321,130 results match your criteria HIV Disease


Efficient T cell compartment in HIV+ patients receiving orthotopic liver transplant and immunosuppressive therapy.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children and Adults, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Background And Aims: In patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplant (OLT), immunosuppressive (IS) treatment is mandatory and infections are leading causes of morbidity/mortality. Thus, it is essential to understand the functionality of cell-mediated immunity after OLT. The aim of the study was to identify changes in T cell phenotype and polyfunctionality in HIV+ and HIV- patients treated with IS after OLT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa395DOI Listing

Integration of fungal diseases into health systems in Latin America.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections, 1208 Geneva, Switzerland; The National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30469-2DOI Listing

Predictors of worsening neuropathy and neuropathic pain after 12 years in people with HIV.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Departments of Medicine and Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Objective: Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) and neuropathic pain are important clinical concerns in virally suppressed people with HIV. We determined how these conditions evolved, what factors influenced their evolution, and their clinical impact.

Methods: Ambulatory, community-dwelling HIV seropositive individuals were recruited at six research centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51097DOI Listing

Who is Advocating for Children and Adolescents With HIV Infection?

Authors:
Philip E Thuma

New Dir Child Adolesc Dev 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Macha Research Trust, Choma, Zambia.

Despite significant gains in the past 10 years in the treatment and care of children and adolescents with HIV infection, there is still need for advocacy for this group. The author discusses how far we have come and the need for on-going efforts, not only for appropriate child-friendly drug formulations, but also for cooperation between quantitative and qualitative scientists to further the existing knowledge base of how best to help these children with a chronic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cad.20344DOI Listing

Case Report: Dynamics of Acquired Fluoroquinolone Resistance under Standardized Short-Course Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

We report a case of acquired fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance under short-course multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. The patient was managed at Kabutare hospital, one of the two specialized MDR-TB clinics in Rwanda. A low dose of moxifloxacin was used in the first three critical months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0201DOI Listing

History of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Korea.

Infect Chemother 2020 Jun;52(2):234-244

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

The first human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was reported in Korea in 1985. The number of HIV-infected persons domestically increased in the 1990s showing epidemic indigenousization. Since then, the number of new infections gradually increased every year, and recently more than 1,000 newly infected cases were reported per year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2020.52.2.234DOI Listing

Patient-reported reasons for declining same-day antiretroviral therapy initiation in routine HIV care settings in Lusaka, Zambia: results from a mixed-effects regression analysis.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jul;23(7):e25560

Implementation Science Unit, Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ), Lusaka, Zambia.

Introduction: In the current "test and treat" era, HIV programmes are increasingly focusing resources on linkage to care and same-day antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to meet UNAIDS 95-95-95 targets. After observing sub-optimal treatment indicators in health facilities supported by the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ), we piloted a "linkage assessment" tool in facility-based HIV testing settings to uncover barriers to same-day linkage to care and ART initiation among newly identified people living with HIV (PLHIV) and to guide HIV programme quality improvement efforts.

Methods: The one-page, structured linkage assessment tool was developed to capture patient-reported barriers to same-day linkage and ART initiation using three empirically supported categories of barriers: social, personal and structural. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25560DOI Listing

A mobile health-facilitated behavioural intervention for community health workers improves exclusive breastfeeding and early infant HIV diagnosis in India: a cluster randomized trial.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jul;23(7):e25555

School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: India's national AIDS Control Organization implemented World Health Organization's option B+ HIV prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines in 2013. However, scalable strategies to improve uptake of new PMTCT guidelines to reduce new infection rates are needed. This study assessed impact of Mobile Health-Facilitated Behavioral Intervention on the uptake of PMTCT services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25555DOI Listing

Factors Associated With Testing for Hepatitis C Infections Among a Commercially Insured Population of Persons With HIV, United States 2008-2016.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Jun 6;7(6):ofaa222. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem among people with HIV. People with HIV who are coinfected with HCV infection are at increased risk for cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatitis C-related mortality; as such, national guidelines recommend that persons with HIV be tested for HCV infection.

Methods: Data from the 2003-2017 IBM Watson Health MarketScan database were used for this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320833PMC

HIV Testing in Adults Presenting With Central Nervous System Infections.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Jun 6;7(6):ofaa217. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas (UT Health), McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Universal HIV testing in adults presenting to a health care setting was recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2006, but compliance in central nervous system (CNS) infections is unknown.

Methods: A multicenter study of adults presenting with CNS infections to 18 hospitals in Houston and New Orleans between 2000 and 2015 was done to characterize HIV testing and explore factors associated with a positive HIV test.

Results: A total of 1478 patients with a diagnosis of meningitis or encephalitis were identified; 180 were excluded because of known HIV diagnosis (n = 100) or were <17 years old (n = 80). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320826PMC

A Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Outbreak Among People Who Inject Drugs in Munich, Germany, Is Associated With Consumption of Synthetic Cathinones.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Jun 27;7(6):ofaa192. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of HIV and Other Retroviruses, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Needle and syringe sharing among people who inject drugs (PWID) can result in a rapid regional spread of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variant. Such outbreaks have been identified recently in several countries and have raised public health attention because of an association with new psychoactive substances (NPS).

Methods: Dried serum spots from approximately 60% of newly diagnosed HIV cases in Germany in 2013-2018 were received together with statutory notification data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314588PMC

Evaluation of low cryptococcal antigen titer as determined by the lateral flow assay in serum and cerebrospinal fluid among HIV-negative patients: a retrospective diagnostic accuracy study.

IMA Fungus 2020 10;11. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 12 Central Urumqi Road, Shanghai, 200040 China.

Cryptococcosis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Although the cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assay (LFA) has been widely used in clinical settings due to its high sensitivity and specificity, the diagnostic value of a low CrAg LFA titers remains unclear. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of 149 HIV-negative patients with low CrAg LFA titers (≤1:10) in a Chinese tertiary hospital from January 2013 to December 2017, to evaluate the diagnostic value of low CrAg LFA titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at different thresholds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00028-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325107PMC

Immune status, and not HIV infection or exposure, drives the development of the oral microbiota.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10830. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Even with antiretroviral therapy, children born to HIV-infected (HI) mothers are at a higher risk of early-life infections and morbidities including dental disease. The increased risk of dental caries in HI children suggest immune-mediated changes in oral bacterial communities, however, the impact of perinatal HIV exposure on the oral microbiota remains unclear. We hypothesized that the oral microbiota of HI and perinatally HIV-exposed-but-uninfected (HEU) children will significantly differ from HIV-unexposed-and-uninfected (HUU) children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67487-4DOI Listing

Author Correction: HIV and antiretroviral therapy-related fat alterations.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2020 Jul 2;6(1):54. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Sorbonne Université, Faculty of Medicine, Inserm UMR_S938, Saint- Antoine Research Centre, FRM EQU201903007868, ICAN, RHU CARMMA, Paris, France.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0197-6DOI Listing

Complete Genome Sequence of a Baboon Simian Foamy Virus Isolated from an Infected Human.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Jul 2;9(27). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

We obtained the full-length genome of a simian foamy virus (SFV) from an infected human. This virus originated from a baboon ( species, strain SFVpxx_hu9406). The genome is 13,113 nucleotides long with the canonical SFV genome structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00522-20DOI Listing

APOL1 Nephropathy: From Genetics to Clinical Applications.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Nephrology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Rates of many types of severe kidney disease are much higher in blacks than most other groups. Much of this disparity can now be attributed to genetic variants in the apoL1 (APOL1) gene found only in individuals with recent African ancestry. These variants greatly increase rates of hypertension-associated ESKD, FSGS, HIV-associated nephropathy, and other forms of nondiabetic kidney disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.15161219DOI Listing

Factors influencing diagnosis and treatment initiation for multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in six sub-Saharan African countries: a mixed-methods systematic review.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 Jul;5(7)

École de santé publique de l'Université de Montréal (ESPUM), Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis burdens fragile health systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), complicated by high prevalence of HIV. Several African countries reported large gaps between estimated incidence and diagnosed or treated cases. Our review aimed to identify barriers and facilitators influencing diagnosis and treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in SSA, which is necessary to develop effective strategies to find the missing incident cases and improve quality of care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002280DOI Listing

A comparative study on the prediction of the BP artificial neural network model and the ARIMA model in the incidence of AIDS.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2020 Jul 2;20(1):143. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Public Health Guangxi Medical University, NO.22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, 530021, China.

Background: As a kind of widely distributed disease in China, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been quickly growing each year, become a serious problem and caused serious damage to the life and health of people and the social events of China and the world because of its high fatality rate. It has been much concerned by all aspects of society. Therefore, developing early warning technology and finding the trend of early development are of quite significance to prevent and control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-020-01157-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330958PMC

Increased expression of CDKN1A/p21 in HIV-1 controllers is correlated with upregulation of ZC3H12A/MCPIP1.

Retrovirology 2020 Jul 2;17(1):18. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Laboratório de AIDS & Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-IOC, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil.

Background: Some multifunctional cellular proteins, as the monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (ZC3H12A/MCPIP1) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/p21, are able to modulate the cellular susceptibility to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Several studies showed that CDKN1A/p21 is expressed at high levels ex vivo in cells from individuals who naturally control HIV-1 replication (HIC) and a recent study supports a coordinate regulation of ZC3H12A/MCPIP1 and CDKN1A/p21 transcripts in a model of renal carcinoma cells. Here, we explored the potential associations between mRNA expression of ZC3H12A/MCPIP1 and CDKN1A/p21 in HIC sustaining undetectable (elite controllers-EC) or low (viremic controllers-VC) viral loads. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-020-00522-4DOI Listing

HIV-1 subtype C transmitted founders modulate dendritic cell inflammatory responses.

Retrovirology 2020 Jul 2;17(1):17. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences (IBMS), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Heterosexual transmission remains the main route of HIV-1 transmission and female genital tract (FGT) inflammation increases the risk of infection. However, the mechanism(s) by which inflammation facilitates infection is not fully understood. In rhesus macaques challenged with simian immunodeficiency virus, dendritic cell (DC) mediated recruitment of CD4+ T cells to the FGT was critical for infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-020-00526-0DOI Listing

Crowdsourcing to promote hepatitis C testing and linkage-to-care in China: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 2;20(1):1048. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

University of North Carolina Project-China, 1 Global Health Center Office, 2nd Floor of Lao Gan Building, No. 7 Lujing Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a growing public health problem with a large disease burden worldwide. In China many people living with HCV are unaware of their hepatitis status and not connected to care and treatment. Crowdsourcing is a technique that invites the public to create health promotion materials and has been found to increase HIV testing uptake, including in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09152-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330974PMC

"Knock Knock": a qualitative study exploring the experience of household contacts on home visits and their attitude towards people living with TB in South Africa.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 2;20(1):1047. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

The Aurum Institute, 29 Queens Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, Gauteng, 2193, South Africa.

Background: Household contract tracing (HHCT) is an important strategy for active tuberculosis case finding and offers an opportunity for testing of other diseases such as HIV. However, there is limited data on the patient-centered approach to HHCT. Our study aimed to describe experiences and preferences of household contacts (HHCs) for HHCT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09150-1DOI Listing

Neurologic alterations in an HIV adult patient with pertussis: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 2;20(1):471. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

IPS Universitaria León XIII, Infectology Service, Cl. 69 # 51C - 24, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia.

Background: Pertussis is a highly contagious disease of public health interest caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Although its incidence has decreased substantially after the introduction of a vaccination, the burden of the disease remains high. Although the paroxysmal phase is highly disabling, complications are uncommon and more prevalent in children than in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05198-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330534PMC

A Lyapunov-Schmidt method for detecting backward bifurcation in age-structured population models.

J Biol Dyn 2020 Dec;14(1):543-565

Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku Tokyo, Japan.

Backward bifurcation is an important property of infectious disease models. A centre manifold method has been developed by Castillo-Chavez and Song for detecting the presence of backward bifurcation and deriving a necessary and sufficient condition for its occurrence in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) models. In this paper, we extend this method to partial differential equation systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17513758.2020.1785024DOI Listing
December 2020

New knowledge about CCR5, HIV infection and disease progression: is "old" still valuable?

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Case Western Reserve University, 2546, Center for Global Health and Diseases, BRB 409A, Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44106-7078;

C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 (CCR5) is the main HIV-1 co-receptor involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread during acute and chronic infections: such CCR5-using and T cell-tropic viruses are adapted to and replicate in CD4+ memory T cells. Polymorphisms in CCR5 regulate CCR5 expression, which, in turn, influences HIV infection acquisition and subsequent disease progression. Among these polymorphisms, a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 open reading frame (CCR5 Δ32) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter (-2459G/A) are the most well-characterized ones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0060DOI Listing

Horizontal HIV transmission to children of HIV-uninfected mothers: a case series and review of the global literature.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Vertical transmission is the predominant route for acquisition of HIV infection in children, either in utero, intrapartum or postnatally through breast feeding. Less frequently, children may acquire HIV by horizontal transmission. Horizontal transmission may be healthcare-associated (infusion of HIV-contaminated blood products, use of contaminated needles, syringes and medical equipment, or through ingestion of HIV in expressed breastmilk). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.081DOI Listing

Personalized surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis - using machine learning adapted to HCV status.

J Hepatol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Hôpital Jean Minjoz, Service d'Hépatologie, Besançon. FRANCE.

Background And Aims: To develop algorithms based on machine learning predictive approaches to refine individualized predictions of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk according to HCV eradication in patients with cirrhosis included in the French ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort.

Methods: Patients with compensated biopsy-proven HCV-cirrhosis were included in 35 centers and followed a semi-annual HCC surveillance program. Three prognostic models for HCC occurrence were built, using (1) Fine-Gray regression as a benchmark, (2) single decision tree (DT), and (3) random survival forest for competing risks survival (RSF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.052DOI Listing

Age and Risk-Factor Based Serologic Screening for Hepatitis C Virus among an Urban, High-Risk Population.

J Viral Hepat 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening among individuals born between 1945 and 1965 (i.e. birth cohort) may augment risk-factor based screening. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13359DOI Listing

High prevalence of non-communicable diseases among key populations enrolled at a large HIV prevention & treatment program in Kenya.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235606. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases (UNITID), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

Introduction: People Living with HIV (PLHIV) bear a disproportionate burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Despite their significant toll across populations globally, the NCD burden among key populations (KP) in Kenya remains unknown. The burden of four NCD-categories (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes) was evaluated among female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) at the Sex Workers Outreach Program (SWOP) clinics in Nairobi Kenya. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235606PLOS

Tuberculin skin test positivity among HIV-infected alcohol drinkers on antiretrovirals in south-western Uganda.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235261. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among people living with HIV (PLWH), and current evidence suggests that heavy alcohol users have an increased risk of developing TB disease compared to non-drinkers. Not known is whether the increased risk for TB disease among alcohol users may reflect higher rates of latent TB infection (LTBI) among this population. We assessed the latent TB infection prevalence based on tuberculin skin testing (TST) and examined association with current alcohol use among HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in south-western Uganda. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235261PLOS

Bayesian hierarchical modeling of joint spatiotemporal risk patterns for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0234456. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Mathematics, Statistics & Computer Science, University of KwaZulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

The simultaneous spatiotemporal modeling of multiple related diseases strengthens inferences by borrowing information between related diseases. Numerous research contributions to spatiotemporal modeling approaches exhibit their strengths differently with increasing complexity. However, contributions that combine spatiotemporal approaches to modeling of multiple diseases simultaneously are not so common. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234456PLOS

Vaccination coverage of recommended vaccines and determinants of vaccination in at-risk groups.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jul 2:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Leuven University Vaccinology Center , Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Upon exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases, certain individuals are at increased risk for complications due to preexisting diseases, age or immunosuppressive treatment. Vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal disease and hepatitis B (for some groups) is advised in addition to standard vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. We estimated the vaccination coverage and determinants of recommended vaccinations in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (n = 173) and type 2 (n = 177), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 138), heart failure (n = 200), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 187), HIV (n = 201) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) (n = 201) in a monocentric study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1763739DOI Listing

Sensitivity and specificity of rapid diagnostic tests for hepatitis C virus with or without HIV coinfection: a multicentre laboratory evaluation study.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Tropical Medicine HIV/STD Reference Laboratory, Nationalestraat, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening is critical to HCV elimination efforts. Simplified diagnostics are required for low-resource settings and difficult-to-reach populations. This retrospective study assessed performance of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for detection of HCV antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa389DOI Listing

Benefit of a topic ointment as co-medication with biologic drugs for the management of moderate-severe psoriasis: a prospective, observational real-life study.

Clin Ter 2020 Jul-Aug;171(4):e310-e315

Dermatology Unit "D. Innocenzi", Polo Pontino, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Psoriasis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythemato-squamous lesions with a chronic relapsing course. The desease clinical activity (PASI) and the patient's quality of life (DLQI) are the main elements to assess for setting up a correct therapeutic management.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the management of the patient with moderate-severe psoriasis in therapy with biological drugs and to establish the difference in the achievement of PASI 90 and DLQI 0-1 between a group of patients treated with only biological drugs and a group of patients receiving biologic therapy in combination with a topical ointment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7417/CT.2020.2234DOI Listing

Treatment modification after starting cART in people living with HIV: retrospective analysis of the German ClinSurv HIV Cohort 2005-2017.

Infection 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department I for Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Herderstraße 52-54, 50931, Cologne, Germany.

Objective: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has markedly increased survival and quality of life in people living with HIV. With the advent of new treatment options, including single-tablet regimens, durability and efficacy of first-line cART regimens are evolving.

Methods: We analyzed data from the prospective multicenter German Clinical Surveillance of HIV Disease (ClinSurv) cohort of the Robert-Koch Institute. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01469-6DOI Listing

Administering the HPV Vaccine to People Living with HIV: Providers' Perspectives.

J Prim Prev 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, 425 N. 5th Street, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

HIV-positive patients suffer disproportionate burden of anal cancer, a disease which is primarily caused by persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and is potentially preventable with the completion of the HPV vaccine series. Past research qualitatively explored HIV-positive patients' perspectives about the HPV vaccine. However, little is known about their healthcare practitioners' vaccine recommendation behaviors, the strongest influence on vaccine uptake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10935-020-00598-wDOI Listing

The Impact of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Gonorrhea Prevalence.

Bull Math Biol 2020 Jul 1;82(7):85. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be highly effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection in gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (GbMSM). However, PrEP does not protect against other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In some populations, PrEP has also led to riskier behavior such as reduced condom usage, with the result that the prevalence of bacterial STIs like gonorrhea has increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11538-020-00762-7DOI Listing

Skin prick reactivity among asthmatics in East Africa.

World Allergy Organ J 2020 Jun 23;13(6):100130. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Makerere University Lung Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: The burden of asthma in Africa is high, and yet the disease is not universally prioritised. Data on allergic asthma and its impact on asthma morbidity are limited in Africa. Our aim was to describe the distribution of skin prick positivity among asthmatics in Eastern Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322185PMC

Harnessing Activin A Adjuvanticity to Promote Antibody Responses to BG505 HIV Envelope Trimers.

Front Immunol 2020 16;11:1213. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunogen Development (CHAVD), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States.

T follicular helper (T) cells are powerful regulators of affinity matured long-lived plasma cells. Eliciting protective, long-lasting antibody responses to achieve persistent immunity is the goal of most successful vaccines. Thus, there is potential in manipulating T cell responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308430PMC

Prevalence and Predictors of CD4+ T-Lymphocytopenia Among HIV-Negative Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda.

Res Rep Trop Med 2020 25;11:45-51. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Makerere University Lung Institute, Kampala, Uganda.

Purpose: CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia is a risk for tuberculosis (TB) infection, reactivation and severe disease. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of CD4 T-lymphocytopenia among HIV-negative patients with bacteriologically confirmed TB in Uganda.

Patients And Methods: Eligible participants were adult HIV-negative patients with bacteriologically confirmed TB at the National TB Treatment Centre in Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRTM.S252550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323690PMC

Clinical targeting of HIV capsid protein with a long-acting small molecule.

Nature 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.

Oral antiretroviral agents provide life-saving treatments for millions of people living with HIV, and can prevent new infections via pre-exposure prophylaxis. However, some people living with HIV who are heavily treatment-experienced have limited or no treatment options, owing to multidrug resistance. In addition, suboptimal adherence to oral daily regimens can negatively affect the outcome of treatment-which contributes to virologic failure, resistance generation and viral transmission-as well as of pre-exposure prophylaxis, leading to new infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2443-1DOI Listing

Bacterial associated urinary tract infection, risk factors, and drug susceptibility profile among adult people living with HIV at Haswassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Esthiopia.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 1;10(1):10790. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Medical Laboratory Science, Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Awassa, Ethiopia.

People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to develop urinary tract infections (UTI) due to the suppression of their immunity. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors of UTI, and drug susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated among peoples infected with HIV. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 224 HIV positive individuals attending Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (HUCSH) from September 17 to November 16, 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67840-7DOI Listing

[Development of Medicines for Infectious Diseases -Malaria].

Authors:
Kiyoshi Kita

Yakugaku Zasshi 2020 ;140(7):887-894

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University.

In developed countries, it is said that "threats of infectious diseases are already thought as things of the past". However, as you can see in the case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever that occurred in West Africa, this is a big mistake. Among infectious diseases, only smallpox has been successfully eradicated worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.19-00255-1DOI Listing
January 2020

[Consideration of Advanced Pharmaceutical Control Functions through Pharmacy-provided Home Pharmaceutical Care].

Authors:
Masahiko Kimura

Yakugaku Zasshi 2020 ;140(7):841-850

Akebono Pharmacy.

In October 2015, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan newly included "health support functions" and "advanced pharmaceutical control functions" as part of "primary-care pharmacy" in the pharmacy vision for patients. "Health support functions" were defined as recommending that patients seek medical consultations, introducing them to relevant medical institutions, and contributing to disease prevention and health support among local residents, apart from health counseling and the consolidation of a framework for the appropriate selection and supply of and advice on pharmacist-only over-the-counter medications, etc. On the other hand, the term "advanced pharmaceutical control functions" is presumed to imply meeting the needs for advanced pharmaceutical control, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.19-00237-1DOI Listing
January 2020

Risk-based screening to identify reproductive tract infection among HIV-infected women desiring use of intrauterine contraceptives.

BMJ Sex Reprod Health 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, yet RTI testing remains limited in resource-constrained settings. We assessed performance of an existing RTI risk assessment screening tool among women living with HIV (WLHIV) considering intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) use.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among WLHIV screened for participation in an IUC trial in Cape Town, South Africa (NCT01721798). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2019-200494DOI Listing

Mycobacterial antigens in pleural fluid mononuclear cells to diagnose pleural tuberculosis in HIV co-infected patients.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 1;20(1):459. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) accounts for approximately one-half of TB cases in HIV-infected individuals with pleural TB as the second most common location. Even though mycobacteria are cleared, mycobacterial antigens may persist in infected tissues, causing sustained inflammation and chronicity of the disease. The aim of this study was to explore various mycobacterial antigens in pleural effusions, the impact of HIV infection and CD4+ T-cell depletion on the presence of antigens, and the diagnostic potential of antigens for improved and rapid diagnosis of pleural TB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05165-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329517PMC

Management and treatment of HIV: are primary care clinicians prepared for their new role?

BMC Fam Pract 2020 Jul 1;21(1):130. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

College of Graduate Health Studies, A. T. Still University, 5850 East Still Circle, Mesa, AZ, 85206, USA.

Background: Current literature suggests the number of HIV clinicians in the United States is diminishing. There are 294,834 primary care providers (PCP) in the United States, and, of these, 3101 provide care to HIV-positive patients. More PCPs to treat and manage HIV patients may be the solution to alleviate the HIV provider shortage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-020-01198-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330969PMC

Patient-Centred Care for Patients With Diabetes and HIV at a Public Tertiary Hospital in South Africa: An Ethnographic Study.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Centre for Health Policy, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Healthcare systems across the globe are adopting patient-centred care (PCC) approach to empower patients in taking charge of their illnesses and improve the quality of care. Although models of patient-centredness vary, respecting the needs and preferences of individuals receiving care is important. South Africa has implemented an integrated chronic disease management (ICDM) which has PCC component. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.65DOI Listing

Leaving No Man Behind: How Differentiated Service Delivery Models Increase Men's Engagement in HIV Care.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Mar 7. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Men demonstrate disproportionately poor uptake and engagement in HIV services with strong evidence linking men's disinclination to engage in HIV services to their masculinity, necessitating adaptive programming to accommodate HIV-positive men. Differentiated service delivery models (DSDMs) - streamlined patient-centred antiretroviral treatment (ART) delivery services - have demonstrated the potential to improve men's engagement in HIV services. However, it is unclear how and why these models contribute to men's reframing of ART-friendly masculinities - a set of attributes, behaviours and roles associated with boys and men that favour the uptake and use of ART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.32DOI Listing

COVID-19 Pandemic: What Can the West Learn From the East?

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Differences in public health approaches to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could largely explain substantial variations in epidemiological indicators (such as incidence and mortality) between the West and the East. COVID-19 revealed vulnerabilities of most western countries' healthcare systems in their response to the ongoing public health crisis. Hence, western countries can possibly learn from practices from several East Asian countries regarding infrastructures, epidemiological surveillance and control strategies to mitigate the public health impact of the pandemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.85DOI Listing