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Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013 Feb;26(1):26-34

Research Centre for Infection and Immunity, Division of Clinical Sciences, St. George's University of London, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: The epidemiology and pathogenesis of, and risk factors for, cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CM-IRIS) are reviewed with an emphasis on how new insights inform a rational management approach and prevention strategies.

Recent Findings: Risk factors for paradoxical CM-IRIS are a low inflammatory response and CD4 cell count at baseline, rapid immune restoration from this low baseline, and a high organism or antigen load at baseline and at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Detailed immune mechanisms are still unclear. Read More

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http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473-3099(
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835c21d1DOI Listing
February 2013
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Surveillance of transfusion-transmissible infections comparison of systems in five developed countries.

Transfus Med Rev 2012 Jan 25;26(1):38-57. Epub 2011 Sep 25.

National Epidemiology and Surveillance, Canadian Blood Services, 1800 Alta Vista Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1G 4J5.

Most industrialized countries maintain surveillance programs for monitoring transmissible infection in blood donations, revising approaches to methodology and risk assessment as new threats emerge. A comparison of programs in the United States, Canada, France, the UK, and Australia indicates that they have similar function, although the structure of blood programs vary as does the extent and nature of formal ties with public health. The emergence of HIV in the late 1970s and early 1980s was key in recognizing that surveillance systems specific to blood transfusion were essential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2011.07.001DOI Listing
January 2012
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Treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

Drugs 1999 Oct;58(4):633-61

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB), which is defined as combined resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, is a 'man-made' disease that is caused by improper treatment, inadequate drug supplies or poor patient supervision. Patients with MDRTB face chronic disability and death, and represent an infectious hazard for the community. Cure rates of 96% have been achieved but require prompt recognition of the disease, rapid accurate susceptibility results, and early administration of an individualised re-treatment regimen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-199958040-00005DOI Listing
October 1999
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An eleven year follow-up of delayed-type hypersensitivity testing for the identification of HIV-1 infected patients at increased risk of developing AIDS.

Scand J Infect Dis 1996 ;28(2):125-30

Department of Dermatovenereology (Venhälsan), Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.

The objective of this study was to investigate whether testing of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to recall antigens could be used to identify HIV-1 infected patients at increased risk of death or developing AIDS. Eighty-five HIV-1 infected Swedish homosexual men were tested for DTH using a commercially available kit with 7 recall antigens (Multitest, Mérieux). The patients were followed prospectively for 11 years or until death. Read More

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December 1996
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Laboratory diagnosis of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Africa.

AIDS 1991 ;5 Suppl 1:S93-101

Laboratoire de Bacteriologie et Virologie, University of Dakar, Senegal.

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April 1994
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