15,589 results match your criteria Growth Hormone Deficiency


Covert actions of growth hormone: fibrosis, cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA.

Since its discovery nearly a century ago, over 100,000 studies of growth hormone (GH) have investigated its structure, how it interacts with the GH receptor and its multiple actions. These include effects on growth, substrate metabolism, body composition, bone mineral density, the cardiovascular system and brain function, among many others. Recombinant human GH is approved for use to promote growth in children with GH deficiency (GHD), along with several additional clinical indications. Read More

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Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: phenotype, predictors, and pathophysiology of perinatal events.

Pituitary 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Endocrinology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400012, India.

Purpose: There is limited data regarding Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome (PSIS) from India. Moreover, the pathophysiological link between perinatal events and PSIS is unclear. We aim to elucidate the predictors of PSIS among patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and perinatal events in PSIS by comparing cohorts of PSIS and genetically proven GHD without PSIS. Read More

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Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Age-Specific Reference Values for Healthy Adult Population of Serbia.

Acta Endocrinol (Buchar) 2021 Oct-Dec;17(4):462-471

Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Novi Sad, Serbia.

Context: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is main serum surrogate marker of growth hormone (GH) secretion, used in diagnostics and treatment of GH deficiency (GHD) and acromegaly. Regional, ethnic, racial or nutritional factors obscure cross-population applicability of IGF-1 reference values. Establishment of population- and assay-specific reference values requires sizable representative cohort of healthy subjects. Read More

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Case Report: Acquired Generalized Anhidrosis Caused by Brain Tumor: Review of the Literature.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 26;13:877715. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Japan.

Purpose: There has been limited focus on sweating failure in patients with brain tumor. We report two patients with generalized anhidrosis caused by germinoma. We also review previous reports of generalized anhidrosis due to brain tumor. Read More

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A randomized double-blind single center study of testosterone replacement therapy or placebo in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency (Einstein-intervention).

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Introduction: Elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) in combination with low-normal testosterone (mild Leydig cell insufficiency) is common in testicular cancer (TC) survivors and is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome. The aim was to evaluate if testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves metabolic health in this subgroup of TC survivors.

Patients And Methods: This was a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Read More

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Growth of teeth and bones in adult subjects with congenital untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2022 May 19;65:101469. Epub 2022 May 19.

Division of Endocrinology, Health Sciences Graduate Program, Federal University of Sergipe, 49060-100 Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: To understand the growth of teeth and mandibular and maxillary bones in subjects with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD).

Material And Methods: Mesiodistal tooth width of 28 maxillary and mandibular dental models of 14 adult IGHD subjects (9 men) were digitalized and compared to 40 models of 20 normal-statured controls (11 men). The mean SDS of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were compared with height, cephalic perimeter, total anterior facial height, total maxillary and mandibular length, and maxillary and mandibular arches. Read More

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The modulatory role of growth hormone in inflammation and macrophage activation.

Endocrinology 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Inflammation is a body's response to remove harmful stimuli and heal tissue damage, which is involved in various physiology and pathophysiology conditions. If dysregulated, inflammation may lead to significant negative impacts. Growth hormone (GH) has been shown not only responsible for body growth but also critical in the modulation of inflammation. Read More

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Skeletal and dental age discrepancy and occlusal traits in children with growth hormone deficiency and idiopathic short stature.

Clin Oral Investig 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 70 Bukowska Street, 60-812, Poznan, Poland.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dental and bone age delay and occlusal traits of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS).

Material And Methods: The study group included 46 patients aged 5 to 14 years: 15 with ISS, 17 with GHD before growth hormone treatment, and 14 with GHD during substitution therapy. The control group consisted of 46 age and sex-matched subjects of normal height. Read More

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Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency: Diagnostic and Treatment Journeys From the Patients' Perspective.

J Endocr Soc 2022 Jul 12;6(7):bvac077. Epub 2022 May 12.

Pituitary Center, Departments of Medicine and Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is a rare and serious condition associated with significant morbidity, including reduced quality of life, and is underdiagnosed and often missed in patients. Although the onset of AGHD can occur in either childhood or adulthood, adult-onset AGHD is more difficult to identify as it lacks the auxologic signs caused by GHD during childhood, includes symptoms that tend to be nonspecific, and lacks reliable, simple biomarker testing options. A panel of 9 patients with AGHD (3 with childhood onset; 6 with adult onset) was assembled to share their first-hand experiences, to help reveal important areas of need, increase health literacy, and to raise awareness about GHD among patients, caregivers, and healthcare practitioners. Read More

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Differences in the Distribution of IGF-I Concentrations Between European and US Populations.

J Endocr Soc 2022 Jul 19;6(7):bvac081. Epub 2022 May 19.

Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, Burlington, 27215 North Carolina, USA.

Context: Method-specific reference intervals (RIs) determine utility of IGF-I as a biomarker in GH-related diseases. Differences between populations might affect applicability of RIs.

Objective: To compare population-specific RIs derived from IGF-I routine testing in laboratories in the United States and Europe using the same assay. Read More

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The landscape of retesting in childhood-onset idiopathic growth hormone deficiency and its reversibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Endocrinol 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

W Hoegler, Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Johannes Kepler Universitat Linz, Linz, Austria.

Objective Children diagnosed with idiopathic, isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) are frequently observed to no longer be GH deficient at a later stage of growth as a result of "GHD reversal". Reevaluation of GH status by stimulation test is currently incorporated into management guidelines at attainment of final height (FH). Over the past three decades, numerous studies have evaluated reversal rates using different methodologies including crucial parameters like GHD etiology, GH cut-off and retesting time point, with heterogeneous results. Read More

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Pituitary Stalk Thickening: Causes and Consequences. The Children's Memorial Health Institute Experience and Literature Review.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 20;13:868558. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pathology, Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Pituitary stalk thickening (PST) is a rare abnormality in the pediatric population. Its etiology is heterogeneous. The aim of the study was to identify important clinical, radiological and endocrinological manifestations of patients with PST and follow the course of the disease. Read More

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Musculoskeletal Effects of Altered GH Action.

Front Physiol 2022 19;13:867921. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, United States.

Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone that can signal directly through its receptor or indirectly through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) stimulation. GH draws its name from its anabolic effects on muscle and bone but also has distinct metabolic effects in multiple tissues. In addition to its metabolic and musculoskeletal effects, GH is closely associated with aging, with levels declining as individuals age but GH action negatively correlating with lifespan. Read More

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Molecular Genetics and Pathogenesis of the Floating Harbor Syndrome: Case Report of Long-Term Growth Hormone Treatment and a Literature Review.

Front Genet 2022 18;13:846101. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Genomic Medicine, D.O.Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductology, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Floating Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an extremely rare disorder, with slightly more than a hundred cases reported worldwide. FHS is caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene; however, little is known about the pathogenesis of FHS or the effectiveness of its treatment. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed for the definitive molecular diagnosis of the disease. Read More

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Prevalence of endocrine disorders among children exposed to Lavender Essential Oil and Tea Tree Essential Oils.

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2022 Jun 9;9(2):117-124. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Franklin Health Research Center, 1650 Murfreesboro Rd., Suite 156, Franklin, TN, 37067, USA.

Background: Lavender essential oil and tea tree essential oil have become popular ingredients in personal care and household products in recent decades. Questions regarding the safety of these oils in pediatric populations have been raised, proposing a link between these essential oils and endocrine disruption in children, specifically prepubertal gynecomastia. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted to evaluate this proposed link. Read More

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In vivo investigation of ruminant placenta function and physiology-a review.

J Anim Sci 2022 Jun;100(6)

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

The placenta facilitates the transport of nutrients to the fetus, removal of waste products from the fetus, immune protection of the fetus and functions as an endocrine organ, thereby determining the environment for fetal growth and development. Additionally, the placenta is a highly metabolic organ in itself, utilizing a majority of the oxygen and glucose derived from maternal circulation. Consequently, optimal placental function is required for the offspring to reach its genetic potential in utero. Read More

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Management of Growth Disorders in Puberty: GH, GnRHa and Aromatase Inhibitors: A Clinical Review.

Endocr Rev 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Pubertal children with significant growth retardation represent a considerable therapeutic challenge. In growth hormone (GH) deficiency, and in those without identifiable pathologies (idiopathic short stature), the impact of using GH is significantly hindered by the relentless tempo of bone age acceleration caused by sex steroids, limiting time available for growth. Estrogen principally modulates epiphyseal fusion in females and males. Read More

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A Novel Heterozygous Variant in a Neurofibromatosis-Noonan Syndrome Patient with Growth Hormone Deficiency: A Case Report.

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Endocrinology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University.

Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS), a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, shows the manifestations of both neurofibromatosis type 1 () and Noonan syndrome. We present a case of NFNS with short stature due to the heterozygous nonsense variant of the gene. A 12-year-old boy was admitted for short stature, numerous café-au-lait spots, low-set and posteriorly rotated ears, sparse eyebrows, broad forehead and inverted triangular face, and nodular abnormal lesions revealed by cranial and spine magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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Bone Health in Children with Rheumatic Disorders: Focus on Molecular Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Management.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 20;23(10). Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

Bone is an extremely dynamic and adaptive tissue, whose metabolism and homeostasis is influenced by many different hormonal, mechanical, nutritional, immunological and pharmacological stimuli. Genetic factors significantly affect bone health, through their influence on bone cells function, cartilage quality, calcium and vitamin D homeostasis, sex hormone metabolism and pubertal timing. In addition, optimal nutrition and physical activity contribute to bone mass acquisition in the growing age. Read More

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Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone during Growth Hormone Treatment.

Children (Basel) 2022 May 15;9(5). Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Navarra Hospital Complex, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.

. There is some controversy concerning a potential interaction between vitamin D and PTH and the GH/IGF-1 axis. The goal of this study is to assess vitamin D and PTH status in children with GH deficiency at diagnostic and during treatment with rhGH. Read More

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Proteins and proteases of Prader-Willi syndrome: a comprehensive review and perspectives.

Biosci Rep 2022 Jun;42(6)

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a rare complex genetic disease that is associated with pathological disorders that include endocrine disruption, developmental, neurological, and physical problems as well as intellectual, and behavioral dysfunction. In early stage, PWS is characterized by respiratory distress, hypotonia, and poor sucking ability, causing feeding concern and poor weight gain. Additional features of the disease evolve over time. Read More

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Excess Growth Hormone Alters the Male Mouse Gut Microbiome in an Age-dependent Manner.

Endocrinology 2022 Jul;163(7)

Translational Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Graduate College, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA.

The gut microbiome has an important role in host development, metabolism, growth, and aging. Recent research points toward potential crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. Our laboratory previously showed that GH excess and deficiency are associated with an altered gut microbial composition in adult mice. Read More

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LCN2 is a new diagnostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in idiopathic short stature.

J Cell Mol Med 2022 Jun 24;26(12):3568-3581. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Idiopathic short stature (ISS) is the most common paediatric endocrine disease. However, the underlying pathology of ISS remains unclear. Currently, there are no effective diagnostic markers or therapeutic strategies available for ISS. Read More

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Serum Metabonomics Reveals Key Metabolites in Different Types of Childhood Short Stature.

Front Pharmacol 2022 5;13:818952. Epub 2022 May 5.

Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Daqing, China.

Nowadays, short stature (SS) in childhood is a common condition encountered by pediatricians, with an increase in not just a few families. Various studies related to the variations in key metabolites and their biological mechanisms that lead to SS have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. However, little is known about the role of metabolite variation in different types of childhood SS that influence these biological processes and whether the understanding of the key metabolites from different types of childhood SS would predict the disease progression better. Read More

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A molecular analysis of neural olfactory placode differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells.

Stem Cells Dev 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Texas Biomedical Research Institute, 7075, Southwest National Primate Research Center, San Antonio, Texas, United States.

During embryonic development, the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and the gonadotropic-releasing hormone neurons (GNRHNs) migrate from the early nasal cavity, known as the olfactory placode, to the brain. Defects in the development of OSNs and GNRHNs result in neurodevelopmental disorders such as anosmia and congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, respectively. Treatments do not restore the defective neurons in these disorders, and as a result, patients have a diminished sense of smell or a gonadotropin hormone deficiency. Read More

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The association between idiopathic scoliosis and growth hormone treatment in short children.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of scoliosis, and the risk of both its onset and progression has been found to correlate with growth spurts. Therefore, recombinant human growth hormone (GH) treatment used in short children may affect both the initiation and aggravation of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between idiopathic scoliosis and GH treatment in short children. Read More

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Psychiatric Disorders and Peer-Victimization in Children and Adolescents With Growth Hormone Deficiency.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2022 May 17:99228221096654. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey.

In this study, we aimed to investigate psychiatric disorders, bullying/victimization, and quality of life in children and adolescents with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Sixty-one children and adolescents who were diagnosed as having idiopathic GHD were evaluated using a semistructured interview by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. Some 45. Read More

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