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    65 results match your criteria Growth Hormone Replacement in Older Men

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    Hormone Replacement: The Fountain of Youth?
    Prim Care 2017 Sep;44(3):481-498
    USC Specialty Pharmacy, University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, 1000 South Fremont Avenue, A-10, Suite 10150, Alhambra, CA 91803, USA.
    Natural aging brings reduced production of growth and sex hormones, beginning in middle age, with noticeable physiologic changes by the sixth or seventh decade of life: reduced muscle mass, energy, and exercise capacity and alterations in sexual function. Hormones and hormone precursors have been investigated to delay changes in body composition, strength, and physical and cognitive function. Menopausal hormone therapy is effective for vasomotor and genitourinary symptoms. Read More

    Effects of transdermal testosterone gel or an aromatase inhibitor on serum concentration and pulsatility of growth hormone in older men with age-related low testosterone.
    Metabolism 2017 Apr 19;69:143-147. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Section on Men's Health, Aging and Metabolism, Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 02115. Electronic address:
    Growth hormone is the major regulator of growth and body composition. Pulsatile GH secretion declines exponentially with age. Testosterone replacement is being increasingly offered to older men with age-related low testosterone. Read More

    Clinical Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Adult Males.
    Sex Med Rev 2014 Apr 19;2(2):79-90. Epub 2015 Oct 19.
    Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:
    Introduction: There is a growing interest in the treatment of late-onset hypogonadism, another name for the study of testosterone deficiency in an older age group. Initial attempts at testosterone replacement have also brought attention to the possible adverse effects on the patients' cardiovascular risk factors and their prostate health. The "female" hormone estradiol is no longer considered as the feminizing hormone, as it has been identified to have an effect on the sexual and general well-being of adult males. Read More

    Interventions against sarcopenia in older persons.
    Curr Pharm Des 2014 ;20(38):5983-6006
    Institut du Vieillissement, Universite Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, 37 Allees Jules Guesde, 31000 Toulouse France.
    The term "sarcopenia" describes the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. It represents a major risk factor for functional loss and disability in older persons. Multiple underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been posed at the basis of the sarcopenia phenomenon, including intrinsic (e. Read More

    Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Men with Prostate Cancer: What Is the Evidence?
    Sex Med Rev 2013 Oct 19;1(3):135-142. Epub 2015 Oct 19.
    Department of Urology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Introduction: Testosterone is increasingly being recognized as an important hormone in maintaining proper health in aging males. Testosterone replacement therapy in older men with decreased or low-normal testosterone levels has been recognized to improve sexual function, increase lean body mass and decrease fat mass, improve exercise-induced coronary ischemia, and elevate mood, among other benefits. Prostate cancer remains the most common non-skin malignancy in men in the United States, and as hypogonadism is being recognized and treated more, a dilemma has arisen: treating hypogonadism in men previously treated for prostate cancer. Read More

    Effects of sex and postmenopausal estrogen use on serum phosphorus levels: a cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006.
    Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Feb 17;63(2):198-205. Epub 2013 Sep 17.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; The Charles and Jane Pak Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:
    Background: Elevation of serum phosphorus concentrations has been associated with cardiovascular events in older women and men. Whether age, sex, or estrogen therapy is associated with different phosphorus levels is unknown.

    Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Read More

    Cardiometabolic risks during anabolic hormone supplementation in older men.
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 2013 May;21(5):968-75
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Objective: To determine the cardiometabolic risks of testosterone and growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy to youthful levels during aging.

    Design And Methods: A double-masked, partially placebo controlled study in 112 men 65-90 years-old was conducted. Transdermal testosterone (5 g vs. Read More

    Is androgen therapy indicated in men with osteoporosis?
    Joint Bone Spine 2013 Oct 12;80(5):459-65. Epub 2013 Apr 12.
    Service de rhumatologie, CHU d'Angers, 4, rue Larrey, 49933 Angers cedex 9, France; Groupe Etude sur le Remodelage Osseux et les bioMatériaux (GEROM), UPRES EA 4658, IRIS-IBS, Institut de Biologie en Santé, CHU d'Angers, Angers, France. Electronic address:
    Male osteoporosis is not rare, and its management is a public health issue. The clinical evaluation must include investigations for one or more etiological factors such as hypogonadism, which is found in 5% to 15% of men with osteoporosis. Gradual development of moderate hypogonadism is the most common situation, and the prevalence of hypogonadism increases with advancing age. Read More

    Predictors of the effects of 4 years of growth hormone replacement on bone mineral density in patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency - a KIMS database analysis.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2013 Aug 5;79(2):178-84. Epub 2013 Apr 5.
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
    Objective: Growth hormone (GH) replacement may increase bone mineral density (BMD) in GH-deficient (GHD) adults. The goal of this study was to identify predictors of BMD response to GH replacement in GH naïve adults.

    Design And Measurements: This was a retrospective analysis of data extracted from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database), an international pharmacoepidemiological survey of adult GHD patients from 31 countries. Read More

    Testosterone replacement therapy in reversing "andropause": what is the proof-of-principle?
    Rejuvenation Res 2012 Oct 1;15(5):453-65. Epub 2012 Jun 1.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, Medical School and University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Abstract Testosterone replacement therapy is often equated with the macho male physique and virility and is viewed by some as an antiaging tonic. The growth in testosterone's reputation and its increased use by men of all ages has seemed to outpace the scientific evidences. This review will aim to examine the uncertainty regarding the nature and the clinical importance of the age-related reduction in the testosterone levels. Read More

    Hormone replacement therapy and physical function in healthy older men. Time to talk hormones?
    Endocr Rev 2012 Jun 20;33(3):314-77. Epub 2012 Mar 20.
    Improving physical function and mobility in a continuously expanding elderly population emerges as a high priority of medicine today. Muscle mass, strength/power, and maximal exercise capacity are major determinants of physical function, and all decline with aging. This contributes to the incidence of frailty and disability observed in older men. Read More

    Relation of sex and estrogen therapy to serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum phosphorus, and urine phosphorus: the Heart and Soul Study.
    Am J Kidney Dis 2011 Nov 19;58(5):737-45. Epub 2011 Aug 19.
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92161, USA.
    Background: Menopause is associated with urine phosphorus retention, which is mitigated by estrogen therapy. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a hormone originating from bone that regulates urine phosphorus excretion. Whether sex or estrogen therapy is associated with different FGF-23 levels is unknown. Read More

    AKT1 G205T genotype influences obesity-related metabolic phenotypes and their responses to aerobic exercise training in older Caucasians.
    Exp Physiol 2011 Mar 19;96(3):338-47. Epub 2010 Nov 19.
    Department of Exercise Science and Physical Education, McDaniel College, 2 College Hill, Westminster, MD 21157, USA.
    As part of the insulin signalling pathway, Akt influences growth and metabolism. The AKT1 gene G205T (rs1130214) polymorphism has potential functional effects. Thus, we determined whether the G205T polymorphism influences metabolic variables and their responses to aerobic exercise training. Read More

    Effects of testosterone administration on nocturnal cortisol secretion in healthy older men.
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010 Nov 30;65(11):1185-92. Epub 2010 Jul 30.
    Diabetes Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    In animal studies, testosterone decreases, whereas estrogen increases, cortisol production. In one clinical study, short-term testosterone replacement attenuated corticotrophin-releasing hormone-stimulated cortisol secretion during leuprolide-induced hypogonadism in young men. The effects of longer term testosterone treatment on spontaneous cortisol secretion in younger or older men are unknown. Read More

    Sarcopenia.
    Clin Geriatr Med 2010 May;26(2):331-46
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, Saint Louis University Medical Center, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1402 South Grand Boulevard, M28, St Louis, MO 63104, USA.
    The definition of sarcopenia continues to evolve, from an observational phenomenon to a differential diagnostic approach. Clinical relevance for sarcopenia is defined by a loss in lean muscle mass and impairment of functional status. A therapeutic approach to the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength in older persons depends on correct classification. Read More

    Cardiovascular aspects of menopausal hormone replacement therapy.
    Climacteric 2009 ;12 Suppl 1:41-6
    Department of Medical Sciences, Center for Clinical & Basic Research, IRCCS San Raffaele, Rome, Italy.
    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women in Western countries. Despite preventive strategies, in the past decades, the incidence of cardiovascular events has shown a decline in men but a rise in women, matching the growth of the population of postmenopausal women. Several epidemiological findings suggest the causative role of ovarian hormone deficiency in the development of cardiovascular disease in women. Read More

    Effect of hormone replacement therapy on inflammatory biomarkers.
    Adv Clin Chem 2009 ;47:59-93
    2nd Department of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece.
    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women. Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many forms of vascular disease, including atherosclerosis. Women present with cardiovascular disease a decade after men and this has been attributed to the protective effect of female ovarian sex hormones. Read More

    Growth hormone and sex steroid effects on serum glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations in healthy older women and men.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009 Oct 14;94(10):3833-41. Epub 2009 Jul 14.
    Endocrine Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.
    Context: With aging, GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid concentrations and glucose tolerance decrease, and body fat and serum lipids increase.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess GH and/or sex steroid administration effects on serum glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, and lipids in older individuals.

    Design: A double-masked, 2 x 2 factorial, placebo-controlled, double-dummy design was used for the study. Read More

    Factors other than sex steroids modulate GHRH and GHRP-2 efficacies in men: evaluation using a GnRH agonist/testosterone clamp.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009 Jul 7;94(7):2544-50. Epub 2009 Apr 7.
    Department of Medicine, Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Clinical Translational Science Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
    Background: Sex steroids are prominent regulators of pulsatile GH secretion.

    Hypothesis: An experimentally controlled sex-steroid milieu will permit detection of nonsteroidal factors that determine GH secretion.

    Subjects: Eleven young (age, 24 +/- 0. Read More

    Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in older adults: 1- and 2-y effects on bone.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2009 May 25;89(5):1459-67. Epub 2009 Mar 25.
    Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
    Background: Age-related reductions in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations may be involved in bone mineral density (BMD) losses.

    Objective: The objective was to determine whether DHEA supplementation in older adults improves BMD when co-administered with vitamin D and calcium.

    Design: In year 1, a randomized trial was conducted in which men (n = 55) and women (n = 58) aged 65-75 y took 50 mg/d oral DHEA supplements or placebo. Read More

    Hormone replacement therapy and cardioprotection: a new dawn? A statement of the Study Group on Cardiovascular Disease in Women of the Italian Society of Cardiology on hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.
    J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2009 Jan;10(1):85-92
    Centre for Clinical and Basic Research, IRCCS San Raffaele Roma, Via della Pisana 234, 00163 Rome, Italy.
    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in Western countries. Despite preventive strategies, in the past decades the incidence of cardiovascular events has shown a decline in men but a rise in women, matching the growth of the population of postmenopausal women. Several epidemiological findings suggest the causative pathophysiological role of ovarian hormone deficiency in the development of cardiovascular disease in women. Read More

    Effects of an oral ghrelin mimetic on body composition and clinical outcomes in healthy older adults: a randomized trial.
    Ann Intern Med 2008 Nov;149(9):601-11
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.
    Background: Growth hormone secretion and muscle mass decline from midpuberty throughout life, culminating in sarcopenia, frailty, decreased function, and loss of independence. The decline of growth hormone in the development of sarcopenia is one of many factors, and its etiologic role needs to be demonstrated.

    Objective: To determine whether MK-677, an oral ghrelin mimetic, increases growth hormone secretion into the young-adult range without serious adverse effects, prevents the decline of fat-free mass, and decreases abdominal visceral fat in healthy older adults. Read More

    Experimental benefits of sex hormones on vascular function and the outcome of hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease.
    Curr Cardiol Rev 2008 Nov;4(4):309-22
    Division of Vascular Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of female sex hormones. Experimental data have shown beneficial vascular effects of estrogen including stimulation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vascular relaxation. However, the experimental evidence did not translate into vascular benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women, and HERS, HERS-II and WHI clinical trials demonstrated adverse cardiovascular events with HRT. Read More

    Increases in bone mineral density in response to oral dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in older adults appear to be mediated by serum estrogens.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008 Dec 23;93(12):4767-73. Epub 2008 Sep 23.
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, mail stop B179, Room 8111, 12631 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.
    Context: The mechanisms by which dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement increases bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults are not known.

    Objective: The aims were to determine the effects of DHEA therapy on changes in sex hormones and IGF-I and their associations with changes in BMD.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at an academic research institution. Read More

    The role of testosterone replacement therapy following radical prostatectomy.
    Urol Clin North Am 2007 Nov;34(4):549-53, vi
    Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Hypogonadism is highly prevalent in older men and men who have prostate cancer. The symptoms of hypogonadism, such as depression, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and decreased bone mineral density, can significantly impair a man's quality of life. Moreover, we know that testosterone plays an important role in erectile preservation and in the growth and function of cavernosal and penile nerves. Read More

    Long-term testosterone supplementation augments overnight growth hormone secretion in healthy older men.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007 Sep 5;293(3):E769-75. Epub 2007 Jun 5.
    Endocrine Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Circulating testosterone (T) and GH/IGF-I are diminished in healthy aging men. Short-term administration of high doses of T augments GH secretion in older men. However, effects of long-term, low-dose T supplementation on GH secretion are unknown. Read More

    [The influence of partial androgen deficiency of aging men (PADAM) on the impulse regime of incretion of several hormones and mitotic activity].
    Tsitologiia 2006 ;48(10):862-6
    This research work is devoted to an important subject--study of the impulse regime of the incretion of a series of hormones among men with partial androgen deficience of aging men (PADAM). The results of this study suggest that PADAM leads to a breakdown of the impulse regime of incretion of a series of hormones, including luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and somatotropic hormones (STH), as well as cortisol and insulin among men of older age groups. These changes accompany the development of metabolic syndrome (X-syndrome); their development can be inversed through androgen-replacement therapy. Read More

    Dehydroepiandrosterone secretion in healthy older men and women: effects of testosterone and growth hormone administration in older men.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov 22;91(11):4445-52. Epub 2006 Aug 22.
    Endocrine Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
    Context: Aging is associated with diminished gonadal steroid and GH/IGF-I axis activity; whether these changes contribute to the parallel declines of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) production is unknown, as are the effects of sex steroid and/or GH administration on DHEA and DHEAS production.

    Objective: Our objective was to evaluate morning DHEAS concentrations and nocturnal DHEA secretory dynamics in healthy older men and women, before and after chronic administration of sex steroid(s) alone, GH alone, sex steroid(s) combined with GH, or placebo alone.

    Design: We compared nocturnal DHEA secretory dynamics (2000 h to 0800 h, sampling every 20 min, analyzed by multiparameter deconvolution and approximate entropy algorithms) in healthy older (65-88 yr) men (n = 68) and women (n = 36), both before and after 26 wk of administration of sex steroid(s) alone [testosterone (T) in men or estrogen/progesterone in women], GH alone, sex steroid(s) combined with GH, or placebo alone. Read More

    The Dehydroepiandrosterone And WellNess (DAWN) study: research design and methods.
    Contemp Clin Trials 2007 Feb 6;28(2):153-68. Epub 2006 May 6.
    University of California, San Diego, United States.
    Levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS), the major secretory products of the adrenal gland, decline dramatically with age, concurrent with the onset of degenerative changes and chronic diseases associated with aging. Epidemiological evidences in humans and animal studies suggest that DHEA(S) may have cardioprotective, antiobesity, antidiabetic, and immuno-enhancing properties. These observations led to the proposal that restoration of DHEA to young adult levels may have beneficial effects on age-related conditions. Read More

    Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on bone mineral density: what implications for therapy?
    Treat Endocrinol 2002 ;1(6):349-57
    Division of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Older Adult Health Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.
    Because dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels decline dramatically with aging and low DHEA levels correlate with age-related diseases, it has been suggested that old age may represent a condition of DHEA deficiency. Accordingly, there have been some studies of the effects of restoring the DHEA levels of older individuals back to the normal range in the young. Emerging evidence from these studies shows that prasterone (DHEA replacement) may significantly enhance bone mineral density (BMD). Read More

    Interventions for sarcopenia and muscle weakness in older people.
    Age Ageing 2004 Nov 22;33(6):548-55. Epub 2004 Sep 22.
    VA Medical Center, GRECC-182, 1601 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32608-1197, USA.
    Objective: three major strategies have been tested for combating the losses in muscle mass and strength that accompany ageing. Those strategies are testosterone replacement for men, growth hormone replacement and resistance exercise training. This review will cover the risks and benefits associated with each of these interventions. Read More

    The effect of androgen supplementation therapy on the prostate.
    Aging Male 2003 Sep;6(3):166-74
    With the recent availability of transdermal formulations, androgen supplementation therapy is increasingly being prescribed for men in their 50s and 60s. With the growing use of testosterone products, there is concern about the long-term risks of androgen supplementation therapy, particularly on the prostate. This article reviews what is known about the safety of testosterone replacement therapy in terms of the potential risks for development of symptomatic benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. Read More

    Preliminary development of a new individualised questionnaire measuring quality of life in older men with age-related hormonal decline: the A-RHDQoL.
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 2003 Oct 6;1:51. Epub 2003 Oct 6.
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK.
    Background: There is increasing interest in hormone replacement therapy to improve health and quality of life (QoL) of older men with age-related decline in hormone levels. This paper reports the preliminary development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of a new individualised questionnaire, the A-RHDQoL, measuring perceived impact of age-related hormonal decline on QoL of older men. A-RHDQoL design was based on the HDQoL for people with growth hormone (GH) deficiency and the ADDQoL (for diabetes). Read More

    Androgen therapy in the aging male.
    World J Urol 2003 Nov 24;21(5):292-305. Epub 2003 Oct 24.
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, 52900 Ramat Gan, Israel.
    The world population is expanding rapidly; at the same time, life expectancy is increasing, and fertility rates are decreasing. Due to these facts, it is expected that the biggest increases of population growth will occur in the aging population. In the aging male, endocrine changes and a decline in endocrine function involve tissue responsiveness as well as reduced secretory output from peripheral glands and alterations in the central mechanism controlling the temporal organization of hormonal release. Read More

    The gender differences in growth hormone-binding protein and leptin persist in 80-year-old men and women and is not caused by sex hormones.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2003 Oct;59(4):482-6
    Department of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Objective: Leptin and growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) both show gender differences that might be explained by sex hormones. To study the potential relevance of oestradiol and testosterone, we have examined 80-year-old subjects in whom oestradiol is higher in men than in women. The interrelationships between leptin, insulin, GHBP and fat mass in this age group were also investigated. Read More

    Aspects of growth hormone (GH) replacement in elderly patients with GH deficiency: data from KIMS.
    Horm Res 2003 ;60(Suppl 1):112-20
    Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, UK.
    This study was designed to examine the clinical characteristics of adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (AO-GHD) in patients aged over 65 years in comparison with patients aged less than 65 years. In addition, the effects of 12 months of GH replacement therapy on body composition, carbohydrate metabolism, blood pressure, serum lipids and quality of life were compared between patients aged over 65 years and patients under 45 years, 45-55 years and 55-65 years of age. The investigation was an observational study of patients enrolled in KIMS (Pharmacia International Metabolic Database). Read More

    Androgen treatment of male hypogonadism in older males.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003 Jun;85(2-5):367-73
    GRECC, VA Medical Center, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, 1402 S. Grand Blvd., M238, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.
    The treatment of primary and secondary hypogonadism with testosterone is well established. Recently, there has been increased awareness that low testosterone levels also occur in chronically ill persons and aging males. Because of sex hormone binding globulin changes, it is more appropriate to make the diagnosis using either free or bioavailable testosterone. Read More

    Replacement therapy in the aging male.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2002 ;25(10 Suppl):2-9
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar, Ilan University Ramat Gan 52900 Israel.
    In the aging male, endocrine changes and decline in endocrine function involve tissue responsiveness as well as reduced secretory output from peripheral glands and alterations in the central mechanism controlling the temporal organization of hormonal release. The latter are likely to be responsible for the dampened circadian hormonal and non-hormonal rhythms. These are in part responsible of the age dependent decrease of the peripheral levels of T, DHEA, the thyroid hormones, GH, IGF-I, and melatonin. Read More

    [Growth hormone and prevention in elderly patients--fantasy and reality].
    Ther Umsch 2002 Jul;59(7):371-6
    Zentrum für Geriatrie und Rehabilitation am Bürgerspital St. Gallen.
    Human growth hormone is one of the hormones used most frequently in the setting of so-called anti-aging strategies. To date, the preventive value of such a hormone replacement therapy in relatively healthy and well functioning middle aged persons is unknown. Although growth hormone leads to significant alterations in body composition and changes in serum cholesterol levels in patients with adult growth hormone deficiency, there are currently no data supporting the hypothesis that growth-hormone in non deficient persons prolongs life span or reduces morbidity. Read More

    Impact of obesity on hypogonadism in the andropause.
    Int J Androl 2002 Aug;25(4):195-201
    University of Texas School of Medicine, Geriatric Medicine Fellowship Program, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
    Obesity is an issue that is increasingly affecting ageing men. With ageing, there is a decline in androgens as well. There are implications for the health of ageing men as a result of hypogonadism. Read More

    DHEA in bone and joint diseases.
    Joint Bone Spine 2001 Dec;68(6):588-94
    Rheumatology Department A, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris, France.
    Serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (sDHEA) decrease dramatically with age in parallel with the appearance of age-related health problems, leading to the suggestion that DHEA replacement therapy may be beneficial in older patients. Daily oral doses that restore sDHEA levels to the values seen in young adults are well tolerated in the short-term (6 months to 1 year) and seem to have a positive although modest beneficial effect on bone in elderly women, particularly those with low pretreatment sDHEA levels. This effect seems ascribable to both decreased bone resorption and increased bone formation, which are probably related mainly to conversion of DHEA into active sex steroids, i. Read More

    Growth hormone and sex steroid effects on bone metabolism and bone mineral density in healthy aged women and men.
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002 Jan;57(1):M12-8
    Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Background: Aging is associated with concomitant declines in activity of the growth hormone (GH) and gonadal steroid axes, and in bone mineral density (BMD), in both sexes. Long-term estrogen replacement slows bone loss and prevents fractures in postmenopausal women, whereas the effects of supplementation of GH or testosterone on bone metabolism and BMD in aged individuals remains uncertain.

    Methods: Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study design, we investigated the separate and interactive effects of 6 months of administration of recombinant human GH and/or gonadal steroids on bone biochemical markers and BMD in 125 healthy, older (>65 years) women (n = 53) and men (n = 72) with age-related reductions in GH and gonadal steroids. Read More

    Neuroendocrine aging in men. Andropause and somatopause.
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2001 Sep;30(3):647-69
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Aging is accompanied by gradual but progressive reductions in the secretion of testosterone and growth hormone in men, and by alterations in body composition and functional capacity that, to some degree, undo the effects of puberty. Preventing or reversing these changes with the use of trophic factors, including androgens, growth hormone, and growth hormone secretagogues, is an appealing prospect, but documenting the effectiveness of these interventions and their benefits and risks has proven to be a difficult undertaking that is far from complete. Small-scale clinical studies have shown that it is practicable to boost growth hormone and IGF-1 levels for periods of up to 12 months, and testosterone for up to 36 months, to reverse at least some age-related changes in body composition. Read More

    Aging men--challenges ahead.
    Asian J Androl 2001 Sep;3(3):161-8
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Israel.
    The prolongation of life expectancy and the drastic reduction of fertility rate are the primary cause of an aging world. It is projected that the elderly (above 65) will increase within the next 25 years by 82%, whereas the new born only by 3%. Despite the enormous medical progress during the past few decades, the last years of life are still accompanied by increasing ill health and disability. Read More

    Effects of GH and/or sex steroid administration on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in healthy aged women and men.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001 Aug;86(8):3604-10
    Endocrine Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.
    Aging is associated with reduced GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid axis activity and with increased abdominal fat. We employed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, noncross-over design to study the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone (20 microg/kg BW), sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate in men), or GH + sex hormone on total abdominal area, abdominal sc fat, and visceral fat in 110 healthy women (n = 46) and men (n = 64), 65-88 yr old (mean, 72 yr). GH administration increased IGF-I levels in women (P = 0. Read More

    The influence of aging and sex hormones on expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone in the human immune system.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001 Jul;86(7):3157-61
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin, and Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA.
    GHRH is a neuropeptide that has also been localized to the immune system. The physiological function of GHRH in the immune system has not been elucidated. This study was conducted to determine whether immune GHRH expression is altered in certain pathological states, such as immune cell tumors, and whether gender, aging, and alterations in the sex steroid milieu influence the expression of this peptide in immune cells. Read More

    Estrogens reduce and withdrawal of estrogens increase risk of microsatellite instability-positive colon cancer.
    Cancer Res 2001 Jan;61(1):126-30
    Health Research Center, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84108, USA.
    There are sex differences in the occurrence of microsatellite instability (MSI) in colon tumors. Taken together with the epidemiological evidence that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and, less consistently, parity, are inversely associated with colon cancer, it has been hypothesized that estrogens are associated with MSI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex-specific differences in the prevalence of MSI in colon tumors and to determine whether reproductive history and hormonal exposures are associated with MSI. Read More

    Effects of DHEA replacement on bone mineral density and body composition in elderly women and men.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 Nov;53(5):561-8
    Washington University Claude Pepper Older Americans Independence Center, Division of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Objective: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a precursor for both oestrogens and androgens. Its marked decline with ageing may influence age-related changes in tissues influenced by sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of DHEA replacement on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in elderly women and men with low serum DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) levels. Read More

    Hormone replacement in the aging male?.
    Exp Gerontol 1999 Dec;34(8):923-33
    Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck.
    The recent increase in the elderly population, current health trends, and awareness of age-related changes in the male endocrine system have led to discussions about the endocrine system being a "pacemaker" of male aging. Better prevention and treatment of "non-beneficial states of health" in aging men, such as generally decreased well-being and virility, increased visceral fat, osteopenia, atherosclerosis, and impaired cognitive function, is based on improved understanding of aging, particularly the significance of age-associated hormonal changes. Although not as dramatic as in women, men also show declining hormone serum concentrations with aging (Vermeulen and Kaufman, 1995). Read More

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