90 results match your criteria HACEK Group Infections


Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis incidentally diagnosed following an aortic valve replacement surgery.

IDCases 2022 6;29:e01529. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: () is the part of the HACEK group ( that accounts for the majority of the Gram-negative infective endocarditis cases. Historically, the fastidious characteristics of these microorganisms proved challenging to many clinicians. Advances in microbiological identification of culture-negative endocarditis; however, may be the reason for the rising incidence of these infections. Read More

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Exploration of Shoulder Abscess Association With Prompt Aggregatibacter aphrophilus Growth in Infective Endocarditis.

Cureus 2022 Mar 12;14(3):e23107. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Infectious Disease, Emanate Health Queen of the Valley Hospital, West Covina, USA.

, formerly known as , is one member of a group of bacteria referred to as HACEK (, , , , ) organisms. Infections from any of the HACEK organisms typically lead to very poor outcomes and can be difficult to manage, especially when complicated by intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). HACEK organisms can also be difficult to grow on blood cultures, and is rarely seen, if at all. Read More

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Analysis of the fecal and oral microbiota in chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2022 02 22;24(1):54. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Clinic for General Pediatrics, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.

Background: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare autoinflammatory bone disease for which a lack of bacterial involvement is a key diagnostic feature to distinguish it from other symptomatically related diseases. However, the growing evidence suggesting an involvement of the host-associated microbiota in rheumatic disorders together with the now wide accessibility of modern culture-independent methods warrant a closer examination of CRMO.

Methods: In this study, we show through bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling that numerous features of the oral- and fecal microbial communities differentiate children with and without CRMO. Read More

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February 2022

Antibiotic prophylaxis with amoxicillin to prevent infective endocarditis in periodontitis patients reconsidered: a narrative review.

Swiss Med Wkly 2021 12 10;151:w30078. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Hygiene, Kantonsspital Aarau, Switzerland.

Objectives: To discuss first, the adequacy of the antibiotic prophylaxis regimen currently recommended for the prevention of infective endocarditis in periodontitis patients, and second, preventive measures to decrease the rate of bacteraemia after periodontal treatment.

Materials And Methods: A bibliographic literature search identifying clinical trials between January 1990 and January 2021, focusing on microorganisms in bacteraemia after periodontal treatment and bacteria in infective endocarditis, was performed. Two reviewers independently identified and screened the literature by systematically searching in Medline/Premedline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Read More

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December 2021

Gram-negative endocarditis: disease presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2021 12;34(6):672-680

Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón.

Purpose Of Review: Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause between 1% and 10% of infective endocarditis (IE). Most episodes are caused by microorganisms of the Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp. Read More

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December 2021

New insights in endocarditis caused by Gram negative bacilli not included in the HACEK group.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 10 7;92:36-37. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Vall d'Hebron Institute of Research, Barcelona, Spain; Clinical Research, CHRU Nîmes, France.

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October 2021

16S rDNA PCR for the aetiological diagnosis of culture-negative infective endocarditis.

Infection 2022 Feb 6;50(1):243-249. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 9RS, UK.

Introduction: Culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE) accounts for 7-31% of all cases. Metagenomics has contributed to improving the aetiological diagnosis of IE patients undergoing valve surgery. We assessed the impact of 16S ribosomal DNA gene polymerase chain reaction (16S rDNA PCR) in the aetiological diagnosis of culture-negative IE. Read More

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February 2022

Clinical outcomes of combination versus monotherapy for gram negative non-HACEK infective endocarditis.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Nov 24;101(3):115504. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

The objective of this single-center, retrospective cohort study was to identify whether combination therapy is associated with a lower rate of adverse outcomes for the treatment of Gram negative non-HACEK IE. The primary endpoint was a composite of 60-day all-cause mortality, readmission, or recurrence of bacteremia. Of the 60 patients included, 56. Read More

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November 2021

Fulminant Infective Endocarditis Due to and Several Complications in a 6-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report.

Front Pediatr 2021 5;9:707760. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

is a gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to the HACEK group ( species, , and species) and is a common oropharyngeal colonizer of healthy young children. Osteoarticular infection is the most commonly reported invasive infection in children, usually presenting a mild clinical picture. However, it can also cause severe invasive infections, especially infective endocarditis, with a high complication rate. Read More

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Non-HACEK gram negative bacilli endocarditis: Analysis of a national prospective cohort.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 10 9;92:71-78. Epub 2021 May 9.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) due to non-HACEK bacilli (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, or Kingella) is uncommon and poorly described. The objectives of this study were to describe non-HACEK Gram-Negative Bacilli (GNB) IE cases and compare characteristic of IE produced by Enterobacterales and non-fermenting (NF) GNB.

Methods: From January 2008 to December 2018, 3910 consecutive patients with definitive IE diagnosis, defined with Modified Duke criteria, either clinical or pathological criteria (e. Read More

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October 2021

Infective endocarditis caused by HACEK group bacteria-a registry-based comparative study.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Sep 14;40(9):1919-1924. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, BMC B14, SE-221 84, Lund, Sweden.

Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by bacteria within Haemophilus (excluding Haemophilus influenzae), Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella (HACEK) is rare. This study aimed to describe clinical features of IE caused by HACEK genera in comparison with IE due to other pathogens. Cases of IE due to HACEK were identified through the Swedish Registry of Infective Endocarditis (SRIE). Read More

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September 2021

Infective endocarditis - why should rheumatologists be aware?

Acta Reumatol Port 2021 Jan-Mar;46(1):77-81

Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia e Espinho.

Infective endocarditis has a wide range of clinical manifestations, making the diagnosis complex. Musculoskeletal symptoms whose prevalence is not negligible are often underestimated. This clinical case is about a 44-year-old female patient with previous aortic and mitral valvuloplasty for rheumatic fever valve disease referred to the outpatient Rheumatology department for the migratory onset of pain and swelling of the left lateral malleolus, right wrist, right first finger and left fifth distal phalanx associated with painful punctate lesions of the digital pulps and lateral edge of the feet and migratory and painful erythematous papules lasting for three months. Read More

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November 2021

An unusual case of Cardiobacterium valvarum causing aortic endograft infection and osteomyelitis.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2021 Feb 27;20(1):14. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: HACEK (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp., Cardiobacterium spp. Read More

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February 2021

An unusual case of multiple hepatic and pulmonary abscesses caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus in a young man: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Feb 4;15(1):34. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Rorschacher Strasse 95, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Background: Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, formerly known as Haemophilus aphrophilus, belongs to the HACEK organisms, a group of pathogens classically associated with infectious endocarditis. A. aphrophilus is a rarely found pathogen, though abscess formation in various organs has been described, typically due to spread from an infected heart valve. Read More

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February 2021

Acinetobacter Baumannii Native Valve Infective Endocarditis: A Case Report.

Cureus 2020 Nov 17;12(11):e11527. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Cardiology, Mohammed I University/Mohammed VI University Hospital, Oujda, MAR.

Infective endocarditis caused by Acinetobacter (A.) baumannii is a rare but severe complication that affects seriously ill, hospitalized patients undergoing invasive procedures. It is associated with an increased mortality rate than that of endocarditis due to the HACEK group (Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae) gram-negative bacteria. Read More

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November 2020

Evaluation of Optimal Blood Culture Incubation Time To Maximize Clinically Relevant Results from a Contemporary Blood Culture Instrument and Media System.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 02 18;59(3). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Timely diagnosis of microorganisms in blood cultures is necessary to optimize therapy. Although blood culture media and systems have evolved for decades, the standard interval for incubation prior to being discarded as negative has remained 5 days. Here, we evaluated the optimal incubation time for the BacT/Alert Virtuo blood culture detection system (bioMérieux) using FA Plus (aerobic) and FN Plus (anaerobic) resin culture bottles in routine clinical use. Read More

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February 2021

spinal epidural abscess.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jul 16;13(7). Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Infectious diseases, CHR Citadelle, Liege, Belgium.

A 76-year-old woman with a rare case of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) that had no risk factors for such type of infection, presented symptoms of back pain, progressive neurological deficit of the lower limb and loss of sphincter control. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI confirmed the diagnosis of an SEA. The patient underwent laminectomy with surgical drainage, where cultures showed the presence of , a bacterium of the HACEK group ( species, species, , , and species), rarely involved in SEA. Read More

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Pediatric acute dacryocystitis due to Eikenella corrodens: A case report.

J Infect Chemother 2020 May 23;26(5):510-512. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of General Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Eikenella corrodens is a facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rod bacterium in the oropharynx and respiratory tract. It is a member of HACEK (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp. Read More

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Profile of Infective Endocarditis: At a Tertiary Care Referral Centre.

J Assoc Physicians India 2018 Jun;66(6):60-65

Senior Consultant, Department of Cardiology, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious challenge with a persistently high morbidity and mortality despite the availability of improved diagnostic and treatment amenities in the developing world. Data on the clinical and microbiological profile of IE in India is still limited. The emergence of modern risk factors such as hospitalization and device insertion has changed the epidemiology of the disease in the western world, whereas in India and other parts of the developing world the situation is more complex because of the concomitant burden of rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart defects. Read More

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Infective endocarditis without biological inflammatory syndrome: Description of a particular entity.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2019 Jun - Jul;112(6-7):381-389. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Henri-Mondor University Hospital, AP-HP, 94000 Créteil, France; SOS Endocardites Unit, Henri-Mondor University Hospital, AP-HP, 94000 Créteil, France. Electronic address:

Background: Bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) is rarely suspected in patients with a low C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration.

Aims: To address the incidence, characteristics and outcome of left-sided valvular IE with low CRP concentration.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of cases of IE discharged from our institution between January 2009 and May 2017. Read More

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December 2019

Aortocavitary fistula secondary to vegetative endocarditis in a rabbit.

J Vet Cardiol 2019 Feb 13;21:49-56. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706, USA.

A 4-year-old intact male mini lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented with a 2-week history of severe progressive lethargy. A right parasternal continuous heart murmur and an irregular rhythm were detected on physical examination. Echocardiography identified vegetative aortic and tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis. Read More

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February 2019

Native valve endocarditis due to Escherichia coli infection: a case report and review of the literature.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2018 10 19;18(1):195. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.

Background: Infective endocarditis due to Escherichia coli is a rare disease but is increasing in frequency, especially among older women. In addition, its mortality rate is higher than that of endocarditis due to the HACEK-group gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp. Read More

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October 2018

HACEK infective endocarditis: Epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome: A case-control study.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 25;76:120-125. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clinic - Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: The study aimed to describe the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of a population sample of 17 patients with HACEK infective endocarditis (HACEK-IE) and to compare them with matched control patients with IE caused by viridans group streptococci (VGS-IE).

Methods: Cases of definite (n=14, 82.2%) and possible (n=3, 17. Read More

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November 2018

Infective endocarditis: Surgical management and prognostic predictors.

Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2018 May 3;37(5):387-394. Epub 2018 May 3.

Serviço de Cardiologia, Hospital de Santa Marta, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisboa, Portugal.

Introduction And Aim: Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is important to determine which factors increase the risk of poor outcome in order to enable early detection and aggressive treatment, including surgery. The aim of our study was to identify factors predicting complications and in-hospital mortality in patients with IE and to analyze conditions predisposing to surgery and its outcome. Read More

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Whole-Genome Sequencing of Aggregatibacter Species Isolated from Human Clinical Specimens and Description of Aggregatibacter kilianii sp. nov.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 07 25;56(7). Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

species are commensal bacteria of human mucosal surfaces that are sometimes involved in serious invasive infections. During the investigation of strains cultured from various clinical specimens, we encountered a coherent group of 10 isolates that could not be allocated to any validly named species by phenotype, mass spectrometry, or partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a phylogenetic cluster related to but separate from The mean DNA hybridization value for strains of the new cluster versus was 56% (range, 53. Read More

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Incidence of HACEK bacteraemia in Denmark: A 6-year population-based study.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 1;68:83-87. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objectives: Bacteria with common microbiological and clinical characteristics are often recognized as a particular group. The acronym HACEK stands for five fastidious genera associated with infective endocarditis (Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella). Data on the epidemiology of HACEK are sparse. Read More

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Risk Factors and Outcomes of Endocarditis Due to Non-HACEK Gram-Negative Bacilli: Data from the Prospective Multicenter Italian Endocarditis Study Cohort.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 04 27;62(4). Epub 2018 Mar 27.

ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Infectious Diseases, Bergamo, Italy.

The objective of this study was to investigate predisposing factors and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by non-HACEK Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in a contemporary multicenter cohort. Patients with IE due to GNB, prospectively observed in 26 Italian centers from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed. Using a case-control design, each case was compared to three age- and sex-matched controls with IE due to other etiologies. Read More

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Particular surgical aspects of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae with cerebral complication.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2018 05;26(5):885-887

Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France.

We report 2 cases of Kingella kingae endocarditis leading to valvular mitral perforation in previously healthy children. Kingella kingae belongs to the HACEK (Haemophilus aphrophilus, Actiobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and K. kingae) group of organisms known to cause endocarditis. Read More

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[Endocarditis of mitral and aortic prosthetic heart valves caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus].

Rev Med Liege 2017 Dec;72(12):522-528

Service des Maladies infectieuses et Immunologie, Médecine interne générale, CHU de Liège, Site Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgique.

We present the case of an acute endocarditis of mitral and aortic prosthetic heart valves caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (Haemophilus aphrophilus-paraphrophilus). This third report in the literature emphasizes the diagnostic work-up and the role of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography in this setting. The specificities of endocarditis due to the HACEK group (Haemophilus spp. Read More

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December 2017

The relationship between causative microorganisms and cardiac lesions caused by infective endocarditis: New perspectives from the contemporary cohort of patients.

J Cardiol 2018 03 18;71(3):291-298. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Cardiology Department, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: The etiology of infective endocarditis (IE) is changing. More aggressive forms with multiple IE cardiac lesions have become more frequent. This study sought to explore the relationship between contemporary causative microorganisms and IE cardiac lesions and to analyze the impact of multiple lesions on treatment choice. Read More

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