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    Screening for comorbid conditions in patients enrolled in the SODA registry: a 2-year observational analysis.
    Endocrine 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and Pituitary Center, Johns Hopkins University, 1830 East Monument Street #333, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.
    Purpose: This 2-year analysis assessed frequency of comorbidities and comorbidity screening in the Somatuline (lanreotide, LAN) Depot for Acromegaly (SODA) registry.

    Methods: Patient data collected included pituitary hormone deficiencies, sleep studies, echocardiograms, gallbladder sonographies, colonoscopies, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone levels in patients with (DM) and without (non-DM) diabetes mellitus were analyzed. Read More

    Further Clinical Evidence for the Effect of IGF-1 on Hair Growth and Alopecia.
    Skin Appendage Disord 2018 Apr 23;4(2):90-95. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases Professor Trüeb, Wallisellen, Switzerland.
    Observations on the Laron syndrome originally offered the opportunity to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency on human hair growth and differentiation. According to its expression in the dermal hair papilla, IGF-1 is likely involved in reciprocal signaling. It has been shown to affect follicular proliferation, tissue remodeling, and the hair growth cycle, as well as follicular differentiation, identifying IGF-1 signaling as an important mitogenic and morphogenetic regulator in hair follicle biology. Read More

    Growth Hormone Secretion Patterns in German Landrace (DL) Fetuses and Piglets Compared to DL Piglets with Inherited 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Deficiency.
    Nutrients 2018 May 15;10(5). Epub 2018 May 15.
    Department of Functional Genomics and Bioregulation, Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Mariensee, 31535 Neustadt a. Rbge., Germany.
    The regulation of growth hormone (GH) release during prenatal development and during early postnatal life is not entirely clarified. In this study plasma GH concentrations in pigs with inherited pseudo vitamin D deficiency type I (PDDR-I), which regularly show growth retardation, were compared during ontogeny with unaffected pigs of the same breed (German Landrace, DL) as control. Plasma GH concentrations were measured in plasma of chronically catheterized fetuses (beginning on day 101 after mating or after artificial insemination) and in piglets (day 37 postpartum (p. Read More

    Insulin suppresses the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23).
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany;
    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is produced by bone cells and regulates renal phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, as well as causing left ventricular hypertrophy. FGF23 deficiency results in rapid aging, whereas high plasma FGF23 levels are found in several disorders, including kidney or cardiovascular diseases. Regulators of FGF23 production include parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitriol, dietary phosphate, and inflammation. Read More

    Molecular Mechanisms Governing Embryonic Differentiation of Pituitary Somatotropes.
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-6523, USA.
    Pituitary somatotropes secrete growth hormone (GH), which is essential for normal growth and metabolism. Somatotrope defects result in GH deficiency (GHD), leading to short stature in childhood and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Current hormone replacement therapies fail to recapitulate normal pulsatile GH secretion. Read More

    Growth and Endocrine Function in Tunisian Thalassemia Major Patients.
    Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2018 1;10(1):e2018031. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Pediatric Immuno-Hematology Unit, Bone Marrow Transplantation Center Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    β-thalassemia major (β-TM) is among the most common hereditary disorders imposing high expenses on health-care system worldwide. The patient's survival is dependent on lifetime blood transfusion which leads to iron overload and its toxicity in various organs including endocrine glands. This article provides an overview of endocrine disorders in beta-TM patients. Read More

    Genome-wide association study dissects yield components associated with low-phosphorus stress tolerance in maize.
    Theor Appl Genet 2018 May 12. Epub 2018 May 12.
    Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12 South Zhongguancun Street, Beijing, 100081, China.
    Key Message: Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a worldwide constraint threatening maize production. Through a genome-wide association study, we identified molecular markers and associated candidate genes and molecular pathways for low-phosphorus stress tolerance. Phosphorus deficiency in soils will severely affect maize (Zea mays L. Read More

    Cardiac examination in children with Laron syndrome undergoing mecasermin therapy.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Kartal Kosuyolu Research and Training Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Laron syndrome (LS), which can be defined as primary growth hormone resistance or insensitivity, is a rare genetic disease inherited by an autosomal recessive trait. Although it is undistinguishable from growth hormone deficiency, LS has high levels of growth hormone, but insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) cannot be synthesized. Mecasermin treatment is the only option for the patients who suffer from LS. Read More

    Pituitary dysfunction and association with fatigue in stroke and other acute brain injury.
    Endocr Connect 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    H den Hertog, Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Background: Poststroke fatigue (PSF) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition. However, the etiology remains incompletely understood. Literature suggests the co-prevalence of pituitary dysfunction (PD) with stroke, and the question raises whether this could be a contributing factor to the development of PSF. Read More

    The current state of long-acting growth hormone preparations for growth hormone therapy.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: To discuss the rationale of developing long-acting growth hormone (LAGH) preparations, to describe the technologies designed to prolong GH action, and to address key issues regarding efficacy, safety, and monitoring while on treatment.

    Review Findings: Recombinant human GH is currently approved for daily use and has been shown to restore longitudinal growth, and improve body composition with relatively few side-effects in children and adults with GH deficiency, respectively. However, daily injections can be inconvenient, painful and distressing for some patients, resulting in decreased adherence and efficacy. Read More

    The Role of Mutations and Maternal Beta Blocker Use During Pregnancy in the Growth of Children With Long QT Syndrome.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 24;9:194. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Objective: Two missense mutations in , an imprinted gene that encodes the alpha subunit of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.1, cause autosomal dominant growth hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis. We evaluated endocrine features, birth size, and subsequent somatic growth of patients with long QT syndrome 1 (LQT1) due to loss-of-function mutations in . Read More

    Evaluation of The Efficacy of Long-Term Growth Hormone Theraphy in Patients with Hypochondroplasıa.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2018 05 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Hypochondroplasia is a cause of disproportionate short stature and characterized by slight clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of long-term GH therapy in hypochondroplastic cases with inadequate response to GH simulation tests . In this study, six patients who had height SDS of -3. Read More

    Diagnostic Usefulness of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 in Children with Suspected Pituitary Dwarfism.
    Clin Lab 2018 May;64(5):759-765
    Background: Pituitary dwarfism (also known as short stature) is a medical condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce enough growth hormone (GH). To confirm the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency the overnight profile of GH secretion and GH provocative tests are usually performed; however, due to wide GH fluctuations throughout the day and night and the invasiveness of stimulation tests, their clinical utility is limited. Therefore, screening for IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) and IGFBP-3 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein type 3) is proposed, suggesting that these tests provide a more accurate reflection of the mean plasma GH level, although the results of these tests are still problematic. Read More

    Next generation sequencing panel based on single molecule molecular inversion probes for detecting genetic variants in children with hypopituitarism.
    Mol Genet Genomic Med 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Background: Congenital Hypopituitarism is caused by genetic and environmental factors. Over 30 genes have been implicated in isolated and/or combined pituitary hormone deficiency. The etiology remains unknown for up to 80% of the patients, but most cases have been analyzed by limited candidate gene screening. Read More

    The pre-treatment characteristics and evaluation of the effects of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in children with growth hormone deficiency and celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease.
    Cent Eur J Immunol 2018 30;43(1):69-75. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
    The Aim Of The Study: was to investigate the coincidence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and celiac disease (CD) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients referred for short stature, and to evaluate the baseline anthropometric parameters and the effectiveness of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in the first year in those patients (GHD+CD/IBD subgroup) in comparison to patients with GHD without CD or IBD (GHD-CD/IBD subgroup).

    Material And Methods: The study was retrospective and included 2196 short patients (height SDS [Standard Deviation Score] ≤ -1.2). Read More

    Metabolic adaptation of short-living growth hormone transgenic mice to methionine restriction and supplementation.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2018 Apr;1418(1):118-136
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota.
    Extension of mammalian health and life span has been achieved using various dietary interventions. We previously reported that restricting dietary methionine (MET) content extends life span only when growth hormone signaling is intact (no life span increase in GH deficiency or GH resistance). To understand the metabolic responses of altered dietary MET in the context of accelerated aging (high GH), the current study evaluated MET and related pathways in short-living GH transgenic (GH Tg) and wild-type mice following 8 weeks of restricted (0. Read More

    Clinical, biochemical, and molecular overview of transaldolase deficiency and evaluation of the endocrine function: update of 34 patients.
    J Inherit Metab Dis 2018 May 2. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Metabolic Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Transaldolase deficiency (TALDO-D) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of the pentose phosphate pathway. Since its first description in 2001, several case reports have been published, but there has been no comprehensive overview of phenotype, genotype, and phenotype-genotype correlation.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective questionnaire and literature study of clinical, biochemical, and molecular data of 34 patients from 25 families with proven TALDO-D. Read More

    FGF21 Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Vascular Dysfunction by Activation of ACE2/Angiotensin-(1-7) Axis in Mice.
    Cell Metab 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China. Electronic address:
    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, the role of FGF21 in hypertension remains elusive. Here we show that FGF21 deficiency significantly exacerbates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular dysfunction, whereas such negative effects are reversed by replenishment of FGF21. Read More

    Screening for germline and mutations in a set of somatotropinoma patients.
    Endocr Connect 2018 May;7(5):645-652
    Institute of Biomedicine/PhysiologyBiomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Objective: Recently, mutations in , a potassium channel gene usually linked to long QT syndrome, were reported to cause maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis and growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Expression of the mutated KCNQ1 with the auxiliary potassium channel subunit KCNE2 was shown to reduce pituitary hormone secretion in functional experiments. Here, we investigated if germline mutations in and were present in patients with somatotropinomas, which represent a model of growth hormone excess. Read More

    Oral Versus Intravenous Iron Supplementation for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis-Effect on Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Metabolism.
    J Ren Nutr 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Division of Kidney and Dialysis, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.
    Objective: Iron administration affects serum levels of intact (I-) fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its cleavage product C-terminal (C-) FGF23 in iron-deficient patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The objective of this study was to compare the effect of oral or intravenous iron administration on serum levels of I-FGF23 and C-FGF23 in iron-deficient patients on MHD.

    Design And Methods: A prospective randomized study. Read More

    Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) System in Liver Diseases.
    Int J Mol Sci 2018 Apr 27;19(5). Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Swiecicki Str., 60-781 Poznań, Poland.
    Hepatocyte differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis are affected by growth factors produced in liver. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) act in response to growth hormone (GH). Other IGF family components include at least six binding proteins (IGFBP1 to 6), manifested by both IGFs develop due to interaction through the type 1 receptor (IGF1R). Read More

    Relative Bioavailability of a Single 4-mg Dose of Somatropin Administered by Subcutaneous Injection or by Needle-free Device and Coadministered With the Growth Hormone Inhibitor Octreotide Acetate in Healthy Adult Subjects.
    Clin Ther 2018 May 24;40(5):741-751. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Novum Pharmaceutical Research Services, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Purpose: Somatropin, used to treat growth hormone deficiency, has been traditionally administered by subcutaneous (SC) injection with needle and syringe. Needle-free devices offer ease of administration and may improve adherence and outcomes. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability of somatropin delivered with a needle-free device compared with traditional SC injection. Read More

    Body composition and metabolic health of young male adults with childhood-onset multiple pituitary hormone deficiency after cessation of growth hormone treatment.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr;31(5):533-537
    Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Shuaifuyuan 1#, Wangfujing, Dongcheng District, 100730 Beijing, P.R. China; Fax: 86 10 5915 5073.
    Background: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy is usually stopped after linear growth completion in patients with growth hormone deficiency. In patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD), the long-term effects of discontinuation of rhGH replacement are unknown.

    Methods: In this study, the anthropometric and metabolic parameters of 24 male patients with adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) due to MPHD in childhood after cessation of rhGH therapy for a mean of 7. Read More

    Hematuria as an adverse outcome following provocative growth hormone stimulation testing in children.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr;31(5):539-543
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA.
    Background: Provocative growth hormone (GH) stimulation testing is used to evaluate short stature and growth failure in children. Agents commonly used for testing include clonidine, arginine and glucagon. While stimulation testing is generally considered safe, gross hematuria has been described as a rare idiopathic complication of GH stimulation testing. Read More

    Association between Growth Hormone-Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Axis Gene Polymorphisms and Short Stature in Chinese Children.
    Biomed Res Int 2018 4;2018:7431050. Epub 2018 Mar 4.
    Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong 272029, China.
    Objective: This study was designed to analyze the association between the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis gene polymorphisms and short stature in Chinese children.

    Methods: 181 growth hormone deficiency (GHD) patients and 206 normal stature controls were enrolled to attend this study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the GH receptor (GHR) and 5 SNPs within the GH-signaling pathway were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Read More

    Adherence to somatotropin treatment administered with an electronic device.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Endocrinología Pediátrica, Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital General Universitario Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, España.
    Introduction: Adherence to somatotropin treatment is associated with increased growth velocity and improved adult height. The purpose of this study is to determine the adherence of patients undergoing treatment with an electronic device and its relationship with different variables (age, gender, duration of treatment, diagnosis, height, and growth rate).

    Material And Methods: Descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of children less than 14 years of age undergoing treatment with somatotropin administered with the Easypod® electronic device in the Paediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of the General University Hospital of Ciudad Real, Spain. Read More

    Changes in body composition, blood lipid profile, and growth factor hormone in a patient with Prader-willi syndrome during 24 weeks of complex exercise: a single case study.
    J Exerc Nutrition Biochem 2018 Mar;22(1):35-40
    Purpose: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by excessive appetite with progressive obesity and growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Excessive eating causes progressive obesity with increased risk of morbidities and mortality. Although GH treatment has beneficial effects on patients with PWS, adverse events have occurred during GH treatment. Read More

    Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Once-Weekly Somapacitan in Children and Adults: Supporting Dosing Rationales with a Model-Based Analysis of Three Phase I Trials.
    Clin Pharmacokinet 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Global Development, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark.
    Background: Somapacitan, a long-acting growth hormone (GH) derivative, has been well-tolerated in children with GH deficiency (GHD) and adults (healthy and adult GHD), in phase I, single- and multiple-dose trials, respectively, and has pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties supporting a once-weekly dosing regimen.

    Objective: In the absence of a multiple-dose phase I trial in children with GHD, the aim was to develop a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to predict somapacitan exposure and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) response after once-weekly multiple doses in both children and adults with GHD.

    Methods: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were developed from pharmacokinetic and IGF-I profiles in three phase I trials of somapacitan (doses: healthy adults, 0. Read More

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 deletion is associated with urinary α-klotho deficiency and perturbed phosphate homeostasis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Medicine, University of Ottawa / Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Canada.
    Loss of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), a deubiquitinating enzyme required for neuronal function, led to hyperphosphatemia accompanied by phosphaturia in mice, while calcium homeostasis remained intact. We therefore investigated the mechanisms underlying the phosphate imbalance in Uchl1-/- mice. Interestingly, phosphaturia was not a result of lower renal brush border membrane sodium-phosphate cotransporter expression as sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2a and 2c expression levels were similar to wild type levels. Read More

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular complications in adult-onset GHD during GH replacement: a KIMS analysis.
    Endocr Connect 2018 May 16;7(5):653-662. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Antwerp Centre for EndocrinologyAntwerp, Belgium.
    Background: Adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (AO-GHD) is associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS).

    Aim: To determine the effect of GH replacement on the prevalence of MetS in AO-GHD and to study the impact of MetS on the incidence of cardiovascular events during GH replacement.

    Patients And Methods: 1449 AO-GHD patients (males 48. Read More

    [Association between diabetic ketoacidosis and acromegaly].
    Medicina (B Aires) 2018 ;78(2):131-133
    Departamento de Medicina, VI Cátedra de Medicina, Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Diabetes mellitus occurs in nearly 10% of patients with acromegaly and is secondary to insulin resistance caused by high levels of growth hormone. Diabetes ketoacidosis has been described as a rare complication of acromegaly, resulting from a relative insulin deficiency caused by growth hormone excess. We described the case of a 38 year-old man who presented to the emergency room with a 6-week history of polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and weight loss. Read More

    Endocr Pract 2018 Apr;24(4):342-350
    Objective: Alterations in the thyroid axis are frequently observed following growth hormone (GH) replacement, but uncertainty exists regarding their clinical significance. We aimed to compare fluctuations in circulating thyroid hormone levels, induced by GH, to changes in sensitive biological markers of thyroid hormone action.

    Methods: This was a prospective observational clinical study. Read More

    Endocr Pract 2018 Apr;24(4):375-385
    Objective: The decrease in testosterone levels that occurs with aging has become an important clinical issue both due to the growth of the geriatric population and patient interest in testosterone therapy. The decision to assess for testosterone deficiency and the ability to determine whether the benefits exceed the risks require a comprehensive evaluation of the aging patient. This article is part of a series of papers focused on the endocrinology of aging. Read More

    Efficacy of Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Growth Hormone Deficiency-An Analysis of KIGS Data.
    J Pediatr 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Munich-Neuherberg, Germany.
    Objective: To analyze first-year treatment growth response and growth hormone (GH) dosage in prepubertal patients with the combination of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD).

    Study Design: A total of 69 patients with T1DM and GHD treated with GH have been enrolled in KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database). Of these, 24 prepubertal patients had developed T1DM before GHD and were included in this analysis. Read More

    Dwarf Mice and Aging.
    Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2018 1;155:69-83. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, United States. Electronic address:
    Dwarf mice have been studied for many decades, however, the focus of these studies shifted in 1996 when it was shown by Brown-Borg and her coworkers that Ames dwarf (Prop1) mice are exceptionally long-lived. Since then, Snell dwarf (Pit1) and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO, a.k. Read More

    Still too little, too late? Ten years of growth hormone therapy baseline data from the NordiNet® International Outcome Study.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr;31(5):521-532
    Department of Paediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Background: We investigated time trends in age, gender, growth hormone (GH) dose and height standard deviation score (SDS) in children with GH deficiency (GHD), born small for gestational age (SGA) or with Turner syndrome (TS) starting GH treatment.

    Methods: Data were obtained from children enrolled in the NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) between 2006 and 2015 in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Serbia and Montenegro (all indications), and Switzerland and the UK (GHD only). Trends were analyzed by linear regression. Read More

    The relationship between alkaline phosphatase and bone alkaline phosphatase activity and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and vitamin D status in children with growth hormone deficiency.
    Acta Biochim Pol 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland.
    The relationships between bone turnover, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis and vitamin D are complex, but still not fully explained. The GH/IGF-1 axis and vitamin D can mutually modulate each other's metabolism and influence the activation of cell proliferation, maturation, and mineralization as well as bone resorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reciprocal associations between bone formation markers [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP)], the GH/IGF-1 axis and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in children with growth hormone deficiency at baseline and during recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. Read More

    [Fibroblast growth factor-21 as a marker of premature aging in young and middled-aged men with type 2 diabetes].
    Urologiia 2018 Mar(1):92-95
    I.I. Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Aim: To investigate the impact of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) on the severity of androgen deficiency in young and middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Materials And Methods: The study comprised 100 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular multi-morbidity, obesity and androgen deficiency (study group) and 20 healthy men aged 35-50 years. The study group was further divided into two subgroups. Read More

    Sensitivity of supplementation of thyroid hormone on treatment of idiopathic short-stature children during therapy with recombinant human growth hormone.
    Front Med 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.
    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of thyroid hormone supplementation on growth rate of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and low-normal serum free thyroxine FT4 who were receiving growth hormone therapy. We selected 64 prepubertal children with FT4 levels in the lowest third of the normal range as the lower FT4 group, and these children were divided randomly into two subgroups: L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated subgroup was treated with L-T4 (0.5-3. Read More

    A rare challenging case of co-existent craniopharyngioma, acromegaly and squamous cell lung cancer.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018 28;2018. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Co-existence of craniopharyngioma and acromegaly has been very rarely reported. A 65-year-old man presented with visual deterioration, fatigue and frontal headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suprasellar heterogeneous, mainly cystic, 1. Read More

    Relaxin Deficiency Leads to Uterine Artery Dysfunction During Pregnancy in Mice.
    Front Physiol 2018 22;9:255. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Physiology and Monash Rural Health, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    The uterine vasculature undergoes profound adaptations in response to pregnancy. Augmentation of endothelial vasodilator function and reduced smooth muscle reactivity are factors contributing to uterine artery adaptation and are critical for adequate placental perfusion. The peptide hormone relaxin has an important role in mediating the normal maternal renal vascular adaptations during pregnancy through a reduction in myogenic tone and an increase in flow-mediated vasodilation. Read More

    Multiple hormonal and metabolic deficiency syndrome in chronic heart failure: rationale, design, and demographic characteristics of the T.O.S.CA. Registry.
    Intern Emerg Med 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Via Sergio Pansini, 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.
    Recent evidence supports the concept that progression of chronic heart failure (CHF) depends upon an imbalance of catabolic forces over the anabolic drive. In this regard, multiple hormonal deficiency syndrome (MHDS) significantly has impacts upon CHF progression, and is associated with a worse clinical status and increased mortality. The T. Read More

    Transcriptomics and machine learning predict diagnosis and severity of growth hormone deficiency.
    JCI Insight 2018 Apr 5;3(7). Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Division of Developmental Biology and Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Background: The effect of gene expression data on diagnosis remains limited. Here, we show how diagnosis and classification of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) can be achieved from a single blood sample using a combination of transcriptomics and random forest analysis.

    Methods: Prepubertal treatment-naive children with GHD (n = 98) were enrolled from the PREDICT study, and controls (n = 26) were acquired from online data sets. Read More

    Effects of recombinant human growth hormone administration on cardiovascular risk factors in obese children with relative growth hormone deficiency.
    Lipids Health Dis 2018 Apr 3;17(1):66. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, 9677 Jingshi Road, Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China.
    Background: Based on the sample of obese children with relative growth hormone deficiency (GHD), the objective of our study was to determine the effects of rhGH treatment on cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid levels and glucose metabolism index.

    Methods: A total of 43 obese children with relative GHD were included in our final analysis. The obese subjects were divided into two groups: recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment group and untreated control group. Read More

    Utility of serum IGF-1 for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency following traumatic brain injury and sport-related concussion.
    BMC Endocr Disord 2018 Apr 2;18(1):20. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 1820 Richmond Rd SW, Calgary, AB, T2T 5C7, Canada.
    Background: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a potential consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC). GH stimulation testing is required for definitive diagnosis; however, this is resource intensive and can be associated with adverse symptoms or risks. Measurement of serum IGF-1 is more practical and accessible, and pituitary tumour patients with hypopituitarism and low serum IGF-1 have been shown to have a high probability of GHD. Read More

    Design of the long-term observational cohort study with recombinant human growth hormone in Korean children: LG Growth Study.
    Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 22;23(1):43-50. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: Regarding recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) use in the pediatric population, no long-term follow-up data are available for Korean patients. To fill in the gap of knowledge, a registry study (LG Growth Study) was initiated to assess the safety and effectiveness of four types of rhGH products in real-life settings.

    Methods: A total of 4,000 children will be registered and prospectively followed up at 6-month intervals until 2 years after epiphyseal closure to collect data on treatment and adverse events, with primary interest in malignancies and growth outcomes. Read More

    Direct and indirect effects of Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) on lung function in children: A mediation analysis.
    Respir Med 2018 Apr 26;137:61-69. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, Palermo, Italy; Department of Science for Heath Promotion and Mother and Child Care, University of Palermo, Italy.
    Background: Studies on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) children are lacking. The aims of this study were: (i) to investigate PFTs in GHD pre-pubertal children with respect to Controls, before starting Growth Hormone Therapy (GHT) (T0); (ii) to evaluate changes of PFTs in GHD vs Controls, after 1-year GHT (T1). For both aims the mediation analysis (MA) was applied to evaluate the extent to which the relationship between GHD and PFTs could be ascribed to a height-mediated (indirect) or a GH direct effect. Read More

    Biomarkers of GH action in children and adults.
    Growth Horm IGF Res 2018 Mar 20;40:1-8. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I levels in serum are used as biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of GH-related disorders but have not been subject to structured validation. Auxological parameters in children and changes in body composition in adults, as well as metabolic parameters and patient related outcomes are used as clinical and surrogate endpoints. New treatment options, such as long acting GH and GH antagonists, require reevaluation of the currently used biochemical biomarkers. Read More

    Chitayat-Hall and Schaaf-Yang syndromes:a common aetiology: expanding the phenotype of -related disorders.
    J Med Genet 2018 May 29;55(5):316-321. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Division of Clinical Genetics and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Chitayat-Hall syndrome, initially described in 1990, is a rare condition characterised by distal arthrogryposis, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features and hypopituitarism, in particular growth hormone deficiency. The genetic aetiology has not been identified.

    Methods And Results: We identified three unrelated families with a total of six affected patients with the clinical manifestations of Chitayat-Hall syndrome. Read More

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