77 results match your criteria HACEK Group Infections


An unusual case of Cardiobacterium valvarum causing aortic endograft infection and osteomyelitis.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2021 Feb 27;20(1):14. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: HACEK (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp., Cardiobacterium spp. Read More

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February 2021

An unusual case of multiple hepatic and pulmonary abscesses caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus in a young man: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Feb 4;15(1):34. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Rorschacher Strasse 95, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Background: Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, formerly known as Haemophilus aphrophilus, belongs to the HACEK organisms, a group of pathogens classically associated with infectious endocarditis. A. aphrophilus is a rarely found pathogen, though abscess formation in various organs has been described, typically due to spread from an infected heart valve. Read More

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February 2021

Acinetobacter Baumannii Native Valve Infective Endocarditis: A Case Report.

Cureus 2020 Nov 17;12(11):e11527. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Cardiology, Mohammed I University/Mohammed VI University Hospital, Oujda, MAR.

Infective endocarditis caused by Acinetobacter (A.) baumannii is a rare but severe complication that affects seriously ill, hospitalized patients undergoing invasive procedures. It is associated with an increased mortality rate than that of endocarditis due to the HACEK group (Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae) gram-negative bacteria. Read More

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November 2020

spinal epidural abscess.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jul 16;13(7). Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Infectious diseases, CHR Citadelle, Liege, Belgium.

A 76-year-old woman with a rare case of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) that had no risk factors for such type of infection, presented symptoms of back pain, progressive neurological deficit of the lower limb and loss of sphincter control. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI confirmed the diagnosis of an SEA. The patient underwent laminectomy with surgical drainage, where cultures showed the presence of , a bacterium of the HACEK group ( species, species, , , and species), rarely involved in SEA. Read More

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Pediatric acute dacryocystitis due to Eikenella corrodens: A case report.

J Infect Chemother 2020 May 23;26(5):510-512. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of General Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Eikenella corrodens is a facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rod bacterium in the oropharynx and respiratory tract. It is a member of HACEK (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp. Read More

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Profile of Infective Endocarditis: At a Tertiary Care Referral Centre.

J Assoc Physicians India 2018 Jun;66(6):60-65

Senior Consultant, Department of Cardiology, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious challenge with a persistently high morbidity and mortality despite the availability of improved diagnostic and treatment amenities in the developing world. Data on the clinical and microbiological profile of IE in India is still limited. The emergence of modern risk factors such as hospitalization and device insertion has changed the epidemiology of the disease in the western world, whereas in India and other parts of the developing world the situation is more complex because of the concomitant burden of rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart defects. Read More

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Infective endocarditis without biological inflammatory syndrome: Description of a particular entity.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2019 Jun - Jul;112(6-7):381-389. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Henri-Mondor University Hospital, AP-HP, 94000 Créteil, France; SOS Endocardites Unit, Henri-Mondor University Hospital, AP-HP, 94000 Créteil, France. Electronic address:

Background: Bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) is rarely suspected in patients with a low C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration.

Aims: To address the incidence, characteristics and outcome of left-sided valvular IE with low CRP concentration.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of cases of IE discharged from our institution between January 2009 and May 2017. Read More

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December 2019

Aortocavitary fistula secondary to vegetative endocarditis in a rabbit.

J Vet Cardiol 2019 Feb 13;21:49-56. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706, USA.

A 4-year-old intact male mini lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented with a 2-week history of severe progressive lethargy. A right parasternal continuous heart murmur and an irregular rhythm were detected on physical examination. Echocardiography identified vegetative aortic and tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis. Read More

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February 2019

Native valve endocarditis due to Escherichia coli infection: a case report and review of the literature.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2018 10 19;18(1):195. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.

Background: Infective endocarditis due to Escherichia coli is a rare disease but is increasing in frequency, especially among older women. In addition, its mortality rate is higher than that of endocarditis due to the HACEK-group gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp. Read More

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October 2018

HACEK infective endocarditis: Epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome: A case-control study.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 25;76:120-125. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clinic - Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: The study aimed to describe the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of a population sample of 17 patients with HACEK infective endocarditis (HACEK-IE) and to compare them with matched control patients with IE caused by viridans group streptococci (VGS-IE).

Methods: Cases of definite (n=14, 82.2%) and possible (n=3, 17. Read More

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November 2018

Infective endocarditis: Surgical management and prognostic predictors.

Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2018 May 3;37(5):387-394. Epub 2018 May 3.

Serviço de Cardiologia, Hospital de Santa Marta, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisboa, Portugal.

Introduction And Aim: Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is important to determine which factors increase the risk of poor outcome in order to enable early detection and aggressive treatment, including surgery. The aim of our study was to identify factors predicting complications and in-hospital mortality in patients with IE and to analyze conditions predisposing to surgery and its outcome. Read More

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Whole-Genome Sequencing of Aggregatibacter Species Isolated from Human Clinical Specimens and Description of Aggregatibacter kilianii sp. nov.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 07 25;56(7). Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

species are commensal bacteria of human mucosal surfaces that are sometimes involved in serious invasive infections. During the investigation of strains cultured from various clinical specimens, we encountered a coherent group of 10 isolates that could not be allocated to any validly named species by phenotype, mass spectrometry, or partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a phylogenetic cluster related to but separate from The mean DNA hybridization value for strains of the new cluster versus was 56% (range, 53. Read More

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Incidence of HACEK bacteraemia in Denmark: A 6-year population-based study.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 1;68:83-87. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objectives: Bacteria with common microbiological and clinical characteristics are often recognized as a particular group. The acronym HACEK stands for five fastidious genera associated with infective endocarditis (Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella). Data on the epidemiology of HACEK are sparse. Read More

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Risk Factors and Outcomes of Endocarditis Due to Non-HACEK Gram-Negative Bacilli: Data from the Prospective Multicenter Italian Endocarditis Study Cohort.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 04 27;62(4). Epub 2018 Mar 27.

ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Infectious Diseases, Bergamo, Italy.

The objective of this study was to investigate predisposing factors and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by non-HACEK Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in a contemporary multicenter cohort. Patients with IE due to GNB, prospectively observed in 26 Italian centers from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed. Using a case-control design, each case was compared to three age- and sex-matched controls with IE due to other etiologies. Read More

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Particular surgical aspects of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae with cerebral complication.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2018 05;26(5):885-887

Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France.

We report 2 cases of Kingella kingae endocarditis leading to valvular mitral perforation in previously healthy children. Kingella kingae belongs to the HACEK (Haemophilus aphrophilus, Actiobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and K. kingae) group of organisms known to cause endocarditis. Read More

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[Endocarditis of mitral and aortic prosthetic heart valves caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus].

Rev Med Liege 2017 Dec;72(12):522-528

Service des Maladies infectieuses et Immunologie, Médecine interne générale, CHU de Liège, Site Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgique.

We present the case of an acute endocarditis of mitral and aortic prosthetic heart valves caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (Haemophilus aphrophilus-paraphrophilus). This third report in the literature emphasizes the diagnostic work-up and the role of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography in this setting. The specificities of endocarditis due to the HACEK group (Haemophilus spp. Read More

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December 2017

The relationship between causative microorganisms and cardiac lesions caused by infective endocarditis: New perspectives from the contemporary cohort of patients.

J Cardiol 2018 03 18;71(3):291-298. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Cardiology Department, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: The etiology of infective endocarditis (IE) is changing. More aggressive forms with multiple IE cardiac lesions have become more frequent. This study sought to explore the relationship between contemporary causative microorganisms and IE cardiac lesions and to analyze the impact of multiple lesions on treatment choice. Read More

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Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Outcome of Infective Endocarditis due to Abiotrophia Species and Granulicatella Species: Report of 76 Cases, 2000-2015.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 01;66(1):104-111

Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clinic-Institut d'investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona.

Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Abiotrophia (ABI) and Granulicatella (GRA) species is poorly studied. This work aims to describe and compare the main features of ABI and GRA IE.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 12 IE institutional cases of GRA or ABI and of 64 cases published in the literature (overall, 38 ABI and 38 GRA IE cases). Read More

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January 2018

[Cardiobacterium hominis pericarditis: an unusual case].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2016 Dec;33(6):691-695

Nefrología, Instituto de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile.

The case of a male patient under hemodialytic therapy, who developed right heart failure is presented. Echocardiography revealed pericardial effusion, constrictive pattem in the right cavities, septation, without valvular damage and preserved systolic and diastolic function. Pericardial drainage and extensive pericardiectomy was performed obtaining cultures of pericardial tissue positive for an HACEK group organism, Cardiobacterium hominis, with repeatedly negative blood cultures. Read More

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December 2016

Bartholinitis due to Aggregatibacter aphrophilus: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2016 Oct 18;16(1):574. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Department of Bacteriology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, France.

Background: Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, a commensal of the oro-pharyngeal flora and member of the HACEK group of organisms, is an uncommonly encountered clinical pathogen. It has already been described as the causative agent of brain abscesses, empyema, meningitis, sinusitis, otitis media, bacteriemia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, endocarditis and wound infections. Herein we report the first case of bartholinitis due to A. Read More

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October 2016

Atypical presentation of infective endocarditis.

R I Med J (2013) 2016 Jul 1;99(7):24-6. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

The HACEK group of organisms are one of the infrequent causes of infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis should be recognized and treated promptly to prevent excessive morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Sometimes the diagnosis is delayed due to vague and subtle presentation. Read More

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An approach to a patient with infective endocarditis.

S Afr Med J 2016 Feb;106(2):145-50

Although infective endocarditis (IE) is relatively uncommon, it remains an important clinical entity with a high in-hospital and 1-year mortality. It is most commonly caused by viridans streptococci. Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a malignant course of IE and often requires early surgery to eradicate. Read More

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February 2016

HACEK endocarditis: a review.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016 06 17;14(6):539-45. Epub 2016 May 17.

b Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine , American University of Beirut Medical Center , Beirut , Lebanon.

Introduction: The HACEK group, referring to Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae, is a rare cause of infective endocarditis (IE). It causes the majority of Gram-negative endocarditis cases and has an excellent prognosis and simple management if properly identified. Read More

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HACEK endocarditis: state-of-the-art.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016 28;14(5):523-30. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

a Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care Unit , Pontchaillou University Hospital , Rennes , France.

The HACEK group of bacteria - Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter spp. (A. actinomycetemcomitans, A. Read More

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December 2016

Endocarditis due to gram-negative bacilli at a French teaching hospital over a 6-year period: clinical characteristics and outcome.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2015 11;47(12):889-95. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

a From the Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard , Paris , France.

Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is rare. However, several studies described a change in the epidemiological profile of patients within the past few years.

Methods: We reviewed all cases diagnosed and followed in the infectious diseases ward of a French teaching hospital in Paris between 2009 and 2014, inclusive. Read More

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Recurrent infective endocarditis due to Aggregatibacter aphrophilus and Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

Klin Padiatr 2015 Mar 9;227(2):89-92. Epub 2015 Mar 9.

Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunopathology, Seville, Spain.

Uncommon microorganisms are increasingly being recognized as causative agents of paediatric infectious endocarditis (IE). We report a 4-year old girl with congenital heart disease, who suffered from 2 IE episodes secondary to Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (formerly Haemophilus aphrophilus) and Staphylococcus lugdunensis, both rarely reported pathogens in this age group. The patient was initially successfully treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotic courses, however removal of the Contegra valved conduit during the second episode was required due to recurrence of fever and development of pulmonary embolism despite completion of antibiotic therapy. Read More

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Presumed Aggregatibacter aphrophilus endogenous endophthalmitis.

Int Ophthalmol 2015 Apr 14;35(2):269-73. Epub 2015 Feb 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, United Christian Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.

We hereby report a case of endogenous endophthalmitis, presumably caused by a rare culprit-Aggregatibacter aphrophilus. A. aphrophilus is a member of the HACEK group, a group of fastidious Gram-negative bacteria with low pathogenicity and a rare cause of human infections. Read More

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Aggregatibacter aphrophilus pacemaker endocarditis: a case report.

BMC Res Notes 2014 Dec 8;7:885. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Aggregatibacter bacteria are a rare cause of endocarditis in adults. They are part of a group of organisms known as HACEK--Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacter, Eikenella, and Kingella. Among these organisms, several Haemophilus species have been reclassified under the genus Aggregatibacter. Read More

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December 2014

Aggregatibacter actinomycemcomitans pneumonia in children: two case reports and a review of the literature.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2015 Jan;34(1):100-2

From the *Pediatric Department A; †Bruce-Rappaport Faculty of Medicine Technion, Israel Institute of Technology; ‡Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit; and §Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, Rambam Health Care Campus Haifa, Israel.

Aggregatibacter actinomycemcomitans, previously named Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), is a facultative Gram-negative slow-growing coccobacillus associated with severe oral and nonoral infections. It is a member of the HACEK group. Pulmonary infection caused by Aa is rare. Read More

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January 2015

Association between HACEK bacteraemia and endocarditis.

J Med Microbiol 2014 Jun 28;63(Pt 6):892-895. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.

We retrospectively examined medical records of 87 patients with bacteraemia caused by members of the HACEK group (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Aggregatibacter paraphrophilus, Cardiobacterium spp., Eikenella corrodens and Kingella spp.) to determine whether endocarditis was present, as defined by the Duke criteria. Read More

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