305,362 results match your criteria HIV Disease


[Dialyzed leukocyte extracts for the treatment of recurrent and severe infections in pediatric patients with cellular immunodeficiency: 15 years of experience].

Rev Alerg Mex 2019 Jan-Mar;66(1):27-37

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Especialidades 25, Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad, Nuevo León, México.

Background: Dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLE) have been used to treat several cellular immunodeficiency.

Objective: To review the experience of a tertiary hospital in the use of DLE for the treatment of recurrent or severe infections in children with acquired cellular immunodeficiency not due to HIV.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all children who received treatment with EDL of human or bovine origin between 1986 and 2000 to detect recurrent or severe infections without response to a specific antimicrobial therapy and with a quantitative or qualitative deficit in the cellular immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29262/ram.v66i1.531DOI Listing

Novel MRI assessment of treatment response in HIV-associated NAFLD: a randomized trial of an SCD1 inhibitor (ARRIVE Trial).

Hepatology 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

NAFLD Research Center, Department of Medicine, La Jolla, California.

Aramchol, an oral stearoyl-coenzyme-A-desaturase-1 (SCD1) inhibitor, has been shown to reduce hepatic-fat content in patients with primary nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD), however, its effect in patients with HIV-associated NAFLD is unknown. The ARRIVE trial was a double-blind, randomized, investigator-initiated, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of treatment with aramchol versus placebo in HIV-associated NAFLD. Fifty patients with HIV-associated NAFLD, defined by MRI-proton-density-fat-fraction (PDFF) ≥5%, were randomized to receive either aramchol 600 mg daily (n=25) or placebo (n=25) for 12 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30674DOI Listing

Pregnancy intention and contraceptive use among HIV-positive Malawian women at 4-26 weeks post-partum: A nested cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215947. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Background: Avoiding unintended pregnancies through family planning is a WHO strategy for preventing mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and maternal morbidity/mortality. We investigated factors associated with unintended index pregnancy, unmet contraceptive need, future pregnancy intention and current contraceptive use among Malawian women living with HIV in the Option B+ era.

Methods: Women who tested HIV positive at 4-26 weeks postpartum were enrolled into a cross-sectional study at high-volume Under-5 clinics. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215947PLOS

Predictors of mortality in adult people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Nepal: A retrospective cohort study, 2004-2013.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215776. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Saath-Saath Project, Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: In Nepal, since 2004, 19,388 people living with HIV (PLHIV) have been enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to measure mortality rate and to identify predictors of mortality in adult (≥15 years) PLHIV who initiated ART between 2004 and 2013 in five large ART centers of Nepal.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study of 3,799 (60. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215776PLOS

Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the Tapajós region, Amazon, Brazil: Self-collected vs. clinician-collected samples.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215001. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

The anogenital prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the use of cervico-vaginal self-collected vs. clinician-collected samples were evaluated for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the Tapajós region, Amazon, Brazil. We recruited 153 women for a cross-sectional study (112 HIV-uninfected and 41 HIV-infected) who sought health services. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215001PLOS

Effectiveness of blood donor screening by HIV, HCV, HBV-NAT assays, as well as HBsAg and anti-HBc immunoassays in Germany (2008-2015).

Vox Sang 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Safety of Medicinal Products and Medical Devices, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany.

Background And Objectives: In Germany, in addition to standard blood donor screening, further mandatory tests were introduced for HCV-RNA, HIV-1-RNA and for anti-HBc. Screening for HBV-DNA is optional. This study investigates the benefits of these additional tests for the detection of HIV, HCV, and HBV infections among German blood donors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.12770DOI Listing

Evaluation of Vascular Event Risk while on Long-term Anti-retroviral Suppressive Therapy [EVERLAST]: Protocol for a prospective observational study.

eNeurologicalSci 2019 Jun 5;15:100189. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Background & Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among the HIV population is high due to a combination of accelerated atherosclerosis from the pro-inflammatory milieu created by chronic HIV infection and the potentially adverse metabolic side effects from cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) medications. Although sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) bears 70% of the global burden of HIV disease, there is a relative paucity of studies comprehensively assessing CVD risk among people living with HIV on the continent. The overarching objective of the Evaluation of Vascular Event Risk while on Long-term Anti-retroviral Suppressive Therapy (EVERLAST) Study is to characterize the burden of CVD among HIV patients on ART in Ghana, and explore factors influencing it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2019.100189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460293PMC

A Rare Case of Neurosyphilis with Ocular Involvement in a Patient with HIV Infection and New Onset Syphilis.

Cureus 2019 Feb 7;11(2):e4034. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Internal Medicine, St. Barnabas Hospital, Bronx, USA.

Neurosyphilis (NS) is more frequently seen in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, especially those not on antiretroviral therapy or with a low CD4 cell count. Ocular syphilis is an unusual and early form of neurosyphilis. Lumbar puncture should be considered in all HIV infected patients who present with neurologic or ocular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456285PMC
February 2019

Addressing missed opportunities for HIV testing by including rapid-HIV self-testing kits with patient-delivered partner therapy.

Authors:
Steven A John

Sex Res Social Policy 2018 Dec 8;15(4):387-397. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Center for HIV Educational Studies & Training (CHEST), Hunter College, City University of New York (CUNY), New York, New York, USA.

Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) is the practice of providing patients diagnosed with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) medication to give directly to their partner for treatment, which can result in missed opportunities for partner HIV testing. Fifteen STI clinic patients were asked about their opinions of including HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits with PDPT. Interview data fit well into constructs of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13178-017-0316-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474367PMC
December 2018

Management Approaches to Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination Nonresponse.

Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) 2019 Feb;15(2):93-99

Dr Yanny is a health science clinical instructor of medicine and Mr Konyn is a medical student in the Department of Medicine at the University of California at Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California. Ms Najarian is a premedical student in the Department of Surgery at the University of California at Los Angeles. Ms Mitry is a graduate student at Claremont Graduate University in Riverside, California.

Despite the availability of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination, HBV remains a cause of significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Immunologic response and the development of immunity to the HBV vaccine vary significantly among patients. Multiple studies have looked at patients who are at risk of nonresponse and have offered their own approaches to patients who do not respond. Read More

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February 2019

Community outbreak of invasive group A streptococcus infection in Ontario, Canada.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Jul 5;44(7-8):182-188. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Middlesex-London Health Unit, London, ON.

Background: Outbreaks of invasive group A streptococcal infection (iGAS) have historically occurred in institutional settings. Increasingly, community-based outbreaks have been reported, often among marginalized populations, yet few guidelines exist for managing iGAS outbreaks in such settings.

Objective: To describe the ongoing outbreak of iGAS in Middlesex-London, Ontario, and the challenges that arose while applying current guidelines to a marginalized population in a community setting. Read More

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Preparing for PrEP: estimating the size of the population eligible for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in England.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Blood Safety, Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV Service, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

Objectives: The size of the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) who may be eligible for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (HIV-PrEP) in England remains unknown. To plan for a national PrEP implementation trial, we estimated the number of MSM attending sexual health clinics (SHCs) that may be eligible for HIV-PrEP in England.

Methods: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance data from 2010 to 2015 from the GUMCAD surveillance system were used to estimate the annual number of HIV-negative MSM who may be eligible for HIV-PrEP in England. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2019-054009DOI Listing

[The current situation with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Niamey (Niger)].

Rev Mal Respir 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Laboratoire national de référence VIH/tuberculose, Niamey, Niger.

Tuberculosis is a major public health problem and the main reason for hospital admission in developing countries. No study of tuberculosis has been undertaken in the pulmonary/tuberculosis service of Lamordé National Hospital in Niamey since its foundation in April 2009. The aim of our study is to assess the current situation of sputum positive new and relapsed cases of tuberculosis and to determine their epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmr.2018.07.009DOI Listing

Contact tracing for hepatitis C: The case for novel screening strategies as we strive for viral elimination.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

NYU School of Medicine, United States.

Contact tracing has been a key element of the public health response to infectious diseases for decades. These practices have been powerful in slowing the spread of tuberculosis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Despite success in other contexts, contact tracing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has historically been considered infeasible because of a long asymptomatic period, which often makes it difficult to pinpoint the time of acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Emerging and reemerging fungal infections.

Semin Diagn Pathol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Fungal infections throughout the world appear to be increasing. This may in part be due to the increase in the population of patients that are susceptible to otherwise rare fungal infections resulting from the use of immune modulating procedures such as hematopoietic stem cell transplants and drugs like tissue necrosis factor antagonists. Histoplasma capsulatum, an endemic fungus throughout North and South America, is reemerging among HIV+ patients in Central and South America and among patients taking tissue necrosis factor antagonists and other biologics in North America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2019.04.010DOI Listing

Lentiviral gene therapy vector with UCOE stably restores function in iPSC-derived neutrophils of a CDG patient.

Matters (Zur) 2018 23;2018. Epub 2018 May 23.

Systems and Cell Biology of Neurodegeneration, University of Zurich, James Martin Stem Cell Facility, University of Oxford, Division of Immunology, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Div. of Immunology, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Children's Research Center, Associated Group Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, James Martin Stem Cell Facility, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Professor emeritus University Children's Hospital Zürich, Division of Immunology, Professor emeritus Children's Research Center, Div. of Immunology, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Children's Research Center, Associated Group Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Zürich, Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Zürich, Div. of Immunology, University Children's Hospital Zürich, Children's Research Center, Associated Group Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Zürich.

A recent gamma-retroviral clinical Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) gene therapy (GT) trial achieved proof-of-concept but was accompanied by activation of oncogenes and transgene silencing. The (UCOE) comprises the sequences of two divergently oriented house-keeping gene promoters and is known to have anti-silencing properties. In a screen we identified two novel UCOE constructs that prevent adjacent promoter methylation in P cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.19185/matters.201805000005DOI Listing

Bearing the Stigma of HIV: Experiences and Coping Strategies in Southwest China.

World Health Popul 2018 Jan;17(4):5-17

Guangxi Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.

Even as the number of people living with HIV (PLWH) is rapidly increasing in China, qualitative studies investigating the effect of HIV stigma on daily lives remain limited. The current study aims to fill this gap in research with attention to not only the experiences but also the coping strategies of PLWH in southwest China. We conducted 90 in-depth interviews in Guangxi, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12927/whp.2018.25404DOI Listing
January 2018

Serological Markers for Syphilis Among Persons Presenting with Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections Results from the Zimbabwe STI Etiology Study.

Sex Transm Dis 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Syphilis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa appears to be stable or declining but is still the highest globally. Ongoing sentinel surveillance in high-risk populations is necessary to inform management and detect changes in syphilis trends. We assessed serological syphilis markers among persons with sexually transmitted infections in Zimbabwe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001006DOI Listing

Traditional healers, hiv outcomes, and mortality among people living with hiv in senegal, west africa.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Objectives: The goals of this study were to determine the frequency of traditional healer (TH) use among PLHIV in Senegal, to identify predictors of TH use, and to determine if TH use is associated with HIV outcomes.

Design: Prospective longitudinal study METHODS:: Subjects were enrolled from April 2017-April 2018 in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Interviews, clinical evaluations, laboratory analyses, and chart review were conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002232DOI Listing

Clinical significance of elevated liver transaminases in HIV-infected patients.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

: Elevation of liver transaminases is common in patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Although this is usually an incidental finding during regular work-up, HIV-infected patients with transaminases elevations require additional visits for laboratory studies and clinical assessments, and often undergo interruptions and changes in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is present primarily in the liver, thus being a surrogate marker of hepatocellular injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002233DOI Listing
April 2019
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Simplifying switch to second line ART: Predicted effect of defining failure of first-line efavirenz-based regimens in sub-Saharan Africa by a single viral load > 1000 copies/ml.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, UK.

Background: Many individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa never initiate second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) or do so after significant delay. For people on ART with a viral load (VL) > 1000 copies/ml, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a second VL measurement 3 months after the first VL and enhanced adherence support. Switch to a second-line regimen is contingent upon a persistently elevated VL > 1000 copies/ml. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002234DOI Listing

Inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-infected children hospitalized for severe malnutrition in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, London, UK.

Objectives: A proportion of HIV-infected children with advanced disease develop severe malnutrition soon after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. We tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of severe malnutrition in HIV-infected children.

Design: Cross-sectional laboratory sub-study in 613 HIV-infected children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002231DOI Listing

A novel hepatitis B virus recombinant genotype D4/E identified in a South African population.

Heliyon 2019 Apr 6;5(4):e01477. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

HIV and Hepatitis Research Unit, Department of Virology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University and National Health Laboratory Services, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Genetic diversity is a characteristic trait of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and has been associated with different clinical outcomes. In South Africa, HBV infection is a major public health concern. Most HBV infections are caused by genotype A strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453802PMC

Consistent Condom Use and Associated Factors among HIV-Positive Clients on Antiretroviral Therapy in North West Ethiopian Health Center, 2016 GC.

AIDS Res Treat 2019 17;2019:7134908. Epub 2019 Mar 17.

Department of Public Health, Hawassa Health Science College, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Background: The burden of Human Immune Deficiency Virus or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is high in sub-Saharan countries including Ethiopia which have over two-thirds of the global HIV burden. Many would argue that consistent condom use is not most effective method for HIV prevention. Condoms offer protection against unwanted pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections including Human Immune Deficiency Virus, when used correctly and consistently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7134908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441518PMC

Trends of blood-borne infectious diseases in a rural blood donation center of southeast Gabon (Koula-Moutou).

Pan Afr Med J 2018 3;31:81. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 13400 E, Shea Blvd Scottsdale, 85259 AZ, USA.

Introduction: Blood-borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) viruses and remain a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and clinical implications of HIV, HBV, HCV and markers in blood donors in a rural area of Southeast Gabon (Koula-Moutou) from 2012 to 2017.

Methods: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HIV, anti-HCV and anti- antibodies were screened using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Read More

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http://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/31/81/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.81.16331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457734PMC
October 2018
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BAYESIAN LATENT HIERARCHICAL MODEL FOR TRANSCRIPTOMIC META-ANALYSIS TO DETECT BIOMARKERS WITH CLUSTERED META-PATTERNS OF DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION SIGNALS.

Ann Appl Stat 2019 Mar 10;13(1):340-366. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Biostatistics, Human Genetics and Computational Biology University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261

Due to the rapid development of high-throughput experimental techniques and fast-dropping prices, many transcriptomic datasets have been generated and accumulated in the public domain. Meta-analysis combining multiple transcriptomic studies can increase the statistical power to detect disease-related biomarkers. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian latent hierarchical model to perform transcriptomic meta-analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/18-AOAS1188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472949PMC

HIVR4P 2018: From Research to Impact.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

International AIDS Society, 503988, Geneva, Switzerland ;

The HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) conference is dedicated to advancing HIV prevention research, responding to a growing consensus that effective and durable prevention will require a combination of approaches as well as unprecedented collaboration among scientists, practitioners and community workers from different fields and geographic areas. The conference theme in 2018, "From Research to Impact", acknowledged an increasing focus on translation of promising research findings into practical, accessible and affordable HIV prevention options for those who need them worldwide. HIVR4P 2018 was held in Madrid, Spain, on 21-25 October, with over 1,400 participants from 52 countries around the globe, representing all aspects of HIV prevention research and implementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0074DOI Listing

The characteristics of internet-based venue sex-seeking and mobility among money boys in Tianjin, China.

HIV Med 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Objectives: Internet-based venue sex-seeking is prevalent among money boys (MBs), as is a high degree of mobility, which is crucial for HIV transmission in key populations with high risks of HIV infection. However, correlation studies in MBs are scarce because of the secretive nature of this hard-to-reach subpopulation. We conducted this project to explore the characteristics of MBs. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/hiv.12746
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12746DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Methodology of the 2nd seroprevalence study in Spain].

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2019 Apr 22;93. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Subdirección General de Promoción de la Salud y Vigilancia en Salud Pública. Dirección General de Salud Pública, Calidad e Innovación. Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social. Madrid. España.

Seroprevalence studies are designed in population samples to assess the level and distribution of immunity induced by natural infection of certain infectious agents or by immunization against them. The purpose of the 2nd Seroprevalence Study in Spain is to assess the prevalence and distribution of immune status against vaccine-preventable diseases and generated by natural infection by other microorganisms. Pathologies specifically included in the study are: poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, rubella, mumps, varicella, invasive meningococcal disease by serogroup C, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis E, hepatitis C and HIV. Read More

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CD8+ T cells induced by adenovirus-vectored vaccine are capable of preventing establishment of latent murine γ-herpesvirus 68 infection.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Centre for Medical Parasitology, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; InProTher ApS, DK2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

CD8+ T cells are known to control infections, but their role in preventing latent infection from establishing has not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized that a potent CD8+ T cell response patrolling the mucosal viral entry points could kill the first infected cells and thereby abrogate the infection before latency is established. To investigate this, replication deficient adenovirus serotype 5 vectors encoding murine γ-herpesvirus-68 CD8+ T cell epitopes linkedto the T cell adjuvant Invariant chain, were developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.034DOI Listing

[Homosexual behavior and related factors among married men who have sex with men in Mianyang city, Sichuan province].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Apr;40(4):461-465

Department of AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Pingwu County Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Pingwu 622500, China.

To understand the homosexual behavior and related factors among married MSM in Mianyang city. Between January and October in 2017, a snowball sampling method was adopted to carry out cross-sectional survey through questionnaires plus HIV testing among those MSM in Mianyang city. Logistic regression model was used to analyze homosexual behaviors and related factors among married MSM under study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.04.017DOI Listing

[HIV prevalence and correlated factors on male clients of female sex workers in Hekou Yao autonomous county of Yunnan province, 2014-2015].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Apr;40(4):440-445

School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.

To assess the prevalence and related factors of HIV infection among male clients of the female sex workers in Hekou Yao autonomous county of Honghe Hani Yi autonomous prefecture (Hekou county) in Yunnan province in China, 2014-2015. Serial cross-sectional survey was conducted during June 2014 to November 2015. Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit the male clients for this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.04.013DOI Listing
April 2019
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HIV Status Does Not Worsen Oral Health Outcomes.

J Clin Periodontol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh.

Last January 31 , Journal of Clinical Periodontology just made available the report titled "A Retrospective Analysis of Dental Implant Survival in HIV Patients", which concluded that "implants placed in HIV-positive patients had similar survival rates as HIV-negative patients." These data support our hypothesis that infection by HIV does not lead to worse oral health outcomes, including worse periodontitis. We looked 6,092 individuals and selected all HIV-positive subjects (N=73) and matched them by age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking habits with 261 HIV-negative control subjects. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcpe.13116
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13116DOI Listing
April 2019
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Immune Activation and Microbial Translocation Markers in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Malawian Infants in the First Year of Life.

J Trop Pediatr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

National Center for Global Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome 00161, Italy.

Background: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants show a high rate of morbidity. We aimed to investigate on biomarkers of immune activation/microbial translocation in HEU infants, evaluating the impact that infections/malnutrition can have on biomarker levels during the first year of life.

Methods: Clinical data of 72 Malawian infants were recorded monthly and correlated with levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), analyzed longitudinally. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/tropej/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmz022DOI Listing
April 2019
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Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of a PCR method to detect Coxiella burnetii in milk and vaginal secretions in sheep and goat samples.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, PO Box 76169 14111, Kerman, Iran.

Coxiella burnetii is a gram-negative and polymorphic rod bacterium that causes Q fever, a common zoonotic disease distributed worldwide. Widespread occurrences of the disease outbreaks indicate the importance of coordinated animal and human health efforts to control these outbreaks. Different tests are available to determine the C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15233DOI Listing

Effect of Withania somnifer on CD38 expression on CD8+ T lymphocytes among patients of HIV infection.

Clin Immunol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

National HIV/AIDS Reference Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

CD38 on CD8 + T cells is considered a reliable marker of HIV disease progression. Withania somnifer, a traditional ayurvedic medicine, has Th1 immunomodulatory properties. PBMCs from 38 HIV patients were exposed to Withania somnifer root extract at standardized concentration. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15216616193009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Modeling the Effect of Tat Inhibitors on HIV Latency.

J Theor Biol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Monterrey, Via del Conocimiento 201, Parque PIIT, Apodaca CP 66600 NL, México. Electronic address:

Even in the presence of a successful combination therapy stalling the progress of AIDS, developing a cure for this disease is still an open question. One of the major steps towards a cure would be to be able to eradicate latent HIV reservoirs present in patients. During the last decade, multiple findings point to the dominant role of the viral protein Tat in the establishment of latency. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00225193193015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.04.018DOI Listing
April 2019
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The contribution of KSHV to mortality in hospitalized HIV-infected patients being investigated for tuberculosis in South Africa.

J Infect Dis 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Division of Medical Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Despite increasing numbers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis remains the leading cause of mortality. Approximately 25% of patients treated for tuberculosis have microbiologically unconfirmed diagnoses. We assessed whether elevated Kaposi's sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) viral load (VL) contributes to mortality in hospitalized HIV-infected patients investigated for tuberculosis. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz180DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Varies Widely by Calculator and Race/Ethnicity in a Majority Latinx Cohort Living with HIV.

J Immigr Minor Health 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Research to Advance Community Health (ReACH) Center, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Comparison of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators in Latinx majority populations living with HIV can assist clinicians in selecting a calculator and interpreting results. 10-year CVD risks were estimated for 652 patients seen ≥ 2 times over 12 months in a public clinic using three risk calculators: Atherosclerotic CVD risk Calculator (ASCVD), Framingham Risk Calculator (FRC), and Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs Study (D:A:D) Calculator. Median estimated 10-year CVD risk in this population was highest using FRC (11%), followed by D:A:D (10%), and lowest with ASCVD (5%; p < 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-019-00890-wDOI Listing

Cross-Sectional Study of Sexual Behavior, Alcohol Use, and Mental Health Conditions Associated With Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Deploying Shipboard US Military Personnel.

Mil Med 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program, Defense Health Agency, 140 Sylvester Rd Bldg 306, San Diego, CA 92106.

Introduction: Limited comprehensive data exist on risk behavior associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) among ship-assigned US military personnel during the predeployment time period (PDT). This study examined whether sexual risk behaviors, alcohol use, involuntary drug consumption (IDC), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression during the 12 months prior to deployment were associated with provider-diagnosed STIs in this population.

Materials And Methods: Using cross-sectional data collected during 2012-2014 among sexually active personnel, multivariable regression assessed factors associated with STIs among all men (n = 1,831). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/milmed/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usz070DOI Listing
April 2019
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An exploration of the disease burden due to Cryptosporidium in consumed surface water for sub-Saharan Africa.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700, AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhoeal disease, but in many contexts its burden remains uncertain. The Global Waterborne Pathogen model for Cryptosporidium (GloWPa-Crypto) predicts oocyst concentrations in surface water at 0.5 by 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among HIV-1 infected ART-naïve individuals in Kumasi, Ghana.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215377. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: The study assessed the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection paradigm among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients attending a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Also, the immunological and virological characterisation of these viruses, prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was investigated.

Method: A total of 400 HIV infected (HIV type-1) treatment naïve subjects ≥18 years were enrolled and tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215377PLOS

Preventive Misconception and Risk Behaviors in a Multinational HIV Prevention Trial.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr 19:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

b Department of Population Health Sciences , Duke University School of Medicine , Durham , North Carolina , USA.

Background: Some HIV prevention research participants may hold a "preventive misconception" (PM), an overestimate of the probability or level of personal protection afforded by trial participation. However, these reports typically rely upon small, retrospective qualitative assessments that did not use a standardized approach.

Methods: We administered a measure of PM called PREMIS, during Microbicide Trials Network 020-A Study to Prevent Infection with a Ring for Extended Use, a large, multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of a dapivirine vaginal ring among women at risk for HIV infection in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23294515.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1593257DOI Listing
April 2019
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Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interaction in a Large Antiretroviral Treatment Centre in Lagos, Nigeria.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 22;26(1):e1-e19. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

University of Lagos.

   Background: An important cause of treatment failure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the potential interaction between the antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and co-prescribed drugs used concomitantly for the treatment of opportunistic infections and co-morbid ailments in HIV-infected patients. Objectives: The study evaluated potential clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs) occurring between recommended ART regimens and their co-prescribed non-antiretroviral drugs (CPD) Method: This study was carried out in a large HIV treatment centre (APIN clinic) in a Nigerian teaching hospital, in Lagos Nigeria, caring for over 20,000 registered patients. Electronic Medical Records (EMR) of 500 patients  who received treatment between 2005 and 2015, were selected using systematic random sampling, reviewed retrospectively, and evaluated for potential CSDIs using Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Database and other similar databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.26.1.1DOI Listing
January 2019

Novel Method for Rapid Detection of Spatiotemporal HIV Clusters Potentially Warranting Intervention.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 May;25(5):988-991

Rapid detection of increases in HIV transmission enables targeted outbreak response efforts to reduce the number of new infections. We analyzed US HIV surveillance data and identified spatiotemporal clusters of diagnoses. This systematic method can help target timely investigations and preventive interventions for maximum public health benefit. Read More

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http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/5/18-0776_article.htm
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2505.180776DOI Listing
May 2019
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Absence of influence of polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene in oral infections by HSV-1 in individuals with HIV.

Braz J Microbiol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

University Federal of Pernambuco (UFPE), Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, Recife, PE, 50670-901, Brazil.

Polymorphisms in the structural gene MBL-2 (mannose-binding lectin-2) may result in low MBL serum concentration, associated with greater susceptibility to infection. The study evaluated the effects of MBL-2 polymorphisms with the oral manifestations of the HSV in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. An observational case-control study was carried out, with the sample comprising 64 HIV+ and 65 healthy individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00074-6DOI Listing

Challenges and Opportunities for Patient Centric Drug Product Design: Industry Perspectives.

Pharm Res 2019 Apr 17;36(6):85. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Merck Research Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

For an industry dedicated to preventing and treating disease, the concept of patient centric drug product design is remarkably new, yet it is beginning to transform medicinal development. The paternalistic paradigm of delivering efficacious and safe medicinal products, with inconsistent emphasis on patient centric considerations, is no longer sufficient. Patient expectations have evolved, and treatment use must complement patients' daily lives. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11095-019-2616-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-019-2616-5DOI Listing
April 2019
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Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections S.aureus - but not S.pyogenes- isolates display high rate of internalization and cytotoxicity toward human myoblasts.

J Infect Dis 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Université de Lyon; Inserm U1111; Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon; Université Lyon ; CNRS, UMR; Hospices Civils de Lyon ; Lyon, France.

Background: Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections (NSTIs) caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) and occasionally by Staphylococcus aureus (SA) frequently involve the deep fascia and often lead to muscle necrosis.

Methods: To assess the pathogenicity of GAS and SA for muscles in comparison to keratinocytes, adhesion and invasion of NSTI-GAS and NSTI-SA isolates were assessed on these cells, Bloodstream infections (BSI-SA) and non-invasive coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) isolates were used as controls.

Results: NSTI-SA and BSI-SA exhibited stronger internalization into human keratinocytes and myoblasts than NSTI-GAS or CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz167DOI Listing