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    1 OF 175

    Autoimmune encephalitis associated with voltage-gated potassium channels-complex and leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 antibodies - a national cohort study.
    Eur J Neurol 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Neurobiology Research Unit, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background And Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe clinical and paraclinical characteristics of all Danish patients who tested positive for anti-voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-complex, anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and anti-contactin-associated protein-2 antibodies in the serum/cerebrospinal fluid between 2009 and 2013 with follow-up interviews in 2015 and 2016.

    Methods: We evaluated antibody status, symptoms leading to testing, course of disease, suspected diagnosis and time of admission as well as diagnosis and treatment. All magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans were re-evaluated by experts in the field. Read More

    What's in the Literature?
    J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2017 Jun;18(4):246-259
    *Department of Neurology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT; †Department of Neurology, University at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, SUNY, Buffalo, NY; and Departments of ‡Neurology and §Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.
    In this edition, we provide a detailed summary of an informative book, "GBS100: Celebrating a Century of Progress in Guillain-Barré Syndrome" developed by the Peripheral Nerve Society to honor the centenary of the original paper on Guillain-Barré Syndrome. We also review various studies in myasthenia gravis including: management with rituximab; the efficacy of early fast-acting treatment with corticosteroids; and various dosing strategies for tacrolimus. Finally, we review new studies including: the potential pathogenesis, risk factors, and functional decline of patients with inclusion body myositis; MxA immunoreactivity in dermatomyositis; diagnostic approaches for evaluating patients with myalgia, fatigue, and exercise intolerance; MRI patterns in genetic muscle disease; and MRI as an outcome measure in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Read More

    Acute Demyelinating Polyneuropathy as Presentation of Hereditary Neuropathy With Liability to Pressure Palsies in a Patient Who Exercised Regularly in the Army.
    J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2017 Jun;18(4):228-234
    *Department of Neurology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; and †Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
    Acute generalized neuropathy as the presenting manifestation of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is rare. We report a 19-year-old Army recruit who exercised regularly for 9 months and presented with 2 weeks of numbness, tingling, and weakness in both upper and lower extremities, starting 2 weeks after influenza vaccination and 1 day after vigorous exercise. Based on acute onset, clinical examination and electrophysiological findings, Guillain-Barre syndrome was diagnosed, and intravenous immunoglobulin was administered with minimal improvement. Read More

    Hyponatremia in Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
    J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2017 Jun;18(4):207-217
    *School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO; and †Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.
    Objectives: To evaluate incidence, risk factors, and in-hospital outcomes associated with hyponatremia in patients hospitalized for Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS).

    Methods: We identified adult patients with GBS in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2011). Univariate and multivariable analyses were used. Read More

    Development of a reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based assay for broad coverage detection of African and Asian Zika virus lineages.
    Virol Sin 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, 518112, China.
    The Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus that has spread rapidly worldwide within recent times. There is accumulating evidence that associates ZIKV infections with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly in humans. The ZIKV is genetically diverse and can be separated into Asian and African lineages. Read More

    Prognostic Indicators of Response to Plasmapheresis in Patients of Guillain Barre Syndrome.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Apr;65(4):32-36
    Assistant Professor inNeurology, B.J. Government Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra.
    Introduction: Plasmapheresis is an important modality for the treatment of GBS. Moreover the response to this treatment modality is not same in all cases. We therefore studied the various prognostic indicators of response to plasmapheresis in patients of Guillain Barre Syndrome. Read More

    Association of anti-gangliosides antibodies and anti-CMV antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome.
    Brain Behav 2017 May 7;7(5):e00690. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Clinical LaboratoryBeijing Tiantan HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina.
    Introduction: Numerous types of infection were closely related to GBS, mainly including Campylobacter jejuni, Cytomegalovirus, which may lead to the production of anti-gangliosides antibodies (AGA). Currently, although there are increased studies on the AGA and a few studies of anti-CMV antibodies in GBS, the association between them remains poorly documented. Therefore, our research aims to analyze the correlation of anti-CMV antibodies and AGA in GBS. Read More

    Optimizing the electrodiagnostic accuracy in Guillain-Barré syndrome subtypes: Criteria sets and sparse linear discriminant analysis.
    Clin Neurophysiol 2017 Apr 20;128(7):1176-1183. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. Electronic address:
    Objective: To optimize the electrodiagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) subtypes at first study.

    Methods: The reference electrodiagnosis was obtained in 53 demyelinating and 45 axonal GBS patients on the basis of two serial studies and results of anti-ganglioside antibodies assay. We retrospectively employed sparse linear discriminant analysis (LDA), two existing electrodiagnostic criteria sets (Hadden et al. Read More

    Frequently asked questions on seven rare adverse events following immunization.
    J Prev Med Hyg 2017 Mar;58(1):E13-E26
    Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
    Routine mass immunization programs have contributed greatly to the control of infectious diseases and to the improvement of the health of populations. Over the last decades, the rise of antivaccination movements has threatened the advances made in this field to the point that vaccination coverage rates have decreased and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have resurfaced. One of the critical points of the immunization debate revolves around the level of risk attributable to vaccination, namely the possibility of experiencing serious and possibly irreversible adverse events. Read More

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome, variants & forms fruste: Reclassification with new criteria.
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 Jul 4;158:114-118. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Neurology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of various distinctive classical and localised Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) subtypes.

    Patients And Methods: Clinical characteristics and electrophysiological data of sixty-one consecutive patients admitted between 2012 and 2015 were systematically analysed and reclassified according to the new GBS clinical classification. Neurophysiology was evaluated with Hadden et al. Read More

    Reverse Genetics of Zika Virus.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1602:47-58
    Departments of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Pharmacology & Toxicology, and Sealy Center for Structural Biology & Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA.
    We have established a reverse genetic system for Zika virus (ZIKV). Five shuttle plasmids were constructed and assembled into the full-length cDNA clone of ZIKV genome. To ensure the stability of the cDNA clone, we used a low copy vector (pACYC177) and a set of unique restriction enzyme sites on the ZIKV genome to assemble the full-length cDNA clone. Read More

    Guillain-Barré syndrome in a patient with renal cell carcinoma following the first course of pazopanib therapy.
    J Infect Chemother 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Urology, Teikyo University Medical Center, 3426-3, Anesaki, Ichihara, Chiba 299-0111, Japan.
    Pazopanib, one of the antiangiogenic drugs, has recently become a first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The most common adverse effects of pazopanib include diarrhea, fatigue, and nausea, but neuropathic complication has not been documented. Here, we report the first case of a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who developed acute neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome following the first course of pazopanib therapy. Read More

    Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a 16-Month-Old Child.
    Child Neurol Open 2016 Jan-Dec;3:2329048X15620641. Epub 2016 Apr 4.
    Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan.
    A 16-month-old girl was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and transferred to our hospital on the 58th day of the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after treatment failure according to the Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol. On admission to our hospital, she had a flaccid paralysis of her lower limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed a acute motor axonal neuropathy, and a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was established. Read More

    The Sequential Ultrasonographic, Electrophysiological and MRI Findings in a Patient with the Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial Variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome from the Acute Phase to the Chronic Phase.
    Intern Med 2017 15;56(10):1225-1230. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Okinawa Hospital, Japan.
    Acute progressive weakness in bulbar, neck and limbs is included in several differential diagnoses, including the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Patients with the PCB variant of GBS are reported to have localized diagnostic cervical spinal nerve abnormalities that can be examined by nerve ultrasonography (NUS) and magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man with the PCB variant of GBS. Read More

    Zika Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Human Disease.
    Am J Med Sci 2017 May 30;353(5):466-473. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas. Electronic address:
    The Zika virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA arbovirus in the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. This virus was initially isolated in Africa and is transmitted to nonhuman primates and humans by mosquitoes. Initial reports describe sporadic mild viral infection with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis in Africa and Asia. Read More

    [Guillain Barré syndrome and diabetic acido-ketotic decompensation during pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 21;26:86. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Service d'Endocrinologie Diabétologie, Hôpital Hedi Chaker de Sfax.
    A 27-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to the resuscitation department with severe spontaneous acute ketoacidosis as early symptom of type 1 diabetes. The patient underwent resuscitation and insulin treatment with good clinical and biological evolution. On day 4, the patient had polyradiculoneuritis characterised by acute onset. Read More

    Acute muscular weakness in children.
    Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Apr;75(4):248-254
    Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna, Provencia, Santiago, Chile.
    Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. Read More

    Safety and efficacy of therapeutic membrane plasmapheresis in the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome: A study from a tertiary care hospital from India.
    Neurol India 2017 May-Jun;65(3):527-531
    Department of Neurology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Background: Reports on therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) with the standard hemodialysis equipment are scarce, particularly from developing countries.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of safety and efficacy of membrane-based TPE with a standard hemodialysis equipment for the treatment of severe Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) was conducted.

    Results: A total of 120 TPE sessions were performed in 31 GBS patients over a period of 5½ years. Read More

    The role of regulatory T cells in nervous system pathologies.
    J Neurosci Res 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales UNSW, Sydney, Australia.
    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a special subpopulation of immunosuppressive T cells that are essential for sustaining immune homeostasis. They maintain self-tolerance, inhibit autoimmunity, and act as critical negative regulators of inflammation in various pathological states including autoimmunity, injury, and degeneration of the nervous system. Treg cells are known to convey both beneficial and detrimental influences in certain disease contexts, and accumulating research suggests that their action may be altered in a range of peripheral and central nervous system pathologies. Read More

    A Predictive Model for Guillain-Barré Syndrome Based on Single Learning Algorithms.
    Comput Math Methods Med 2017 11;2017:8424198. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    División Académica de Informática y Sistemas, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Km. 1 Carretera Cunduacán, Jalpa de Méndez, Col. Esmeralda, CP 86690, Cunduacán, TAB, Mexico.
    Background. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a potentially fatal autoimmune neurological disorder. The severity varies among the four main subtypes, named as Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (AIDP), Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy (AMAN), Acute Motor Sensory Axonal Neuropathy (AMSAN), and Miller-Fisher Syndrome (MF). Read More

    Humoral cross-reactivity between Zika and dengue viruses: implications for protection and pathology.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2017 May 10;6(5):e33. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently caused extensive outbreaks in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Given its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and neurological and ocular malformities in neonates, ZIKV has become a pathogen of significant public health concern worldwide. ZIKV shares a considerable degree of genetic identity and structural homology with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV). Read More

    Heart-Shaped Bilateral Medullary Pyramidal Infarction as a Pathognomonic Finding of Anterior Spinal Artery Occlusion.
    Neurocrit Care 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.
    Background: Unilateral anterior spinal artery (ASA) occlusion resulting in bilateral medullary pyramidal (BMP) infarction is a rare and devastating stroke subtype. We present two cases highlighting the diagnostic and clinical challenges of BMP infarction.

    Methods: Case reports and literature review. Read More

    [Prolonged weaning during early neurological and neurosurgical rehabilitation : S2k guideline published by the Weaning Committee of the German Neurorehabilitation Society (DGNR)].
    Nervenarzt 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Helios Klinik Schloss Pulsnitz, Pulsnitz, Deutschland.
    Prolonged weaning of patients with neurological or neurosurgery disorders is associated with specific characteristics, which are taken into account by the German Society for Neurorehabilitation (DGNR) in its own guideline. The current S2k guideline of the German Society for Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine is referred to explicitly with regard to definitions (e.g. Read More

    Peripheral nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: Prevalence, clinical and immunological characteristics, treatment and outcome of a large cohort from a single centre.
    Autoimmun Rev 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Autoimmune Diseases, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address:
    Disorders of peripheral nervous system in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (PNS-SLE) are a major cause of morbidity. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of PNS-SLE involvement in a large cohort of SLE patients from a single centre, to characterize such involvement, treatment modalities and outcome, and to identify the possible variables that may be associated with its presence. We performed an observational cross-sectional study that included all SLE patients being followed in our department between March and December 2015 who met at least one of the PNS-SLE case definitions proposed in 1999 by the American College of Rheumatology. Read More

    [Clinical analysis of 9 cases with Anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 protein antibody associated limbic encephalitis].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 May;97(17):1295-1298
    Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450003, China.
    Objective: This study was to describe the clinical characteristics of Anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 protein(LGI1) antibody associated limbic encephalitis. Methods: Clinical data including clinical features, laboratory and radiological findings, treatment and prognosis of the 9 patients were analyzed. Results: In all 9 cases, 6 cases experienced epileptic seizure, 5 cases had psychosis, 7 cases presented with memory impairment, 4 cases showed faciobrachial dystonic seizure, 2 had refractory hyponatremia. Read More

    Pediatric Drug Nitazoxanide: A Potential Choice for Control of Zika.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 3;4(1):ofx009. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, China.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be the cause of congenital malformations, including microcephaly in infants and can cause other disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis, which can also occur in some infected adults. However, at this time, there is no drug approved to treat ZIKV infection. Drug repurposing is the promptest way to obtain an effective drug during a global public health emergency such as the spread of Zika virus. Read More

    Guillain-Barre Syndrome following Tuberculosis: A Rare Association.
    J Neurosci Rural Pract 2017 Apr-Jun;8(2):296-299
    Department of Neurology, Sri Aurobindo Medical College and PGI, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.
    The co-occurrence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and tuberculosis is rare. Even in countries like India, where tuberculosis is common, there is only one case report of co-occurrence of GBS with tuberculosis. We report a case of GBS in association with sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Read More

    Development of the Abbott RealTime ZIKA assay for the qualitative detection of Zika virus RNA from serum, plasma, urine, and whole blood specimens using the m2000 system.
    J Virol Methods 2017 May 4;246:117-124. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA.
    Zika virus is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that has rapidly developed into a world-wide concern. Discovered in 1947, the virus was relatively obscure until an outbreak occurred in 2007 in the Yap islands and spread eventually to the Americas in 2015. Only 20% of patients infected with Zika virus develop symptoms. Read More

    Incidence and clinical characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome before the introduction of Zika virus in Puerto Rico.
    J Neurol Sci 2017 Jun 7;377:102-106. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Puerto Rico Department of Health, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
    Background: Zika virus has been associated with increases in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) incidence. A GBS incidence estimation and clinical description was performed to assess baseline GBS epidemiology before the introduction of Zika virus in Puerto Rico.

    Methods: Hospitalization administrative data from an island-wide insurance claims database and U. Read More

    Alterations of plasma concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants are associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 May 2;470:75-80. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-yuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory polyneuropathy resulting in demyelination in peripheral nervous system. Myelin enriched in lipids is easily oxidized by reactive oxygen species during inflammation. Oxidative stress and lipophilic anti-oxidative capacities in GBS patients have not been fully explored. Read More

    Flavivirus cross-reactivity, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient: Comment response.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Molecular Virology Laboratory, Instituto Carlos Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil.
    Concerning the letter by Joob and Wiwanitkit(1) about our article "Flavivirus cross-reactivity, Guillain-Barré syndrome [GBS] and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient,"(2) we would like to emphasize that we hypothesized that GBS in the studied case could be a result of a previous flavivirus infection or caused by infection with both viruses. We have based our hypothesis on the clinical records obtained during the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemics in Latin America. Similarly to what occurs in Southeast Asia, Brazil has annually undergone several outbreaks of dengue since its re-introduction in the Americas in 1986. Read More

    Causality Assessment of Serious Neurologic Adverse Events Following bOPV National Vaccination Campaign in Israel.
    Isr Med Assoc J 2016 Oct;18(10):590-593
    Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, and Israel Pediatric Association Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.
    Background: During 2013-2014 Israel experienced a continuous circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) but with no clinical cases. WPV1 circulation was gradually terminated following a national vaccination campaign of bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) for 943,587 children < 10 years. Four cases of children with neurological manifestations that appeared following bOPV vaccinations were reported during the campaign: three of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and one of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Read More

    Age may contribute to the increased frequency of axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome.
    Muscle Nerve 2017 May 3. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Center for Research on Neuroimmunological Diseases, Raúl Carrea Institute for Neurological Research (FLENI), Montañeses 2325, Buenos Aires, 1428, Argentina.
    Introduction: The frequency of axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) varies among countries. Previous studies supporting the high frequency of axonal GBS in South America have been carried out with pediatric populations. We seek to determine the frequency of axonal GBS in both children and adults in South America. Read More

    Emerging Zika virus disease: a public health emergency of global concern.
    Virusdisease 2016 Sep 5;27(3):211-214. Epub 2016 May 5.
    Centre for Advance Research (CFAR), King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow, 226003 India.
    Infectious diseases remain a leading source of human morbidity and mortality. Recently, emerging infectious diseases are dominated by zoonoses, and eventually rising considerably. Their emergence is dependent on various factors especially, socioeconomic, environmental and ecological factors etc. Read More

    Validated age-specific reference values for CSF total protein levels in children.
    Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2017 Apr 8. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC - Sophia Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC - Sophia Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Objective: To define age-specific reference values for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein levels for children and validate these values in children with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Methods: Reference values for CSF total protein levels were determined in an extensive cohort of diagnostic samples from children (<18 year) evaluated at Erasmus Medical Center/Sophia Children's Hospital. These reference values were confirmed in children diagnosed with disorders unrelated to raised CSF total protein level and validated in children with GBS, ADEM and MS. Read More

    Suramin inhibits Zika virus replication by interfering with virus attachment and release of infectious particles.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 28;143:230-236. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that mostly causes asymptomatic infections or mild disease characterized by low-grade fever, rash, conjunctivitis, and malaise. However, the recent massive ZIKV epidemics in the Americas have also linked ZIKV infection to fetal malformations like microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and have uncovered previously unrecognized routes of vertical and sexual transmission. Here we describe inhibition of ZIKV replication by suramin, originally an anti-parasitic drug, which was more recently shown to inhibit multiple viruses. Read More

    Zika Virus Persistence in the Central Nervous System and Lymph Nodes of Rhesus Monkeys.
    Cell 2017 May 27;169(4):610-620.e14. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe neuropathology in neonates as well as Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurologic disorders in adults. Prolonged viral shedding has been reported in semen, suggesting the presence of anatomic viral reservoirs. Here we show that ZIKV can persist in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and lymph nodes (LN) of infected rhesus monkeys for weeks after virus has been cleared from peripheral blood, urine, and mucosal secretions. Read More

    Zika Virus.
    Clin Lab Med 2017 Jun 30;37(2):253-267. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0740, USA.
    The ongoing epidemic of Zika fever in the Western Hemisphere has drawn considerable attention from the medical and scientific communities as well as the general public, largely because of its association with birth defects and postinfectious sequelae. Since its appearance in Brazil in 2015, Zika virus has spread to more than 45 countries in the Western Hemisphere and has caused countless infections. To date, no treatment or vaccine exists, but a considerable multinational effort to halt Zika virus transmission is underway. Read More

    [Polyneuropathy in the elderly].
    Z Gerontol Geriatr 2017 Apr 28. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Universitätsklinik für Geriatrie, Christian-Doppler-Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Salzburg, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität, Ignaz-Harrer-Str. 79, 5020, Salzburg, Österreich.
    The peripheral nervous system is subject to changes during the ageing process, e. g. deep tendon reflexes decrease, as does proprioception. Read More

    Ipilimumab-induced Guillain-Barré Syndrome Presenting as Dysautonomia: An Unusual Presentation of a Rare Complication of Immunotherapy.
    J Immunother 2017 Jun;40(5):196-199
    *Vanderbilt University School of Medicine †Department of Surgery ‡Division of Surgical Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.
    Immune-related adverse events are common and well-documented in patients treated with ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of metastatic and stage III melanoma. Neurological complications are rare, but widely variable and potentially devastating. Here, we discuss a case of a patient who was treated with a single dose of ipilimumab for resected stage III melanoma. Read More

    Near real-time surveillance for Guillain-Barré syndrome after influenza vaccination among the Medicare population, 2010/11 to 2013/14.
    Vaccine 2017 May 24;35(22):2986-2992. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
    Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a serious acute demyelinating disease that causes weakness and paralysis. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began collaborating with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to develop near real-time vaccine safety surveillance capabilities in 2006 and has been monitoring for the risk of GBS after influenza vaccination for every influenza season since 2008.

    Methods: We present results from the 2010/11 to 2013/14 influenza seasons using the Updating Sequential Probability Ratio Test (USPRT), with an overall 1-sided α of 0. Read More

    High mortality from Guillain-Barré syndrome in Bangladesh.
    J Peripher Nerv Syst 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Laboratory Sciences and Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Although Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has higher incidence and poor outcome in Bangladesh, mortality from GBS in Bangladesh has never been explored before. We sought to explore the frequency, timing and risk factors for deaths from GBS in Bangladesh. We conducted a prospective study on 407 GBS patients who were admitted to Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from 2010 to 2013. Read More

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