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    Testicular Estrogen-Secreting Leydig Cell Tumor in 18F-FDG PET/CT: An Incidental Detection in a Patient Treated by Chemotherapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma.
    Clin Nucl Med 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    We present images of a 50-year-old man who referred for treatment of a classic Hodgkin lymphoma. While F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated a complete metabolic remission after chemotherapy, an increased F-FDG uptake of a right testicular lesion in F-FDG PET/CT and an unexplained bilateral gynecomastia were observed. A benign Leydig cell tumor was histopathologically proved after a right radical orchiectomy. Read More

    A journey through liposuction and liposculture: Review.
    Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2017 Dec 6;24:53-60. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Medicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery Section, University of Parma, Cutaneous, Mini-invasive, Regenerative and Plastic Surgery Unit, Parma University Hospital, Parma, Italy.
    Introduction: Nowadays, liposuction is the most frequently performed aesthetic surgery procedure in Western Countries. This technique has had rapid development since the 1970s, when it was experimented for the first time by A. and G. Read More

    The burden of gynecomastia among men on antiretroviral therapy in Zomba, Malawi.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(11):e0188379. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Dignitas International, Zomba, Malawi.
    Background: Many Africans who are on life-saving ART face challenges from a variety of toxicities. After the introduction of a standardized first-line efavirenz-containing ART regimen, reports of gynecomastia appeared in Malawian popular media, however data on the prevalence and risk factors of gynecomastia from Africa are lacking.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in males ≥18 years registered on ART at the HIV clinic in Zomba Central Hospital. Read More

    How to manage pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: our clinical experience
    Turk J Med Sci 2017 11 13;47(5):1410-1415. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Background/aim: Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare and benign mesenchymal proliferative breast lesion. Our aim is to review the clinical and radiological features of PASH and define a standard approach for its diagnosis and management. Materials and methods: Clinical records of 35 consecutive patients with PASH were retrospectively reviewed between 2009 and 2015. Read More

    Perioral and tongue fasciculations in Kennedy's disease.
    Neurol Sci 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Gardner Family Center for Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    We report the case of a 54-year-old right-handed man who presented with a 2-year history of progressive upper-limb weakness with mild dysarthria and prominent involuntary perioral abnormal movements that were characterized as fasciculations. Electromyography disclosed motor neuron disease. The diagnosis of Kennedy's disease was established by polymerase chain reaction. Read More

    Endocrinal description of two Chinese Kennedy's disease pedigrees.
    J Clin Neurosci 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, No. 180 Fenglin Road, 200032 Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Kennedy's disease (KD), also known as X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), is caused by the expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats in the first exon of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. KD is a late-onset neural-endocrinal disease that is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. In addition, partial androgen insensitivity is an important manifestation of KD. Read More

    Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Oct;96(7):441-449
    Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Testosterone therapy is increasingly common in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are written by primary care physicians. There is conflicting evidence on the benefit of male testosterone therapy for age-related declines in testosterone. Physicians should not measure testosterone levels unless a patient has signs and symptoms of hypogonadism, such as loss of body hair, sexual dysfunction, hot flashes, or gynecomastia. Read More

    [Primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma: A case report and literature review].
    Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 Oct;42(10):1222-1227
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.
    Primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma in male is not a very common disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestations. Gynecomastia and testicular atrophy are present in some cases. The levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin are often significantly increased. Read More

    Comment to: "Complications and Outcomes After Gynecomastia Surgery: Analysis of 204 Pediatric and 1583 Adult Cases from a National Multi-center Database".
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Institute for Reconstructive Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine, 6560 Fannin Street, Scurlock Tower, Suite 2200, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer. Read More

    A Submammarian Approach for Cosmetically Improved Implantation of Deep Brain Stimulation Generators.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Department of Stereotactical Neurosurgery, Barbara-Hospital, Hamm, Germany.
    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) indications include movement disorders, psychiatric affections, or epilepsy in which patients risk social isolation heightened by abnormal motions or behavioral patterns. Further stigmatization after DBS surgery from head shaving, visible scarring, or disfigurement from bulky lead insertion points should be avoided.

    Objective: We present a cosmetically optimized, adapted submammarian approach for DBS neurostimulator implantation that leaves the décolletage untouched. Read More

    Breast diseases in children: the spectrum of radiologic findings in a cohort study.
    Diagn Interv Radiol 2017 Nov-Dec;23(6):407-413
    Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey.
    Purpose: We aimed to investigate the spectrum of radiologic findings and referral reasons for breast diseases in children considering age-appropriate presentation.

    Methods: Our retrospective cohort study included 348 consecutive pediatric patients aged <19 years (median, 13 years) referred to radiology with a clinical presentation between 2005 and 2016. Radiologic findings were reviewed in four age ranges (0-2 years, 2-8 years, 8-15 years, >15 years). Read More

    Low zinc levels may contribute to gynecomastia in puberty.
    J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Dec 2;44:274-278. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Toxicology, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara, Turkey; Adolescent Unit, İhsan Doğramacı Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Sıhhiye Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:
    This study aimed to determine whether there were any differences in trace element levels between adolescent boys with gynecomastia and control boys and to determine the correlations between the levels of trace elements and body mass index (BMI) and sex hormones. The pubertal gynecomastia group comprised of 41 patients (mean age=13.2 ±0. Read More

    A Comparison of Adverse Drug Reaction Profiles in Patients on Antiretroviral and Antitubercular Treatment in Zimbabwe.
    Clin Drug Investig 2017 Sep 30. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box A178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    Introduction: Few studies describe the adverse drug event profiles in patients simultaneously receiving antiretroviral and anti-tubercular medicines in resource-limited countries.

    Objectives: To describe and compare the adverse drug reaction profiles in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy only (HAART), HAART and isoniazid preventive therapy (HHART), and HAART and antitubercular treatment (ATTHAART).

    Methods: We analysed individual case safety reports (ICSRs) for patients on antiretroviral therapy and antitubercular treatment submitted to the national pharmacovigilance centre during the targeted spontaneous reporting (TSR) programme from 1 September 2012 through 31 August 2016. Read More

    Multiparameter Investigation of a 46,XX/46,XY Tetragametic Chimeric Phenotypical Male Patient with Bilateral Scrotal Ovotestes and Ovulatory Activity.
    Sex Dev 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    We report on an adult male initially presenting with gynecomastia and a painless scrotal mass without additional genital anomalies. Hyperpigmentation of the skin following the Blaschko's lines was identified. He underwent gonadectomy because of suspected cancer. Read More

    Chromosome 15 structural abnormalities: effect on IGF1R gene expression and function.
    Endocr Connect 2017 Oct;6(7):528-539
    Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of Catania, Catania, Italy
    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), mapping on the 15q26.3 chromosome, is required for normal embryonic and postnatal growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the IGF1R gene expression and function in three unrelated patients with chromosome 15 structural abnormalities. Read More

    A case of Klinefelter syndrome with hypersexual desire.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 29;2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Endocrinology, Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACTAustralia.
    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal disorder affecting males, with the typical karyotype of 47,XXY due to a supernumerary X chromosome, which causes progressive testicular failure resulting in androgen deficiency and infertility. Despite it being the most common sex chromosomal disorder, its diagnosis is easily missed. In addition to its classical clinical features of tall stature, gynaecomastia, small testes, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism including infertility, KS is also often associated with neurocognitive, behavioural and psychiatric disorders. Read More

    The circumareolar approach to gynecomastia and transgender surgery: modifications to provide correct nipple areolar complex position and shape.
    S Afr J Surg 2017 Mar;55(1):16-20
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, Pretoria South-Africa.
    Background: In surgery for gynaecomastia, excision with minimal scarring and correct position of the nipple areolar complex (NAC) are key to a successful outcome. We report on a pilot study on the use of a circumareolar excision and the use of mathematical vector calculation to position the NAC and execute surgery and report on the outcomes.

    Method: From 2014 to 2015, the authors operated on 9 gynecomastia or transgender patients. Read More

    Gynecomastia: histological appearance in different age groups.
    J Plast Surg Hand Surg 2017 Sep 6:1-6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    a Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Medical Center - Faculty of Medicine , University of Freiburg , Freiburg , Germany.
    Objective: Gynecomastia is a common finding in the male population which is mostly idiopathic. The aim of our study was to analyze the histological differences in young and old patient groups and its association with recurrence rates.

    Methods: Three hundred and five gynecomastia patients (555 breasts) undergoing surgical treatment from 1997 to 2015 were divided into four groups: Group 1: 13-17 years, Group 2: 18-30 years, Group 3: 31-49 years and Group 4: 50-83 years. Read More

    Long-Term Antitumor Activity and Safety of Enzalutamide Monotherapy in Hormone Naïve Prostate Cancer: 3-Year Open Label Followup Results.
    J Urol 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Purpose: A phase 2 study of enzalutamide monotherapy in patients with hormone naïve prostate cancer demonstrated high prostate specific antigen response rates at 25 weeks, 1 year and 2 years with minimal effects on total body bone mineral density and favorable safety. In this followup analysis we evaluated enzalutamide antitumor activity and safety at 3 years.

    Materials And Methods: In a single arm analysis 67 patients with hormone naïve prostate cancer and noncastrate testosterone (230 ng/dl or greater) received enzalutamide 160 mg per day orally until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Read More

    Management of Adolescent Gynecomastia: An Update.
    Acta Biomed 2017 Aug 23;88(2):204-213. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    .
    Gynecomastia refers to an enlargement of the male breast caused by benign proliferation of the glands ducts and stromal components including fat. It is the most common form of breast swelling seen in adolescent males. During pubertal development, gynecomastia can develop as a result of transient relative imbalances between androgens and estrogens. Read More

    Closed-Suction Drains After Subcutaneous Mastectomy for Gynecomastia: Do They Reduce Complications?
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Dec 25;41(6):1291-1294. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 20010, USA.
    Background: In cases of refractory gynecomastia, surgical excision of excess glandular breast tissue is often warranted. Closed-suction drain placement is commonplace; however, the effect of drains on preventing complications after male breast surgery has not been fully elucidated in the literature.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of drains on reducing seroma and hematoma after subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia. Read More

    Radiologic presentation of a myofibroblastoma of the adult male breast.
    Radiol Case Rep 2017 Sep 8;12(3):439-442. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ, USA.
    We present the case of a 50-year-old male with bilateral gynecomastia who was incidentally found to have 0.8-cm subareolar mass on computed tomography. Mammographic and sonographic characteristics of the lesion are described as well as a brief historical review of myofibroblastoma, a rare mesenchymal tumor. Read More

    Unilateral Gynaecomastia in a Young Man with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
    Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2017 Sep 19;33(3):448-450. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Department of Medicine, 4th floor Nehru Hospital, PGIMER, Chandigarh, 160012 India.
    Male reproductive issues are frequently overlooked in patients of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) on imatinib therapy. Current article describes a young man with CML on imatinib mesylate since 13 years who presented to us with painful left sided breast swelling. Mammography and fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis of gynaecomastia and hormone profile revealed low testosterone levels. Read More

    Prolactinoma in a Dog.
    Vet Pathol 2017 Nov 16;54(6):972-976. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    6 Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    A 12-year-old male Yorkshire Terrier was presented because of decreased appetite. Physical examination revealed mammary gland swelling and galactorrhea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scanning of the skull indicated an enlarged pituitary gland, compatible with a pituitary tumor. Read More

    Delayed Diagnosis of Acromegaly in the Context of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder due to Symptoms Mimicking Known Psychotropic Medication Side Effects.
    Mil Med 2017 Jul;182(7):e1957-e1962
    Naval Hospital Bremerton, 1 Boone Road, Bremerton, WA 98312.
    Background: Acromegaly is caused by elevated secretion of human growth hormone, which is frequently because of intracranial tumors. This diagnosis is fairly uncommon with an incidence of 3 to 4 cases per million patients per year. We are presenting a case of acromegaly diagnosed in an active duty Chief Petty Officer. Read More

    Feminizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Without Gynecomastia.
    Oman Med J 2017 Jul;32(4):349-351
    Department of Pathology, Benimessous Teaching Hospital, Algiers, Algeria.
    Malignant feminizing adrenocortical tumors are exceedingly rare. Their main presentation is gynecomastia. In these estrogen secreting tumors (with or without other adrenocortical hormones) lack of gynecomastia is exceptional as in our case. Read More

    Comment to "Orange Peel Excision of Gland: A Novel Surgical Technique for Treatment of Gynecomastia".
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 09;79(3):326
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Careggi Universital Hospital, Florence, Italy. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Bari, Foggia, Italy Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Careggi Universital Hospital, Florence, Italy.

    High rates of viral suppression in adults and children with high CD4+ counts using a streamlined ART delivery model in the SEARCH trial in rural Uganda and Kenya.
    J Int AIDS Soc 2017 07;20(Suppl 4):21673
    Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases & Global Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Introduction: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. Read More

    Gynecomastia: glandular-liposculpture through a single transaxillary one hole incision.
    J Plast Surg Hand Surg 2017 Jul 30:1-9. Epub 2017 Jul 30.
    b Department of Plastic Surgery , College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University , Seoul , Republic of Korea.
    Gynecomastia is characterized by the benign proliferation of breast tissue in men. Herein, we present a new method for the treatment of gynecomastia, using ultrasound-assisted liposuction with both conventional and reverse-cutting edge tip cannulas in combination with a pull-through lipectomy technique with pituitary forceps through a single transaxillary incision. Thirty patients were treated with this technique at the author's institution from January 2010 to January 2015. Read More

    Adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer: focus on metabolic complications.
    Hormones (Athens) 2017 Apr;16(2):115-123
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.
    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most effective treatment for this disease. The cornerstone of the treatment of prostate cancer is inhibition of testosterone production which interrupts testosterone-induced growth of the prostate tumor. The dramatic decrease in testosterone levels, however, has several undesirable effects on the metabolic profile and bone metabolism and can also lead to fatigue, loss of libido, gynecomastia, and anemia, provoke vasomotor flushing, and generally affect the quality of life. Read More

    Breast disease in men in metropolitan São Paulo - Brazil.
    Breast J 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Faculdade de Medicina do ABC e Hospital Municipal Universitário, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Although rare, breast cancer in males represents 1% of all cancer in men, and has shown increasing incidence in 25 years. To analyze age, gender, type of procedure performed and diagnosis of all cases of breast diseases in a public hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with special focus on men. Cross-sectional study of breast surgery in 2010-2014 at Hospital Municipal Universitario de Sao Bernardo do Campo, Brazil. Read More

    Optimal Positioning of the Nipple-Areola Complex in Men Using the Mohrenheim-Estimated-Tangential-Tracking-Line (METT-Line): An Intuitive Approach.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Dec 19;41(6):1295-1302. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Plastic, Aesthetic, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
    Introduction: The reconstruction of the body shape after post-bariatric surgery or high-grade gynecomastia involves, besides skin tightening, the repositioning of anatomical, apparent landmarks. The surgeon usually defines these during the preoperative planning. In particular, the positions of the nipple-areola complexes (NAC) should contribute to the gender-appropriate appearance. Read More

    A Systematic Review and Framework for the Use of Hormone Therapy with Salvage Radiation Therapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer.
    Eur Urol 2017 Jul 14. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Context: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) is a standard of care for men who recur postprostatectomy, and recent randomized trials have assessed the benefit and toxicity of adding hormone therapy (HT) to SRT with differing results.

    Objective: To perform a systematic review of randomized phase III trials of the use of SRT ± HT and generate a framework for the use of HT with SRT.

    Evidence Acquisition: Systematic literature searches were conducted on February 15, 2017 in three databases (MEDLINE [via PubMed], EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

    Reply to the Comment on: Management of Gynecomastia in Patients With Different Body Types: Considerations on 312 Consecutive Treated Cases.
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 08;79(2):226-227
    Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Bari, Foggia, Italy; Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

    From gene to therapy in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: Are we there yet?
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Jul 5. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, OX1 3QX Oxford, UK. Electronic address:
    Abnormal polyglutamine expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) cause a muscular condition, known as Kennedy's disease or spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). The disease is transmitted in an X-linked fashion and is clinically characterized by weakness, atrophy and fasciculations of the limb and bulbar muscles as a result of a toxic gain-of-function of the mutant protein. Notably, affected males also show signs of androgen insensitivity, such as gynaecomastia and reduced fertility. Read More

    False Positive Uptake in Bilateral Gynecomastia on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT Scan.
    Clin Nucl Med 2017 Sep;42(9):e412-e414
    From the *KIMS-DDNMRC, and †KIMS Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    A 66-year-old man on hormonal therapy with prostate cancer was referred for Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan for biochemical recurrence. Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan detected moderate heterogeneous tracer concentration in bilateral breast parenchyma, in addition to the abnormal tracer concentration in enlarged prostate gland, right external iliac lymph node, and sclerotic lesion in L4 vertebra. On clinical examination, he was found to have bilateral gynecomastia. Read More

    Discussion on "Reduction of the Areolar Diameter After Ultrasound-Assisted Liposuction for Gynecomastia".
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery Careggi University Hospital Florence, Italy Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery Careggi University Hospital Florence, Italy Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery University of Bari Foggia, Italy.

    Value of diagnostic imaging for the symptomatic male breast: Can we avoid unnecessary biopsies?
    Clin Imaging 2017 Sep - Oct;45:86-91. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
    Purpose: To review the use of diagnostic breast imaging and outcomes for symptomatic male patients.

    Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 122 males who underwent diagnostic imaging for breast symptoms at our academic center.

    Results: The majority (94%) of cases had negative or benign imaging, with gynecomastia being the most common diagnosis (78%). Read More

    Reply: Gynecomastia Classification for Surgical Management: A Systematic Review and Novel Classification System.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 10;140(4):621e
    Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Division of Plastic Surgery and Surgical Outcomes Research Center, Department of Surgery, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    Gynecomastia Classification for Surgical Management: A Systematic Review and Novel Classification System.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 10;140(4):620e-621e
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Careggi Universital Hospital, Florence, Italy Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

    Adolescent Gynecomastia.
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2017 Jun;14(4):371-377
    Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, MA, USA.
    Gynecomastia, defined as the presence of glandular breast tissue in men, is a common, typically benign physical exam finding during adolescence. Although the exact pathogenesis of gynecomastia is unknown, it is likely due to a hormonal imbalance between estrogens and androgens. Most cases are idiopathic and do not require further evaluation if the history and physical examination are reassuring. Read More

    Pubertal gynecomastia: years of progress - the Hacettepe experience.
    Int J Adolesc Med Health 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    .
    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. Although it is commonly seen during puberty, it is often overlooked by many physicians. As adolescent medicine specialists, we believe there is a gap in the literature concerning both the etiology and maybe more importantly the care of these adolescents. Read More

    Analysis of risk factors associated with unplanned reoperations following pediatric plastic surgery.
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017 Oct 18;70(10):1440-1446. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Background/purpose: Unplanned reoperation (UR) is an outcome measure with multiple advantages that can be used as a standardized tool to assess an institution's quality and safety of medical care. This study aimed to identify parameters associated with an increased likelihood of UR following plastic surgery in patients less than 18 years of age by using a large validated national multicenter database.

    Methods/description: We performed a retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) Pediatric database between 2012 and 2014 to identify pediatric patients undergoing primary plastic surgery procedures. Read More

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