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    Discussion on "Reduction of the Areolar Diameter After Ultrasound-Assisted Liposuction for Gynecomastia".
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery Careggi University Hospital Florence, Italy Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery Careggi University Hospital Florence, Italy Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery University of Bari Foggia, Italy.

    Value of diagnostic imaging for the symptomatic male breast: Can we avoid unnecessary biopsies?
    Clin Imaging 2017 Jun 9;45:86-91. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
    Purpose: To review the use of diagnostic breast imaging and outcomes for symptomatic male patients.

    Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 122 males who underwent diagnostic imaging for breast symptoms at our academic center.

    Results: The majority (94%) of cases had negative or benign imaging, with gynecomastia being the most common diagnosis (78%). Read More

    Discussion: Gynecomastia classification for surgical management: A systematic review and novel classification system.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    1. Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 2. Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 3. Surgical Outcomes Research Center, Department of Surgery, McMaster, University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 4. Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    Discussion: Gynecomastia Classification for Surgical Management: A Systematic Review and Novel Classification System.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    1 Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Bari, Italy 2 Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Careggi Universital Hospital, Florence, Italy 3 Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Foggia, Italy.

    Adolescent Gynecomastia.
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2017 Jun;14(4):371-377
    Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, MA, USA.
    Gynecomastia, defined as the presence of glandular breast tissue in men, is a common, typically benign physical exam finding during adolescence. Although the exact pathogenesis of gynecomastia is unknown, it is likely due to a hormonal imbalance between estrogens and androgens. Most cases are idiopathic and do not require further evaluation if the history and physical examination are reassuring. Read More

    Pubertal gynecomastia: years of progress - the Hacettepe experience.
    Int J Adolesc Med Health 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. Although it is commonly seen during puberty, it is often overlooked by many physicians. As adolescent medicine specialists, we believe there is a gap in the literature concerning both the etiology and maybe more importantly the care of these adolescents. Read More

    Analysis of risk factors associated with unplanned reoperations following pediatric plastic surgery.
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Background/purpose: Unplanned reoperation (UR) is an outcome measure with multiple advantages that can be used as a standardized tool to assess an institution's quality and safety of medical care. This study aimed to identify parameters associated with an increased likelihood of UR following plastic surgery in patients less than 18 years of age by using a large validated national multicenter database.

    Methods/description: We performed a retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) Pediatric database between 2012 and 2014 to identify pediatric patients undergoing primary plastic surgery procedures. Read More

    Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism reversal after testosterone replacement in a 34-year-old male.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jun 5;2017. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Department of Endocrinology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
    A 34-year-old male presented to the endocrinology clinic with the complaint of the absence of facial, axillary and pubic hairs. Further history revealed absent ejaculations and decreased early morning erections. The patient had no history of headaches, visual problems or anosmia. Read More

    Differential efficacy profile of aldosterone receptor antagonists, depending on the type of chronic heart failure, whether with reduced or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction-results of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2017 Jun;7(3):272-287
    Geriatric Department, Casa di Cura "S.Maria del Pozzo", Somma Vesuviana (Napoli), Italy.
    Background: Because of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation, the patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) manifest increased ventricular stress, with impaired left ventricular function, and a slowing down in systemic venous drainage. More importantly, a reduction of the patient's life expectancy has been proven in the case of RAAS overstimulation. For these reasons, huge efforts have been made to obtain molecules able to efficaciously antagonize the RAAS overstimulation, such as aldosterone receptor antagonists (ARAs). Read More

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with early onset of pre-adolescent gynecomastia: a predigree case report and clinical and molecular genetic analysis.
    Am J Transl Res 2017 15;9(5):2639-2644. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Endocrine, Shenzhen Children's HospitalNo. 7019 Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong, China.
    This study reports a case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with early onset of gynecomastia, and discusses its clinical characteristics and genetic changes in a family. The clinical characteristics of a child diagnosed with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in our hospital and his parents were summarized, and related genes were detected in the child and his parents. Furthermore, the therapeutic effect of letrozole was also observed. Read More

    Increased F-FDG Uptake in Bilateral Gynecomastia Secondary to Feminizing Adrenal Tumor: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.
    Indian J Nucl Med 2017 Apr-Jun;32(2):145-147
    Radiation Medicine Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, TMC Annexe, Jerbai Wadia Road, Parel, Mumbai, India.
    A 21 year old male who presented with painful enlargement of both the breasts and a hyperestrogenic state, was found to harbor a heterogeneous mass arising from the right adrenal on contrast enhanced Computed Tomography abdomen. The mass was hypermetabolic with no regional, nodal or distant metastases on Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography /Computed Tomography examination. Notably, substantial tracer uptake was seen in bilateral gynecomastia. Read More

    Kennedy disease with difficulty in differential diagnosis: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 May;96(19):e6792
    Department of Neurology, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
    Rationale: Kennedy disease (KD) is also known as spinal bulbar muscular dystrophy. As KD has similar symptoms with most neuromuscular diseases, so it is difficult to make a rapid diagnosis clinically.

    Patient Concerns: We report a case of a 43-year-old male with progressive limb proximal weakness without family history. Read More

    Fragrance compounds: The wolves in sheep's clothings.
    Med Hypotheses 2017 May 22;102:106-111. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego 92182, USA. Electronic address:
    In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. Read More

    Kennedy disease (X-linked recessive bulbospinal neuronopathy): A comprehensive review from pathophysiology to therapy.
    Rev Neurol (Paris) 2017 May 1;173(5):326-337. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Laboratoire d'imagerie biomédicale, Sorbonne universités, UPMC University Paris 06, CNRS, Inserm, 75013 Paris, France; Département des maladies du système nerveux, hôpital Pitié-Salpêtriere, centre référent-SLA, AP-HP, 47-83, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Kennedy's disease, also known as spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), is a rare, adult-onset, X-linked recessive neuromuscular disease caused by expansion of a CAG repeat sequence in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene (AR) encoding a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. The polyQ-expanded AR accumulates in nuclei, and initiates degeneration and loss of motor neurons and dorsal root ganglia. While the disease has long been considered a pure lower motor neuron disease, recently, the presence of major hyper-creatine-kinase (CK)-emia and myopathic alterations on muscle biopsy has suggested the presence of a primary myopathy underlying a wide range of clinical manifestations. Read More

    Is the transposition of the nipple-areolar complex necessary in Simon grade 2b gynecomastia operations using suction-assisted liposuction?
    J Plast Surg Hand Surg 2017 May 4:1-7. Epub 2017 May 4.
    a Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Dicle Medical Faculty , Dicle University , Diyarbakır , Turkey.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of suction-assisted liposuction (SAL) in Simon grade 2b gynecomastia and its effect on sternal notch to nipple areola (SNN) distance.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 21 patients with grade 2b gynecomastia who underwent SAL. Preoperative and postoperative SNN distances of the patients were measured, the results were analysed using a Mann-Whitney U test and a p-value <. Read More

    The Characteristics and Short-Term Surgical Outcomes of Adolescent Gynecomastia.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Surgery, Damsoyu Hospital, 213 Bongeunsa-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Most adolescent gynecomastia is resolved spontaneously in 3 years. But, persistent gynecomastia could have a negative influence on psychoemotional development on adolescence. The purpose of this study is to report the characteristics of adolescent gynecomastia patients who received the surgeries, and discuss the short-term surgical outcomes. Read More

    Multiple symmetric lipomatosis and gynecomastia: A case report and relative literature review.
    J Clin Lipidol 2017 May - Jun;11(3):763-767. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Endocrinology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, ShiJiazhuang, Hebei Province, China.
    Multiple symmetric lipomatosis is a rare disease characterized by a symmetrical accumulation of massive adipose tissue on the neck, the superior part of the trunk, and limbs. Here, we reported an extremely rare case of multiple symmetric lipomatosis in a 46-year-old Chinese man, who has a history of heavy drinking and smoking and presented with diffuse lipomatosis and bilateral breast enlargement. Hyperuricemia and impaired glucose tolerance test were all found in this patient. Read More

    Polyembryoma of the testis: a report of two cases dominant within mixed germ cell tumors and review of gonadal polyembryomas.
    Mod Pathol 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    James Homer Wright Pathology Laboratories, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Two testicular mixed germ cell tumors, from men of 21 and 41 years, in which polyembryoma predominated are described. A literature review uncovered an additional five testicular and nine ovarian cases. One tumor occurred in a 60-year-old man, but all others occurred within the typical age range of gonadal germ cell tumors. Read More

    Breast Cancer Suspicion in a Transgender Male-to-Female Patient on Hormone Replacement Therapy Presenting with Right Breast Mass: Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Presentation of a Rare Lesion.
    Case Rep Oncol Med 2017 21;2017:5172072. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of General Surgery, Larkin Community Hospital, South Miami, FL, USA.
    There has been an increasing use of hormonal therapy among male-to-female (MtF) transgender individuals. This long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) renders MtF individuals a unique patient subgroup in terms of breast cancer risk. This case describes a MtF transgender who presented with a breast lesion concerning for malignancy following hormonal replacement therapy. Read More

    Ovotestis in Adolescence: 2 Case Reports.
    Urology 2017 Jul 13;105:171-174. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Division of Urology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:
    We present 2 patients found to have ovotesticular disorder of sexual development (otDSD) in late adolescence. Two 15-year-old phenotypically male patients presented to a large pediatric hospital with different complaints: 1 with concern for testicular rupture after a straddle injury; 1 with gynecomastia. Further workup, including imaging and laboratory tests, was performed before surgical exploration. Read More

    Paul of Aegina (ca 625-690 ad), Reconstructing Male Gynecomastia.
    Surg Innov 2017 Jun 8;24(3):299-300. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    1 University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.
    Paul of Aegina thrived with his innovative operations, practically creating a kind of a new surgical school. He had deeply believed in human's body perfection introducing a series of cosmetic operations. Among them stood the male's breasts reconstruction in the case of pseudo-gynecomastia. Read More

    Association of Dermatoses with Duration and Quantum of Alcohol Intake: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Mar-Apr;62(2):184-190
    Department of Dermatology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Chronic alcohol intake impacts skin directly, through organ dysfunction or by modifying preexisting dermatoses. However, dermatoses afflicting chronic alcoholics figure in a few studies only.

    Aim: This study aims to correlate the spectrum of dermatoses in chronic alcoholics with the quantum/duration of alcohol intake and raised liver transaminases. Read More

    Complications and Outcomes After Gynecomastia Surgery: Analysis of 204 Pediatric and 1583 Adult Cases from a National Multi-center Database.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Mar 24. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Institute for Reconstructive Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine, 6560 Fannin Street, Scurlock Tower, Suite 2200, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Background: Gynecomastia is a common disease that is prevalent across all age groups of boys and men. Although benign in nature, it can lead to psychological and social distress, prompting affected patients to seek medical attention. Management strategies include observation and drug therapy, yet surgical procedures remain the hallmark of treatment. Read More

    Surgical Masculinization of the Breast: Clinical Classification and Surgical Procedures.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Jun 24;41(3):507-516. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Jalisco Institute of Reconstructive Surgery "Dr. José Guerrerosantos", Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
    Introduction: Aesthetic breast area improvements for gynecomastia and gender dysphoria patients who seek a more masculine appearance have increased recently. We present our clinical experience in breast masculinization and a classification for these patients.

    Methods And Materials: From July 2003 to May 2014, 68 patients seeking a more masculine thorax underwent surgery. Read More

    Aesthetic Breast Surgery and Concomitant Procedures: Incidence and Risk Factors for Major Complications in 73,608 Cases.
    Aesthet Surg J 2017 May;37(5):515-527
    Drs Gupta and Higdon are Assistant Professors, Dr Winocour is a Fellow, and Dr Bamba is a Research Resident, Department of Plastic Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. Dr Yeslev is an Attending, Southeast Permanente Medical Group, Atlanta, GA. Dr Rodriguez-Feo is a Resident, Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Dr Grotting is a Clinical Professor, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL; and CME/MOC Section Editor for Aesthetic Surgery Journal.
    Background: Major complications following aesthetic breast surgery are uncommon and thus assessment of risk factors is challenging.

    Objectives: To determine the incidence and risk factors of major complications following aesthetic breast surgery and concomitant procedures.

    Methods: A prospective cohort of patients who enrolled into the CosmetAssure (Birmingham, AL) insurance program and underwent aesthetic breast surgery between 2008 and 2013 was identified. Read More

    Long-Term Follow-up of Recurrence and Patient Satisfaction After Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Jun 9;41(3):491-498. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: "Gynecomastia" is an enlargement of the male breast. Our study aims to assess patient satisfaction as well as evaluate differences in recurrence rates in lipomatous and glandular gynecomastia 10-19 years postoperatively.

    Methods: Forty-one gynecomastia patients undergoing surgical treatment from 1997 to 2005 were invited for a follow-up examination 10-19 years postoperatively. Read More

    Gynecomastia in Infants, Children, and Adolescents.
    Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Departments of Medicine, Community Health Sciences, and Oncology, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Background: Gynecomastia may occur physiologically in the neonatal period, during puberty, and in old age. It may also develop in association with various pathologic states. The challenge for the physician is to distinguish physiological gynecomastia from those with an underlying pathology. Read More

    Effects of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids on the Reproductive System of Athletes and Recreational Users: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Sports Med 2017 Mar 4. Epub 2017 Mar 4.
    Department of Endocrinology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Background: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are testosterone derivatives used by athletes and recreational users to improve athletic performance and/or enhance appearance. Anabolic androgenic steroids use may have serious and potentially irreversible adverse effects on different organs and systems, including the reproductive system.

    Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically assess the impact of AAS use on the reproductive system of athletes and recreational users. Read More

    Reduction of the Areolar Diameter After Ultrasound-Assisted Liposuction for Gynecomastia.
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    From the Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery Department, Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey.
    Background: One of the clinical aspects characterizing gynecomastia is the enlargement of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) due to hypertrophic breast glands, and the excessive fatty tissue underneath.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction of the areolar diameter after ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) of the male breast.

    Methods: The horizontal diameters of the NACs of 30 men who underwent UAL were measured before surgery, 1 month after surgery and 6 months after surgery in a standard fashion. Read More

    Gynecomastia Classification for Surgical Management: A Systematic Review and Novel Classification System.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Mar;139(3):638e-648e
    Ottawa and Hamilton, Ontario, Canada From the Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa; and the Division of Plastic Surgery and the Surgical Outcomes Research Center, Department of Surgery, and the Departments of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Medicine, McMaster University.
    Background: Gynecomastia is a common deformity of the male breast, where certain cases warrant surgical management. There are several surgical options, which vary depending on the breast characteristics. To guide surgical management, several classification systems for gynecomastia have been proposed. Read More

    Risk of gynecomastia and breast cancer associated with the use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 10;9:83-91. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Boston University School of Public Health, Lexington.
    Background: Clinical trial results suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may increase the risk of gynecomastia and male breast cancer, but epidemiological studies have been limited.

    Patients And Methods: We conducted a cohort study with nested case-control analyses using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We identified men diagnosed with BPH who were free from Klinefelter syndrome, prostate, genital or urinary cancer, prostatectomy or orchiectomy, or evidence of gynecomastia or breast cancer. Read More

    Adolescent gynecomastia is associated with a high incidence of obesity, dysglycemia, and family background of diabetes mellitus.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jan-Feb;21(1):160-164
    Department of Endocrinology, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Gynecomastia during adolescence is common though etiology is not clear. We studied the clinical and hormonal profile of adolescent patients with gynecomastia.

    Methodology: Patients who had onset of breast development between age 10 and 20 years were included in this study. Read More

    Postero-Inferior Pedicle Surgical Technique for the Treatment of Grade III Gynecomastia.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Jun 15;41(3):531-541. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hospital Sud, University of Rennes 1, 16 Boulevard de Bulgarie, 35200, Rennes, France.
    Introduction: Surgical treatment of Grade III gynecomastia generally utilizes mastectomy techniques and free transplantation of the nipple-areola complex. Moreover, with rising obesity rates and the development of bariatric surgery, an increasing demand for correctional surgery for pseudogynecomastia has been observed, which is comparable to Grade III gynecomastia in terms of its surgical management. Here, we describe an innovative technique to deal with these new demands: fascio-cutaneous flap by postero-inferior pedicle. Read More

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