349,671 results match your criteria HIV Disease

Impact of systemic health on treatment outcomes in endodontics.

Int Endod J 2022 Jun 26. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

Endodontic Section, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (Unesp), R. José Bonifácio 1193, 16015-060-Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.

The ultimate objective of root canal treatment (RCT) is the complete healing of periapical disease, with the restoration of tooth function. The healing of periapical lesions after RCT is not the result of the curative action of the treatment. The process of healing begins with inflammation, and is resolved by the clearance of the immunogen that induces the immune response. Read More

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Genetic variation in CSF2 (5q31.1) is associated with longitudinal susceptibility to pediatric malaria, severe malarial anemia, and all-cause mortality in a high-burden malaria and HIV region of Kenya.

Trop Med Health 2022 Jun 25;50(1):41. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

University of New Mexico-Kenya Global Health Programs, Kisumu, Siaya, Kenya.

Plasmodium falciparum infections remain among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in holoendemic transmission areas. Located within region 5q31.1, the colony-stimulating factor 2 gene (CSF2) encodes granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a hematopoietic growth factor that mediates host immune responses. Read More

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Long-term hematopoietic stem cells as a parasite niche during treatment failure in visceral leishmaniasis.

Commun Biol 2022 Jun 25;5(1):626. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology, and Hygiene (LMPH), Infla-Med Centre of Excellence, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Given the discontinuation of various first-line drugs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), large-scale in vivo drug screening, establishment of a relapse model in rodents, immunophenotyping, and transcriptomics were combined to study persistent infections and therapeutic failure. Double bioluminescent/fluorescent Leishmania infantum and L. donovani reporter lines enabled the identification of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSC) as a niche in the bone marrow with remarkably high parasite burdens, a feature confirmed for human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSPC). Read More

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Leveraging the therapeutic, biological, and self-assembling potential of peptides for the treatment of viral infections.

J Control Release 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States of America; Institute for NanoBioTechnology, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States of America; Deptartment of Oncology and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States of America; Center for Nanomedicine, The Wilmer Eye Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 400 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21231, United States of America. Electronic address:

Peptides and peptide-based materials have an increasing role in the treatment of viral infections through their use as active pharmaceutical ingredients, targeting moieties, excipients, carriers, or structural components in drug delivery systems. The discovery of peptide-based therapeutic compounds, coupled with the development of new stabilization and formulation strategies, has led to a resurgence of antiviral peptide therapeutics over the past two decades. The ability of peptides to bind cell receptors and to facilitate membrane penetration and subsequent intracellular trafficking enables their use in various antiviral systems for improved targeting efficiency and treatment efficacy. Read More

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A case report of ulceroglandular tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in Iran.

Acta Trop 2022 Jun 22:106570. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

National Reference Laboratory for Plague, Tularemia and Q fever, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging infectious diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Akanlu, Kabudar Ahang, Hamadan, Iran; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging infectious diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Tularemia is a zoonotic disease that has been reported in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere. However, in some countries, such as Iran, this disease has been neglected by the health care system, and it is under-reported.

Case Presentation: Here we report an unusual case of ulceroglandular tularemia occurring in a 35-year-old woman who presented with a skin lesion of the left flank, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and an abdominal abscess. Read More

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Factors Associated with Exchange Sex Among Cisgender Persons Who Inject Drugs: Women and MSM-23 U.S. Cities, 2018.

AIDS Behav 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Division of HIV Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd., Mailstop E-46, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Persons who inject drugs (PWID) and exchange sex face disproportionate HIV rates. We assessed prevalence of exchange sex (receiving money/drugs for sex from ≥ 1 male partner(s) during the past year) among cisgender PWID, separately for women and men with a history of sex with men (MSM). We examined factors associated with exchange sex, including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and healthcare access/utilization. Read More

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Access to flucytosine for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Africa.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Molecular Mycology Unit, Institut Pasteur of Paris, Paris, France; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Paris Cité, Paris, France; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

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Outcomes of flucytosine-containing combination treatment for cryptococcal meningitis in a South African national access programme: a cross-sectional observational study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mycoses, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, UK; MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK; Division of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Although flucytosine is a key component of WHO-recommended induction treatment for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis, this antifungal agent is not widely available in low-income and middle-income countries due to limited production and cost. In 2018, a national flucytosine access programme was initiated in South Africa. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of flucytosine-containing induction regimens in routine care to motivate for the urgent registration of flucytosine and its inclusion in treatment guidelines. Read More

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From surviving to thriving: integrating mental health care into HIV, community, and family services for adolescents living with HIV.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Information Systems, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.

Adolescents are a crucial generation, with the potential to bring future social and economic success for themselves and their countries. More than 90% of adolescents living with HIV reside in sub-Saharan Africa, where their mental health is set against a background of poverty, familial stress, service gaps, and an HIV epidemic that is now intertwined with the COVID-19 pandemic. In this Series paper, we review systematic reviews, randomised trials, and cohort studies of adolescents living with and affected by HIV. Read More

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Integrating HIV and mental health interventions to address a global syndemic among men who have sex with men.

Lancet HIV 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya; Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

In this Series paper, we review evidence on the co-occurring and synergistic epidemics (syndemic) of HIV and mental health problems worldwide among men who have sex with men (MSM). The multilevel determinants of this global syndemic include structural factors that enable stigma, systematic bias, and violence towards MSM across geographical and cultural contexts. Cumulative exposure to these factors over time results in population-level inequities in the burden of HIV infections and mental health problems among MSM. Read More

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Advancing Precision Vaccinology by Molecular and Genomic Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in Germany, 2021.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Systems Medicine of Infectious Disease (P5), Robert Koch-Institute, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Comprehensive pathogen genomic surveillance represents a powerful tool to complement and advance precision vaccinology. The emergence of the Alpha variant in December 2020 and the resulting efforts to track the spread of this and other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern led to an expansion of genomic sequencing activities in Germany.

Methods: At Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the German National Institute of Public Health, we established the "Integrated Molecular Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2" (IMS-SC2) network to perform SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance at the national scale, SARS-CoV-2 positive samples from laboratories distributed across Germany regularly undergo whole-genome sequencing at RKI. Read More

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Long term outcomes of patients with tuberculous meningitis: The impact of drug resistance.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(6):e0270201. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Background: Little is known about the impact of drug-resistance on clinical outcomes among patients with tuberculosis meningitis (TBM).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study among patients treated for TBM in Tbilisi, Georgia. We performed medical chart abstraction to collect patient data. Read More

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-Adenosylmethionine-responsive cystathionine β-synthase modulates sulfur metabolism and redox balance in .

Sci Adv 2022 Jun 24;8(25):eabo0097. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka 560012, India.

Methionine and cysteine metabolisms are important for the survival and pathogenesis of (). The transsulfuration pathway converts methionine to cysteine and represents an important link between antioxidant and methylation metabolism in diverse organisms. Using a combination of biochemistry and cryo-electron microscopy, we characterized the first enzyme of the transsulfuration pathway, cystathionine β-synthase (Cbs) in . Read More

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Rationale of using the dual chemokine receptor CCR2/CCR5 inhibitor cenicriviroc for the treatment of COVID-19.

PLoS Pathog 2022 Jun 24;18(6):e1010547. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

John T. Milliken Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has created a global pandemic infecting over 230 million people and costing millions of lives. Therapies to attenuate severe disease are desperately needed. Cenicriviroc (CVC), a C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antagonist, an agent previously studied in advanced clinical trials for patients with HIV or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), may have the potential to reduce respiratory and cardiovascular organ failures related to COVID-19. Read More

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Effect of Switching Antiretroviral Treatment Regimen in Patients With Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Infection: Retrospective Observational Cohort Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2022 Jun 24;8(6):e33429. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Evidence on the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen switches on the mortality of patients with HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is limited.

Objective: We aim to provide policy guidance for ART regimen selection and evaluate the effectiveness of ART regime switches for people living with HIV and HIV-1 drug resistance.

Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included 179 people living with HIV and HIV-1 drug resistance from 2011 to 2020. Read More

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Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the Mozambican population: a cross-sectional Serologic study in three cities, July-August 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique.

Background: The extent of population exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was uncertain in many African countries during the onset of the pandemic.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and randomly selected and surveyed general population and occupational groups from July 6 to August 24, 2020, in three cities in Mozambique. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific immunoglobulins M and G antibodies were measured using a point-of-care rapid test. Read More

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Association of inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular risk scores in an Italian cohort of HIV positive patient undergoing antiretroviral therapy.

Curr HIV Res 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Clinic of Infectious Diseases Dept. of Medicine and Science of Aging University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara Via dei Vestini 31, Chieti, Italy.

Background: Several algorithms have been developed to predict cardiovascular risk (CVR) over time, however none of them seem to be accurate when applied to HIV patients.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess plasma inflammatory biomarkers in relation to multiple CVR scores (FRS, ASCVD, PROCAM and the DAD-5 Years-Estimated-Risk) in an Italian cohort of HIV patients undergoing a combined Antiretroviral Therapy (cART).

Methods: We enrolled HIV patients undergoing cART without any change in the HIV-related pharmacological therapy over the last 48 weeks Demographic and anamnestic data were collected, and a biochemical panel including the following biomarkers was collected: CRP, Cystatin-C, microalbuminuria, IL-18, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN- γ. Read More

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Sexually transmitted infection prevention behaviours: health impact, prevalence, correlates, and interventions.

Psychol Health 2022 Jun 24:1-26. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major public health threat, disproportionately affecting young people, and men who have sex with men. In this narrative review of the current state of behavioural science research on STI prevention, we consider the definition, health impacts, correlates and determinants, and interventions to promote STI prevention behaviour. Research on STI prevention behaviour has extended from a focus on abstinence, partner reduction and condom use, to also include novel preventive behaviours, notably treatment-as-prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis (i. Read More

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BMI as a predictor of high fasting blood glucose among people living with HIV in the Asia-Pacific region.

HIV Med 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Biostatistics Department, The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, Australia.

Background: Non-Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications are commonly used as a risk factor for high fasting blood glucose (FBG). We investigated the incidence and factors associated with high FBG among people living with HIV in the Asia-Pacific region, using a World Health Organization BMI classification specific to Asian populations.

Methods: This study included people living with HIV enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study from 2003 to 2019, receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and without prior tuberculosis. Read More

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Preliminary Study on the Possibility to Detect Virus Nucleic Acids in Post-Mortem Blood Samples.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2022 Jun;27(6):183

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Legal Medicine Section, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Background: In many forensic cases, the medical records of the deceased are not available at the time of the autopsy; therefore, no information about the deceased's state of health, including any infectious diseases contracted during life, is accessible. The detection of some of the principal viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), could contribute to determining causes of death and interesting applications could be found in medico-legal practice, such as occupational risk assessment. To date, accurate and sensitive serological and molecular assays capable of detecting these viruses have been validated on biological samples taken from living beings, while their efficiency on forensic post-mortem biological samples has yet to be thoroughly assessed. Read More

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Significance of Adopting Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique for Blood Donor Screening in a Resource Limited Setting: A Study from a Single Centre in South India.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2022 Jul 27;38(3):571-576. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Statistics, Apollo Hospital Education and Research Foundation, Hyderabad, Telangana India.

Nucleic acid Amplification testing (NAT) has helped improve blood safety and detect window period and Occult Hepatitis B infections (OBI) This study was aimed at determining the following in blood donors: 1. seroprevalence of HIV, HBV & HCV, malarial parasite and Syphlis 2. NAT and seroyield for HIV, HBV and HCV 3. Read More

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Enhancing accreditation outcomes for medical laboratories on the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation programme in Kenya via a rapid results initiative.

Afr J Lab Med 2022 31;11(1):1614. Epub 2022 May 31.

Laboratory Services Branch, Division of Global HIV & TB, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Since 2010, Kenya has used SLIPTA to prepare and improve quality management systems in medical laboratories to achieve ISO 15189 accreditation. However, less than 10% of enrolled laboratories had done so in the initial seven years of SLMTA implementation.

Objective: We described Kenya's experience in accelerating medical laboratories on SLMTA to attain ISO 15189 accreditation. Read More

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Aetiology of pancytopenia: Experience of a South African tertiary academic centre.

Afr J Lab Med 2022 31;11(1):1645. Epub 2022 May 31.

Division of Haematological Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Pancytopenia is a manifestation of numerous disease entities. The causes of pancytopenia differ with geographic region, socio-economic factors and HIV prevalence. Awareness of the common causes of pancytopenia may aid timely diagnosis. Read More

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Mandatory COVID-19 Vaccination: Lessons from Tuberculosis and HIV.

Health Hum Rights 2022 Jun;24(1):85-91

Senior scientist at the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

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Prevalence of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among HIV Infected Patients on Anti-Retroviral Treatment in a Tertiary Hospital in Ethiopia.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2022 17;14:297-309. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Anti-retroviral treatment has improved mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, which is offset by an increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Data regarding prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV infected patients in Ethiopia are very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CVD risks and associated factors in patients with HIV. Read More

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Economic-related inequalities in hepatitis B virus infection among 115.8 million pregnant women in China from 2013 to 2020.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Jul 20;49:101465. Epub 2022 May 20.

School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global health problem and China has the largest disease burden. Literatures focusing on economic-related inequalities in HBV infection among pregnant women are scarce. We aimed to quantify the economic-related inequalities and the change over time in HBV infection among pregnant women in mainland China from 2013 to 2020 to inform strategies considering economic-related inequalities. Read More

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An Eye-Opening Presentation of Syphilis.

Cureus 2022 May 19;14(5):e25132. Epub 2022 May 19.

Infectious Diseases, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, USA.

Syphilis has been called "the great masquerader." In this case report, we present a case of an HIV-negative patient with left eye redness and decreased vision. Syphilitic anterior uveitis as a complication of neurosyphilis was subsequently diagnosed and the patient showed marked improvement with treatment. Read More

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Weight of Clinical and Social Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome in People Living with HIV.

Viruses 2022 Jun 20;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Unit of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, "Magna Graecia" University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Comorbidities in people living with HIV (PLWH) represent a major clinical challenge today, and metabolic syndrome (MTBS) is one of the most important. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of MTBS and the role of both clinical/socio-behavioral risk factors for MTBS in a cohort of PLWH. All PLWH, over 18 years of age, attending all Infectious Disease Units in Calabria Region (Southern Italy) for their routine checks from October 2019-January 2020 were enrolled. Read More

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Global Burden of Infection and Associated Risk Factors in People Living with HIV and/or AIDS.

Viruses 2022 Jun 12;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51666-14766, Iran.

infections remain one of the most common protozoan opportunistic causes of gastrointestinal diseases and diarrhea among people living with HIV and/or AIDS (PLWHA). This study was conducted to provide a summary of the evidence on the global burden of infection and associated risk factors among PLWHA. , and were searched up to February 2022. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Infection Is Associated with Uncontrolled HIV Viral Load in Non-Hospitalized HIV-Infected Patients from Gugulethu, South Africa.

Viruses 2022 Jun 3;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 3.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

In South Africa, high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 occurs primarily in densely populated, low-income communities, which are additionally burdened by highly prevalent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). With the aim to assess SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and its association with HIV-related clinical parameters in non-hospitalized patients likely to be highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2, this observational cross-sectional study was conducted at the Gugulethu Community Health Centre Antiretroviral clinic between October 2020 and June 2021, after the first COVID-19 wave in South Africa and during the second and beginning of the third wave. A total of 150 adult (median age 39 years [range 20-65 years]) HIV-infected patients (69% female; 31% male) were recruited. Read More

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