176 results match your criteria HACEK Group Infections
Rev Sci Instrum 2018 Nov;89(11):113504
Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Prague, Czech Republic.
This article describes a fast and automatic reconstruction of the edge plasma electron density from the radiation of energetic Li atoms of the diagnostic beam on the COMPASS tokamak. Radiation is detected by using a CCD camera and by using an avalanche photo-diode system with a temporal resolution of 20 ms and 2 s, respectively. Both systems are equipped with a 670. Read More
Rev Sci Instrum 2018 Nov;89(11):113506
Wigner RCP, Budapest, Hungary.
The atomic beam probe diagnostic concept aims at measuring the edge magnetic field and through that edge current distribution in fusion plasmas by observing trajectories of an ion beam stemming from a diagnostic neutral beam. The diagnostic potentially has microsecond scale time resolution and can thus prove to be a powerful option to study fast changes in the edge plasma. A test detector has been installed on the COMPASS tokamak as an extension of the existing lithium beam diagnostic system. Read More
Rev Sci Instrum 2018 Oct;89(10):10D107
Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, HungaryGraz University of Technology, Graz, AustriaBudapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, HungarySzéchenyi University, Győr, HungaryInstitute for Plasma Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech RepublicInstitute for Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, ChinaMax Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald, Germany.
Diagnosing the density profile at the edge of high temperature fusion plasmas by an accelerated lithium beam is a known technique since decades. By knowledge of the relevant atomic physics rate coefficients, the plasma electron density profile can be calculated from the relatively calibrated light profile along the beam. Several additional possibilities have already been demonstrated: Charge Exchange Resonance Spectroscopy (CXRS) for ion temperature/flow and Zeeman polarimetry for edge plasma current; therefore the Li-beam diagnostic offers a wealth of information at the plasma edge. Read More
BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2018 Oct 19;18(1):195. Epub 2018 Oct 19.
Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.
Background: Infective endocarditis due to Escherichia coli is a rare disease but is increasing in frequency, especially among older women. In addition, its mortality rate is higher than that of endocarditis due to the HACEK-group gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp. Read More
Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 25;76:120-125. Epub 2018 Aug 25.
Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clinic - Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:
Objectives: The study aimed to describe the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of a population sample of 17 patients with HACEK infective endocarditis (HACEK-IE) and to compare them with matched control patients with IE caused by viridans group streptococci (VGS-IE).
Methods: Cases of definite (n=14, 82.2%) and possible (n=3, 17. Read More
Rev Argent Microbiol 2018 Aug 21. Epub 2018 Aug 21.
Instituto Cardiovascular de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:
Non-HACEK Gram-negative bacilli are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Epidemiological, diagnostic and prognostic aspects of this entity are little known, and there is limited experience. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, microbiological and in-hospital outcomes of non-HACEK Gram negative bacilli endocarditis and to compare them with those due to other microorganisms. Read More
Cytopathology 2018 Dec 13;29(6):537-544. Epub 2018 Aug 13.
2nd Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
Objective: The methodology of cell blocks (CBs) has long been an integrated part of cytology. However, there are very few data on CBs derived from urine. Their main disadvantage is a lack of cellularity, which limits their broader clinical applicability. Read More
Rev Port Cardiol 2018 May 3;37(5):387-394. Epub 2018 May 3.
Serviço de Cardiologia, Hospital de Santa Marta, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisboa, Portugal.
Introduction And Aim: Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is important to determine which factors increase the risk of poor outcome in order to enable early detection and aggressive treatment, including surgery. The aim of our study was to identify factors predicting complications and in-hospital mortality in patients with IE and to analyze conditions predisposing to surgery and its outcome. Read More
J Clin Microbiol 2018 Jul 25;56(7). Epub 2018 Jun 25.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
species are commensal bacteria of human mucosal surfaces that are sometimes involved in serious invasive infections. During the investigation of strains cultured from various clinical specimens, we encountered a coherent group of 10 isolates that could not be allocated to any validly named species by phenotype, mass spectrometry, or partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a phylogenetic cluster related to but separate from The mean DNA hybridization value for strains of the new cluster versus was 56% (range, 53. Read More
Minerva Pediatr 2018 Apr;70(2):202-204
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.
Int J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 1;68:83-87. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Electronic address:
Objectives: Bacteria with common microbiological and clinical characteristics are often recognized as a particular group. The acronym HACEK stands for five fastidious genera associated with infective endocarditis (Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella). Data on the epidemiology of HACEK are sparse. Read More
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Apr 27;62(4). Epub 2018 Mar 27.
ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Infectious Diseases, Bergamo, Italy.
The objective of this study was to investigate predisposing factors and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by non-HACEK Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in a contemporary multicenter cohort. Patients with IE due to GNB, prospectively observed in 26 Italian centers from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed. Using a case-control design, each case was compared to three age- and sex-matched controls with IE due to other etiologies. Read More
BMC Infect Dis 2018 01 12;18(1):35. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Background: Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria constituting part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, however, still an uncommon pathogen. We report a case of a large Eikenella corrodens liver abscess with simultaneously endocarditis in a previously healthy male.
Case Presentation: A 49-year-old Danish man was admitted because of one-month malaise, fever, cough and unintentional weight loss. Read More
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2018 May;26(5):885-887
Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France.
We report 2 cases of Kingella kingae endocarditis leading to valvular mitral perforation in previously healthy children. Kingella kingae belongs to the HACEK (Haemophilus aphrophilus, Actiobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and K. kingae) group of organisms known to cause endocarditis. Read More
Rev Med Liege 2017 Dec;72(12):522-528
Service des Maladies infectieuses et Immunologie, Médecine interne générale, CHU de Liège, Site Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgique.
We present the case of an acute endocarditis of mitral and aortic prosthetic heart valves caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (Haemophilus aphrophilus-paraphrophilus). This third report in the literature emphasizes the diagnostic work-up and the role of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography in this setting. The specificities of endocarditis due to the HACEK group (Haemophilus spp. Read More
J Cardiol 2018 Mar 18;71(3):291-298. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
Cardiology Department, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia.
Background: The etiology of infective endocarditis (IE) is changing. More aggressive forms with multiple IE cardiac lesions have become more frequent. This study sought to explore the relationship between contemporary causative microorganisms and IE cardiac lesions and to analyze the impact of multiple lesions on treatment choice. Read More
Clin Infect Dis 2018 Jan;66(1):104-111
Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clinic-Institut d'investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona.
Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Abiotrophia (ABI) and Granulicatella (GRA) species is poorly studied. This work aims to describe and compare the main features of ABI and GRA IE.
Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 12 IE institutional cases of GRA or ABI and of 64 cases published in the literature (overall, 38 ABI and 38 GRA IE cases). Read More
IDCases 2017 27;9:77-78. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Roger Williams Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 825 Chalkstone Ave, Providence RI 02908, United States.
Non-HACEK Gram-negative bacilli account for only a small percentage of infective endocarditis cases globally. Among those, species account for only about 10% of cases and are most often health-care acquired. We present a rare case of endocarditis in a young intravenous drug user. Read More
Infect Chemother 2017 Dec 26;49(4):282-285. Epub 2017 May 26.
Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
HACEK is a rare cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). We describe 42-year-old male patient who presented with Aggregatibacter aphrophilus PVE and cerebral infarct. A. Read More
Perfusion 2017 Nov 3;32(8):691-694. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
1 Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
We report on a 32-year-old male patient with acute left-hemispheric stroke caused by embolism due to infective endocarditis affected from the HACEK group. Additionally, atypical findings from the transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) which showed fluttering structures belonging to the papillary muscle could be proven as infectious agents with the help of a glucose positron emission tomography (PET) scan. TEE controls showed increasing vegetation involving the mitral valve so that surgery became necessary. Read More
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2017 Apr-Jun;5(2):2324709617704003. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
NYU Lutheran Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.
HACEK endocarditis is often difficult to diagnose given the slow-growing characteristics of the organisms involved. , one of the HACEK organisms, is an uncommon cause of endocarditis. We describe a case of a previously healthy young man with endocarditis that was associated with maxillary sinusitis and severe systemic complications, including septic cerebral emboli and mitral valve perforation. Read More
Rev Sci Instrum 2017 Mar;88(3):035106
Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 3, Prague 182 00, Czech Republic.
This paper describes a new filamentary probe recently introduced on the COMPASS tokamak. It allows the measurement of electrostatic and magnetic properties of the filaments and their changes in dependence on distance from the separatrix in the region between a divertor and midplane. The probe head is mounted on a manipulator moving the probe radially on a shot-to-shot basis. Read More
Med Clin (Barc) 2017 07 18;149(2):91-92. Epub 2017 Mar 18.
Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, España.
Clin Lab 2017 Jan;63(1):111-114
Background: The aim of this prospective single center study was to investigate the ability of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) to distinguish acute rejection from other causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children after renal transplantation.
Methods: Fifteen children fulfilled the inclusion criteria (acute kidney injury (AKI) with allograft biopsy, at least 21 days after renal transplantation, no sepsis) during 2013 - 2014 in our pediatric transplantation center. The mean age was 14. Read More
Rev Chilena Infectol 2016 Dec;33(6):691-695
Nefrología, Instituto de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile.
The case of a male patient under hemodialytic therapy, who developed right heart failure is presented. Echocardiography revealed pericardial effusion, constrictive pattem in the right cavities, septation, without valvular damage and preserved systolic and diastolic function. Pericardial drainage and extensive pericardiectomy was performed obtaining cultures of pericardial tissue positive for an HACEK group organism, Cardiobacterium hominis, with repeatedly negative blood cultures. Read More
J Clin Med Res 2017 Jan 24;9(1):71-73. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
Intensive Therapy Division, Department of Surgery and Anatomy, University Hospital, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.
, which belongs to the HACEK (, , , , and ) group, is a rare cause of subacute endocarditis and may lead to ischemic stroke. A 65-year-old female patient previously diagnosed with rheumatic valve disease was submitted to surgical mitral valve repair in 1996. Physical examination did not reveal any murmurs; physical examination of the lungs and abdomen was normal. Read More
Mol Med Rep 2016 Dec 7;14(6):5719-5724. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Královské Vinohrady, 10034 Prague, Czech Republic.
The pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), including the associated local changes in deep paravertebral muscles, is poorly understood. The asymmetric expression of several molecules involved in the melatonin signaling pathway, including melatonin receptors 1A/1B (MTNR1A/MTNR1B), estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) and calmodulin (CALM1), has previously been suggested to be associated with AIS. However, this hypothesis is based on single studies in which the data were obtained by different methodological approaches. Read More
BMC Infect Dis 2016 Oct 18;16(1):574. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
Department of Bacteriology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, France.
Background: Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, a commensal of the oro-pharyngeal flora and member of the HACEK group of organisms, is an uncommonly encountered clinical pathogen. It has already been described as the causative agent of brain abscesses, empyema, meningitis, sinusitis, otitis media, bacteriemia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, endocarditis and wound infections. Herein we report the first case of bartholinitis due to A. Read More
Vnitr Lek Fall 2016;62(7-8):679-83
Unlabelled: The case report shows a surprising presentation of pulmonary granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) through symptoms of diabetes insipidus (DI) with granulomatous infiltration of the pituitary gland. The pituitary hormonal dysfunction as a result of granulomatosis of the pituitary gland is rare. Several studies have demonstrated that the incidence of the pituitary dysfunction reaches approx. Read More
R I Med J (2013) 2016 Jul 1;99(7):24-6. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
The HACEK group of organisms are one of the infrequent causes of infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis should be recognized and treated promptly to prevent excessive morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Sometimes the diagnosis is delayed due to vague and subtle presentation. Read More
S Afr Med J 2016 Feb;106(2):145-50
Although infective endocarditis (IE) is relatively uncommon, it remains an important clinical entity with a high in-hospital and 1-year mortality. It is most commonly caused by viridans streptococci. Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a malignant course of IE and often requires early surgery to eradicate. Read More
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016 06 17;14(6):539-45. Epub 2016 May 17.
b Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine , American University of Beirut Medical Center , Beirut , Lebanon.
Introduction: The HACEK group, referring to Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae, is a rare cause of infective endocarditis (IE). It causes the majority of Gram-negative endocarditis cases and has an excellent prognosis and simple management if properly identified. Read More
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016 28;14(5):523-30. Epub 2016 Mar 28.
a Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care Unit , Pontchaillou University Hospital , Rennes , France.
The HACEK group of bacteria - Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter spp. (A. actinomycetemcomitans, A. Read More
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2016 25;50(1):63-8. Epub 2015 Nov 25.
University Hospital Zurich, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland(1). Electronic address:
Objective: Central nervous system (CNS) infections after cervical spine surgery are a rare but serious complication and may be caused by uncommon pathogens. We report the case of a 57-year-old male who developed slowly progressive mental confusion with headaches, increased daytime sleepiness and mild gait disturbance within the last 3 weeks. Six weeks prior to admission to our department, he underwent an atlantoaxial fusion by C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation for rheumatoid arthritis related C1-C2 multidirectional instability. Read More
Rev Med Brux 2016;37(5):419-422
Hôpital de Braine-l'Alleud/Waterloo, Belgium.
Kingella kingae is a gram-negative cocci present in the oral flora ; this organism is difficult to isolate by conventional culture techniques ; it can be detected after longer incubation period (more than 6 days) in blood culture. It is responsible of various infectious diseases, especially in children below 3 years-old where it is a cause of arthritis and osteomyeli tis. It is included in HACEK organisms responsible of 2 to 3 % of all cases of native endocarditis. Read More
J Cardiothorac Surg 2015 Oct 31;10:139. Epub 2015 Oct 31.
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Konkuk University Medical Center, Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
Background: Mitral valve repair is favored over replacement due to superior outcomes. However, extensive infective endocarditis (IE) often has been considered unreconstructable. We retrospectively analyzed the mid-term outcomes of an individualized repair approach using a lifting annuloplasty strip. Read More
Open Forum Infect Dis 2015 Apr 5;2(2):ofv031. Epub 2015 Mar 5.
Infectious Disease Department , Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital , Paris , France.
We report a case of brain and lung abscesses caused by Agreggatibacter aphrophilus in a 43-YEAR-OLD man with past history of splenectomy and drug addiction, in the absence of endocarditis. Microbiological samples remain negatives and diagnosis was made by 16S rDNA PCR performance on abscess fluid for this coccobacillus that belongs to the HACEK group. The patient's clinical symptoms resolved within 6 weeks of treatment with cefotaxim. Read More
Cas Lek Cesk 2015 ;154(4):168-73
IgA nephropathy is currently the most frequently investigated glomerulonephritis. The disease is defined by the presence of dominant or co-dominant deposits of IgA1 in the glomerular mesangium. Circulating immune complexes are most likely the source of the deposited IgA1. Read More
Infect Dis (Lond) 2015 11;47(12):889-95. Epub 2015 Aug 11.
a From the Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard , Paris , France.
Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is rare. However, several studies described a change in the epidemiological profile of patients within the past few years.
Methods: We reviewed all cases diagnosed and followed in the infectious diseases ward of a French teaching hospital in Paris between 2009 and 2014, inclusive. Read More
Minerva Pediatr 2016 10 4;68(5):348-54. Epub 2015 Jun 4.
Department of Pediatrics, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and Motol in Prague and University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic -
Background: Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a glomerular disease, characterized by progressive renal function deterioration, nephrotic proteinuria, and risk of chronic renal failure. We present long-term results of 5 patients with primary FSGS and recurrence of nephrotic proteinuria after renal transplantation treated with plasma exchange (PE) and immunoadsorption (IA).
Methods: We retrospectively investigated the relationship between the delay in initiation of the therapy and treatment outcomes, particularly achievement of remission of proteinuria. Read More
J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2015 Jun 11;3(2):149-150. Epub 2015 Apr 11.
Department of Pathology & Immunology, Division of Laboratory and Genomic Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:
Pediatr Nephrol 2015 Oct 30;30(10):1853-60. Epub 2015 Apr 30.
Department of Paediatrics and Transplantation Centre, University Hospital Motol-2nd Medical School, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic,
Background: Proteinuria is a common manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and there is a high incidence of CDK and its complications following renal transplantation. However, little data are available on the association between proteinuria and graft/patient survival in the paediatric transplant population. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations between posttransplant proteinuria and graft/patient survival in children after renal transplantation. Read More
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2015 Jan-Feb;26(1):41-3
Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
Cardiobacterium hominis, a member of the HACEK group of organisms, is an uncommon but important cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis. First-line therapy is a third-generation cephalosporin due to rare beta-lactamase production. The authors report a case involving endovascular infection due to C hominis that initially tested resistant to third-generation cephalosporins using an antibiotic gradient strip susceptibility method (nitrocephin negative), but later proved to be susceptible using broth microdilution reference methods (a 'major' error). Read More
Klin Padiatr 2015 Mar 9;227(2):89-92. Epub 2015 Mar 9.
Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunopathology, Seville, Spain.
Uncommon microorganisms are increasingly being recognized as causative agents of paediatric infectious endocarditis (IE). We report a 4-year old girl with congenital heart disease, who suffered from 2 IE episodes secondary to Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (formerly Haemophilus aphrophilus) and Staphylococcus lugdunensis, both rarely reported pathogens in this age group. The patient was initially successfully treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotic courses, however removal of the Contegra valved conduit during the second episode was required due to recurrence of fever and development of pulmonary embolism despite completion of antibiotic therapy. Read More
Pediatr Int 2015 Apr 24;57(2):e62-4. Epub 2015 Feb 24.
Department of Paediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital, Praha, Czech Republic.
Beta-lactam-associated acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is a rare condition in childhood. We report the case of an infant with penicillin-associated ATIN and concomitant acute pyelonephritis resulting in the development of severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The treatment consisted of penicillin suspension and appropriate AKI management, which required a short period of dialysis. Read More
Int Ophthalmol 2015 Apr 14;35(2):269-73. Epub 2015 Feb 14.
Department of Ophthalmology, United Christian Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.
We hereby report a case of endogenous endophthalmitis, presumably caused by a rare culprit-Aggregatibacter aphrophilus. A. aphrophilus is a member of the HACEK group, a group of fastidious Gram-negative bacteria with low pathogenicity and a rare cause of human infections. Read More
Cesk Patol 2014 Jan;50(1):4-9
BMC Res Notes 2014 Dec 8;7:885. Epub 2014 Dec 8.
Department of Internal Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Background: Aggregatibacter bacteria are a rare cause of endocarditis in adults. They are part of a group of organisms known as HACEK--Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacter, Eikenella, and Kingella. Among these organisms, several Haemophilus species have been reclassified under the genus Aggregatibacter. Read More
Med Mal Infect 2015 Jan-Feb;45(1-2):1-8. Epub 2014 Nov 15.
Unité de recherche sur les maladies infectieuses et tropicales emergentes, faculté de médecine, université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France.
Blood culture-negative endocarditis is often severe, and difficult to diagnose. The rate of non-documented infective endocarditis has decreased with the advent of molecular biology - improved performance for the diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis with blood cultures sterilized by previous antibacterial treatment - and cardiac surgery - access to the main infected focus, the endocardium, for half of the patients. Blood culture-negative endocarditis are classified in 3 main categories: (i) bacterial endocarditis with blood cultures sterilized by previous antibacterial treatment (usually due to usual endocarditis-causing bacteria, i. Read More