV-1 subtype AE, a subtype highly prevalent in Asia. The HIV-1 integrase gene was amplified from plasma-derived HIV-1 viral RNA via RT-PCR followed by population sequencing. Assay sensitivity was also evaluated using serially diluted plasma samples. Read More

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December 2018

Mortality and losses to follow-up among adolescents living with HIV in the IeDEA global cohort collaboration.

J Int AIDS Soc 2018 Dec;21(12):e25215

TREAT Asia/amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, Bangkok, Thailand.

Introduction: We assessed mortality and losses to follow-up (LTFU) during adolescence in routine care settings in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium.

Methods: Cohorts in the Asia-Pacific, the Caribbean, Central, and South America, and sub-Saharan Africa (Central, East, Southern, West) contributed data, and included adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) enrolled from January 2003 and aged 10 to 19 years (period of adolescence) while under care up to database closure (June 2016). Follow-up started at age 10 years or the first clinic visit, whichever was later. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

High-risk behaviours, and their associations with mental health, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and HIV parameters, in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

HIV Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To investigate the patterns and frequency of multiple risk behaviours (alcohol, drugs, smoking, higher risk sexual activity) among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV.

Methods: Cross sectional study.

Results: 819 HIV-positive MSM exhibited a high-risk phenotype (defined as >3 of smoking, excess alcohol, sexually transmitted infection and recent recreational drug use). Read More

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December 2018

Multiple imputation approach for interval-censored time to HIV RNA viral rebound within a mixed effects Cox model.

Biom J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Departarment d'Estadística i Investigació Operativa, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya/BARCELONATECH, Barcelona, Spain.

We present a method to fit a mixed effects Cox model with interval-censored data. Our proposal is based on a multiple imputation approach that uses the truncated Weibull distribution to replace the interval-censored data by imputed survival times and then uses established mixed effects Cox methods for right-censored data. Interval-censored data were encountered in a database corresponding to a recompilation of retrospective data from eight analytical treatment interruption (ATI) studies in 158 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) suppressed individuals. Read More

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December 2018

Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) is one of the leading causes of death among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The current study was aimed to determine the frequency of MAC infection in patients infected with HIV.

Methods: Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. Read More

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December 2018

Cost-effectiveness of a patient navigation intervention to increase colonoscopy screening among low-income adults in New Hampshire.

Cancer 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Colonoscopy is the most widely used colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test in the United States. Through the detection and removal of potentially precancerous polyps, it can prevent CRC. However, CRC screening remains low among adults who are recommended for screening. Read More

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December 2018

New Dual Combination of Dolutegravir-Rilpivirine for Switching to Maintenance Antiretroviral Therapy.

Authors:
Esteban Ribera

AIDS Rev 2018 ;20(4):179-186

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Advances in antiretroviral therapy have led to dramatic improvements in survival of HIV-infected persons. However, HIV cure remains elusive and lifelong treatment is needed. Attempts for reducing long-term drug exposure, toxicities, and cost, while maintaining viral suppression, have led to explore whether maintenance strategies with less than triple therapy could be feasible using the newest more potent antiretrovirals. Read More

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January 2018
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Rebound in Sexually Transmitted Infections Following the Success of Antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS.

AIDS Rev 2018 ;20(4):187-204

Sexually Transmitted infections Unit, Centro Sanitario Sandoval. Madrid, Spain.

Nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of the four major curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs), namely trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Despite huge global incidence, STIs remain as neglected diseases. The success of antiretrovirals for halting progression to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and for stopping HIV transmission to uninfected contacts, either as pre- or post-exposure -prophylaxis, has to lead to increased risky sexual behaviors through risk compensation. Read More

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January 2018

Toward the Cure of HIV-1 Infection: Lessons Learned and Yet to be Learned as New Strategies are Developed.

AIDS Rev 2018 ;20(4):220-225

Department of Neuroscience, Center for Translational AIDS Research, Philadelphia, USA.

Here, we review the progress that has been made in achieving a cure of HIV-1 infection. To date, this has only occurred in one person after he received allogeneic stem cell transplants from a CCR5 ∆32 homozygous donor in addition to chemotherapy and radiation to treat his acute myelocytic leukemia. The general consensus is that achieving a sustained remission of infection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy will involve a combination of strategies that involve both the targeting of the latent proviral genome and the induction of more effective anti-HIV-1 immune responses. Read More

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January 2018
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Should HIV Patients be concerned about Occult Hepatitis B?

AIDS Rev 2018 ;20(4):238-239

UNIR Health Sciences School and La Paz University Hospital Madrid, Spain.

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January 2018