2,293 results match your criteria H1N1 Influenza Swine Flu


Protective efficacy of a bivalent inactivated reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against European avian-like and classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses in mice.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jul 19;246:108724. Epub 2020 May 19.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 200241, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, China.

The classical swine (CS) H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIVs) emerged in humans as a reassortant virus that caused the H1N1 influenza virus pandemic in 2009, and the European avian-like (EA) H1N1 SIVs has caused several human infections in European and Asian countries. Development of the influenza vaccines that could provide effective protective efficacy against SIVs remains a challenge. In this study, the bivalent reassortant inactivated vaccine comprised of SH1/PR8 and G11/PR8 arboring the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from prevalent CS and EA H1N1 SIVs and six internal genes from the A/Puerto Rico/8/34(PR8) virus was developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108724DOI Listing

HA stabilization promotes replication and transmission of swine H1N1 gamma influenza viruses in ferrets.

Elife 2020 Jun 30;9. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, United States.

Pandemic influenza A viruses can emerge from swine, an intermediate host that supports adaptation of human-preferred receptor-binding specificity by the hemagglutinin (HA) surface antigen. Other HA traits necessary for pandemic potential are poorly understood. For swine influenza viruses isolated in 2009-2016, gamma-clade viruses had less stable HA proteins (activation pH 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.56236DOI Listing

Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, 100193 Beijing, China;

Pigs are considered as important hosts or "mixing vessels" for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses. Systematic surveillance of influenza viruses in pigs is essential for early warning and preparedness for the next potential pandemic. Here, we report on an influenza virus surveillance of pigs from 2011 to 2018 in China, and identify a recently emerged genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 virus, which bears 2009 pandemic (pdm/09) and triple-reassortant (TR)-derived internal genes and has been predominant in swine populations since 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1921186117DOI Listing

Characteristics of and Public Health Emergency Responses to COVID-19 and H1N1 Outbreaks: A Case-Comparison Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 19;17(12). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Background: Recently, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has already spread rapidly as a global pandemic, just like the H1N1 swine influenza in 2009. Evidences have indicated that the efficiency of emergency response was considered crucial to curb the spread of the emerging infectious disease. However, studies of COVID-19 on this topic are relatively few. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124409DOI Listing

Implementing sequence-based antigenic distance calculation into immunological shape space model.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 Jun 19;21(1):256. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

New York Influenza Center of Excellence at David Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: In 2009, a novel influenza vaccine was distributed worldwide to combat the H1N1 influenza "swine flu" pandemic. However, antibodies induced by the vaccine display differences in their specificity and cross-reactivity dependent on pre-existing immunity. Here, we present a computational model that can capture the effect of pre-existing immunity on influenza vaccine responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-03594-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303933PMC

Avian Influenza A Virus Infects Swine Airway Epithelial Cells without Prior Adaptation.

Viruses 2020 May 28;12(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Pigs play an important role in the interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses (IAV). The porcine airway epithelium contains binding sites for both swine/human IAV (α2,6-linked sialic acids) and avian IAV (α2,3-linked sialic acids) and therefore is suited for adaptation of viruses from other species as suggested by the "mixing vessel theory". Here, we applied well-differentiated swine airway epithelial cells to find out whether efficient infection by avian IAV requires prior adaption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060589DOI Listing

Eco-Epidemiological Evidence of the Transmission of Avian and Human Influenza A Viruses in Wild Pigs in Campeche, Mexico.

Viruses 2020 May 11;12(5). Epub 2020 May 11.

Laboratorio de Investigación del Departamento de Medicina y Zootecnia de Cerdos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia (FMVZ), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Av. Universidad #3000, Ciudad de Mexico 04510, Mexico.

Influenza, a zoonosis caused by various influenza A virus subtypes, affects a wide range of species, including humans. Pig cells express both sialyl-α-2,3-Gal and sialyl-α-2,6-Gal receptors, which make them susceptible to infection by avian and human viruses, respectively. To date, it is not known whether wild pigs in Mexico are affected by influenza virus subtypes, nor whether this would make them a potential risk of influenza transmission to humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291264PMC

A Systematic Review Analyzing the Prevalence and Circulation of Influenza Viruses in Swine Population Worldwide.

Pathogens 2020 May 8;9(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa.

The global anxiety and a significant threat to public health due to the current COVID-19 pandemic reiterate the need for active surveillance for the zoonotic virus diseases of pandemic potential. Influenza virus due to its wide host range and zoonotic potential poses such a significant threat to public health. Swine serve as a "mixing vessel" for influenza virus reassortment and evolution which as a result may facilitate the emergence of new strains or subtypes of zoonotic potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281378PMC

Multi-task learning sparse group lasso: a method for quantifying antigenicity of influenza A(H1N1) virus using mutations and variations in glycosylation of Hemagglutinin.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 May 11;21(1):182. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA.

Background: In addition to causing the pandemic influenza outbreaks of 1918 and 2009, subtype H1N1 influenza A viruses (IAVs) have caused seasonal epidemics since 1977. Antigenic property of influenza viruses are determined by both protein sequence and N-linked glycosylation of influenza glycoproteins, especially hemagglutinin (HA). The currently available computational methods are only considered features in protein sequence but not N-linked glycosylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-3527-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216668PMC
May 2020
2.576 Impact Factor

Swine influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1-2009 infection in pigs, Myanmar.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Center of Excellence for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals (CUEIDAs), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Swine influenza virus (SIV) causes respiratory diseases in pigs and has impacts on both animal and human health. In this study, we conducted swine influenza surveillance in pig farms in the Yangon and Bago regions, Myanmar, during 2017-2019. Nasal swabs (n = 500) were collected from pigs in 10 swine farms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13616DOI Listing

Genetic Characterization of Influenza A Viruses in Japanese Swine in 2015 to 2019.

J Virol 2020 Jul 1;94(14). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Transboundary Diseases, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

To assess the current status of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S) throughout Japan and to investigate how these viruses persisted and evolve on pig farms, we genetically characterized IAVs-S isolated during 2015 to 2019. Nasal swab samples collected through active surveillance and lung tissue samples collected for diagnosis yielded 424 IAVs-S, comprising 78 H1N1, 331 H1N2, and 15 H3N2 viruses, from farms in 21 sampled prefectures in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses of surface genes revealed that the 1A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02169-19DOI Listing

Swine ANP32A Supports Avian Influenza Virus Polymerase.

J Virol 2020 Jun 1;94(12). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Avian influenza viruses occasionally infect and adapt to mammals, including humans. Swine are often described as "mixing vessels," being susceptible to both avian- and human-origin viruses, which allows the emergence of novel reassortants, such as the precursor to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. ANP32 proteins are host factors that act as influenza virus polymerase cofactors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00132-20DOI Listing

Higher virulence of swine H1N2 influenza viruses containing avian-origin HA and 2009 pandemic PA and NP in pigs and mice.

Arch Virol 2020 May 28;165(5):1141-1150. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Laboratory of Influenza Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Dae-Hak Ro, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea.

Pigs are capable of harbouring influenza A viruses of human and avian origin in their respiratory tracts and thus act as an important intermediary host to generate novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential by genetic reassortment between the two viruses. Here, we show that two distinct H1N2 swine influenza viruses contain avian-like or classical swine-like hemagglutinins with polymerase acidic (PA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses that were found to be circulating in Korean pigs in 2018. Swine H1N2 influenza virus containing an avian-like hemagglutinin gene had enhanced pathogenicity, causing severe interstitial pneumonia in infected pigs and mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04572-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223331PMC

Evolution and Pathogenicity of the H1 and H3 Subtypes of Swine Influenza Virus in Mice between 2016 and 2019 in China.

Viruses 2020 Mar 9;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Tai'an 271018, China.

Pigs are considered a "mixing vessel" that can produce new influenza strains through genetic reassortments, which pose a threat to public health and cause economic losses worldwide. The timely surveillance of the epidemiology of the swine influenza virus is of importance for prophylactic action. In this study, 15 H1N1, one H1N2, and four H3N2 strains were isolated from a total of 4080 nasal swabs which were collected from 20 pig farms in three provinces in China between 2016 and 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12030298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150921PMC
March 2020
3.279 Impact Factor

A Brief Introduction to Influenza A Virus in Swine.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2123:249-271

Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS, Ames, IA, USA.

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) of the Orthomyxoviridae virus family cause one of the most important respiratory diseases in pigs and humans. Repeated outbreaks and rapid spread of genetically and antigenically distinct IAVs represent a considerable challenge for animal production and public health. Bidirection transmission of IAV between pigs and people has altered the evolutionary dynamics of IAV, and a "One Health" approach is required to ameliorate morbidity and mortality in both hosts and improve control strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0346-8_18DOI Listing
January 2020

Antigenic characterization of novel H1 influenza A viruses in swine.

Sci Rep 2020 Mar 11;10(1):4510. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 8820808, Chile.

Novel H1N2 influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine have been identified in Chile co-circulating with pandemic H1N1 2009-like (A(H1N1)pdm09-like) viruses. The objective of this study was to characterize antigenically the swine H1 IAVs circulating in Chile. Genetic analysis based on the HA1 domain and antigenic analysis by hemagglutination inhibition assay were carried out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61315-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7066140PMC

An R195K Mutation in the PA-X Protein Increases the Virulence and Transmission of Influenza A Virus in Mammalian Hosts.

J Virol 2020 May 18;94(11). Epub 2020 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

In the 21st century, the emergence of H7N9 and H1N1/2009 influenza viruses, originating from animals and causing severe human infections, has prompted investigations into the genetic alterations required for cross-species transmission. We previously found that replacement of the human-origin PA gene segment in avian influenza virus (AIV) could overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Recently, it was reported that the PA gene segment encodes both the PA protein and a second protein, PA-X. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01817-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269435PMC
May 2020
4.439 Impact Factor

Mesoscale All-Atom Influenza Virus Simulations Suggest New Substrate Binding Mechanism.

ACS Cent Sci 2020 Feb 19;6(2):189-196. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0340, United States.

Influenza virus circulates in human, avian, and swine hosts, causing seasonal epidemic and occasional pandemic outbreaks. Influenza neuraminidase, a viral surface glycoprotein, has two sialic acid binding sites. The catalytic (primary) site, which also binds inhibitors such as oseltamivir carboxylate, is responsible for cleaving the sialic acid linkages that bind viral progeny to the host cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.9b01071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048371PMC
February 2020

A unique feature of swine ANP32A provides susceptibility to avian influenza virus infection in pigs.

PLoS Pathog 2020 02 21;16(2):e1008330. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China.

Both the replication and transcription of the influenza virus are catalyzed by the viral polymerase complex. The polymerases of most avian influenza A viruses have poor performance in mammalian cells, which is considered to be one of the important species barriers. Pigs have been long considered as important intermediate hosts for interspecies transmission of the avian influenza virus, because of their susceptibility to infection with both avian and mammalian influenza viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055917PMC
February 2020

Influenza A Virus Field Surveillance at a Swine-Human Interface.

mSphere 2020 02 5;5(1). Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA

While working overnight at a swine exhibition, we identified an influenza A virus (IAV) outbreak in swine, Nanopore sequenced 13 IAV genomes from samples we collected, and predicted in real time that these viruses posed a novel risk to humans due to genetic mismatches between the viruses and current prepandemic candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs). We developed and used a portable IAV sequencing and analysis platform called (Mobile Influenza Analysis) to complete and characterize full-length consensus genomes approximately 18 h after unpacking the mobile lab. Exhibition swine are a known source for zoonotic transmission of IAV to humans and pose a potential pandemic risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00822-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7002310PMC
February 2020

Detection methods for influenza A H1N1 virus with special reference to biosensors: a review.

Biosci Rep 2020 02;40(2)

Department of Biochemistry, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana 124001, India.

H1N1 (Swine flu) is caused by influenza A virus, which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Transmission of H1N1 occurs from human to human through air or sometimes from pigs to humans. The influenza virus has different RNA segments, which can reassert to make new virus strain with the possibility to create an outbreak in unimmunized people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20193852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000365PMC
February 2020

A Single Amino Acid at Position 431 of the PB2 Protein Determines the Virulence of H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses in Mice.

J Virol 2020 Mar 31;94(8). Epub 2020 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

Genetic reassortments occurred continuously among multiple subtypes or genotypes of influenza viruses prevalent in pigs. Of note, some reassortant viruses bearing the internal genes of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009/H1N1) virus sporadically caused human infection, which highlights their potential threats to human public health. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis on swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in Liaoning Province, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01930-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108842PMC

Swine Influenza A Viruses and the Tangled Relationship with Humans.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2020 Jan 27. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA.

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are the causative agents of one of the most important viral respiratory diseases in pigs and humans. Human and swine IAV are prone to interspecies transmission, leading to regular incursions from human to pig and vice versa. This bidirectional transmission of IAV has heavily influenced the evolutionary history of IAV in both species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a038737DOI Listing
January 2020

Interspecies Transmission of Reassortant Swine Influenza A Virus Containing Genes from Swine Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H1N2) Viruses.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Feb;26(2):273-281

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) virus has become established in swine in the United Kingdom and currently co-circulates with previously enzootic swine influenza A virus (IAV) strains, including avian-like H1N1 and human-like H1N2 viruses. During 2010, a swine influenza A reassortant virus, H1N2r, which caused mild clinical disease in pigs in the United Kingdom, was isolated. This reassortant virus has a novel gene constellation, incorporating the internal gene cassette of pH1N1-origin viruses and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of swine IAV H1N2 origin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2602.190486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986826PMC
February 2020

Serological evidence of swine exposure to pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus in Burkina Faso.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Feb 31;241:108572. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), 29 rue Henri Koch, L-4354, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. Electronic address:

Despite improvement of human and avian influenza surveillance, swine influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce and pandemic preparedness is still deemed inadequate, including in Burkina Faso. This cross-sectional study therefore aimed to investigate the (past) exposure of pigs to influenza A viruses. Practices of people with occupational contacts with pigs and their knowledge on influenza A were investigated in order to formulate future prevention guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108572DOI Listing
February 2020

Identification, Genetic Analysis, and Pathogenicity of Classical Swine H1N1 and Human-Swine Reassortant H1N1 Influenza Viruses from Pigs in China.

Viruses 2020 01 2;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Veterinary Culture Collection, China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, 8 Nandajie, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China.

Swine influenza virus causes a substantial disease burden to swine populations worldwide and poses an imminent threat to the swine industry and humans. Given its importance, we characterized two swine influenza viruses isolated from Shandong, China. The homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that all eight gene segments of A/swine/Shandong/AV1522/2011(H1N1) were closely related to A/Maryland/12/1991(H1N1) circulating in North America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12010055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019673PMC
January 2020

The R251K Substitution in Viral Protein PB2 Increases Viral Replication and Pathogenicity of Eurasian Avian-like H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses.

Viruses 2020 01 2;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510462, China.

The Eurasian avian-like swine (EA) H1N1 virus has affected the Chinese swine industry, and human infection cases have been reported occasionally. However, little is known about the pathogenic mechanism of EA H1N1 virus. In this study, we compared the mouse pathogenicity of A/swine/Guangdong/YJ4/2014 (YJ4) and A/swine/Guangdong/MS285/2017 (MS285) viruses, which had similar genotype to A/Hunan/42443/2015 (HuN-like). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019279PMC
January 2020

Clinical evaluation, serological response and lesions generated by the A/Mexico/La Gloria-3/2009/H1N1 and A/swine/New Jersey/11/1976/H1N1 influenza viruses in colostrated and non-colostrated pigs.

Virusdisease 2019 Sep 9;30(3):433-440. Epub 2019 May 9.

1Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

Influenza A viruses cause respiratory disease in piglets, and maternal immunity plays an important role in protecting against Influenza virus infection. Nevertheless, in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies against influenza, an adequate immune response is not developed. In this study, the effect of maternal antibodies against the swine influenza A/swine/New Jersey/11/1976/H1N1 virus (swH1N1) on clinical presentation, serological response, and lesions produced in colostrated and non-colostrated pigs was evaluated in pigs infected with the human influenza A/Mexico/La Gloria-3/2009/ H1N1 (pH1N1) and swH1N1 viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-019-00531-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863996PMC
September 2019

Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Seasonal Human Live Attenuated Cold-Adapted Influenza Virus Vaccine in Pigs.

Front Immunol 2019 8;10:2625. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Enhanced Host Responses, The Pirbright Institute, Woking, United Kingdom.

Influenza A virus infection is a global health threat to livestock and humans, causing substantial mortality and morbidity. As both pigs and humans are readily infected with influenza viruses of similar subtype, the pig is a robust and appropriate model for investigating swine and human disease. We evaluated the efficacy of the human cold-adapted 2017-2018 quadrivalent seasonal LAIV in pigs against H1N1pdm09 challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856147PMC
November 2019

Virological and epidemiological patterns of swine influenza A virus infections in France: Cumulative data from the RESAVIP surveillance network, 2011-2018.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Dec 3;239:108477. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

ANSES, French Agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety, Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, Swine Virology Immunology Unit, National Reference Laboratory for Swine Influenza, Ploufragan, France; Bretagne Loire University, France.

Swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) cause acute respiratory syndromes in pigs and may also infect humans. Following the 2009 pandemic, a network was established in France to reinforce swIAV monitoring. This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108477DOI Listing
December 2019

Machine Learning Methods for Predicting Human-Adaptive Influenza A Viruses Based on Viral Nucleotide Compositions.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 04;37(4):1224-1236

Department of Virology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Each influenza pandemic was caused at least partly by avian- and/or swine-origin influenza A viruses (IAVs). The timing of and the potential IAVs involved in the next pandemic are currently unpredictable. We aim to build machine learning (ML) models to predict human-adaptive IAV nucleotide composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7086167PMC
April 2020
9.105 Impact Factor

Comparative thermostability analysis of zoonotic and human influenza virus A and B neuraminidase.

Arch Virol 2020 Jan 19;165(1):201-206. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, 630559, Russian Federation.

Neuraminidase (NA) thermostability of influenza A and B viruses isolated from birds, swine and humans was measured to evaluate its variability associated with host body temperature. The highest 50% inactivation temperature (IT) was observed with H3N8 avian influenza virus (74 °C), and the lowest IT was observed with the seasonal human H3N2 virus (45.5 °C). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04465-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223169PMC
January 2020

Epidemiological and clinical profile of Influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 in Odisha, eastern India.

Heliyon 2019 Oct 15;5(10):e02639. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

SOA University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Epidemic of flu is highly contagious and it spreads through air. In 2009 H1N1 influenza virus emerged after reassortment of North American TRIG and Eurasia Avian like virus of swine and started epidemic in Mexico. The first cases were reported from Hyderabad city on 16th May 2009 in India that spread rapidly within a short span of time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6812237PMC
October 2019

Human infection with a novel reassortant Eurasian-avian lineage swine H1N1 virus in northern China.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2019 ;8(1):1535-1545

Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Influenza A virus infections occur in different species, causing mild to severe respiratory symptoms that lead to a heavy disease burden. Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A(H1N1) viruses (EAS-H1N1) are predominant in pigs and occasionally infect humans. An influenza A(H1N1) virus was isolated from a boy who was suffering from fever and headache and designated as A/Tianjin-baodi/1606/2018(H1N1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2019.1679611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6830285PMC
January 2020
1 Read

Locally Acquired Human Infection with Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus, Australia, 2018.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Jan 17;26(1):143-147. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

In 2018, a 15-year-old female adolescent in Australia was infected with swine influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. The virus contained hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes derived from 1990s-like human seasonal viruses and internal protein genes from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, highlighting the potential risk that swine influenza A virus poses to human health in Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924914PMC
January 2020

Molecular Evidence of Influenza A Virus Circulation in African Dromedary Camels Imported to Saudi Arabia, 2017-2018.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Oct 30;6(10):ofz370. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Vaccines and Immunotherapy Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Little is known about influenza A viruses in dromedaries. Here, we detected influenza A viral RNA in 11 specimens (1.7 %) out of 665 nasal swabs collected from dromedaries between 2017 and 2018 in Saudi Arabia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6767964PMC
October 2019

Novel reassortant of H1N1 swine influenza virus detected in pig population in Russia.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2019 ;8(1):1456-1464

Department of Experimental Modeling and Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases, Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine , Novosibirsk , Russia.

Pigs play an important role in interspecies transmission of the influenza virus, particularly as "mixing vessels" for reassortment. Two influenza A/H1N1 virus strains, A/swine/Siberia/1sw/2016 and A/swine/Siberia/4sw/2017, were isolated during a surveillance of pigs from private farms in Russia from 2016 to 2017. There was a 10% identity difference between the HA and NA nucleotide sequences of isolated strains and the most phylogenetically related sequences (human influenza viruses of 1980s). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2019.1673136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6818105PMC
February 2020
2 Reads

Serological survey of influenza A virus infection in Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax).

Microbiol Immunol 2019 Dec 14;63(12):517-522. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Transboundary Animal Diseases Research Center, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against influenza A virus (IAV) in Japanese wild boars in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan, between 2014 and 2017. Seroprevalence against a pandemic-like swine H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus was identified in 27.1% of specimens, and 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12750DOI Listing
December 2019
1.306 Impact Factor

Virus persistence in pig herds led to successive reassortment events between swine and human influenza A viruses, resulting in the emergence of a novel triple-reassortant swine influenza virus.

Vet Res 2019 Oct 7;50(1):77. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Swine Virology Immunology Unit, Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, ANSES, BP53, 22440, Ploufragan, France.

This report describes the detection of a triple reassortant swine influenza A virus of H1N2 subtype. It evolved from an avian-like swine H1N1 that first acquired the N2 segment from a seasonal H3N2, then the M segment from a 2009 pandemic H1N1, in two reassortments estimated to have occurred 10 years apart. This study illustrates how recurrent influenza infections increase the co-infection risk and facilitate evolutionary jumps by successive gene exchanges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-019-0699-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781375PMC
October 2019
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DNA vaccine based on conserved HA-peptides induces strong immune response and rapidly clears influenza virus infection from vaccinated pigs.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(9):e0222201. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Swine influenza virus (SIVs) infections cause a significant economic impact to the pork industry. Moreover, pigs may act as mixing vessel favoring genome reassortment of diverse influenza viruses. Such an example is the pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus that appeared in 2009, harboring a combination of gene segments from avian, pig and human lineages, which rapidly reached pandemic proportions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222201PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760788PMC
March 2020
1 Read

Detection of pandemic influenza A/H1N1/pdm09 virus among pigs but not in humans in slaughterhouses in Kenya, 2013-2014.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Sep 24;12(1):628. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Washington State University, Pullman, USA.

Objective: We conducted four cross-sectional studies over 1 year among humans and pigs in three slaughterhouses in Central and Western Kenya (> 350 km apart) to determine infection and exposure to influenza A viruses. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from participants who reported acute respiratory illness (ARI) defined as fever, cough or running nose. Nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from pigs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4667-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760099PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Experimental H1N1pdm09 infection in pigs mimics human seasonal influenza infections.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(9):e0222943. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Institute of Immunology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Pigs are anatomically, genetically and physiologically comparable to humans and represent a natural host for influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Thus, pigs may represent a relevant biomedical model for human IAV infections. We set out to investigate the systemic as well as the local immune response in pigs upon two subsequent intranasal infections with IAV H1N1pdm09. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222943PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754157PMC

Bidirectional Human-Swine Transmission of Seasonal Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Pig Herd, France, 2018.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 10;25(10):1940-1943

In 2018, a veterinarian became sick shortly after swabbing sows exhibiting respiratory syndrome on a farm in France. Epidemiologic data and genetic analyses revealed consecutive human-to-swine and swine-to-human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus transmission, which occurred despite some biosecurity measures. Providing pig industry workers the annual influenza vaccine might reduce transmission risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2510.190068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759248PMC
October 2019
1 Read

A novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in swine in Shandong Province, eastern China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jan 27;67(1):450-454. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Poultry Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, People's Republic of China.

Influenza A (H1N1) viruses are distributed worldwide and pose a threat to public health. Swine, as a natural host and mixing vessel of influenza A (H1N1) virus, play a critical role in the transmission of this virus to humans. Furthermore, swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses have provided all eight genes or some genes to the genomes of influenza strains that historically have caused human pandemics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13360DOI Listing
January 2020
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Seasonal dynamics of influenza viruses and age distribution of infected individuals across nine seasons covering 2009-2018 in Taiwan.

J Formos Med Assoc 2020 Apr 11;119(4):850-860. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: A swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus (termed A/H1N1pdm) caused a pandemic in 2009 and has continuously circulated in the human population. To investigate its possible ecological effects on circulating influenza strains, the seasonal patterns of influenza viruses and the respective age distribution of infected patients were studies.

Methods: The data obtained from national influenza surveillance systems in Taiwan from July 2009 to June 2018 were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2019.08.030DOI Listing
April 2020
1 Read

High Risk of Influenza Virus Infection Among Swine Workers: Examining a Dynamic Cohort in China.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Sep 1. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: China is thought to be a hotspot for zoonotic influenza virus emergence, yet there have been few prospective studies examining the occupational risk of such infections.

Methods: We present the first two years of data collected from a five-year, prospective cohort study of swine-exposed and unexposed participants, pigs, and six swine farms in China. We conducted serological and virological surveillance to examine evidence for swine influenza A virus infection in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108185PMC
September 2019
3 Reads

H1N1 Influenza: Assessment of knowledge and awareness of private dental health professionals of a Tricity.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Jul;8(7):2229-2233

Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Medical College and Hospital, Barpeta, Assam, India.

Background: Influenza like Swine flu virus has posed a greater risk of occupational transmission to dental professionals as it can spread through the aerosols.

Aim: To assess knowledge and awareness of private dental health care professionals regarding swine flu of a Tricity in India.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 255 private dentists practising in the Tricity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_381_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691439PMC
July 2019
1 Read

Computationally optimized broadly reactive vaccine based upon swine H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin sequences protects against both swine and human isolated viruses.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 ;15(9):2013-2029

Center for Vaccines and Immunology, University of Georgia , Athens , GA , USA.

Swine H1 influenza viruses were stable within pigs for nearly 70 years until in 1998 when a classical swine virus reassorted with avian and human influenza viruses to generate the novel triple reassortant H1N1 strain that eventually led to the 2009 influenza pandemic. Previously, our group demonstrated broad protection against a panel of human H1N1 viruses using HA antigens derived by the COBRA methodology. In this report, the effectiveness of COBRA HA antigens (SW1, SW2, SW3 and SW4), which were designed using only HA sequences from swine H1N1 and H1N2 isolates, were tested in BALB/c mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1653743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6773400PMC
March 2020
2 Reads

Fungal retinitis following influenza virus type A (H1N1) infection.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2019 09;67(9):1483-1484

Advanced Eye Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab, India.

A 43-year-old male presented with left eye foveal retinits causing an acute visual loss following influenza virus type A infection (H1N1 infection or Swine flu). Considering viral (influenza) etiology, a prompt treatment with oral corticosteroids was started. But an initial poor response prompted an immediate diagnostic vitrectomy, which revealed Candida albicans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1691_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6727691PMC
September 2019
3 Reads
0.927 Impact Factor

STEM: An Open Source Tool for Disease Modeling.

Health Secur 2019 Jul/Aug;17(4):291-306

Judith V. Douglas, MHS, was Lead Technical Writer, Science to Solutions; Simone Bianco, PhD, is a Research Staff Member, Industrial and Applied Genomics, Science to Solutions; Stefan Edlund, MS, is a Research Software Engineer, Industrial and Applied Genomics, Science to Solutions; Kun (Maggie) Hu, PhD, is Research Manager, Public Health and Food Safety; and James H. Kaufman, PhD, is Chief Scientist, Science to Solutions; all at IBM Research-Almaden, San Jose, CA.

The Spatiotemporal Epidemiologic Modeler (STEM) is an open source software project supported by the Eclipse Foundation and used by a global community of researchers and public health officials working to track and, when possible, control outbreaks of infectious disease in human and animal populations. STEM is not a model or a tool designed for a specific disease; it is a flexible, modular framework supporting exchange and integration of community models, reusable plug-in components, and denominator data, available to researchers worldwide at www.eclipse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hs.2019.0018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708268PMC
May 2020
8 Reads