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    1 OF 96

    Statin Medications and the Risk of Gynecomastia.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Jun 19. Epub 2018 Jun 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Objective: Case reports have suggested an increased risk of gynecomastia with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (i.e. statins). Read More

    An analysis of online content related to testosterone supplementation.
    Aging Male 2018 Jun 20:1-9. Epub 2018 Jun 20.
    a Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Alberta , Canada.
    Objective: To describe the quality of online information on testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men.

    Methods: A quantitative content analysis was conducted on websites providing patient-directed information on TRT for the purpose of treating late onset hypogonadism (LOH). Websites were identified through Google in March 2017. Read More

    Pediatric breast masses: an argument for observation.
    J Surg Res 2018 Aug 12;228:247-252. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern/Children's Health, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:
    Background: Pediatric breast masses can be a diagnostic challenge. Nearly all are benign, but there is no consensus on which should be removed. We hypothesized that children with asymptomatic breast lesions can be safely managed nonoperatively. Read More

    X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease): the first case described in the Brazilian Amazon.
    Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2018 Jun 7;16(2):eRC4011. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Hospital Ophir Loyola, Belém, PA, Brazil.
    The X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease) is a rare X-linked, recessive, lower motor neuron disease, characterized by weakness, atrophy, and fasciculations of the appendicular and bulbar muscle. The disease is caused by an expansion of the CAG repetition in the androgen receptor gene. Patients with Kennedy's disease have more than 39 CAG repetitions. Read More

    [Diagnosis and management of adult-onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 May;98(20):1597-1600
    Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 100730, China.
    To investigate the clinical features and management of male patients with adult-onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (AIHH). Clinical features and treatment of six patients with AIHH between January 2010 and June 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were all male, with an age of 26 (20-35) years old and they experienced complete pubertal development. Read More

    Outpatient clinic for users of anabolic androgenic steroids: an overview.
    Neth J Med 2018 May;76(4):167
    Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Gasthuis, Haarlem, the Netherlands.
    Background: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are used by approximately 20,000 amateur athletes in the Netherlands. AAS are harmful but data are lacking as to precisely how harmful they are. An outpatient clinic for past and current users of AAS was established in 2011 to acquire more knowledge about the health risks associated with AAS abuse. Read More

    A Systematic Method for Reviewing and Analyzing Health Information on Consumer-Oriented Websites.
    J Adv Nurs 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    The University of Texas, School of Nursing, Austin, TX.
    Aim: A discussion of a proposed method for analyzing the quality of consumer-oriented websites that provide health-related information.

    Background: The quality of health information available to consumers online varies widely in quality. In an effort to improve the quality of online information, experts have undertaken systematic reviews on selected health topics; however, no standardized comprehensive methodology currently exists for such review. Read More

    X chromosome gain is related to increased androgen receptor expression in male breast cancer.
    Virchows Arch 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Unit of Anatomic Pathology "M. Malpighi", Bellaria Hospital, Via Altura, 3, 40139, Bologna, Italy.
    X chromosome gain has been previously described in male breast cancer (MBC). Androgen receptor (AR) gene is located on X chromosome. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the X chromosome gain in the development of MBC and its relation with AR gene copy number and expression. Read More

    Diagnosis and Management of Gynecomastia for Urologists.
    Curr Urol Rep 2018 May 17;19(7):46. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Henry Ford Health System, 2799 W. Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Our aim is to review the steps of diagnosis and management of gynecomastia with a special focus on treatment of gynecomastia associated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Recent Findings: Recent studies investigating tamoxifen and radiation therapy for both therapy and prophylaxis of bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia are reviewed. Gynecomastia is a common clinical problem, affecting between one and two thirds of middle-aged men. Read More

    Encapsulated Papillary Carcinoma in A Man with Gynecomastia: Ultrasonography, Mammography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features with Pathologic Correlation.
    Eur J Breast Health 2018 Apr 1;14(2):127-131. Epub 2018 Apr 1.
    Department of Surgery, İstanbul University, İstanbul School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.
    Male breast cancer is an uncommon disease that constitutes 1% of all breast cancers and encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) is a rare subtype of malignant male diseases. Gynecomastia is the most common disease of the male breast. We report a 63-year-old male patient with EPC accompanied by gynecomastia that was diagnosed and treated at our breast center. Read More

    Is There a Rationale behind Pharmacotherapy in Idiopathic Gynecomastia?
    Horm Res Paediatr 2018 May 17:1-5. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic, Institute of Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Background/aims: The aim of this research was to analyze digit ratio in relation to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression and to verify digit ratio (2D: 4D) as a marker of ER and PR overexpression in the male breast.

    Methods: This study included 35 patients who underwent breast reduction due to the idiopathic form of gynecomastia. The average age of the studied individuals was 25. Read More

    Correction of Tuberous Nipple Areolar Complex Deformity in Gynecomastia: The Deformity That Can Get Forgotten.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jul;81(1):3-6
    From the Medecins Sans Frontieres, London, United Kingdom.
    The desired end point of surgical reduction of gynecomastia is a masculine breast appearance and symmetry. This article concentrates on the tuberous deformity of the nipple areolar complex (NAC) that can present in gynecomastia and is sometimes overlooked at surgical correction.This deformity can be corrected at primary surgery if it is recognized preoperatively. Read More

    Bilateral Mastectomy as Radical Treatment of Gynecomastia Secondary to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Low-Income Setting: A Case Report.
    Drug Saf Case Rep 2018 May 11;5(1):21. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Section of Thoracic Surgery, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.
    Gynecomastia is a common finding in males, with an incidence that varies widely globally. In 10-25% of cases, it is caused by drugs. Its pathophysiologic mechanism includes exposure to exogenous estrogens and medications that cause hypogonadism, antiandrogenic effects and hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Characterising the adipose-inflammatory microenvironment in male breast cancer.
    Endocr Relat Cancer 2018 Jul 9;25(7):773-781. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Leeds Institute of Cancer & PathologyUniversity of Leeds, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK
    Male breast cancer (MBC) incidence seems to parallel global increases in obesity. The stromal microenvironment contributes to carcinogenesis; yet, the role of adipocytes in this is understudied in MBC. We identified four cohorts of male breast tissues diagnosed when obesity was rare (archival cohort) and more common (contemporary cohort). Read More

    Ultrasonographic and Mammographic Findings of Male Breast Disease.
    J Ultrasound Med 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Korea.
    Most male breast diseases are benign, although malignancies can also occur. Gynecomastia, the most common abnormality in the male breast, has characteristic imaging findings differentiating it from cancer. Fewer than 1% of patients with breast cancer are men, but the incidence of male breast cancer is increasing worldwide. Read More

    New approach based on immunochemical techniques for monitoring of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) in human urine.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Jul 22;156:147-152. Epub 2018 Apr 22.
    Nanobiotechnology for Diagnostics group (Nb4D), IQAC- CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Spain.
    Antiestrogenic compounds such as tamoxifen, toremifen and chlomifen are used illegally by athletes to minimize physical impacts such as gynecomastia resulting from the secondary effects of anabolic androgenic steroids, used to increase athletic efficiency unlawfully. The use of these compounds is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and controls are made through analytical methodologies such as HPLC-MS/MS, which do not fulfil the sample throughput requirements. Moreover, compounds such as tamoxifen are also used to treat hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (ER + ). Read More

    Klinefelter Syndrome. The Effects of Early Androgen Therapy on Competence and Behavioral Phenotype.
    Sex Med Rev 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Consulting Research Services, Inc, North Bergen, NJ, USA. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the result of sex chromosome aneuploidy most often characterized as 47,XXY. The typical features of KS include tall stature, gynecomastia, small firm testicles, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and infertility. However, abnormalities in neurodevelopment, cognition, and social and behavioral functioning also can be present. Read More

    Potential case of gynecomastia in mummified remains of an early modern period northern finnish vicar.
    Clin Anat 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Archeology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Oulu, FI-90014, Finland.
    We report possibly the oldest evidence of gynecomastia in mummified human remains. Computed tomography was performed on the mummified remains of an early 17th century Northern Finnish vicar. The examination of the scans revealed large bilateral subareolar irregular masses resembling female mammary glands. Read More

    [A Case of Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site with Risk of Choriocarcinoma Syndrome Effectively Treated with Reduced Bleomycin,Cisplatin ,Etoposide Combination Regimen(BEP Regimen)].
    Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2018 Apr;45(4):643-645
    Dept. of Hematology and Oncology, Mie University Hospital.
    A 64-year-old man visited his physician complaining of bilateral gynecomastia and left shoulder pain. Chest X-ray showed multiple bilateral masses in the lung, and he was referred to our hospital. Radiographical findings, elevation of serum total hCG, and histological findings of the cervical lymph node revealed multiple pulmonary, nodal, and brain metastases of poorly differentiated carcinoma of an unknown primary site with choriocarcinoma components. Read More

    Cimetidine: A Safe Treatment Option for Cutaneous Warts in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.
    Med Sci (Basel) 2018 Apr 8;6(2). Epub 2018 Apr 8.
    Department of Pediatrics, UTSW Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235, USA.
    : Immunosuppressed individuals are at particularly increased risk for human papilloma virus-related infections. The primary objective of our study is to determine if there are any adverse effects associated with high-dose cimetidine treatment. A secondary objective is to report our experience with cimetidine in the treatment of cutaneous warts in pediatric heart transplant recipients. Read More

    Breast Abscess Mimicking Breast Carcinoma in Male.
    J Midlife Health 2018 Jan-Mar;9(1):39-40
    Department of Radiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.
    Male breast can show almost all pathological entities described in female breast. Inflammatory conditions of the breast in male are not common; however, occasionally, it can be encountered in the form of an abscess. Clinically, gynecomastia always presents as a symmetric unilateral or bilateral lump in the retroareolar region, and any irregular asymmetric lump raises a possibility of malignancy. Read More

    Prevalence, clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of classical 11 β-hydroxylase deficiency (11BOHD) in Turkish population and novel mutations in CYP11B1 gene.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Jul 4;181:88-97. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Istanbul, 34093, Turkey.
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11BOHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and the second most common form of CAH.

    Aim: To investigate genotype-phenotype correlation and to evaluate clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients with 11BOHD.

    Methods: A total of 28 patients (n = 14, 46,XX; n = 14, 46,XY) with classical 11BOHD from 25 unrelated families were included in this study. Read More

    "Post-finasteride syndrome": what to tell our female patients?
    Br J Dermatol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Department of Dermatology & Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, U.S.A.
    Postmarketing surveillance from men using finasteride, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI), for male pattern hair loss (MPHL) includes reports of various forms of sexual dysfunction, such as decreased libido, erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Purported mechanisms for these effects include the decreased production of neurosteroids, which may regulate sexual desire and function, and impaired testosterone metabolism, leading to relative estrogen excess. Large randomized controlled trials of men on 5ARIs for benign prostatic hypertrophy have shown increased sexual dysfunction compared to placebo; however, similar association with MPHL was not statistically significant. Read More

    Estrogen-induced myelotoxicity in a 4-year-old golden retriever dog due to a Sertoli cell tumor.
    Can Vet J 2018 Apr;59(4):425-427
    Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1.
    A 4-year-old, unilateral cryptorchid golden retriever dog was presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre with gynecomastia, dribbling urine, lethargy, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. A Sertoli cell tumor was diagnosed in a cryptorchid testicle with estrogen-induced myelotoxicity. The tumor was removed and bone marrow regenerated within 4 months. Read More

    Estrogen: The necessary evil for human health, and ways to tame it.
    Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Jun 22;102:403-411. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Berhampur, Odisha, 760007, India.
    Estrogen is a pivotal enzyme for survival and health in both genders, though their quantum, tropism, tissue-specific distribution, and receptor affinity varies with different phases of life. Converted from androgen via aromatase enzyme, this hormone is indispensable to glucose homeostasis, immune robustness, bone health, cardiovascular health, fertility, and neural functions. However, estrogen is at the center of almost all human pathologies as well-infectious, autoimmune, metabolic to degenerative. Read More

    Spironolactone-Induced Unilateral Gynecomastia.
    Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2018 Jan-Mar;8(1):45-47
    Department of Pharmacology, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research, Kolar, Karnataka, India.
    Gynecomastia is benign enlargement of male breast, drug-induced gynecomastia accounts for about 25%. We are reporting a case of spironolactone-induced unilateral gynecomastia. A 52-year-old male patient receiving multiple antihypertensives including hydrochlorothiazide presented with muscle weakness and easy fatigability. Read More

    Evaluation of Glandular Liposculpture as a Single Treatment for Grades I and II Gynaecomastia.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery, Burn Centre, Linköping University Hospital, 58185, Linköping, Sweden.
    Background: Gynaecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast, of which the psychological burden on the patient can be considerable, with the increased risk of disorders such as depression, anxiety, and social phobia. Minimal scarring can be achieved by liposuction alone, though it is known to have a limited effect on the dense glandular and fibroconnective tissues. We know of few studies published on "liposuction alone", so we designed this study to evaluate the outcome of combining liposuction with glandular liposculpturing through two axillary incisions as a single treatment for the management of grades I and II gynaecomastia. Read More

    Does Prophylactic Radiation Therapy to Avoid Gynecomastia in Patients With Prostate Cancer Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer?
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 May 5;101(1):211-216. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Oncology, Ålesund Hospital, Møre og Romsdal Hospital Trust, Ålesund, Norway.
    Purpose: Prostate cancer (PC) patients who undergo antiandrogen monotherapy are offered prophylactic radiation therapy (PRT) to the breast buds to avoid gynecomastia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the risk of breast cancer (BC) in men with PC as their first cancer diagnosis was influenced by PRT.

    Methods And Materials: From the Norwegian Cancer Registry, we collected data from all patients with PC as their first cancer diagnosis from 1997 to 2014. Read More

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy: estrogens, prostaglandinE, prostaglandin A, and the inflammatory reflex.
    Clin Rheumatol 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Endocrine Section, Department of Internal Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    It has been claimed that hyperestrogenism occurs in hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), but not in simple clubbing. However, one of our patients had simple clubbing and hyperestrogenism. We therefore measured estrogens, androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and gonadotropins in five patients with HOA and in 18 patients with simple clubbing. Read More

    Clinical Characteristics of Asymmetric Bilateral Gynecomastia: Suggestion of Desirable Surgical Method Based on a Single-Institution Experience.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2018 Jun 20;42(3):708-715. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Surgery, Damsoyu Hospital, Central Tower 5-9F, Bongeunsa-ro 213, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Asymmetric bilateral gynecomastia (ABGM) is uncommon, and reports on its characteristics are rare. In the present study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of ABGM.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 1159 patients with gynecomastia who underwent subcutaneous mastectomy with liposuction at Damsoyu Hospital from January 2014 to February 2016. Read More

    The metabolic and endocrine characteristics in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.
    J Neurol 2018 May 20;265(5):1026-1036. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Oberer Eselsberg 45, 89081, Ulm, Germany.
    Objective: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is caused by an abnormal expansion of the CAG repeat in the androgen receptor gene. This study aimed to systematically phenotype a German SBMA cohort (n = 80) based on laboratory markers for neuromuscular, metabolic, and endocrine status, and thus provide a basis for the selection of biomarkers for future therapeutic trials.

    Methods: We assessed a panel of 28 laboratory parameters. Read More

    [The forensic medical characteristic of sudden death associated with metabolic syndrome].
    Sud Med Ekspert 2018;61(1):60-64
    Bureau of forensic medical expertise, Moscow Health Department, Moscow, Russia, 115516.
    The detection of grade II-III central obesity on a corpse in conjunction with the identification of two additional criteria (such as arterial hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance) provides, if combined with the autopsy data (including the visual reduction of muscular mass, the increased total amount of the adipose tissue, gynecomastia in men together with hypertrophied abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, decreased face and body pilosis), a basis for diagnostics of metabolic syndrome (MS). The objective parameters for this purpose are waist circumference measurements, corpse weight and height, the degree of visceral obesity, narrowing of the renal arteries as a result of their compression by the surrounding adipose tissue, and accumulation of epicardial fat confirmed by the results of the biochemical analysis. The signs of plasmorrhagia combined with fibrinoid degeneration of the vascular walls in the microcirculatory bed make it possible to suspect, with a high degree of probability, the development of hypertensive crisis that may result in a sudden death of the patients presenting with metabolic syndrome. Read More

    Adrenocortical carcinoma characterized by gynecomastia: A case report.
    Clin Pediatr Endocrinol 2018 30;27(1):9-18. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
    We present a 4-yr-old boy with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), diagnosed due to the appearance of gynecomastia as the presenting symptom. Six months prior to admission, an acute growth spurt along with the development of bilateral breast swelling was observed. He did not present any features of virilization, including enlargement of the testes, increase in testis volume, and penis size. Read More

    Changing practices: The addition of a novel surgical approach to gynecomastia.
    Am J Surg 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; Surgical Services, John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR, USA. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Gynecomastia can be a significant impediment to quality of life for men who suffer from this affliction. Numerous surgical techniques have been described in the literature ranging from minimally invasive options such as liposuction to incision based reductions. The standard for the general surgeons at our institution has been subcutaneous mastectomy through a circumareolar incision, which often proved inadequate for patients with grade II or III gynecomastia. Read More

    [Gynaecomastia].
    Ugeskr Laeger 2018 01;180(4)
    Gynaecomastia (GM) is a benign proliferation of the glandular tissue of the male breast and results from an imbalance between androgen and oestrogen. Pubertal GM is found in 50% and often resolves spontaneously without treatment. GM in adult men can be the first symptom of an underlying disease, and thorough investigation is recommended. Read More

    Recovery of reproductive function following androgen abuse.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2018 Jun;25(3):195-200
    Department of Endocrinology, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Purpose Of Review: To summarize recent data on the adverse reproductive consequences of androgen abuse, focusing on the recovery of reproductive function following androgen discontinuation.

    Recent Findings: Evidence is mostly based on case reports and observational studies. Androgen abuse leads to a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with impaired spermatogenesis, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia as well as menstrual irregularities, virilization and subfertility. Read More

    Klinefelter syndrome: more than hypogonadism.
    Metabolism 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    University Hospital of Muenster, Center of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, Domagkstraße 11, D-48149, Muenster, Germany.
    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequent chromosome disorder in males (1:650 newborn males), defined by 47,XXY karyotype. The classical phenotype is that of a tall male with relatively long legs, small, firm testes and gynecomastia. Azoospermia and infertility are almost inevitably present, but may be overcome by TESE and ICSI. Read More

    Evidence-Based Practice in Liposuction.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jun;80(6S Suppl 6):S403-S405
    Chief of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Virginia Tech-Carilion School of Medicine, Carilion Clinic, Roanoke, VA.
    Background: The goal of this study is to examine the existing peer reviewed literature comparing modern adjunctive techniques in liposuction including laser-assisted liposuction (LAL) and ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) to standard suction-assisted liposuction (SAL). We intend to interpret these findings into a literature-based clinical application to influence practice patterns.

    Methods: A literature review was conducted using a keyword search in PubMed. Read More

    Histamine H4 receptor as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of Leydig-cell tumours in prepubertal boys.
    Eur J Cancer 2018 Mar;91:125-135
    Laboratorio de Endocrinología Molecular y Transducción de Señales, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME-CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, C1428ADN, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Leydig-cell tumours (LCTs) are rare endocrine tumours of the testicular interstitium, with recent increased incidence. Symptoms include precocious puberty in children; and erectile dysfunction, infertility and/or gynaecomastia, in adults. So far, scientific evidence points to aromatase (CYP19) overexpression and excessive oestrogen and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 production as responsible for Leydig-cell tumourigenesis. Read More

    Finasteride topical delivery systems for androgenetic alopecia.
    Curr Drug Deliv 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad. Pakistan.
    Androgenetic alopecia, generally recognized as male pattern baldness, is a gradually developing medical and physiological change, which is manifested by continuous hair-loss from scalp. Finasteride (4-aza-3-oxosteroid) is a potent anti-baldness compound that selectively and competitively inhibits the 5α-reductase isoenzymes. Prolonged oral use of finasteride leads to the emergence of sexual disorders including decrease in libido, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, orgasm disorders and mood disturbances. Read More

    Next Generation Sequencing expression profiling of mitochondrial subunits in men with Klinefelter syndrome.
    Int J Med Sci 2018 1;15(1):31-35. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common sex-chromosome disorders as it affects up to 1 in every 600-1000 newborn males. Men with KS carry one extra X chromosome and they usually present a 47,XXY karyotype, but less frequent variants have also been reported in literature. KS typical symptoms include tall stature, gynecomastia, broad hips, hypogonadism and absent spermatogenesis. Read More

    [Primary breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developing subsequent to estramustine therapy for prostate cancer].
    Rinsho Ketsueki 2017;58(12):2411-2413
    Hematology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health.
    An 85-year-old male presented with 1-year history of a right breast mass. Needle biopsy of the mass revealed diffuse proliferation of large lymphoid cells that were positive for CD20, BCL2, BCL6, and MUM1 and negative for CD5, CD10, MYC, and EBER. The patient was diagnosed as having diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, a type of primary breast lymphoma (PBL). Read More

    The unusual suspects: A review of unusual benign and malignant male breast imaging cases.
    Clin Imaging 2017 Dec 28;50:78-85. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Columbia University Medical Center Department of Radiology, Herbert Irving Pavilion, 161 Fort Washington Ave, New York, NY 10032, United States. Electronic address:
    Male breast disease is uncommon. Men presenting with breast symptoms may represent unique diagnostic challenges for the radiologist, particularly if imaging findings are not classic for gynecomastia or carcinoma. In this paper we review 10 unusual male breast cases, 5 benign and 5 malignant, including the radiologic findings, differential diagnosis, pathology and management. Read More

    Quantitative CT Assessment of Gynecomastia in the General Population and in Dialysis, Cirrhotic, and Obese Patients.
    Acad Radiol 2018 May 8;25(5):626-635. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Radiology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Emek HaEla St 1, Ramat Gan 5265601, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Chaim Levanon St 30, Tel-Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Rationale And Objectives: Gynecomastia is the benign enlargement of the male breast because of proliferation of the glandular component. To date, there is no radiological definition of gynecomastia and no quantitative evaluation of breast glandular tissues in the general male population. The aims of this study were to supply radiological-based measurements of breast glandular tissue in the general male population, to quantitatively assess the prevalence of gynecomastia according to age by decades, and to evaluate associations between gynecomastia and obesity, cirrhosis, and dialysis. Read More

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