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    1 OF 92

    Risk of gynecomastia and breast cancer associated with the use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 10;9:83-91. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Boston University School of Public Health, Lexington.
    Background: Clinical trial results suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may increase the risk of gynecomastia and male breast cancer, but epidemiological studies have been limited.

    Patients And Methods: We conducted a cohort study with nested case-control analyses using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We identified men diagnosed with BPH who were free from Klinefelter syndrome, prostate, genital or urinary cancer, prostatectomy or orchiectomy, or evidence of gynecomastia or breast cancer. Read More

    Adolescent gynecomastia is associated with a high incidence of obesity, dysglycemia, and family background of diabetes mellitus.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jan-Feb;21(1):160-164
    Department of Endocrinology, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Gynecomastia during adolescence is common though etiology is not clear. We studied the clinical and hormonal profile of adolescent patients with gynecomastia.

    Methodology: Patients who had onset of breast development between age 10 and 20 years were included in this study. Read More

    Postero-Inferior Pedicle Surgical Technique for the Treatment of Grade III Gynecomastia.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hospital Sud, University of Rennes 1, 16 Boulevard de Bulgarie, 35200, Rennes, France.
    Introduction: Surgical treatment of Grade III gynecomastia generally utilizes mastectomy techniques and free transplantation of the nipple-areola complex. Moreover, with rising obesity rates and the development of bariatric surgery, an increasing demand for correctional surgery for pseudogynecomastia has been observed, which is comparable to Grade III gynecomastia in terms of its surgical management. Here, we describe an innovative technique to deal with these new demands: fascio-cutaneous flap by postero-inferior pedicle. Read More

    Gynaecomastia in 786 Adult Men - Clinical and Biochemical findings.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    N Joergensen, Dept. of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark.
    Objective - Gynaecomastia is a benign proliferation of glandular tissue of the breast, however, it is an important clinical observation because it can be the first symptom of an underlying disease. Some controversy exists concerning the clinical importance of an in-depth investigation of men who develop gynaecomastia. We hypothesize that a thorough work-up is required in adult men with gynaecomastia. Read More

    Effects of Laser-Assisted Lipolysis on Nipple-Areola Complex.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    b Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery , Bezmialem Medical School, Bezmialem Vakif University , Istanbul - TURKEY.
    Background: Gynecomastia, as a most common benign condition represents itself as the enlargement of the male breast and also nipple-areola complex as the severity of the condition increases. With this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of 980-nm diode laser on nipple-areolar complex (NAC).

    Objectives: Although numerous open techniques have been described to correct gynecomastia, nowadays trends have shifted to minimally invasive techniques such as laser-assisted lipolysis (LAL). Read More

    Radiation with or without Antiandrogen Therapy in Recurrent Prostate Cancer.
    N Engl J Med 2017 02;376(5):417-428
    From Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (W.U.S., N.M.H., A.L.Z.); NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center (W.S., J.J.D., S.L.P.) and Einstein Medical Center (K.L.Z.), Philadelphia; Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON (H.R.L., P.P.M., M.P.P.), Hospital Notre-Dame du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (J.-P.B.) and McGill University Health Centre (L.S.), Montreal, and Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (A.G.B.) - all in Canada; Indiana University, Indianapolis (D.J.G.); Tulane University, New Orleans (O.S.); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (T.M.P.); Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (C.A.F.L.); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (F.Y.F.); University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington (R.D.L.); Radiation Oncology Center, Sacramento (S.A.R.), and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (H.M.S.) - both in California; Wayne Radiation Oncology, Goldsboro, NC (K.J.K.); and the University of Chicago, Chicago (J.J.D.).
    Background Salvage radiation therapy is often necessary in men who have undergone radical prostatectomy and have evidence of prostate-cancer recurrence signaled by a persistently or recurrently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Whether antiandrogen therapy with radiation therapy will further improve cancer control and prolong overall survival is unknown. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from 1998 through 2003, we assigned 760 eligible patients who had undergone prostatectomy with a lymphadenectomy and had disease, as assessed on pathological testing, with a tumor stage of T2 (confined to the prostate but with a positive surgical margin) or T3 (with histologic extension beyond the prostatic capsule), no nodal involvement, and a detectable PSA level of 0. Read More

    The Impact Exerted on Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Chronic Heart Failure by Aldosterone Receptor Antagonists: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
    J Clin Med Res 2017 Feb 31;9(2):130-142. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Division of Cardiology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, "Fondazione Giovanni Pascale" IRCCS, Napoli, Italy.
    Background: Aldosterone receptor antagonists (ARAs) have been associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFREF), but not in those with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). With the aim to study this topic more deeply, we carried out a meta-analysis of selective and non-selective ARAs in HFREF and HFpEF.

    Methods: We searched PubMed and Scopus databases. Read More

    A 33-Year-Old Man with Gynaecomastia and Galactorrhea as the First Symptoms of Graves Hyperthyroidism.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2016 1;2016:1946824. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Graves' hyperthyroidism has a various number of well-recognized manifestations. Galactorrhea is a rare manifestation in this disease. We describe a 33-year-old man who presented with the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, gynaecomastia, and galactorrhea for 2 months. Read More

    No-Drain Single Incision Liposuction Pull-Through Technique for Gynecomastia.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2016 Dec 28. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Cairo University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.
    Background: Several different methods have been proposed for treatment of gynecomastia, depending on the amount of breast enlargement and skin redundancy. The liposuction pull-through technique has been proposed as an efficacious treatment for many gynecomastia cases. This work aims to study the outcome of this technique when applied as an outpatient procedure, without the use of drains and through a single incision. Read More

    Effect of investigation intensity and treatment differences on prostate cancer survivor's physical symptoms, psychological well-being and health-related quality of life: a two country cross-sectional study.
    BMJ Open 2016 Dec 19;6(12):e012952. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.
    Aim: To investigate effects on men's health and well-being of higher prostate cancer (PCa) investigation and treatment levels in similar populations.

    Participants: PCa survivors in Ireland where the Republic of Ireland (RoI) has a 50% higher PCa incidence than Northern Ireland (NI).

    Method: A cross-sectional postal questionnaire was sent to PCa survivors 2-18 years post-treatment, seeking information about current physical effects of treatment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL; EORTC QLQ-C30; EQ-5D-5L) and psychological well-being (21 question version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, DASS-21). Read More

    Aldosterone receptor antagonists decrease mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations in chronic heart failure (CHF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF), but not in CHF with preserved LVEF. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Minerva Cardioangiol 2016 Dec 13. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
    Geriatric Department, Casa di Cura "S.Maria del Pozzo", Somma Vesuviana, Naples, Italy.
    Introduction: Aldosterone receptor antagonists (ARAs) were introduced in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF), as a result of the demonstration of their protective effect on the failing heart. However, important questions remain unanswered regarding the clinical efficacy of the ARAs on the clinical and echocardiographic phenotype of heart failure, called heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction( HFpEF).

    Evidence Acquisition: The aim of the present meta-analysis was to verify the impact of the ARAs on some hard endpoints, such as all - cause death and hospitalizations from cardiovascular cause, making a comparative evaluation of these outcomes in CHF patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFREF) and in those with HFpEF, respectively. Read More

    Atypical Leydig Cell Tumor in Children: Report of 2 Cases.
    Pediatrics 2016 Nov;138(5)
    Departments of Pediatrics, and.
    Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are rare cord-stromal tumors that may occur in testis or ovaries and may produce androgens or estrogens. The majority has been found in men between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Adults with androgen-secreting LCTs are usually asymptomatic; feminizing syndromes may result from the production of estradiol or the peripheral aromatization of testosterone. Read More

    Surgical management of gynecomastia: experience of a general surgery center.
    G Chir 2016 Jul-Aug;37(4):150-154
    Aim: Gynecomastia is a common finding in male population of all ages. The aim of our study was to present our experience and goals in surgical treatment of gynecomastia.

    Patients And Methods: Clinical records of patients affected by gynecomastia referred to our Department of Surgery between September 2008 and January 2015 were analyzed. Read More

    Evaluation of Serum Vitamin D Levels in Adolescents with Pubertal Gynecomastia.
    Breast Care (Basel) 2016 Oct 13;11(5):333-337. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Since vitamin D has an inhibitory function on ductal morphogenesis of the pubertal mammary gland, it may have a role in the development of gynecomastia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the development of pubertal gynecomastia.

    Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) levels in 50 adolescents with pubertal gynecomastia and 54 healthy controls between the ages of 11 and 17 years were compared. Read More

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2016 Dec 1;16(1):246. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Medicine, Western University, 339 Windermere Road, London, ON, N6A 5A5, Canada.
    Background: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have been associated with improved patient outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) but not preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of selective and nonselective MRAs in HFrEF and HFpEF.

    Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Read More

    Cases of antiretroviral-associated gynaecomastia reported to the National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa.
    AIDS Res Ther 2016 16;13:40. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Gynaecomastia is associated with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), in particular efavirenz. There is limited data on clinical characteristics of patients with ART-associated gynaecomastia in resource-limited settings and little guidance on the optimal management of this adverse drug reaction (ADR). We describe the clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of gynaecomastia cases reported to the National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa. Read More

    Who Gets Severe Gynecomastia Among HIV-infected Children in the United Kingdom and Ireland?
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Mar;36(3):307-310
    From the *MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, University College London, London, United Kingdom; and †St. George's Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.
    There are few data on gynecomastia in HIV-infected children. Within the UK/Ireland's national cohort, 56 of 1873 (3%) HIV-infected children had gynecomastia, of which 10 (0.5%) were severe. Read More

    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2016 Nov 22. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait which is characterized by multiple gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps, mucocutaneous pigmentation, and an increased risk of neoplasm. Large Cell Calcifying Sertoli Cell Tumor (LCCSCT) is a kind of sex cord-stromal tumor, often bilateral and multifocal, accounting for 0.4 -1. Read More

    The Satisfaction Rate among Patients and Surgeons after Periareolar Surgical Approach to Gynecomastia along with Liposuction.
    World J Plast Surg 2016 Sep;5(3):287-292
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Surgery, as the main approach in higher stages of gynecomastia, has different techniques regarding the staging of the disease. The more the grade of gynecomastia, the more complicated the used surgical techniques, conventionally. This study assessed the success rate of the simplest surgical technique in higher grades of gynecology as well as the satisfaction rate in patients and surgeon to offer using the technique for higher grades of the disease. Read More

    Feminizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Distinct Histopathological Findings.
    Intern Med 2016;55(22):3301-3307. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Saitama Medical University, Japan.
    We herein present a 60-year-old man with adrenocortical carcinoma who had gynecomastia. An endocrinological examination revealed increased levels of serum estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and reduced levels of free testosterone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an adrenal tumor with heterogeneous intensity. Read More

    Prolactin related symptoms during risperidone maintenance treatment: results from a prospective, multicenter study of schizophrenia.
    BMC Psychiatry 2016 Nov 9;16(1):386. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.5 Ankang Lane, Dewai Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100088, China.
    Background: This study aimed to investigate prolactin related symptoms (PRS) in individuals with schizophrenia during risperidone maintenance treatment for one year, as well as to identify the risk factors for PRS.

    Methods: In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, longitudinal study, clinically stabilized schizophrenia patients (N = 374) were randomized to a no-dose-reduction group (N = 129) and 4-week (N = 125) and 26-week (N = 120) reduction groups, in which the original dose was followed by a 50 % reduction over 8 weeks and subsequently maintained. PRS were assessed via a scale of prolactin related adverse events, which included 16 items: menstrual cycle, menstrual period, menstrual volume, menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, postpartum lactation, gynecomastia, breast tenderness, sexual dysfunction, decreased sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, impotence, increased body hair, and acne. Read More

    The Long-Term Outcome of Boys With Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and a Mutation in the Androgen Receptor Gene.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov 12;101(11):3959-3967. Epub 2016 Jul 12.
    University of Glasgow (A.L.-H., J.B., J.J., M.R., R.S., M.B., S.F.A.), Glasgow G51 4TF, United Kingdom; University Hospital Pisa (S.B.), 56125 Pisa, Italy; Copenhagen University Hospital (A.J., M.L.J.), 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Luebeck (O.H.), 23562 Luebeck, Germany; Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel and University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein (P.M.H.), 24105 Kiel, Germany; University Hospital Ghent and Ghent University (M.C.), B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) (G.G.-F., G.G.-J.), Campinas 13083-970, Brazil; Dana Dwek Children's Hospital (N.W.), Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel; Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (S.H.), 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands; Sophia Children's Hospital (S.H.), Erasmus University Medical Center, 3015 CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Marmara University (T.G.), 34722 Istanbul, Turkey; Istanbul University (F.D.), 34452 Istanbul, Turkey; Karolinska Institutet (A.N.), SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; and University of Cambridge (I.A.H., C.A., R.T.-C.), Cambridge CB2 1TN, United Kingdom.
    Background: In boys with suspected partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), systematic evidence that supports the long-term prognostic value of identifying a mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) is lacking.

    Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes in young men with suspected PAIS in relation to the results of AR analysis.

    Methods: Through the International Disorders of Sex Development Registry, clinical information was gathered on young men suspected of having PAIS (n = 52) who presented before the age of 16 years and had genetic analysis of AR. Read More

    [Analysis of clinical features and related genes variation in five patients with 46, XX male syndrome].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2016 Nov;54(11):840-843
    Department of Pediatrics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.
    Objective: To explore the clinical manifestations and molecular features of 46, XX male syndrome. Method: The clinical and molecular data of five 46, XX male syndrome cases treated in the Department of Pediatrics of Shanghai Ruijin Hospital form August 2010 to August 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Result: The five patients were all sociopsychologically males and came to hospital respectively for short stature, ambiguous genitalia or gynecomastia. Read More

    Management of Gynecomastia in Patients With Different Body Types: Considerations on 312 Consecutive Treated Cases.
    Ann Plast Surg 2016 Nov 1. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    From the *Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Careggi Universital Hospital, Florence; and †Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Bari, Foggia, Italy.
    Background: Gynecomastia is a common finding in male subjects which incidence varies widely in the world population. In adolescents, it is frequently temporary but, if it becomes persistent, it generates considerable embarrassment, inducing the patients to seek surgical consultation. Even in patients with good body contour, gynecomastia creates even greater distress considering the special attention given by these subjects to their physical appearance. Read More

    Case 32-2016. A 20-Year-Old Man with Gynecomastia.
    N Engl J Med 2016 10;375(16):1567-1579
    From the Departments of Radiation Oncology (S.M.M., N.J.T.), Radiology (O.R.), Pediatric Endocrinology (N.A.S.), Neurology (A.B.C.), Pediatric Hematology-Oncology (D.H.E.), and Pathology (D.H.O.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Radiation Oncology (S.M.M., N.J.T.), Radiology (O.R.), Pediatric Endocrinology (N.A.S.), Neurology (A.B.C.), Pediatric Hematology-Oncology (D.H.E.), and Pathology (D.H.O.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston.

    Abdominal Elephantiasis Nostras Verrucosa: An Underrecognized Disorder.
    Skinmed 2016 1;14(4):311-313. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    SUNY Health Science Center Department of Dermatology, Brooklyn, NY;
    Case 1 A 60-year-old African American man presented with a medical history of morbid obesity (weighing more than 550 lb), benign prostatic hyperplasia, hyperlipidemia, gynecomastia, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psoriasis, sleep apnea, and cardiomegaly. His size has limited his ability to clean himself properly. He experiences chronic and recurrent skin irritation and cellulitis possibly secondary to intertriginous superinfection, lymphedema, and venous stasis. Read More

    Quality-of-life outcomes from the Prostate Adenocarcinoma: TransCutaneous Hormones (PATCH) trial evaluating luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists versus transdermal oestradiol for androgen suppression in advanced prostate cancer.
    BJU Int 2016 Oct 18. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.
    Objectives: To compare quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes at 6 months between men with advanced prostate cancer receiving either transdermal oestradiol (tE2) or luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) for androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).

    Patients And Methods: Men with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer participating in an ongoing randomised, multicentre UK trial comparing tE2 versus LHRHa for ADT were enrolled into a QoL sub-study. tE2 was delivered via three or four transcutaneous patches containing oestradiol 100 μg/24 h. Read More

    Breast US as primary imaging modality for diagnosing gynecomastia.
    G Chir 2016 May-Jun;37(3):118-122
    Aim: To assess the role of breast US in diagnosing and classifying gynecomastia as the primary imaging modality and to compare US findings and classification system with the mammographic ones.

    Patients And Methods: 48 patients suspected of having gynecomastia underwent mammography and US. Two radiologists in consensus retrospectively evaluated mammograms and sonograms. Read More

    Ductal Carcinoma In situ of the Male Breast.
    Breast Care (Basel) 2016 Aug 5;11(4):288-290. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.
    Background: Ductal carcinoma in situ of the male breast is an unusual lesion and most often associated with invasive carcinoma. On rare occasions when the in situ component is present in pure form, histological grade is almost always low to intermediate. Imaging for these patients is difficult as gynecomastia is often present and can mask underlying calcifications or carcinoma. Read More

    Adverse drug reactions associated with antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.
    Afr J AIDS Res 2016 Sep;15(3):243-8
    a School of Health Sciences , University of KwaZulu-Natal , Westville Campus, Durban , South Africa.
    South Africa has one of the highest prevalences of HIV and AIDS in the world. HIV/AIDS patients face countless challenges, one of which is the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study aimed to describe the ADRs reported in South Africa with reference to the type of ADRs, antiretrovirals (ARVs) implicated, seriousness of the ADRs and patient demographics associated with specific ADRs. Read More

    Surgical Management of Gynecomastia: Subcutaneous Mastectomy and Liposuction.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2016 Dec 27;40(6):877-884. Epub 2016 Sep 27.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Institute for Human Tissue Restoration, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, Korea.
    Background: The treatment of gynecomastia depends on multiple factors, and the best modality is controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the best management approach by comparing outcomes of two groups of patients with gynecomastia who received subcutaneous mastectomy combined with liposuction and liposuction only.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 64 patients who underwent surgery for gynecomastia. Read More

    Anatomy of the Gynecomastia Tissue and Its Clinical Significance.
    Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2016 Aug 30;4(8):e854. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Private Practice, White Plains, N.Y.; Private Practice, Beverly Hills, Ca.; and Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York, N.Y.
    Background: Gynecomastia is a very common entity in men, and several authors estimate that approximately 50% to 70% of the male population has palpable breast tissue. Much has been published with regard to the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of gynecomastia. However, the anatomy of the gynecomastia tissue remains elusive to most surgeons. Read More

    Inherited Xq13.2-q21.31 duplication in a boy with recurrent seizures and pubertal gynecomastia: Clinical, chromosomal and aCGH characterization.
    Meta Gene 2016 Sep 7;9:185-90. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    We report on a 16-year-old boy with a maternally inherited ~ 18.3 Mb Xq13.2-q21. Read More

    Incidental unilateral and bilateral ductal carcinoma in situ encountered in the surgical management of young male gynecomastia.
    Breast Dis 2016 Jul;36(2-3):103-10
    Department of General Surgery, Al Ansar General Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: The increased risk for malignant tumors associated with male gynecomastia has been well established and many authors have reported cases of concurrent gynecomastia and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the same breast. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in association with gynecomastia is exceptionally rare. We aim to report and evaluate the management outcome of 5 cases of gynecomastia associated with DCIS (1 bilateral and 4 unilateral). Read More

    Testicular function during puberty and young adulthood in patients with Klinefelter's syndrome with and without spermatozoa in seminal fluid.
    Andrology 2016 Nov 9;4(6):1178-1186. Epub 2016 Sep 9.
    Department of Clinical Andrology, Center of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.
    Patients with Klinefelter's syndrome experience progressive testicular degeneration resulting in impaired endocrine function and azoospermia. What proportion of adolescents develop testosterone deficiency during puberty and how many have spermatozoa in their semen is unclear to date. We aimed to investigate testicular function during puberty and young adulthood in patients with Klinefelter's syndrome and to assess testosterone effects in target tissues. Read More

    Weekends-off efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults (BREATHER): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 2/3 trial.
    • Authors:
    Lancet HIV 2016 Sep 20;3(9):e421-30. Epub 2016 Jun 20.
    Background: For HIV-1-infected young people facing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART), short cycle therapy with long-acting drugs offers potential for drug-free weekends, less toxicity, and better quality-of-life. We aimed to compare short cycle therapy (5 days on, 2 days off ART) versus continuous therapy (continuous ART).

    Methods: In this open-label, non-inferiority trial (BREATHER), eligible participants were aged 8-24 years, were stable on first-line efavirenz with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and had HIV-1 RNA viral load less than 50 copies per mL for 12 months or longer. Read More

    Sertoli cell tumor arising in a cryptorchid testis presenting as a content of inguinal hernial sac.
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2016 Jul-Sep;59(3):372-5
    Department of Surgery, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs) are rare tumors accounting for <1% of all testicular tumors. Here, we report a rare case of SCT in a 60-year-old man presenting as a painless swelling in the right groin since childhood. Clinically, he presented with right-sided inguinal hernia with absence of the right testis. Read More

    Association between plasma kisspeptin levels and adolescent gynecomastia.
    Afr J Paediatr Surg 2016 Jul-Sep;13(3):136-9
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue. To date, the pathophysiology of adolescent gynecomastia (AG) remains unclear. Kisspeptin is a polypeptide that plays an important role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. Read More

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