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    13111 results match your criteria Growth Hormone Deficiency

    1 OF 263

    Hepatic lipid accumulation: cause and consequence of dysregulated glucoregulatory hormones.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    B Renquist, Animal Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, 85719, United States
    Fatty liver can be diet, endocrine, genetic, viral, or drug induced. Independent of cause, hepatic lipid accumulation promotes systemic metabolic dysfunction. By acting as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands, hepatic non-esterified fatty acids upregulate expression of gluconeogenic, beta-oxidative, lipogenic, and ketogenic genes, promoting hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and ketosis. Read More

    MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: The multiple facets of GH: lessons from lifetime, untreated isolated GH deficiency due to GHRH receptor mutation.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    R Salvatori, Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 21287, United States.
    Twenty years ago, we described a kindred of 105 individuals with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) in Itabaianinha County, in Brazilian northeast, due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene. These subjects exhibit markedly reduced GH responsiveness to stimulatory tests, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF binding protein type 3, and the acid-labile subunit are markedly reduced, with a lesser reduction of IGF-II. Read More

    De Novo Mutation of KAT6B Gene Causing Atypical Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson Syndrome or Genitopatellar Syndrome.
    Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2017 Apr 7;36(2):130-138. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    a Institute of Pediatric Translational Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine , Shanghai , China.
    Mutations in KAT6B gene are responsible for Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS) and genitopatellar syndrome (GPS), with most mutations occurring in exon 18. A 4-year-old Chinese boy presented with short stature but no other clinical features of SBBYSS or GPS had a de novo novel nonsense pathogenic mutation in exon 14 of the KAT6B gene at position c.2636T>A (p. Read More

    Altered structure and function of adipose tissue in long-lived mice with growth hormone-related mutations.
    Adipocyte 2017 Mar 21:1-7. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    a Department of Internal Medicine , Southern Illinois University School of Medicine , Springfield , Illinois , USA.
    A major focus of biogerontology is elucidating the role(s) of the endocrine system in aging and the accumulation of age-related diseases. Endocrine control of mammalian longevity was first reported in Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)) mice, which are long-lived due to a recessive Prop1 loss-of-function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Following this report, several other GH-related mutants with altered longevity have been described including long-lived Snell dwarf and growth hormone receptor knockout mice, and short-lived GH overexpressing transgenic mice. Read More

    Late pubertal growth spurt in a girl with growth hormone deficiency: Is Kaufmann therapy effective in a girl with short stature who responds poorly to growth hormone therapy and estrogen-replacement therapy?
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kansai Medical University Medical Center, Osaka, Japan.
    A Japanese senior high school girl aged 18 years and 5 months with growth hormone deficiency was referred for primary amenorrhea. Her height was 1.36 m, and her bodyweight was 23. Read More

    Erratum to: Long-term safety and efficacy of Omnitrope(®) in adults with growth hormone deficiency: Italian interim analysis of the PATRO Adults study.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Endocrinology and Diabetology Unit, Medical Sciences Department, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

    An evaluation of neuroendocrine dysfunction following acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective study.
    Asian J Neurosurg 2017 Jan-Mar;12(1):34-36
    Department of Neurosurgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Objective: The aim was to investigate the incidence and pattern of neuroendocrine changes in cases of acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

    Materials And Methods: Endocrine assessment was performed in 100 consecutive cases of acute aneurysmal SAH presenting within 7 days of ictus. The gonadotropic, somatotrophic, thyrotropic, and corticotrophic axes were evaluated for their possible dysfunction. Read More

    A Pilot Study Evaluating Therapeutic Response of Different Dosage of Oral Glucocorticoid in Two Children with Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency Presenting with Diffuse Mucocutaneous Hyperpigmentation.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Mar-Apr;62(2):191-194
    Department of Pediatrics, Dr. B. C. Roy Post Graduate Institute of Paediatric Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Introduction: Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive potentially life-threatening condition, characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency, preserved aldosterone/renin secretion, and secondary rise in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone level. This occurs due to either mutation in adrenocorticotropic receptor (25%, FGD Type-1) or in the MC2 receptor accessory protein (15%-20%). However, in about 50% patients, no identifiable mutations have been identified. Read More

    Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of MOD-4023, a Long-Acting Human Growth Hormone, in Growth Hormone Deficiency Children.
    Horm Res Paediatr 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Background/aims: MOD-4023 is a long-acting human growth hormone (hGH) in clinical trials for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). A key goal is maintenance of serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 within normal range throughout GH dosing. The study aimed to develop a pharmacokinetic model for MOD-4023 and a pharmacodynamic model for the effect of MOD-4023 on IGF-1 to allow estimation of peak and mean IGF-1 and to identify the optimal IGF-1 sampling day. Read More

    [A rare type of severe obesity in children and adolescents].
    Ugeskr Laeger 2017 Feb;179(8)
    A four-year-old girl was referred to a paediatric department with low height, obesity and hypothyroidism. Her paraclinical tests were characteristic with elevated P-parathyroid hormone concentration, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, abnormal phenotype with brachydactyly, tooth problems and mental retardation, which led to a suspicion of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). The diagnosis was verified by molecular genetic testing. Read More

    Validation of the Italian Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.
    Purpose: The Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire is a disease-specific instrument developed to assess health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in children with short stature. While the original instrument was simultaneously developed in five European countries, this study describes the results of the Italian QoLISSY translation, cultural adaptation, and validation.

    Methods: Focus group discussions and a cognitive debriefing process with children (N = 12) diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency or idiopathic short stature and one parent each, as well as parents of younger children (N = 20) were conducted to examine the linguistic and content validity of the Italian version. Read More

    [Research on the correlation and regulation of bone metabolism related biochemical indexes in different gestational ages].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;97(13):1015-1018
    The Medical Laboratory Center of General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China.
    Objective: To investigate the correlation and metabolic characteristics of the growth hormone (GH) and other bone metabolism related biochemical markers in pregnancy women serum. Methods: Determination of GH, 25 hydroxy vitamin D(25(OH)D), osteocalcin n-terminal fragments (N-MID), total propeptide of type 1 procollagen (TP1NP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in different gestation women serum, the experimental group involving 75 cases of early pregnancy women(11-14 weeks), 135 cases of pregnancy women(15-21 weeks), 62 cases of late pregnancy women(31-40 weeks) and 28 cases of postpartum women(1-3 days). All cases were selected from prenatal screening patients in hospital from February 2016 to February 2017. Read More

    The Role of Endogenous Strigolactones and Their Interaction with ABA during the Infection Process of the Parasitic Weed Phelipanche ramosa in Tomato Plants.
    Front Plant Sci 2017 24;8:392. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University Wageningen, Netherlands.
    The root parasitic plant species Phelipanche ramosa, branched broomrape, causes severe damage to economically important crops such as tomato. Its seed germination is triggered by host-derived signals upon which it invades the host root. In tomato, strigolactones (SLs) are the main germination stimulants for P. Read More

    Understanding Treatment Burden for Children Treated for Growth Hormone Deficiency.
    Patient 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Novo Nordisk, Søborg, Denmark.
    Objective: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) treatment for children requires growth hormone injections, typically administered daily until the child reaches adult height. Child GHD treatment burden is not well understood and no disease-specific measures exist to assess this burden. The purpose of the study was to explore GHD treatment burden for children and their parents by conducting concept elicitation interviews supporting a theoretical model of the impact of GHD treatment. Read More

    Use of Hormone Replacement in Females with Endocrine Disorders.
    Horm Res Paediatr 2017 Apr 4;87(4):215-223. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is necessary in adolescents with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in order to avoid estrogen deficiency. The goal of this minirewiew is to present the different types of estrogens (17β-estradiol, estradiol valerate, ethinyl estradiol, and combined equine estrogens) as well as the different types of progestins available. In order to choose among the different types of HRTs, the features of each regimen are being discussed as well as their risks and their respective benefits. Read More

    Fasting-induced hormonal regulation of lysosomal function.
    Cell Res 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    Lysosomes are centers for nutrient sensing and recycling that allow mammals to adapt to starvation. Regulation of lysosome dynamics by internal nutrient signaling is well described, but the mechanisms by which external cues modulate lysosomal function are unclear. Here, we describe an essential role of the fasting-induced hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in lysosome homeostasis in mice. Read More

    Vitamin D across growth hormone (GH) disorders: From GH deficiency to GH excess.
    Growth Horm IGF Res 2017 Apr 27;33:35-42. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Section of Endocrinology, Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialist Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche 2, 90127 Palermo, Italy. Electronic address:
    The interplay between vitamin D and the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I system is very complex and to date it is not fully understood. GH directly regulates renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity, although the action of GH in modulating vitamin D metabolism may also be IGF-I mediated. On the other hand, vitamin D increases circulating IGF-I and the vitamin D deficiency should be normalized before measurement of IGF-I concentrations to obtain reliable and unbiased IGF-I values. Read More

    Amyloid-β accumulation in the CNS in human growth hormone recipients in the UK.
    Acta Neuropathol 2017 Mar 27. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    National CJD Research & Surveillance Unit, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Deanery of Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.
    Human-to-human transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has occurred through medical procedures resulting in iatrogenic CJD (iCJD). One of the commonest causes of iCJD was the use of human pituitary-derived growth hormone (hGH) to treat primary or secondary growth hormone deficiency. As part of a comprehensive tissue-based analysis of the largest cohort yet collected (35 cases) of UK hGH-iCJD cases, we describe the clinicopathological phenotype of hGH-iCJD in the UK. Read More

    Endocrine Long-Term Follow-Up of Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Optic Pathway Glioma
    Horm Res Paediatr 2017 27;87(3):179-188. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Background/aims: Children with optic pathway glioma (OPG) face sequelae related to tumour location and treatment modalities. We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunctions in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and OPG who did not receive radiotherapy or surgical resection. The causative role of tumour location on endocrinopathy development is investigated. Read More

    Skp2 deficiency restricts the progression and stem cell features of castration-resistant prostate cancer by destabilizing Twist.
    Oncogene 2017 Mar 27. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains a major clinical challenge because of the lack of effective targeted therapy for its treatment. The mechanism underlying how CRPC gains resistance toward hormone depletion and other forms of chemotherapy is poorly understood. Research on understanding the factors that drive these processes is desperately needed to generate new therapies to cure the disease. Read More

    Long-term endocrine outcome of suprasellar arachnoid cysts.
    J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017 Mar 24:1-7. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery.
    OBJECTIVE Due to their distinct location, suprasellar arachnoid cysts are known to cause a wide variety of problems, such as hydrocephalus, endocrine symptoms, and visual abnormalities. The long-term outcome of these cysts has not been elucidated. To find out the long-term outcome of suprasellar arachnoid cysts, a retrospective review of the patients was performed. Read More

    Rare Frequency of Mutations in Pituitary Transcription Factor Genes in Combined Pituitary Hormone or Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiencies in Korea.
    Yonsei Med J 2017 May;58(3):527-532
    Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: Congenital hypopituitarism is caused by mutations in pituitary transcription factors involved in the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Mutation frequencies of genes involved in congenital hypopituitarism are extremely low and vary substantially between ethnicities. This study was undertaken to compare the clinical, endocrinological, and radiological features of patients with an isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) or combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). Read More

    Growth Hormone Utilization Review in a Pediatric Primary Care Setting.
    J Res Pharm Pract 2017 Jan-Mar;6(1):40-43
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Objective: One of the main problems facing public health providers and administrators in many countries is ensuring the rational use of high-cost drugs. In this regard, on-going process of medication use evaluation can be considered as a useful tool. In this study, we evaluated certain usage aspects of a highly-cost medication, that is, recombinant growth hormone (GH). Read More

    Confirmation of CAGSSS syndrome as a distinct entity in a Danish patient with a novel homozygous mutation in IARS2.
    Am J Med Genet A 2017 Apr;173(4):1102-1108
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Since the original description of the IARS2-related cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, skeletal dysplasia syndrome (CAGSSS; OMIM 616007) in an extended consanguineous family of French-Canadian descent, no further patients have been reported. IARS2 (OMIM 612801) encodes the mitochondrial isoleucine-tRNA synthetase which belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family, and has been implicated in CAGSSS and a form of Leigh syndrome. Here, we report on a female Danish patient with a novel homozygous IARS2 mutation, p. Read More

    Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Jun 21;176(6):755-767. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Section EndocrinologyDepartment of Medicine, Pituitary Centre Rotterdam, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Objective: Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Read More

    Risk of Diabetes Treated in Early Adulthood After Growth Hormone Treatment of Short Stature in Childhood.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;102(4):1291-1298
    Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 75019, France.
    Context: Growth hormone (GH) is known to be diabetogenic, but the risk of diabetes in individuals treated with GH in childhood has been little evaluated, and conflicting results have been obtained.

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of diabetes and gestational diabetes in a population-based cohort of patients treated with GH for short stature in childhood in France.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: Participants were a population-based cohort of 5100 children with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency, idiopathic short stature, or short stature in children born short for gestational age who started GH treatment between 1985 and 1996. Read More

    Clinical features of girls with short stature among inv (9), Turner (45, X) and control individuals.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;30(4):431-436
    Department of Endocrinology, The Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, P.R.
    Background: The clinical significance of pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 [inv (9)] remains unclear.

    Methods: This case control study assessed girls with short stature. According to karyotypes, the subjects were divided into inv (9) [46,XX,inv (9)(p12q13) and 46,XX,inv (9)(p11q13)], Turner syndrome (45, X) and control (normal 46, XX) groups, respectively. Read More

    Advances in understanding hypopituitarism.
    F1000Res 2017 22;6:178. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Neuroendocrinology, Kraepelinstr. 2-10, D-80804 Munich, Germany.
    The understanding of hypopituitarism has increased over the last three years. This review provides an overview of the most important recent findings. Most of the recent research in hypopituitarism has focused on genetics. Read More

    [Use of recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rHGH)].
    Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2017 Mar-Apr;55(2):196-213
    Servicio de Endocrinología, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Secretaría de Salud, Ciudad de México, México.
    Recombinant human growth hormone, synthesized in E.coli or mammalian cells cultures, is since 1985, a useful therapeutic resource to increase growth velocity and final height. In this paper are discussed the four phases (aims, security and efficacy, utility and efficiency) indispensables to define the start of treatment, as well as the absolute, relative and metabolic indications and the transitory and permanent conditions that contraindicate its use. Read More

    Nitrogen starvation-induced cellular crosstalk of ROS-scavenging antioxidants and phytohormone enhanced the biofuel potential of green microalga Acutodesmus dimorphus.
    Biotechnol Biofuels 2017 9;10:60. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Division of Salt & Marine Chemicals, CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar, Gujarat 364002 India.
    Background: Microalgae accumulate a considerable amount of lipids and carbohydrate under nutrient-deficient conditions, which makes them one of the promising sustainable resources for biofuel production. In the present study, to obtain the biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents, we implemented a short-term nitrogen starvation of 1, 2, and 3 days in a green microalga Acutodesmus dimorphus. Few recent reports suggest that oxidative stress-tolerant microalgae are highly efficient for biofuel production. Read More

    The Unexplored Crossroads of the Female Athlete Triad and Iron Deficiency: A Narrative Review.
    Sports Med 2017 Mar 13. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, 104 Noll Laboratory, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.
    Despite the severity and prevalence of iron deficiency in exercising women, few published reports have explored how iron deficiency interacts with another prevalent and severe condition in exercising women: the 'female athlete triad.' This review aims to describe how iron deficiency may interact with each component of the female athlete triad, that is, energy status, reproductive function, and bone health. The effects of iron deficiency on energy status are discussed in regards to thyroid function, metabolic fuel availability, eating behaviors, and energy expenditure. Read More

    GPER modulators: Opportunity Nox on the heels of a class Akt.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Mar 8. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States. Electronic address:
    The (patho)physiology of estrogen and its receptors is complex. It is therefore not surprising that therapeutic approaches targeting this hormone include stimulation of its activity through supplementation with either the hormone itself or natural or synthetic agonists, inhibition of its activity through the use of antagonists or inhibitors of its synthesis, and tissue-selective modulation of its activity with biased ligands. The physiology of this hormone is further complicated by the existence of at least three receptors, the classical nuclear estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), and the 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30), with overlapping but distinct pharmacologic profiles, particularly of anti-estrogenic ligands. Read More

    Survey of gadolinium-based contrast agent utilization among the members of the Society for Pediatric Radiology: a Quality and Safety Committee report.
    Pediatr Radiol 2017 Mar 10. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Department of Radiology, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Background: Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging over the last three decades. Recent reports demonstrated gadolinium retention in patients' brains following intravenous administration. Since gadolinium is a highly toxic heavy metal, there is a potential for adverse effects from prolonged retention or deposition, particularly in children. Read More

    Stromal Gli2 activity coordinates a niche signaling program for mammary epithelial stem cells.
    Science 2017 Apr 9;356(6335). Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
    The stem cell niche is a complex local signaling microenvironment that sustains stem cell activity during organ maintenance and regeneration. The mammary gland niche must support its associated stem cells while also responding to systemic hormonal regulation that triggers pubertal changes. We find that Gli2, the major Hedgehog pathway transcriptional effector, acts within mouse mammary stromal cells to direct a hormone-responsive niche signaling program by activating expression of factors that regulate epithelial stem cells as well as receptors for the mammatrophic hormones estrogen and growth hormone. Read More

    Gender-, age- and time-dependent dosing of growth hormone in adults - real-world data from a decade of clinical practice in Germany.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Mar 5:1-6. Epub 2017 Mar 5.
    e Novo Nordisk Pharma GmbH , Mainz , Germany.
    We evaluated treatment patterns and gender-dependent dosing of growth hormone (GH) substitution in adults with GH deficiency (AGHD). Data on GH dose were collected (2003-2013) from 509 GH-treated patients (mean age: 48.9 years; 47% female) enroled in the observational German NordiWin study (NCT01543880). Read More

    Iodine supplementation for women during the preconception, pregnancy and postpartum period.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Mar 5;3:CD011761. Epub 2017 Mar 5.
    Research and Evaluation, Micronutrient Initiative, 180 Elgin Street, Suite 1000, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K2P 2K3.
    Background: Iodine is an essential nutrient required for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, which are responsible for regulating growth, development and metabolism. Iodine requirements increase substantially during pregnancy and breastfeeding. If requirements are not met during these periods, the production of thyroid hormones may decrease and be inadequate for maternal, fetal and infant needs. Read More

    Growth Promotion Ethics and the Challenge to Resist Cosmetic Endocrinology
    Horm Res Paediatr 2017 2;87(3):145-152. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    The advancement of "human growth hormone (hGH)-for-height" - increasing height attainment in children short for reasons other than GH deficiency - arose from intuitive, deep-seated assumptions about the disability of short stature, its improvement with hGH-mediated height gain, and the safety of escalating dosages of hGH in healthy children. Evidence challenging these assumptions now strengthens criticism of hGH-for-height as cosmetic endocrinology. To counter this characterization, collective acceptance of guidelines is needed that advise nontreatment of the vast majority of short children, support strategies that minimize treatment duration and dosage, and restrain enhancement of normal adult stature. Read More

    Successful Pregnancies and Deliveries in a Patient With Evolving Hypopituitarism due to Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome: Role of Growth Hormone Replacement.
    Intern Med 2017 1;56(5):527-530. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kurobe City Hospital, Japan.
    We herein report a 31-year-old Japanese woman with evolving hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk transection syndrome. She had a history of short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) in childhood and had hypothyroidism and primary amenorrhea at 20 years old. Levothyroxine replacement and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (FSH-hCG) therapy for ovulation induction were started. Read More

    The Relationship between the Growth Hormone/Insulin-like Growth Factor System and the Histological Features of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
    Intern Med 2017 1;56(5):473-480. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Japan.
    Objective Growth hormone (GH) deficiency has recently been reported as a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and GH supplementation has been shown to improve the histology of NAFLD. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the histological severity of NAFLD and production of the GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. Methods A total of 222 Japanese patients with liver biopsy-confirmed NAFLD and 55 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related chronic liver disease (CLD) were enrolled in the present study. Read More

    Understanding burden of illness for child growth hormone deficiency.
    Qual Life Res 2017 Feb 28. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Vandtårnsvej 114, 2860, Søborg, Denmark.
    Purpose: Research demonstrates that children and adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are impacted in multiple ways beyond their short stature; however, there are no disease-specific measures to assess these impacts. The purpose of this study was to examine the burden of GHD on children and adolescents, and to conduct concept elicitation to develop a model of the impact of GHD to support a disease-specific outcome measure.

    Methods: Four focus groups and 52 telephone interviews were conducted with children with GHD and parents/guardians of children with GHD to understand the experience and impacts from the child's perspective, reported by children or parent-observers about the impact on the child. Read More

    The Somatotrope Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone/Growth Hormone/Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Axis in Immunoregulation and Immunosenescence.
    Front Horm Res 2017 28;48:147-159. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Most scientific reports debate the thymotropic and immuno-stimulating properties of the somatotrope growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, but there is still some disagreement about the physiological role of this axis in basal conditions. Moreover, some authors have hypothesized that the physiological role of the somatotrope axis only appears in stressful conditions (such as sepsis or infective and inflammatory diseases). This chapter will provide an extended overview of the expression of the components (signals and receptors) of the somatotrope axis and their properties on cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. Read More

    Resting energy expenditure in girls with Turner syndrome.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar;30(3):327-332
    Background: Knowledge concerning energy metabolism in Turner syndrome (TS) is lacking. We compared the resting energy expenditure per fat-free mass (REE/FFM) in TS with other girls with short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) and age-related controls.

    Methods: We measured prospectively REE by spirometry under fasting conditions in the morning in 85 short prepubertal girls at the start of GH treatment. Read More

    Lamivudine, Entecavir, or Tenofovir Treatment of Hepatitis B Infection: Effects on Calcium, Phosphate, FGF23 and Indicators of Bone Metabolism.
    Ann Hepatol 2017 March-April;16(2):207-214
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Background: Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) are often treated with nucleoside/nucleotide antiviral agents and metabolic bone toxicity is a possible concern.

    Objective: To determine the relationships between fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a phosphaturic hormone, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone biochemical abnormalities in these patients.

    Material And Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study comparing HBV-infected subjects treated for at least one year with tenofovir (TDF), lamuvidine (LVD), entacavir (ETV), or not treated (CON). Read More

    The GH/IGF-1 axis in a critical period early in life determines cellular DNA repair capacity by altering transcriptional regulation of DNA repair-related genes: implications for the developmental origins of cancer.
    Geroscience 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 N. E. 10th Street-BRC 1303, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.
    Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological findings support the concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD), suggesting that early-life hormonal influences during a sensitive period around adolescence have a powerful impact on cancer morbidity later in life. The endocrine changes that occur during puberty are highly conserved across mammalian species and include dramatic increases in circulating GH and IGF-1 levels. Importantly, patients with developmental IGF-1 deficiency due to GH insensitivity (Laron syndrome) do not develop cancer during aging. Read More

    Sensitivity of various body indices and visceral adiposity index in predicting metabolic syndrome among Chinese patients with adult growth hormone deficiency.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Endocrinology, Chongqing Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, #1 You-Yi Rd., Yu-zhong District, Chongqing, 400016, China.
    Aim: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) refers to decreased secretion of growth hormones in the adults, which is associated with increased clustering of conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as central obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a recognized risk factor of cardiovascluar diseases, shares some clinical features. Given that the prevalence of MetS is on the rise in patients with AGHD, and that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in that population, the alternative, simple, non-invasive methods of assessing MetS among this population are needed. Read More

    Thyroid hormone acting via TRβ induces expression of browning genes in mouse bone marrow adipose tissue.
    Endocrine 2017 Apr 22;56(1):109-120. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Musculoskeletal Disease Center, VA Loma Linda Healthcare System, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
    Purpose: Mutant hypothyroid mouse models have recently shown that thyroid hormone is critical for skeletal development during an important prepubertal growth period. Additionally, thyroid hormone negatively regulates total body fat, consistent with the well-established effects of thyroid hormone on energy and fat metabolism. Since bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into both adipocytes and osteoblasts and a relationship between bone marrow adipogenesis and osteogenesis has been predicted, we hypothesized thyroid hormone deficiency during the postnatal growth period increases marrow adiposity in mice. Read More

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