334,292 results match your criteria HIV Disease

An evaluation of StaySafe, a tablet app to improve health risk decision-making among people under community supervision.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 14;130:108480. Epub 2021 May 14.

Texas Christian University, Institute of Behavioral Research, TCU Box 298740, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A self-administered tablet app, StaySafe, helps people under community supervision to make better decisions regarding health risk behaviors, especially those linked to HIV, viral hepatitis, and other sexually transmitted infections. The multi-session StaySafe design uses an interactive, analytical schema called WORKIT that guides users through a series of steps, questions, and exercises aimed at promoting critical thinking about health risks associated with substance use and unprotected sex. Repetition of the WORKIT schema is designed to enhance procedural memory that can be rapidly accessed when individuals are faced with making decisions about risky behaviors. Read More

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"A good mother": Impact of motherhood identity on women's substance use and engagement in treatment across the lifespan.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 14;130:108474. Epub 2021 May 14.

Yale School of Medicine AIDS Program, New Haven, CT, United States of America; Yale School of Public Health, Chronic Disease Epidemiology, New Haven, CT, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Women are underrepresented in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Interpersonal and structural factors affect women's access to SUD treatment, but limited research evaluates how motherhood is a potential barrier and facilitator to engagement in SUD treatment. We focus on women from young to middle adulthood, and capture women's identities as mothers, caretakers, and grandmothers, outside of pregnancy and the postpartum period. Read More

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Pregnancy and Viral infections: Mechanisms of fetal damage, diagnosis and prevention of neonatal adverse outcomes from cytomegalovirus to SARS-CoV-2 and Zika virus.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jun 9:166198. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Fetal and Perinatal Medicine and Surgery Unit, Medical and Surgical Department of Fetus, Newborn and Infant - "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Some maternal infections, contracted before or during pregnancy, can be transmitted to the fetus, during gestation (congenital infection), during labor and childbirth (perinatal infection) and through breastfeeding (postnatal infection). The agents responsible for these infections can be viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi. Among the viruses most frequently responsible for congenital infections are Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex 1-2, Herpes virus 6, Varicella zoster. Read More

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Tracking elimination of HIV transmission in men who have sex with men in England: a modelling study.

Lancet HIV 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Background: To manage the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in England, treatment as prevention strategies based on test and treat were strengthened between 2011 and 2015, and supplemented from 2015 by scale-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We examined the effect of these interventions on HIV incidence and investigated whether internationally agreed targets for HIV control and elimination of HIV transmission by 2030 might be within reach among MSM in England.

Methods: We used a novel, age-stratified, CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation model to estimate HIV incidence and undiagnosed infections among adult MSM (age ≥15 years) during the 10-year period between 2009 and 2018. Read More

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No need for secondary Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in adult people living with HIV from Europe on ART with suppressed viraemia and a CD4 cell count greater than 100 cells/µL.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Jun;24(6):e25726

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PjP) is one of the most frequent opportunistic AIDS-defining infections. The Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) has shown that primary Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (PjP) prophylaxis can be safely withdrawn in patients with CD4 counts of 100 to 200 cells/µL if plasma HIV-RNA is suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy. Whether this holds true for secondary prophylaxis is not known, and this has proved difficult to determine due to the much lower population at risk. Read More

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Phase 1 pharmacokinetics and safety study of extended duration dapivirine vaginal rings in the United States.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Jun;24(6):e25747

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: Vaginal rings are a promising approach to provide a woman-centred, long-acting HIV prevention strategy. Prior trials of a 25 mg dapivirine (DPV) ring have shown a favourable safety profile and approximately 30% risk reduction of HIV-1 infection. Extended duration rings replaced every three months may encourage user adherence, improve health service efficiency and reduce cost overall. Read More

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Local excision and treatment of early node-negative anal squamous cell carcinomas in a highly HIV prevalent population.

Tech Coloproctol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Chelsea and Westminster Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is an uncommon cancer associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. There has been increasing interest in providing organ-sparing treatment in small node-negative ASCC's, however, there is a paucity of evidence about the use of local excision alone in people living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local excision alone in this patient population. Read More

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Prevalence, recent infection and predictors of HIV infection in fishing community along the shore of Lake Victoria in Tanzania.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Dar es Salaam 9083, Tanzania.

Background: Fishing communities are a subpopulation burdened by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), mainly due to their mobility and cash income access. Strategies to mitigate the spread of HIV in fishing communities have varying outcomes. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of HIV, recent infection and associated factors among fishing communities at Lake Victoria in Tanzania. Read More

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Natural killer cells in antiviral immunity.

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immune responses to viral infections. Here, we review recent insights into the role of NK cells in viral infections, with particular emphasis on human studies. We first discuss NK cells in the context of acute viral infections, with flavivirus and influenza virus infections as examples. Read More

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What is the burden of heterosexually-acquired HIV due to HSV-2? Global and regional model-based estimates of the proportion and number of HIV infections attributable to HSV-2 infection.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, School of Public Health, Imperial College London. Department of Respiratory Sciences, University of Leicester. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom Department of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal (QC), Canada Bristol Veterinary School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Biological and epidemiological evidence suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) elevates HIV acquisition and transmission risk. We improved previous estimates of the contribution of HSV-2 to HIV infections by using a dynamic-transmission model.

Setting: WHO regions. Read More

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COVID-19 in immunocompromised populations: implications for prognosis and repurposing of immunotherapies.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jun;9(6)

Department. of Cellular Therapy and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Comprehensive Cancer Center, Stockholm, Sweden.

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 has highly variable disease severity and a bimodal course characterized by acute respiratory viral infection followed by hyperinflammation in a subset of patients with severe disease. This immune dysregulation is characterized by lymphocytopenia, elevated levels of plasma cytokines and proliferative and exhausted T cells, among other dysfunctional cell types. Read More

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Taking therapeutic apheresis services to patients in South Africa: An eight year review of SANBS mobile therapeutic apheresis service, 2013-2020.

Transfus Apher Sci 2021 May 21:103167. Epub 2021 May 21.

Sanquin Blood Supply, The Netherlands.

Introduction: A 20 year review of health and health care presents the multiple challenges faced by South Africans. Health and poverty is highlighted with 45% of population living on approximately US$ 2 per day and 10 million living on less than US$ 1 per day. Widening disparities in health care provision between public and private sector hospital services exist. Read More

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Management of Human and Animal Bites.

Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cook County Health, Chicago, IL, USA; Midwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Dogs are the animal most frequently implicated in causing bite injuries to the human face. Dog bite injuries are most prevalent in younger patients. Pasteurella species are commensals of the oral microbiome of dogs and cats and are frequently implicated in infections resulting from dog and cat bite injuries. Read More

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The methamphetamine epidemic among persons who inject heroin in Hai Phong, Vietnam.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Jul 4;126:108320. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Pathogenesis and Control of Chronic Infections, Inserm, Etablissement Français du Sang, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Aims: To describe the current methamphetamine (MA) use epidemic among persons who inject heroin (PWID) in Hai Phong, Vietnam, and consider possibilities for mitigating adverse effects of methamphetamine use.

Methods: This study conducted surveys of PWID in 2016, 2017, and 2018 (N = 1383, 1451, and 1445, respectively). Trained interviewers administered structured interviews covering drug use histories, current drug use, and related risk behaviors. Read More

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Inflammation and microbial translocation measured prior to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and long-term probability of clinical progression in people living with HIV.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12;21(1):557. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, "ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, Milan, Italy.

Background: Despite the effectiveness of cART, people living with HIV still experience an increased risk of serious non-AIDS events, as compared to the HIV negative population. Whether pre-cART microbial translocation (MT) and systemic inflammation might predict morbidity/mortality during suppressive cART, independently of other known risk factors, is still unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of pre-cART inflammation and MT as predictors of clinical progression in HIV+ patients enrolled in the Icona Foundation Study Cohort. Read More

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Associations with COVID-19 Symptoms, Prevention Interest, and Testing Among Sexual and Gender Minority Adults in a Diverse National Sample.

LGBT Health 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Sexual and gender minority (SGM) and racial/ethnic minority populations may differ in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention, testing, and vaccine interest, although little research has explored these disparities. It is critical to understand the differential experiences within minoritized communities to ensure effective intervention and vaccine rollout. In a national online survey of U. Read More

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Making voluntary medical male circumcision services sustainable: Findings from Kenya's pilot models, baseline and year 1.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252725. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

National STD/AIDS Control Program (NASCOP), Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya.

Voluntary medical male circumcision is a crucial HIV prevention program for men in sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya is one of the first countries to achieve high population coverage and seek to transition the program to a more sustainable structure designed to maintain coverage while making all aspects of service provision domestically owned and implemented. Using pre-defined metrics, we created and evaluated three models of circumcision service delivery (static, mobile and mixed) to identify which had potential for sustaining high circumcision coverage among 10-14-year-olds group, a historically high-demand and accessible age group, at the lowest possible cost. Read More

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Readiness for Hospital Discharge and Its Correlates Among People Living With HIV in Hunan, China: A Cross-sectional Study.

J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Xiaoxia Zhang, RN, MSN, is an Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, Henan Medical College, Henan, China; and a Graduate Student, Xiangya Nursing School of Central South University, Hunan, China. Chulei Tang, RN, BSN, is a PhD Student, Xiangya Nursing School of Central South University, Hunan, China. Xueling Xiao, RN, MSN, is a PhD Student, Xiangya Nursing School of Central South University, Hunan, China. Manman Sun, RD, MSM, is an Assistant Professor, Department of Preclinical Medicine, Henan Medical College, Henan, China. Honghong Wang, RN, PhD, is a Professor, Xiangya Nursing School of Central South University, Hunan, China.

Abstract: We aimed to (a) describe the readiness for hospital discharge in people living with HIV and (b) explore factors associated with readiness for hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at two infectious disease hospitals in Hunan, China, from May to November 2017. The readiness for hospital discharge scale (RHDS) was used to assess discharge readiness. Read More

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Dolutegravir/lamivudine as a first-line regimen in a test-and-treat setting for newly diagnosed people living with HIV.

AIDS 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL, USA Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Desert AIDS Project, Palm Springs, CA, USA Bliss Healthcare Services, Orlando, FL, USA Infectious Disease Specialists of Atlanta, Decatur, GA, USA Midway Immunology and Research Center, Fort Pierce, FL, USA ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK ViiV Healthcare, Brentford, UK Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Objectives: Dolutegravir/lamivudine (DTG/3TC) is indicated for treatment-naive and experienced people with HIV; however, questions remain about its utility in a test-and-treat setting because of potential transmitted resistance and baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection. We present feasibility and efficacy of DTG/3TC in newly diagnosed individuals in a test-and-treat setting.

Design: The single-arm STAT study evaluated DTG/3TC in a US test-and-treat setting. Read More

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Reaching UNAIDS 95-95-95 targets worldwide: predicted benefits and treatment costs with generic manufacture.

AIDS 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Road, Melbourne, 3004 VIC, Australia Accident and Emergency Medicine, Homerton Row, Clapton, London, E9 6SR, UK Department of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK.

Background: UNAIDS aims for HIV testing, treatment and viral suppression rates to be 95%-95%-95% by 2025. Patented drug prices remain a barrier to HIV treatment. Generic alternatives are being produced and exported from countries without patent barriers at a fraction of the cost. Read More

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Increased immune activation and signs of neuronal injury in HIV-negative people on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

AIDS 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Gothenburg, Sweden Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, United Kingdom Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Persistent immune activation in the central nervous system and systemically are common in people living with HIV (PLHIV) despite antiretroviral therapy. It is not known whether this is generated by HIV replication or other components such as coinfections and lifestyle-related factors.

Design: To determine the importance of different factors, it is crucial to find well-matched HIV-negative controls. Read More

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Rates of new HIV diagnoses among Indigenous peoples in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States: 2009-2017.

AIDS 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia BC Centre for Disease Control First Nations Health Authority, Vancouver, Canada School of Health, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand School of Public Health, University of Queensland Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia The INA (Māori, Indigenous & South Pacific) HIV & AIDS Foundation.

Objective: To compare rates and trends of HIV diagnoses among Indigenous peoples in Canada (First Nations, Métis, Inuit, and other non-specified), Australia (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders), the USA (American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, and Other Pacific Islanders), and New Zealand (Māori).

Design: We employed publicly available surveillance data from 2009 to 2017 to estimate the rate per 100 000 of HIV diagnoses. Estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) in diagnosis rates was calculated using Poisson regression. Read More

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TNF-alpha inhibition in the setting of undiagnosed HIV infection: a call for enhanced screening guidelines.

AIDS 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Hospital Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Gastroenterology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Experimental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Despite the risks of immunosuppression, recommendations regarding screening for HIV infection prior to initiation of biologic therapies targeting common rheumatologic disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and inflammatory arthritides, are limited. Few cases of patients started on biologics while living with undiagnosed HIV infection have been reported.

Methods: We report 3 cases of patients initiated on biologics in the absence of recent or concurrent HIV screening who developed refractory disease or unanticipated complications and were later found to have undiagnosed chronic HIV infection. Read More

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Sexual and gender minority publication trends in the dermatology literature.

Arch Dermatol Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Dermatology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 540 Officenter Place, Suite 240, Columbus, OH, 43230, USA.

In the greater medical literature, publication rates on topics relevant to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) communities have been on the rise. The publication rates in the dermatology literature have not yet been described. We performed an analysis of the dermatology literature from 1980-2020 to characterize LGBTQ-relevant publication rates and themes over time. Read More

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The Impact of COVID-19 on Sexual Behavior and Psychosocial Functioning in a Clinical Sample of Men who have Sex with Men Using HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on sexual behavior, mental health, and substance use among men who have sex with men (MSM) engaged in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care. Generalized linear mixed models and logistic mixed-effect models examined change over time for number of sexual partners, mood, and alcohol consumption. From February 29, 2020 to July 31, 2020, 177 MSM actively engaged in PrEP care were evaluated. Read More

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"One-two Punch": Synergistic β-lactam Combinations for Mycobacterium abscessus and Target Redundancy in the Inhibition of Peptidoglycan Synthesis Enzymes.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Pharmacology, Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Biochemistry, Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus is one of the most difficult pathogens to treat and its incidence in disease is increasing. Dual β-lactam combinations act synergistically in vitro, but are not widely employed in practice. Read More

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Latent Tuberculosis Infection Status of Pregnant Women in Uganda Determined Using QuantiFERON TB Gold-Plus.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 11;8(6):ofab241. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: The risk of progression of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active disease increases with pregnancy. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with LTBI among pregnant women in Uganda.

Methods: We enrolled 261 pregnant women, irrespective of gestational age. Read More

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Peer Mobilization and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Partner Notification Services Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in Coastal Kenya Identified a High Number of Undiagnosed HIV Infections.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 29;8(6):ofab219. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Program, Kilifi, Kenya.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) partner notification services (HPN), peer mobilization with HIV self-testing, and acute and early HIV infection (AEHI) screening among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and transgender women (TGW) were assessed for acceptability, feasibility, and linkage to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) services.

Methods: Between April and August 2019, peer mobilizers mobilized clients by offering HIV oral self-tests and immediate clinic referral for clients with AEHI symptoms. Mobilized participants received clinic-based rapid antibody testing and point-of-care HIV RNA testing. Read More

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Comparison of Predicted Cardiovascular Risk Profiles by Different CVD Risk-Scoring Algorithms between HIV-1-Infected and Uninfected Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in Tanzania.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 3;13:605-615. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

High Altitude Exercise Physiology, Western Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA.

Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment is a suitable way to differentiate between high-risk individuals requiring intervention and risk modification, and those at low risk. However, concerns have been raised when adopting a CVD-risk prediction algorithm for HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

Patients And Methods: We compared cardiovascular risk profiles between HIV-infected (with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART)) and HIV-uninfected adults as predicted by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ASCVD) and the Framingham cardiovascular risk score (FRS) algorithms and assessed the concordance of the algorithms in predicting 10-year CVD risk separately in HIV-infected and uninfected groups in a hospital-based cross-sectional study in Tanzania. Read More

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Viral Nephropathies, Adding SARS-CoV-2 to the List.

Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 2021 3;14:157-164. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Joan C Edwards Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV, USA.

Viral infections in the immunocompetent host can cause both acute and chronic kidney disease either as a direct damage to the infected kidney cells or as a consequence of systemic immune responses that impact kidney function. Since identifying these entities in the 1970s and 80s, major breakthroughs in the understanding of the viral mechanisms have occurred. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to hijack signaling pathways of infected cells to evade antiviral immune responses by the host. Read More

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