98,399 results match your criteria Gut Pathogens [Journal]


Microbial Intervention as a Novel Target in Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2123-2135. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Digestive Disease Center, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of South China University of Technology, Guangzhou,

Background/aims: Emerging evidence suggests a close link between gut microbiota and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gut microbiota and the DNA methylation of adiponectin (an adipocyte-specific adipocytokine) in rats, following diet-induced NAFLD.

Methods: 50 male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups with or without a high fat diet (HFD), antibiotics, and probiotics, in order to establish an imbalanced gut microbiota and probiotic treatment model in NAFLD rats. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Proteomic analysis of olfactory bulb suggests CACNA1E as a promoter of CREB signaling in microbiota-induced depression.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorders impact approximately 17% of the population worldwide, whose high morbidity and considerable adversity have resulted in enormous social and economic burden. In addition, clinically depressed patients often show reduced volume of olfactory bulb (OB) and decreased olfactory sensitivity. Although mounting evidence conveyed that the gut microbiota may implicate the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) via the microbe-gut-brain axis, knowledge about its distinctive molecular mechanism is rudimentary. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sickness in early adolescence alters the behavioral effects of the short-chain fatty acid, propionic acid, in late adolescence and adulthood: Examining anxiety and startle reactivity.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Early life immune challenges are risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. In adolescence, they elicit behavioral symptoms that resemble clinical disorders. Stressors during this time may alter signaling from the gut microbiome, which increases the risk for psychiatric disorders. Read More

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December 2018
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In vitro fermentation of O‑acetyl‑arabinoxylan from bamboo shavings by human colonic microbiota.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350003, PR China.

BSH-1 is an O‑acetyl-arabinoxylan obtained from bamboo shavings. This study investigated its fermentation behavior by human colonic bacteria in vitro. Results showed that BSH-1 remarkably modulated the composition of colonic microbiota, mainly by increasing the growth of potential beneficial genera (i. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of acute exposures of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and inorganic lead on the fecal microbiome of the green anole (Anolis carolinensis).

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208281. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

The Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

Microbiome studies focused on ecologically relevant vertebrate models like reptiles have been limited. Because of their relatively small home range, fast maturation, and high fecundity, lizards are an excellent reptilian terrestrial indicator species. For this study we used the green anole, Anolis carolinensis, to assess the impact of military relevant contaminants on fecal microbiome composition. Read More

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December 2018
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Gut microbiota signatures in cystic fibrosis: Loss of host CFTR function drives the microbiota enterophenotype.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208171. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Unit of Human Microbiome, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder affecting the respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems and sweat glands. This lethal hereditary disease has known or suspected links to the dysbiosis gut microbiota. High-throughput meta-omics-based approaches may assist in unveiling this complex network of symbiosis modifications. Read More

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December 2018
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Identification of midgut membrane proteins from different instars of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) that bind to Cry1Ac toxin.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207789. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelos, Mexico.

Helicoverpa armigera is a polyphagous pest sensitive to Cry1Ac protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The susceptibility of the different larval instars of H. armigera to Cry1Ac protoxin showed a significant 45-fold reduction in late instars compared to early instars. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a host-microbiome model of the small intestine.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201801414R. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Center for Microbial Ecology and Technology (CMET), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in the balance between tolerant and protective immune responses to infectious agents. In vitro models do not typically consider the innate immune response and gut microbiome in detail, so these models do not fully mimic the physiologic aspects of the small intestine. We developed and characterized a long-term in vitro model containing enterocyte, goblet, and immune-like cells exposed to a synthetic microbial community representative of commensal inhabitants of the small intestine. Read More

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December 2018

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of probiotics to reduce the severity of oral mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic combination on the severity of oral mucositis (OM), which is a common, unpreventable complication induced by radiochemotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who undergo concurrent radiochemotherapy (CCRT).

Methods: Eligible patients (n = 99) with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were undergoing CCRT were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive a probiotic combination or placebo during radiochemotherapy, and the incidence of severe OM (grade 3 or higher) was the primary endpoint.

Results: Patients taking the probiotic combination showed a significant reduction in the severity of OM. Read More

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December 2018

Associations Between Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Fungi in Raspberries.

Environ Entomol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

The invasive vinegar fly, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, has emerged as one of the most serious arthropod pests of primocane red raspberries (Rubus ideaus L.) in the United States. In raspberries, D. Read More

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December 2018

Everything in its right place: resident memory CD8+ T cell immunosurveillance of HIV infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To introduce emerging concepts in tissue resident CD8 T cell immunosurveillance and their relevance to control HIV infection.

Recent Findings: It is well appreciated that HIV preferentially infects and persists in CD4 T cells located in gut and in lymphoid tissue, yet the majority of known immunological correlates of HIV control are derived from peripheral blood. Instead, tissue-based immunological surveillance likely dictates the course of infection. Read More

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December 2018
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Energy intake, gastrointestinal transit and gut hormone release in response to oral triglycerides and fatty acids in severely obese and non-obese men.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hvidovre University Hospital.

Dietary fat, and particularly fatty acids from hydrolyzed triglycerides, reduce appetite, whereas, paradoxically, a high-fat diet leads to excess calorie intake and weight gain. We therefore hypothesized that the appetite-regulating effects of dietary fat is perturbed in obesity. Ten men with severe obesity (median BMI 51. Read More

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December 2018

Linkages between epithelial microbiota and host transcriptome in the ileum during high grain challenges: implications for gut homeostasis in goats.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

A high-grain diet (HG) can result in ruminal subacute acidosis, which is detrimental to gut health and can lead to decreased productivity. This study investigated the ileal epithelial microbiota and its relationship with host epithelial function in goats fed an HG diet (concentrate: hay, 90: 10) and a Control diet (concentrate: hay, 55: 45) aiming to elucidate the mechanisms involved in ileal adaptation to subacute acidosis. The HG challenge increased ileal volatile fatty acid concentration (P = 0. Read More

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December 2018
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Molecular detection of Bifidobacterium spp. in faeces of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

J Med Primatol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Sistemas Biológicos, Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Coyoacán, CDMX, México.

Background: Bifidobacterium genus are considered to be beneficial bacteria for their hosts; however, knowledge about the specific species that are part of the gut microbiome of howler monkeys is scarce. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a useful technique for the identification of non-cultivable or difficult to grow bacterial species. With the goal of detecting species of the genus Bifidobacterium in black howler monkeys, we used PCR on DNA derived from faecal samples. Read More

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December 2018

Distribution, projections and association with calbindin baskets of motor neurons, interneurons and sensory neurons in guinea-pig distal colon.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

College of Medicine and Public Health & Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Australia.

Normal gut function relies on the activity of the enteric nervous system (ENS) found within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The structural and functional organisation of the ENS has been extensively studied in the guinea pig small intestine, but less is known about colonic circuitry. Given that there are significant differences between these regions in function, observed motor patterns and pathology, it would be valuable to have a better understanding of the colonic ENS. Read More

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December 2018
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Growth of children with biliary atresia living with native livers: impact of corticoid therapy after portoenterostomy.

Eur J Pediatr 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Pediatric Liver and Gut Research Group, Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

We addressed growth of biliary atresia (BA) patients living with native livers between ages 0-6 and effects of post-surgical corticosteroid treatment on growth. Growth charts of 28 BA patients born in Finland between 1987 and 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Dosage and length of corticosteroid treatment and hydrocortisone substitution were reviewed. Read More

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December 2018

A round trip from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to diabetes: molecular targets to the rescue?

Acta Diabetol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Modena, UO di Medicina Metabolica, Ospedale Civile di Baggiovara, Via Giardini 1135, 41125, Modena, Italy.

Evidence suggests a close relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type two diabetes (T2D). On the grounds of prevalence of disease, both conditions account for a significant financial cost for health care systems and individuals. Aim of this review article is to explore the epidemiological basis and the putative molecular mechanisms underlying the association of NAFLD with T2D. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Capsules with Targeted Colonic Versus Gastric Delivery in Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Comparative Cohort Analysis of High and Lose Dose.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Finch Therapeutics, Somerville, MA, USA.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium. difficile infection (rCDI). FMT capsules have emerged, and it is unknown if delivery location and dose impact efficacy. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Gut microbiota dysbiosis worsens the severity of acute pancreatitis in patients and mice.

J Gastroenterol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 17 Yong Waizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

Background: The gut is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) and the infectious complications of AP are commonly associated with enteric bacteria, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participants in AP severity remains largely unknown.

Methods: We collected clinical information and fecal samples from 165 adult participants, including 41 with mild AP (MAP), 59 with moderately severe AP (MSAP), 30 with severe AP (SAP) and 35 healthy controls (HC). The serum inflammatory cytokines and gut barrier indexes were detected. Read More

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December 2018

Small copepods could channel missing carbon through metazoan predation.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 30;8(22):10868-10878. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Centre for Applications in Natural Resource Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics University of Queensland St Lucia Queensland Australia.

Global ecosystem models are essential tools for predicting climate change impacts on marine systems. Modeled biogenic carbon fluxes in the ocean often match measured data poorly and part of this could be because small copepods (<2 mm) are modeled as unicellular feeders grazing on phytoplankton and microzooplankton. The most abundant copepods from a seasonal upwelling region of the Eastern North Atlantic were sorted, and a molecular method was applied to copepod gut contents to evaluate the extent of metazoan predation under two oceanographic conditions, a trophic pathway not accounted for in global models. Read More

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November 2018

A mechanistic assessment of the relationship between gut morphology and endozoochorous seed dispersal by waterfowl.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 30;8(22):10857-10867. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands.

Many plants and invertebrates rely on internal transport by animals for long-distance dispersal. Their dispersal capacity is greatly influenced by interactions with the animal's digestive tract. Omnivorous birds adjust their digestive tract morphology to seasonally variable diets. Read More

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November 2018
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Food intake biomarkers for apple, pear, and stone fruit.

Genes Nutr 2018 29;13:29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

2Human Nutrition Unit, Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, F63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Fruit is a key component of a healthy diet. However, it is still not clear whether some classes of fruit may be more beneficial than others and whether all individuals whatever their age, gender, health status, genotype, or gut microbiota composition respond in the same way to fruit consumption. Such questions require further observational and intervention studies in which the intake of a specific fruit can be precisely assessed at the population and individual levels. Read More

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November 2018

Microbiota profile in new-onset pediatric Crohn's disease: data from a non-Western population.

Gut Pathog 2018 29;10:49. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

7Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, USA.

Background: The role of microbiota in Crohn's disease (CD) is increasingly recognized. However, most of the reports are from Western populations. Considering the possible variation from other populations, the aim of this study was to describe the microbiota profile in children with CD in Saudi Arabia, a non-Western developing country population. Read More

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November 2018
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Aged mice display altered numbers and phenotype of basophils, and bone marrow-derived basophil activation, with a limited role for aging-associated microbiota.

Immun Ageing 2018 29;15:32. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

1Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Background: The influence of age on basophils is poorly understood, as well as the effect of aging-associated microbiota on basophils. Therefore, we studied the influence of aging and aging-associated microbiota on basophil frequency and phenotype, and differentiation from basophil precursors.

Results: Basophils became more abundant in bone marrow (BM) and spleens of 19-month-old mice compared with 4-month-old mice. Read More

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November 2018

Sugar Metabolism Regulates Flavor Preferences and Portal Glucose Sensing.

Front Integr Neurosci 2018 21;12:57. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

The John B. Pierce Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States.

In most species, including humans, food preference is primarily controlled by nutrient value. In particular, glucose-containing sugars exert exquisitely strong effects on food choice via gut-generated signals. However, the identity of the visceral signals underlying glucose's rewarding effects remains uncertain. Read More

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November 2018
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Iron Dysregulation and Dormant Microbes as Causative Agents for Impaired Blood Rheology and Pathological Clotting in Alzheimer's Type Dementia.

Front Neurosci 2018 16;12:851. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Alzheimer's disease and other similar dementias are debilitating neurodegenerative disorders whose etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown, even after decades of research. With the anticipated increase in prevalence of Alzheimer's type dementias among the more susceptible aging population, the need for disease-modifying treatments is urgent. While various hypotheses have been put forward over the last few decades, we suggest that Alzheimer's type dementias are triggered by external environmental factors, co-expressing in individuals with specific genetic susceptibilities. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

High Abundance of genus Prevotella in the gut of perinatally HIV-infected children is associated with IP-10 levels despite therapy.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17679. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory of AIDS Research and Immunology, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Perinatal HIV infection is characterized by faster HIV disease progression and higher initial rate of HIV replication compared to adults. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly reduced HIV replication to undetectable levels, there is persistent elevated inflammation associated with HIV disease progression. Alteration of gut microbiota is associated with increased inflammation in chronic adult HIV infection. Read More

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December 2018

Therapeutic faecal microbiota transplantation controls intestinal inflammation through IL10 secretion by immune cells.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 5;9(1):5184. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, via Adamello 16, Milan, 20139, Italy.

Alteration of the gut microbiota has been associated with different gastrointestinal disorders. Normobiosis restoration by faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is considered a promising therapeutic approach, even if the mechanisms underlying its efficacy are at present largely unknown. Here we sought to elucidate the functional effects of therapeutic FMT administration during experimental colitis on innate and adaptive immune responses in the intestinal mucosa. Read More

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December 2018
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Altered Gut Flora and Gut Microbiome-Derived Metabolites in Heart Failure Patients in the Compensated and Decompensated Phases.

Authors:
Akiomi Yoshihisa

Circ J 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Fukushima Medical University.

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December 2018

Monomethylmercury degradation by the human gut microbiota is stimulated by protein amendments.

J Toxicol Sci 2018 ;43(12):717-725

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada K1N 9B4.

Monomethylmercury (MMHg) is a potent neurotoxicant that can be bioaccumulated and biomagnified through trophic levels. Human populations whose diets contain MMHg are at risk of MMHg toxicity. The gut microbiota was identified as a potential factor causing variation in MMHg absorption and body burden. Read More

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January 2018

Marginal Zinc Deficiency and Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Arsenic Elicit Combined Effects on the Gut Microbiome.

mSphere 2018 Dec 5;3(6). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

Extensive research shows that dietary variation and toxicant exposure impact the gut microbiome, yielding effects on host physiology. However, prior work has mostly considered such exposure-microbiome interactions through the lens of single-factor exposures. In practice, humans exposed to toxicants vary in their dietary nutritional status, and this variation may impact subsequent exposure of the gut microbiome. Read More

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December 2018

Older patients with IBD might have higher risk of Parkinson's disease.

Gut 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

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December 2018

[Paraffin oil injecions due to bigorexia may cause hypercalcaemia].

Ugeskr Laeger 2018 Nov;180(48)

Paraffin oil injections may cause severe hypercalcaemia, likely due to development of granulomas at injection sites, activating 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D and increasing calcium uptake from gut, kidney and bone. This is a case report of a 39-year-old male with severe hypercalcaemia and renal failure due to paraffin oil injections. He was treated with prednisolone (25-50 mg daily), but the disease recurred the next two summers probably due to erroneous vitamin D supplement and sun exposure. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Intestinal microbiota mediates Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea in piglets.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Dec 5;14(1):385. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of Ministry of Education of China, Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Background: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes diarrhea in humans, cows, and pigs. The gut microbiota underlies pathology of several infectious diseases yet the role of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of ETEC-induced diarrhea is unknown.

Results: By using an ETEC induced diarrheal model in piglet, we profiled the jejunal and fecal microbiota using metagenomics and 16S rRNA sequencing. Read More

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December 2018
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Dietary Composition and Cardiovascular Risk: A Mediator or a Bystander?

Nutrients 2018 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Second Department of Internal Medicine and Research Institute, University General Hospital Attikon, 124 62 Haidari, Greece.

The role of nutrition in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has long been debated. The established notion of the deleterious effects of fat is recently under question, with numerous studies demonstrating the benefits of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets in terms of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic derangement. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially -3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids), are the types of fat that favor metabolic markers and are key components of the Mediterranean Diet, which is considered an ideal dietary pattern with great cardioprotective effects. Read More

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December 2018

Differences in Anxiety Levels of Various Murine Models in Relation to the Gut Microbiota Composition.

Biomedicines 2018 Dec 4;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Advanced Green Energy and Environment, Handong Global University, Pohang-si, Gyeongbuk 37554, Korea.

Psychobiotics are probiotic strains that confer mental health benefits to the host through the modulation of the gut microbial population. Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota play an important role in communication within the gut⁻brain axis. However, the relationship between the host genetics and the gut microbiota and their influence on anxiety are still not fully understood. Read More

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December 2018

The antimicrobial peptide CopA3 inhibits toxin A-induced viability loss and apoptosis in neural cells.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Divison of Life Science and Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido, South Korea.

Numerous studies have reported that enteric neurons involved in controlling neurotransmitter secretion and motility in the gut critically contribute to the progression of gut inflammation. toxins, which cause severe colonic inflammation, are also known to affect enteric neurons. Our previous study showed that toxin A directly induces neural cell toxicities, such as viability loss and apoptosis. Read More

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November 2018

The Roles of Dietary Glutamate in the Intestine.

Authors:
Daniel Tomé

Ann Nutr Metab 2018 3;73 Suppl 5:15-20. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Glutamate (Glu), either as one of the amino acids of protein or in free form, constitutes up to 8-10% of amino acid content in the human diet, with an intake of about 10-20 g/day in adults. In the intestine, postprandial luminal Glu concentrations can be of the order of mM and result in a high intra-mucosal Glu concentration. Glu absorbed from the intestinal lumen is for a large part metabolized by enterocytes in various pathways, including the production of energy to support intestinal motility and functions. Read More

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December 2018

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Alleviates Myocardial Damage in Myocarditis by Restoring the Microbiota Composition.

Pharmacol Res 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. Electronic address:

Myocarditis can be caused by several infectious and noninfectious causes. Treatment for myocarditis is still a difficult task in clinical practice. The gut microbiota is related to cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Read More

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November 2018

Do probiotics prevent colonization with multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae during travel? A randomized controlled trial.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Travelers to India are often colonized with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) or Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). The aim of this study was to investigate if the probiotic species Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG) could prevent the colonization of the gut with multi-drug resistant bacteria.

Methods: Adult Danish travelers traveling to India for 10-28 days were randomized to receive either LGG or no probiotics during travel. Read More

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November 2018

Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Analyses of Murine Intestinal Microbiota After Oral Antibiotic Treatment.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 17(141). Epub 2018 Nov 17.

The Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology, King's College London; The Francis Crick Institute;

The gut microbiota has a central influence on human health. Microbial dysbiosis is associated with many common immunopathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and arthritis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying microbiota-immune system crosstalk is of crucial importance. Read More

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November 2018

Assessing Cellular Stress and Inflammation in Discrete Oxytocin-secreting Brain Nuclei in the Neonatal Rat Before and After First Colostrum Feeding.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 14(141). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University; Department of Pathology & Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center;

The goal of this protocol is to isolate oxytocin-receptor rich brain nuclei in the neonatal brain before and after first colostrum feeding. The expression of proteins known to respond to metabolic stress was measured in brain-nuclei isolates using Western blotting. This was done to assess whether metabolic stress-induced nutrient insufficiency in the body triggered neuronal stress. Read More

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November 2018

Functional Microbiomics in Liver Transplantation: Identifying Novel Targets for Improving Allograft Outcomes.

Transplantation 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

GI and Liver Innate Immune Program, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Gut dysbiosis, defined as a maladaptive gut microbial imbalance, has been demonstrated in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD), defined as a contributor to disease progression, and associated clinically with severity of disease and liver-related morbidity and mortality. Despite this well recognized phenomena in patients with ESLD, the impact of gut dysbiosis and its rate of recovery following liver transplantation (LT) remains incompletely understood. The mechanisms by which alterations in the gut microbiota impact allograft metabolism and immunity, both directly and indirectly, are multifactorial and reflect the complexity of the gut-liver axis. Read More

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November 2018

Impact of occupational exposure on human microbiota.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: Recent evidence suggests that environmental exposures change the adult human microbiome. Here, we review recent evidence on the impact of the work microbiome and work-related chemical, metal and particulate exposures on the human microbiome.

Recent Findings: Prior literature on occupational microbial exposures has focused mainly on the respiratory effects of endotoxin, but a recent study suggests that not all endotoxin is the same; endotoxin from some species is proinflammatory, whereas endotoxin from other species is anti-inflammatory. Read More

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November 2018

Understanding the gut-brain axis.

Authors:
Ashley Cooper

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec;3(12):824

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December 2018

Beyond thrombocytopaenia, haemorrhage and shock: the expanded dengue syndrome.

Pathog Glob Health 2018 Dec 3:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

c Department of Parasitology, Faculty of medicine , University of Colombo , Colombo , Sri Lanka.

Dengue infection classically presents with fever, thrombocytopaenia, and varying degrees of plasma leakage, giving rise to shock. However, a myriad of other manifestations, involving the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, the liver, the kidneys, the gut and the haematological system have been reported in dengue. This review summarizes these varied presentations. Read More

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December 2018
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Induction Effects of Bacteroides fragilis Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles on Toll Like Receptor 2, Toll Like Receptor 4 Genes Expression and Cytokines Concentration in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

Cell J 2019 Apr 18;21(1):57-61. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like other mucosal surface, is colonized with a microbial population known as gut microbiota. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) which are produced by gram negative bacteria could be sensed by Toll like receptors (TLRs). The interaction between gut microbiota and TLRs affects homeostasis and immune responses. Read More

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April 2019
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Intestinal microbiota mediates the susceptibility to polymicrobial sepsis-induced liver injury by granisetron generation in mice.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Sepsis-induced liver injury is recognized as a key problem in intensive care units (ICUs). The gut microbiota has been touted as an important mediator of liver disease development; however, the precise roles of gut microbiota in regulating sepsis-induced liver injury are unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of the gut microbiota in sepsis-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanism. Read More

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December 2018
11.055 Impact Factor

Correlation between microbes and colorectal cancer: tumor apoptosis is induced by sitosterols through promoting gut microbiota to produce short-chain fatty acids.

Apoptosis 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Chongqing Productivity Promotion Center for the Modernization of Chinese Traditional Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716, China.

The diversity of the bacterial community in the gut is closely related to human health. Gut microbes accomplish multiple physiological and biochemical functions. Sitosterols are a series of phytochemicals that have multiple pharmacological activities and are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs in clinical practice. Read More

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November 2018