2,202 results match your criteria H1N1 Influenza Swine Flu


One-step multiplex RT-qPCR for the detection and subtyping of influenza A virus in swine in Brazil.

J Virol Methods 2019 Apr 5;269:43-48. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Embrapa Suínos e Aves, BR-153, Km 110, Distrito de Tamanduá, Concórdia, CEP 89715-899, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address:

Pandemic H1N1, human-like H1N2 and H3N2 influenza A (IAV) viruses are co-circulating in swine herds in Brazil. The genetic analysis of the Brazilian IAVs has shown that they are genetically distinct from viruses found in swine in other countries; therefore, an update of the diagnostic assays for IAV detection and subtyping is needed. This study describes the development and validation of a TaqMan based - one-step multiplex RT-qPCR to discriminate the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the three major IAV subtypes circulating in pigs in Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Vaccine-mediated protection of pigs against infection with pandemic H1N1 2009 swine influenza A virus requires a close antigenic match between the vaccine antigen and challenge virus.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 23;37(17):2288-2293. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Virology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA-Weybridge), New Haw, Addlestone KT15 3NB, UK.

Swine influenza A virus (SwIV) infection has considerable economic and animal welfare consequences and, because of the zoonotic potential, can also have public health implications. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 'swine-origin' infection is now endemic in both pigs and humans. In Europe, avian-like H1N1, human-like H1N2, human-like swine H3N2 and, since 2009, pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) lineage viruses and reassortants, constitute the dominant subtypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.02.078DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Hemagglutinin gene based biosensor for early detection of swine flu (H1N1) infection in human.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Jun 26;130:720-726. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi 110007, India. Electronic address:

Hemagglutinin (HA) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of influenza A subtype virus H1N1 which play a major role in infection to the human by binding the virus to cells with sialic acid on the membrane of upper respiratory tract or erythrocytes. Based on sequence of HA gene an impedimetric biosensor was developed by immobilizing amino labeled single stranded DNA probe onto cysteine modified gold surface of the screen printed electrode for early and rapid detection of H1N1 (Swine flu) in human. The electrochemical impedance was recorded after hybridization of probe with single stranded cDNA (ss-cDNA) of H1N1 patient samples in presence of redox couple. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.02.149DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read
2.858 Impact Factor

Sowing the Seeds of a Pandemic? Mammalian Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of H1 Variant Influenza Viruses from the Swine Reservoir.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Feb 27;4(1). Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Emergence of genetically and antigenically diverse strains of influenza to which the human population has no or limited immunity necessitates continuous risk assessments to determine the likelihood of these viruses acquiring adaptations that facilitate sustained human-to-human transmission. As the North American swine H1 virus population has diversified over the last century by means of both antigenic drift and shift, in vivo assessments to study multifactorial traits like mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility of these emerging influenza viruses are critical. In this review, we examine genetic, molecular, and pathogenicity and transmissibility data from a panel of contemporary North American H1 subtype swine-origin viruses isolated from humans, as compared to H1N1 seasonal and pandemic viruses, including the reconstructed 1918 virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010041DOI Listing
February 2019

In silico re-assessment of a diagnostic RT-qPCR assay for universal detection of Influenza A viruses.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 7;9(1):1630. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

National Institute of Public Health, National Reference Laboratory for Influenza, Prague, Czech Republic.

The ongoing evolution of microbial pathogens represents a significant issue in diagnostic PCR/qPCR. Many assays are burdened with false negativity due to mispriming and/or probe-binding failures. Therefore, PCR/qPCR assays used in the laboratory should be periodically re-assessed in silico on public sequences to evaluate the ability to detect actually circulating strains and to infer potentially escaping variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37869-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367508PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Human-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Reassortant Viruses in Swine, Southeast Mexico.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Apr 17;25(4):691-700. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

The genetic diversity of influenza A viruses circulating in swine in Mexico complicates control efforts in animals and presents a threat to humans, as shown by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. To describe evolution of swine influenza A viruses in Mexico and evaluate strains for vaccine development, we sequenced the genomes of 59 viruses and performed antigenic cartography on strains from 5 regions. We found that genetic and antigenic diversity were particularly high in southeast Mexico because of repeated introductions of viruses from humans and swine in other regions in Mexico. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433011PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Adaptation of Human Influenza Viruses to Swine.

Front Vet Sci 2018 22;5:347. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Population Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

A large diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) within the H1N1/N2 and H3N2 subtypes circulates in pigs globally, with different lineages predominating in specific regions of the globe. A common characteristic of the ecology of IAV in swine in different regions is the periodic spillover of human seasonal viruses. Such human viruses resulted in sustained transmission in swine in several countries, leading to the establishment of novel IAV lineages in the swine host and contributing to the genetic and antigenic diversity of influenza observed in pigs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349779PMC
January 2019

Syndromic survey and molecular analysis of influenza viruses at the human-swine interface in two West African cosmopolitan cities suggest the possibility of bidirectional interspecies transmission.

Zoonoses Public Health 2019 03 24;66(2):232-247. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Influenza viruses are frequently transmitted between pigs and their handlers, and among pig handlers. However, reports on socio-environmental variables as potential risk factors associated with transmission of influenza in West African swine production facilities are very scarce. Syndromic survey for influenza was therefore conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria, and Kumasi, Ghana, in order to identify and elucidate selected socio-environmental variables that may contribute to the occurrence and distribution of influenza-like illness (ILI) among swine industry workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12559DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Lessons learnt from the Indian H1N1 (swine flu) epidemic: Predictors of outcome based on epidemiological and clinical profile.

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Nov-Dec;7(6):1506-1509

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat, India.

Introduction: Influenza A (H1N1) virus has caused serious respiratory illness (swine flu) and death over the years. The first confirmed case of swine flu H1N1 in India was documented in May 2009, but huge numbers of cases were reported thereafter. In 2015, swine flu outbreak in India had led to significant morbidity and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_38_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6293944PMC
January 2019

Integrated analysis of microRNA-mRNA expression in A549 cells infected with influenza A viruses (IAVs) from different host species.

Virus Res 2019 04 31;263:34-46. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Microbiology, School of Preclinical Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, China. Electronic address:

Although several miRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in the influenza virus replication cycle, the identification of miRNAs and mRNAs that are expressed in A549 cells infected with influenza A viruses (IAVs) from different host species has remained poorly studied. To investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with the differential expression of miRNAs during influenza A virus infection, we performed global miRNA and mRNA expression profiling in A549 cells infected with human-origin seasonal influenza A virus H3N2 (Human_Br07), swine-origin influenza A virus H1N1 (SW_3861) or avian-origin influenza A virus H3N2 (AVI_9990). The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles were obtained by microarray and high-throughput sequencing analyses, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2018.12.016DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Bioaerosol Sampling for Respiratory Viruses in Singapore's Mass Rapid Transit Network.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 30;8(1):17476. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Emerging Infectious Diseases Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

As a leading global city with a high population density, Singapore is at risk for the introduction of novel biological threats. This risk has been recently reinforced by human epidemics in Singapore of SARS coronavirus, 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus, and enterovirus 71. Other major threats to Singapore include MERS-coronavirus and various avian and swine influenza viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35896-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269463PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

The role of the hotel industry in the response to emerging epidemics: a case study of SARS in 2003 and H1N1 swine flu in 2009 in Hong Kong.

Global Health 2018 11 27;14(1):117. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Accident and Emergency Medicine Academic Unit, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Trauma & Emergency Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.

Background: The global travel and tourism industry has been rapidly expanding in the past decades. The traditional focus on border screening, and by airline and cruise industries may be inadequate due to the incubation period of an infectious disease. This case study highlights the potential role of the hotel industry in epidemic preparedness and response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-018-0438-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260697PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Liposomal nanoparticle-based conserved peptide influenza vaccine and monosodium urate crystal adjuvant elicit protective immune response in pigs.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 24;13:6699-6715. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH 44691, USA,

Background: Influenza (flu) is a constant threat to humans and animals, and vaccination is one of the most effective ways to mitigate the disease. Due to incomplete protection induced by current flu vaccines, development of novel flu vaccine candidates is warranted to achieve greater efficacy against constantly evolving flu viruses.

Methods: In the present study, we used liposome nanoparticle (<200 nm diameter)-based subunit flu vaccine containing ten encapsulated highly conserved B and T cell epitope peptides to induce protective immune response against a zoonotic swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) H1N1 challenge infection in a pig model. Read More

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https://www.dovepress.com/liposomal-nanoparticle-based-conse
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S178809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205527PMC
December 2018
20 Reads

Hormonal Regulation of Physiology, Innate Immunity and Antibody Response to H1N1 Influenza Virus Infection During Pregnancy.

Front Immunol 2018 29;9:2455. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

In 2009, the H1N1 swine flu pandemic highlighted the vulnerability of pregnant women to influenza viral infection. Pregnant women infected with influenza A virus were at increased risk of hospitalization and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with high mortality, while their newborns had an increased risk of pre-term birth or low birth weight. Pregnant women have a unique immunological profile modulated by the sex hormones required to maintain pregnancy, namely progesterone and estrogens. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02455
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215819PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Update: Influenza Activity - United States and Worldwide, May 20-October 13, 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Oct 26;67(42):1178-1185. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

During May 20-October 13, 2018,* low levels of influenza activity were reported in the United States, with a mix of influenza A and B viruses circulating. Seasonal influenza activity in the Southern Hemisphere was low overall, with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 predominating in many regions. Antigenic testing of available influenza A and B viruses indicated that no significant antigenic drift in circulating viruses had emerged. Read More

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http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6742a3.htm?s_cid=mm6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6742a3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290813PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

Impact of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus on Veterinary Students' Perception of Xenotransplantation.

Transplant Proc 2018 Oct 21;50(8):2291-2295. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Surgery Service, Transplant Unit, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain; Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca), University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

The pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) in 2009, which was initially associated with pigs (swine flu), could have had a negative influence on attitudes toward xenotransplantation (XT), particularly after the social alarm it caused. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of this pandemic on the acceptance of XT among veterinary science students.

Methods: A control group sample was taken of students registered in the veterinary degree course (academic year 2007-2008). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2018.02.178DOI Listing
October 2018
15 Reads

Structure and applications of novel influenza HA tri-stalk protein for evaluation of HA stem-specific immunity.

PLoS One 2018 27;13(9):e0204776. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Riga, Latvia.

Long alpha helix (LAH) from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stem or stalk domain is one of the most conserved influenza virus antigens. Expression of N-terminally extended LAH in E. coli leads to assembly of α-h elical homotrimer which is structurally nearly identical to the corresponding region of post-fusion form of native HA. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204776PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160157PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Spatiotemporal Distribution and Evolution of the A/H1N1 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus in Pigs in France from 2009 to 2017: Identification of a Potential Swine-Specific Lineage.

J Virol 2018 Dec 27;92(24). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

ANSES, Ploufragan-Plouzané Laboratory, Swine Virology Immunology Unit, BP53, Ploufragan, France

The H1N1 influenza virus responsible for the most recent pandemic in 2009 (H1N1pdm) has spread to swine populations worldwide while it replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 virus in humans. In France, surveillance of swine influenza A viruses in pig herds with respiratory outbreaks led to the detection of 44 H1N1pdm strains between 2009 and 2017, regardless of the season, and findings were not correlated with pig density. From these isolates, 17 whole-genome sequences were obtained, as were 6 additional hemagglutinin (HA)/neuraminidase (NA) sequences, in order to perform spatial and temporal analyses of genetic diversity and to compare evolutionary patterns of H1N1pdm in pigs to patterns for human strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00988-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258933PMC
December 2018
11 Reads

Genetic variations of the Hemagglutinin gene of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Assam, India during 2016.

3 Biotech 2018 Oct 14;8(10):408. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Regional Medical Research Centre, ICMR, N.E. Region, Post Box 105, Dibrugarh, Assam 786001 India.

Since its emergence in 2009, Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 virus has evolved continuously. Marked genetic variations have occurred in the HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin gene causing the emergence of new variants. The present study genetically characterized the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 strains from Assam circulating in 2016 that caused a mild outbreak without any reported mortality. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13205-018-1427-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1427-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138005PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Selection and structural analysis of the NY25 peptide - A vaccine candidate from hemagglutinin of swine-origin Influenza H1N1.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 8;125:72-83. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-40, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

The aim of this study was to construct a vaccine peptide candidate against pandemic Influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin and to test its structure. With the help of bioinformatic algorithms we showed that the sequence encoding the second polypeptide of pandemic Influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA2) is protected from nonsynonymous mutations better than the sequence encoding its first polypeptide (HA1). With the help of secondary and ternary structure predicting algorithms we found the fragment of HA2 with the most reproducible secondary structure and synthesized the NY25 peptide corresponding to the residues Asn117 - Tyr141 of HA2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.09.004DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Comparative and Analysis of H1N1 and H1N2 Variant Influenza Viruses Isolated from Humans between 2011 and 2016.

J Virol 2018 11 29;92(22). Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Influenza A virus pandemics are rare events caused by novel viruses which have the ability to spread in susceptible human populations. With respect to H1 subtype viruses, swine H1N1 and H1N2 viruses occasionally cross the species barrier to cause human infection. Recently isolated from humans (termed variants), swine viruses were shown to display great genetic and antigenic diversity, hence posing considerable public health risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01444-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206486PMC
November 2018

Identification and genomic characterization of influenza viruses with different origin in Mexican pigs.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Jan 10;66(1):186-194. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Departamento de Medicina y Zootecnia de Cerdos, FMVZ-UNAM, México City, CP, México.

Swine influenza is a worldwide disease, which causes damage to the respiratory system of pigs. The H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes circulate mainly in the swine population of Mexico. There is evidence that new subtypes of influenza virus have evolved genetically and have been rearranged with human viruses and from other species; therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and characterize the genetic changes that have been generated in the different subtypes of the swine influenza virus in Mexican pigs. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tbed.12998
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12998DOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

Swine Influenza Virus Induces RIPK1/DRP1-Mediated Interleukin-1 Beta Production.

Viruses 2018 08 9;10(8). Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada.

Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a pivotal role in modulating lung inflammation in response to the influenza A virus infection. We previously showed that the swine influenza virus (SIV) infection induced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), and we were interested in examining the upstream signaling events that are involved in this process. Here, we report that the SIV-infection led to dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) phosphorylation at serine 579 and mitochondrial fission in PAMs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10080419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116029PMC
August 2018
15 Reads

Protective efficacy of a high-growth reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against the European Avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus in mice and pigs.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Aug 6;222:75-84. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 200241, PR China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai 200240, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

Swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) causing outbreaks of acute, highly contagious respiratory disease in pigs also pose a potential threat to public health. European avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) SIVs are the predominant circulating viruses in pigs in China and also occasionally cause human infection. In this study, a high-growth reassortant virus (SH1/PR8), with HA and NA genes from a representative EA H1N1 isolate A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2014 (SH1) in China and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics and tested as a candidate seed virus for the preparation of inactivated vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.07.003DOI Listing
August 2018
12 Reads
2.511 Impact Factor

Zoonotic Influenza and Human Health-Part 2: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Strategies.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 1;20(10):38. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Zoonotic influenza viruses are those influenza viruses that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this second part of a two-part review, we discuss the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of zoonotic influenza, and provide an overview of prevention strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0643-8DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Zoonotic Influenza and Human Health-Part 1: Virology and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Influenzas.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 1;20(10):37. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Public Health Ontario Laboratory, 661 University Avenue, Suite 1701, Toronto, ON, M5G 1M1, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Zoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0642-9DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Evolution and dynamics of the pandemic H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin protein from 2009 to 2017.

Arch Virol 2018 Nov 31;163(11):3035-3049. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, 2713, Doha, Qatar.

The emergence of swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) in 2009 invigorated extensive surveillance programs worldwide which have resulted in the deposition of large numbers of H1N1 sequences to Genbank. In the present study, we report on global evolution and dynamics of the pandemic H1N1 influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) protein in viruses isolated from three different continents (North America, Europe and Asia) during the period between April 2009 until April 2017. Close to 2000 HA full protein sequences were downloaded from the Influenza Research Database of the NCBI and analyzed using DNAStar to run an alignment, the web-based NetNglyc to predict N-Glycosylation sites and finally, the BEAST software package to calculate evolution and substitution rates. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00705-018-3962-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-3962-zDOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Intra-seasonal antibody repertoire analysis of a subject immunized with an MF59®-adjuvanted pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine.

Vaccine 2018 08 25;36(35):5325-5332. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Seqirus, Inc. (formerly Novartis Influenza Vaccines), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

During the height of the 2009 H1N1 swine-derived influenza pandemic, a clinical trial was conducted in which seven subjects were immunized using a monovalent, MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine, developed from an egg-passaged candidate vaccine virus (CVV), A/California/07/2009 X-181. Whole blood was collected prior to immunization and at 8, 22, and 202 days post-vaccination, and subjects' serological responses were evaluated. Here, we reconstruct and examine the longitudinal, influenza-specific circulating B cell repertoire of one subject in that study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.06.054DOI Listing
August 2018
26 Reads

Infection of novel reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses in the guinea pig model.

Vet Res 2018 07 27;49(1):73. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias, Universidad de Chile, Santa Rosa, 11735, Santiago, Chile.

Novel H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses (IAVs) were identified in commercial farms in Chile. These viruses contained H1, H3 and N2 sequences, genetically divergent from IAVs described worldwide, associated with pandemic internal genes. Guinea pigs were used as human surrogate to evaluate the infection dynamics of these reassortant viruses, compared with a pandemic H1N1 virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-018-0572-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6062863PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Functional Evolution of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus NS1 and PA in Humans.

J Virol 2018 10 12;92(19). Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA

In 2009, a pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) (pH1N1) emerged in the human population from swine causing a pandemic. Importantly, this virus is still circulating in humans seasonally. To analyze the evolution of pH1N1 in humans, we sequenced viral genes encoding proteins inhibiting general gene expression (nonstructural protein 1 [NS1] and PA-X) from circulating seasonal viruses and compared them to the viruses isolated at the origin of the pandemic. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01206-18
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01206-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146824PMC
October 2018
19 Reads

Isolation of a Reassortant H1N2 Swine Flu Strain of Type "Swine-Human-Avian" and Its Genetic Variability Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2018 29;2018:1096079. Epub 2018 May 29.

Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Fujian Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Fujian Animal Disease Control Technology Development Center, Fuzhou, Fujian 350013, China.

We isolated an influenza strain named A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2) from a pig suspected to be infected with swine flu. The results of electron microscopy, hemagglutination (HA) assay, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, and whole genome sequencing analysis suggest that it was a reassortant virus of swine (H1N1 subtype), human (H3N2 subtype), and avian influenza viruses. To further study the genetic evolution of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2), we cloned its whole genome fragments using RT-PCR and performed phylogenetic analysis on the eight genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1096079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996443PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Analysis of the affinity of influenza A virus protein epitopes for swine MHC I by a modified in vitro refolding method indicated cross-reactivity between swine and human MHC I specificities.

Immunogenetics 2018 11 10;70(10):671-680. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

College of Life Science and Agronomy, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou, 466001, People's Republic of China.

In vitro refolding assays can be used to investigate the affinity and stability of the binding of epitope peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which are key factors in the presentation of peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The recognition of peptide epitopes by CTLs is crucial for protection against influenza A virus (IAV) infection. The peptide-binding motif of the swine SLA-3*hs0202 molecule has been previously reported and partly overlaps with the binding motif of the most abundant human MHC allele, HLA-A*0201. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-018-1070-6DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Swine influenza viruses in Northern Vietnam in 2013-2014.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Jul 2;7(1):123. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong-Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China.

Swine are an important intermediate host for emergence of pandemic influenza. Vietnam is the largest swine producer in South East Asia. Systematic virological and serological surveillance of swine influenza viruses was carried out in Northern Vietnam from May 2013 to June 2014 with monthly sampling of pigs in local and large collective slaughterhouses and in a live pig market. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0109-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6028489PMC
July 2018
5 Reads

Differentiated human airway organoids to assess infectivity of emerging influenza virus.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 06 11;115(26):6822-6827. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong;

Novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus and pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus cause human infections, while avian H7N2 and swine H1N1 virus mainly infect birds and pigs, respectively. There is no robust in vitro model for assessing the infectivity of emerging viruses in humans. Based on a recently established method, we generated long-term expanding 3D human airway organoids which accommodate four types of airway epithelial cells: ciliated, goblet, club, and basal cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1806308115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6042130PMC
June 2018
35 Reads

Divergent Human-Origin Influenza Viruses Detected in Australian Swine Populations.

J Virol 2018 08 31;92(16). Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Microbiology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Victoria, Australia

Global swine populations infected with influenza A viruses pose a persistent pandemic risk. With the exception of a few countries, our understanding of the genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses is limited, hampering control measures and pandemic risk assessment. Here we report the genomic characteristics and evolutionary history of influenza A viruses isolated in Australia from 2012 to 2016 from two geographically isolated swine populations in the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00316-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069171PMC
August 2018
19 Reads

Emergence and Evolution of Novel Reassortant Influenza A Viruses in Canines in Southern China.

MBio 2018 06 5;9(3). Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The capacity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to host jump from animal reservoir species to humans presents an ongoing pandemic threat. Birds and swine are considered major reservoirs of viral genetic diversity, whereas equines and canines have historically been restricted to one or two stable IAV lineages with no transmission to humans. Here, by sequencing the complete genomes of 16 IAVs obtained from canines in southern China (Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region [Guangxi]) in 2013 to 2015, we demonstrate that the evolution of canine influenza viruses (CIVs) in Asian dogs is increasingly complex, presenting a potential threat to humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00909-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989073PMC
June 2018
7 Reads

Contributions of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin and Host Immune Responses Toward the Severity of Influenza Virus: Streptococcus pyogenes Superinfections.

Viral Immunol 2018 Jul/Aug;31(6):457-469. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

1 Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota , Vermillion, South Dakota.

Influenza virus infections can be complicated by bacterial superinfections, which are medically relevant because of a complex interaction between the host, the virus, and the bacteria. Studies to date have implicated several influenza virus genes, varied host immune responses, and bacterial virulence factors, however, the host-pathogen interactions that predict survival versus lethal outcomes remain undefined. Previous work by our group showed that certain influenza viruses could yield a survival phenotype (A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98-H3N2, TX98), whereas others were associated with a lethal phenotype (A/Puerto Rico/8/34-H1N1, PR8). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2017.0193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6043403PMC
October 2018
13 Reads

Lessons learned from the 2009-2010 H1N1 outbreak for the management of the 2013 silent polio outbreak.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 05 29;18(1):241. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Health Systems Management, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er-Sheva, Israel.

Background: The Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) encountered two substantial outbreaks during the past decade: the H1N1 swine flu outbreak during 2009-2010 and the silent polio outbreak during 2013. Although both outbreaks share several similar characteristics, the functioning of the Israeli MoH was different for each case. The aim of this study was to identify factors that contributed to the change in the MoH response to the polio outbreak in light of the previous 2009-2010 H1N1 outbreak. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3155-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5975376PMC
May 2018
2 Reads

Early prenatal exposure to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection and child psychomotor development at 6 months - A population-based cohort study.

Early Hum Dev 2018 07 24;122:1-7. Epub 2018 May 24.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Studies investigating gestational influenza and child neurodevelopment are still scarce, particularly concerning timing of infection in pregnancy. This is the first study to investigate associations between gestational influenza and infant psychomotor development and temperament at 6 months.

Methods: Data from The Norwegian Influenza Pregnancy Cohort, established during the 2009 swine flu pandemic, were utilized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.05.005DOI Listing
July 2018
15 Reads
1.931 Impact Factor

Emergence of Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Virus from an Adult Case in Fujian Province, China.

Virol Sin 2018 06;33(3):282-286

Fujian Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China.

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12250-018-0034-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-018-0034-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178560PMC
June 2018
10 Reads

Mucosal Immunity and Protective Efficacy of Intranasal Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Is Improved by Chitosan Nanoparticle Delivery in Pigs.

Front Immunol 2018 2;9:934. Epub 2018 May 2.

Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, United States.

Annually, swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) causes severe economic loss to swine industry. Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. A novel vaccine delivery platform using mucoadhesive chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) administered through intranasal (IN) route has the potential to elicit strong mucosal and systemic immune responses in pigs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940749PMC
May 2018
16 Reads
1 Citation

Novel triple-reassortant influenza viruses in pigs, Guangxi, China.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 May 16;7(1):85. Epub 2018 May 16.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, No.100 Daxue Road, Nanning, 530004, China.

Considered a "mixing vessel" for influenza viruses, pigs can give rise to new influenza virus reassortants that can threaten humans. During our surveillance of pigs in Guangxi, China from 2013 to 2015, we isolated 11 H1N1 and three H3N2 influenza A viruses of swine origin (IAVs-S). Out of the 14, we detected ten novel triple-reassortant viruses, which contained surface genes (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) from Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 or seasonal human-like H3N2, matrix (M) genes from H1N1/2009 pandemic or EA H1N1, nonstructural (NS) genes from classical swine, and the remaining genes from H1N1/2009 pandemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0088-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953969PMC
May 2018
10 Reads

Prospective surveillance for influenza. virus in Chinese swine farms.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 May 16;7(1):87. Epub 2018 May 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41426-018-0086-1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0086-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5954049PMC
May 2018
11 Reads

Virulent PB1-F2 residues: effects on fitness of H1N1 influenza A virus in mice and changes during evolution of human influenza A viruses.

Sci Rep 2018 May 10;8(1):7474. Epub 2018 May 10.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization & Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Specific residues of influenza A virus (IAV) PB1-F2 proteins may enhance inflammation or cytotoxicity. In a series of studies, we evaluated the function of these virulence-associated residues in the context of different IAV subtypes in mice. Here, we demonstrate that, as with the previously assessed pandemic 1968 (H3N2) IAV, PB1-F2 inflammatory residues increase the virulence of H1N1 IAV, suggesting that this effect might be a universal feature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25707-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5945659PMC
May 2018
9 Reads

Substitution of D701N in the PB2 protein could enhance the viral replication and pathogenicity of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza viruses.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 May 2;7(1):75. Epub 2018 May 2.

National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Collaboration Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, 102206, China.

Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses (SIVs) have become predominant in pig populations in China and have recently been reported to have the most potential to raise the next pandemic in humans. The mutation D701N in the PB2 protein, which accounts for 31% of H1N1 SIVs, has previously been shown to contribute to the adaptation of the highly pathogenic H5N1 or H7N7 avian influenza viruses in mammals. However, little is known of the effects of this substitution on the EA H1N1 viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0073-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5931605PMC
May 2018
4 Reads

Comparison of Heterosubtypic Protection in Ferrets and Pigs Induced by a Single-Cycle Influenza Vaccine.

J Immunol 2018 06 27;200(12):4068-4077. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright GU24 0NF, United Kingdom;

Influenza is a major health threat, and a broadly protective influenza vaccine would be a significant advance. Signal Minus FLU (S-FLU) is a candidate broadly protective influenza vaccine that is limited to a single cycle of replication, which induces a strong cross-reactive T cell response but a minimal Ab response to hemagglutinin after intranasal or aerosol administration. We tested whether an H3N2 S-FLU can protect pigs and ferrets from heterosubtypic H1N1 influenza challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1800142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985365PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Detection of influenza A virus from agricultural fair environment: Air and surfaces.

Prev Vet Med 2018 May 6;153:24-29. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

The Ohio State University, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, 1920 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH, 43201, USA. Electronic address:

Agricultural fairs facilitate an environment conducive to the spread of influenza A virus with large numbers of pigs from various different locales comingling for several days (5-8 days). Fairs are also associated with zoonotic transmission of influenza A virus as humans have unrestricted contact with potentially infected swine throughout the fair's duration. Since 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported 468 cases of variant influenza A virus, with most cases having had exposure to swine at agricultural fairs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.02.019DOI Listing
May 2018
4 Reads

Glycosylation of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase of Influenza A Virus as Signature for Ecological Spillover and Adaptation among Influenza Reservoirs.

Viruses 2018 04 7;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Glycosylation of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the influenza provides crucial means for immune evasion and viral fitness in a host population. However, the time-dependent dynamics of each glycosylation sites have not been addressed. We monitored the potential N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites of over 10,000 HA and NA of H1N1 subtype isolated from human, avian, and swine species over the past century. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10040183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923477PMC
April 2018
3 Reads

NS Segment of a 1918 Influenza A Virus-Descendent Enhances Replication of H1N1pdm09 and Virus-Induced Cellular Immune Response in Mammalian and Avian Systems.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:526. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Institute of Medical Virology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) has widely spread and is circulating in humans and swine together with other human and avian IAVs. This fact raises the concern that reassortment between H1N1pdm09 and co-circulating viruses might lead to an increase of H1N1pdm09 pathogenicity in different susceptible host species. Herein, we explored the potential of different NS segments to enhance the replication dynamics, pathogenicity and host range of H1N1pdm09 strain A/Giessen/06/09 (Gi-wt). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5874506PMC
March 2018
6 Reads