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    13168 results match your criteria Growth Hormone Deficiency

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    Using a spontaneous profile rather than stimulation test makes the KIGS idiopathic growth hormone deficiency model more accessible for clinicians.
    Acta Paediatr 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Institution of Clinical Science/Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umea, Sweden.
    Aim: Children treated with a growth hormone (GH) for idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) may be monitored with the first-year prediction model from the Pfizer International Growth Database (KIGS) using auxology, age, GH dose and the maximum GH concentration from a stimulation test (GHmax stim). We tested the hypothesis that using a 12-hour spontaneous profile (GHmax 12h) would be as accurate.

    Methods: We studied 98 prepubertal Swedish children (78 boys) aged 2-12 years enrolled in KIGS. Read More

    Safety and effectiveness of long-term growth hormone therapy in Japanese patients with adult growth hormone deficiency: a postmarketing, multicenter, observational study.
    Endocr J 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Akashi Medical Center, Akashi 674-0063, Japan.
    We aimed to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of growth hormone (GH) therapy in Japanese patients with adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD). In this observational, multicenter study, Norditropin(®) (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) was administered as injections of 0.021 mg/kg/week as a starting dose divided into 6-7 doses/week. Read More

    IGF-I deficiency, longevity and cancer protection of patients with Laron syndrome.
    Mutat Res 2017 Apr - Jun;772:123-133. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Laron syndrome (LS) is a unique model of congenital IGF-I deficiency. It is characterized by dwarfism and obesity, and is caused by deletion or mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GH-R) gene. It is hypothesized that LS is an old disease originating in Indonesia and that the mutated gene spread to South Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean region and South America. Read More

    Growth hormone treatment for growth hormone deficiency and idiopathic short stature: new guidelines shaped by the presence and absence of evidence.
    Curr Opin Pediatr 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    aDepartment of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania bDivision of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia cLeonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania dDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health eDivision of Endocrinology and Diabetes, American Family Children's Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: The Pediatric Endocrine Society recently published new guidelines for the use of human growth hormone (hGH) and human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I) treatment for growth hormone deficiency, idiopathic short stature, and primary IGF-I deficiency in children and adolescents. This review places the new guidelines in historical contexts of the life cycle of hGH and the evolution of US health care, and highlights their future implications.

    Recent Findings: The new hGH guidelines, the first to be created by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach, are more conservative than their predecessors. Read More

    Molecular genetics of growth hormone deficient children: correlation with auxology and response to first year of growth hormone therapy.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Background: With the paucity of available literature correlating genetic mutation and response to treatment, we aimed to study the genetic makeup of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency in Western India and correlate the mutation with auxology and response to GH treatment at end of 1 year.

    Methods: Fifty-three (31 boys and 22 girls) children with severe short stature (height for age z-score <-3) and failed GH stimulation test were studied. Those having concomitant thyroid hormone or cortisol deficiencies were appropriately replaced prior to starting GH treatment. Read More

    Computational investigation of growth hormone receptor Trp169Arg heterozygous mutation in a child with short stature.
    J Cell Biochem 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília-DF, Brazil.
    Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene can cause disruption of the growth hormone signaling pathway, resulting in growth deficiency due to growth hormone (GH) resistance. Both recessive and apparently dominant mutations have been described in the literature. In order to shed some light on the molecular mechanism of partial growth hormone resistance caused by heterozygous mutations we performed an in-depth in silico analysis of a mutation found in a girl with a previous diagnosis of idiopathic short stature. Read More

    Real-life GH dosing patterns in children with GHD, TS or born SGA: a report from the NordiNet® International Outcome Study.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    I Petit, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Hopital des Enfants, Toulouse, France.
    Objective: To describe real-life dosing patterns in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), born small for gestational age (SGA) or with Turner syndrome (TS) receiving growth hormone (GH) and enrolled in the NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS; NCT00960128) between 2006 and 2016.

    Design: This non-interventional, multicentre study included paediatric patients diagnosed with GHD (isolated [IGHD] or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency [MPHD]), born SGA or with TS and treated according to everyday clinical practice from the Czech Republic (IGHD/MPHD/SGA/TS: n=425/61/316/119), France (n=1404/188/970/206), Germany (n=2603/351/1387/411) and the UK (n=259/60/87/35).

    Methods: GH dosing was compared descriptively across countries and indications. Read More

    International Comparison of Adult Height in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency and Limitations of Growth Hormone Treatment in Japan.
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2017 Mar;14(Suppl 1):216-221
    Tanaka Growth Clinic, Famille Yoga 1F, 2-36-7 Yoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    The approved therapeutic dose of growth hormone (GH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) varies depending on the country. Japan has the lowest therapeutic dose globally, with a single dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week. Read More

    Standardization of Growth Hormone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Measurements.
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2017 Mar;14(Suppl 1):209-215
    Department of Molecular Endocrinology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan.
    Measurement of the levels of growth hormone (GH) and its related factor insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of GH deficiency (GHD) and conditions related to excess GH such as acromegaly and pituitary gigantism. Measurement of GH levels is also used as an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary function. Because of the marked variability in GH measurements among kits, the Study Committee for GH and Its Related Factors of The Foundation for Growth Science, Japan standardized GH values measured with various commercially available GH assay kits in Japan. Read More

    The History of Growth Hormone Treatment for GHD in Japan.
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2017 Mar;14(Suppl 1):201-208
    Tanaka Growth Clinic, Tokyo, Japan.
    In Japan, treatment of growth hormone deficiency with pituitary-extracted human growth hormone (phGH) was covered by health insurance for the first time in 1975. However, because of the shortage of phGH, the Foundation for Growth Science (FGS) was founded in 1977 to control the use of the product by its registration system and to collect pituitary glands in Japan. In 1986, recombinant human growth hormone was first approved. Read More

    A mutant in the CsDET2 gene leads to a systemic brassinosteriod deficiency and super compact phenotype in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).
    Theor Appl Genet 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.
    Key Message: A novel dwarf cucumber mutant, scp-2, displays a typical BR biosynthesis-deficient phenotype, which is due to a mutation in CsDET2 for a steroid 5-alpha-reductase. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of plant hormones that play important roles in the development of plant architecture, and extreme dwarfism is a typical outcome of BR-deficiency. Most cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Read More

    Incorporation of high-dose (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment into tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for high-risk neuroblastoma: results of the SMC NB-2009 study.
    J Hematol Oncol 2017 May 16;10(1):108. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 135-710, Republic of Korea.
    Background: In our previous SMC NB-2004 study of patients with high-risk neuroblastomas, which incorporated total-body irradiation (TBI) with second high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT), the survival rate was encouraging; however, short- and long-term toxicities were significant. In the present SMC NB-2009 study, only TBI was replaced with (131)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) treatment in order to reduce toxicities.

    Methods: From January 2009 to December 2013, 54 consecutive patients were assigned to receive tandem HDCT/auto-SCT after nine cycles of induction chemotherapy. Read More

    Clinical and laboratory parameters predicting a requirement for the reevaluation of growth hormone status during growth hormone treatment: Retesting early in the course of GH treatment.
    Growth Horm IGF Res 2017 May 10;34:31-37. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Objective: We aimed to define the predictive criteria, in the form of specific clinical, hormonal and radiological parameters, for children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) who may benefit from the reevaluation of GH status early in the course of growth hormone (GH) treatment.

    Design And Methods: Two hundred sixty-five children with growth hormone deficiency were retested by GH stimulation at the end of the first year of GH treatment. The initial clinical and laboratory characteristics of those with a normal (GH≥10ng/ml) response and those with a subnormal (GH<10ng/ml) response were compared to predict a normal GH status during reassessment. Read More

    Growth hormone therapy for a patient with idiopathic Fanconi syndrome and growth hormone deficiency.
    CEN Case Rep 2017 May 9;6(1):85-87. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15, W7, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.
    Idiopathic Fanconi syndrome (FS) is characterized by a generalized dysfunction of the renal proximal tubules. Patients with FS often exhibit growth retardation due to complex factors, such as hypophosphatemia, metabolic acidosis, disturbed vitamin D metabolism and hypokalemia. To date, one FS patient has been reported to exhibit growth failure due to growth hormone deficiency (GHD), but the long-term clinical course of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy has not been reported. Read More

    The Longevity Hormone Klotho is a New Player in the Interacion of the Growth Hormone/Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Axis.
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2016 Sep;14(1):9-18
    Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes unit, The Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Ramat-Gan, Israel, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Klotho was first discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. Mice that do not express klotho die prematurely with multiple symptoms of aging, several of which are also characteristic of decreased GH/IGF-1 axis activity. Klotho is highly expressed in the brain, the kidney, and parathyroid and pituitary glands, but can also serve as a circulating hormone by its shedding, forming soluble klotho (sKlotho) that can be detected in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Read More

    [Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and multiple hormonal deficiency, an unusual association. Clinical case].
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2017 Jun;115(3):e170-e174
    Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Industrial de Santander.
    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial features, failure to thrive, microcephaly and several malformations associated. Its main endocrinological features are anomalies of the genitalia. We present a 13-year-old boy, who suffered from complicated aspiration pneumonia and showed Cornelia de Lange syndrome phenotype, with global developmental delay, suction-swallowing abnormalities, short stature and abnormal genitalia associated. Read More

    Fanconi Anemia and Laron Syndrome.
    Am J Med Sci 2017 May 4;353(5):425-432. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Escuela de Medicina, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
    Background: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a condition characterized by genetic instability and short stature, which is due to growth hormone (GH) deficiency in most cases. However, no apparent relationships have been identified between FA complementation group genes and GH. In this study, we thereby considered an association between FA and Laron syndrome (LS) (insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1] deficiency). Read More

    Combined pituitary hormone deficiency in a girl with 48, XXXX and Rathke's cleft cyst.
    Hormones (Athens) 2017 Jan;16(1):92-98
    Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Pediatric endocrinology training program, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background: Tetrasomy X is a rare chromosomal aneuploidy seen in girls, associated with facial dysmorphism, premature ovarian insufficiency and intellectual disability. A Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is a remnant of Rathke's pouch which may cause multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies by exerting pressure on the pituitary gland in the sella.

    Methods/results: The patient was diagnosed with tetrasomy X by karyotyping during infancy. Read More

    Tamoxifen reduces hepatic VLDL production and GH secretion in women: a possible mechanism for steatosis development.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    K Ho, Centres for Health Research, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.
    Context: Growth hormone (GH) stimulates hepatic synthesis of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), whereas hepatic steatosis develops as a result of GH deficiency. Steatosis is also a complication of tamoxifen treatment, the cause of which is not known. As tamoxifen inhibits the secretion and action of GH, we hypothesize that it induces steatosis by inhibiting hepatic VLDL export. Read More

    Does Vitamin D Status Correlate with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency?
    Horm Metab Res 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Apart from being individually associated with cardiometabolic health, 25(OH)D and IGF-1 interplay with a positive correlation between them, which raises questions about the role of vitamin D for the adverse cardiovascular (CV) risk profile in hyposomatotropism. Thus, we aimed to investigate vitamin D status in GH deficiency (GHD) and the association between 25(OH)D and metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components, and other surrogate markers of CV risk. A total of 129 GHD adults (childhood-onset GHD, 41. Read More

    The FOXO transcription factor controls insect growth and development by regulating juvenile hormone degradation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.
    J Biol Chem 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China;
    Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO (BmFOXO) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect. Read More

    Lessons from monogenic causes of growth hormone deficiency.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Jun 5;78(2):77-79. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Unité mixte de recherche 7286, centre de recherche en neurobiologie et neurophysiologie de Marseille (CRN2M), Centre national de la recherche scientifique, faculté de médecine de Marseille, Aix-Marseille université, 13284 Marseille, France; Paediatric endocrinology unit, department of paediatrics, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), 13005 Marseille, France; Centre de référence des maladies rares de l'hypophyse, hôpital de la Conception, 13005 Marseille, France.
    Through the multicentric international GENHYPOPIT network, 10 transcription factor genes involved in pituitary development have been screened in more than 1200 patients with constitutional hypopituitarism over the past two decades. The present report summarizes the main lessons learned from this phenotype-based genetic screening: (1) genetically determined hypopituitarism does not necessarily present during childhood; (2) constitutional hypopituitarism may be characterized by a pure endocrine phenotype or by various combinations of endocrine deficits and visceral malformations; (3) syndromic hypopituitarism may also be observed in patients with POU1F1 or PROP1 mutations; (4) in cases of idiopathic hypopituitarism, extensive genetic screening identifies gene alterations in a minority of patients; (5) functional studies are imperfect in determining the involvement of an allelic variant in a specific pituitary phenotype. Read More

    Metabolic differences between short children with GH peak levels in the lower normal range and healthy children of normal height.
    Growth Horm IGF Res 2017 Apr 25;34:22-27. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, H2:00, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Objective: Severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD) leads to several metabolic effects in the body ranging from abnormal body composition to biochemical disturbances. However, less is known regarding these parameters in short children with GH peak levels in the lower normal range during provocation tests. Our aim was to study the metabolic profile of this group and compare it with that of healthy children of normal height. Read More

    The zinc-finger transcriptional factor Slug transcriptionally downregulates ERα by recruiting lysine-specific demethylase 1 in human breast cancer.
    Oncogenesis 2017 May 8;6(5):e330. Epub 2017 May 8.
    The Breast Center, Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College (SUMC), Shantou, China.
    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is related with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis, and serves as an important therapeutic predictor and prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. The triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by loss of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2), and lacks effective targeted therapy with poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms of ERα deficiency, which becomes hormone independent and results in resistance to endocrine therapy, remain to be elucidated in breast cancer. Read More

    Growth hormone deficiency and human immunodeficiency virus.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 24;31(1):91-111. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    HIV Metabolic Clinic, Infectious and Tropical Disease Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Adults and Children, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Treatment with highly active antiretroviral drugs (HAART) is associated with several endocrine and metabolic comorbidities. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion seems to be altered in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and about one-third of patients have biochemical GH deficiency (GHD). We undertake a historical review of the functioning of the GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and provide an overview of the main changes of the GH/IGF-1 axis occurring today in patients with HIV. Read More

    Growth hormone deficiency in treated acromegaly and active Cushing's syndrome.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 9;31(1):79-90. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Endocrinology, Univeristy of Brescia, Italy. Electronic address:
    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults is characterized by reduced quality of life and physical fitness, skeletal fragility, increased weight and cardiovascular risk. It may be found in (over-) treated acromegaly as well as in active Cushing's syndrome. Hypopituitarism may develop in patients after definitive treatment of acromegaly, although the exact prevalence of GHD in this population is still uncertain because of limited awareness, and scarce and conflicting data so far available. Read More

    Focus on GH deficiency and thyroid function.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 24;31(1):71-78. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Professor Emeritus of the University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    The relationships between GH system and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis are complex and not yet fully understood. The reported effects of GH administration on thyroid status of GHD patients have been remarkably divergent. This review will focus on the main studies aimed to clarify the effects of GH on thyroid function, firstly going through the diagnosis of central hypothyroidism and its possible pitfalls, then elucidating the possible contexts in which GHD may develop and examining the proposed mechanisms at the basis of interactions between the GH-IGF-I system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Read More

    Sex steroids and the GH axis: Implications for the management of hypopituitarism.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 14;31(1):59-69. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia; Centres for Health Research, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia.
    Growth hormone (GH) regulates somatic growth, substrate metabolism and body composition. Sex hormones exert profound effect on the secretion and action of GH. Estrogens stimulate the secretion of GH, but inhibit the action of GH on the liver, an effect that occurs when administered orally. Read More

    Focus on growth hormone deficiency and bone in adults.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 22;31(1):49-57. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Growth hormone (GH) exerts several effects on the skeleton, mediated either directly or indirectly, leading to increased bone formation and resorption rates. Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) of adult onset have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Some, but not all, studies have found that adults with childhood onset GHD also have lower BMD than healthy controls. Read More

    Controversies in the risk of neoplasia in GH deficiency.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 22;31(1):35-47. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    University of Belgrade, School of Medicine, Dr Subotica 8, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address:
    Growth hormone (GH) replacement in GH deficient (GHD) children secures normal linear growth, while in GHD adults it improves metabolic status, body composition and quality of life. Safety of GH treatment is an important issue in particular concerning the controversy of potential cancer risk. Unlike in congenital IGF-1 deficiency, there is no complete protection against cancer in GHD patients. Read More

    Classical and non-classical causes of GH deficiency in adults.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 23;31(1):3-11. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Erciyes University Medical School, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kayseri, Turkey.
    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) can develop due to a variety of conditions, and may occur either as isolated or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It has been previously demonstrated that GH is one of the most frequent hormonal deficiencies in adult patients with hypopituitarism. The most frequent classical causes of adult-onset GHD (AO-GHD) are pituitary adenomas and/or their treatment. Read More

    Cardiovascular alterations in adult GH deficiency.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 30;31(1):25-34. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Divisione di Endocrinologia, Università "Federico II", Napoli, Italy. Electronic address:
    There is a growing body of evidence indicating that patients with adult GH deficiency (GHD) are characterized by a cluster of traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors and markers, which can significantly increase their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality possibly linked to aberrations in GH status. Patients with adult GHD present multiple different cardiovascular abnormalities. In addition, cardiovascular risk in adult GHD is increased due to altered body composition, abnormal lipid profile, insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism. Read More

    Management of GH treatment in adult GH deficiency.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 9;31(1):13-24. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medical Science, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency is still a challenge for the clinical endocrinologist and its implementation has still numerous difficulties and uncertainties. The decision to treat GH deficient adults requires a thoughtful and individualized evaluation of risks and benefits. Benefits have been found in body composition, bone health, cardiovascular risk factors, and quality of life. Read More

    GH and ageing: Pitfalls and new insights.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 24;31(1):113-125. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA; Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, Southern Illinois School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA.
    The interrelationships of growth hormone (GH) actions and aging are complex and incompletely understood. The very pronounced age-related decline in GH secretion together with benefits of GH therapy in individuals with congenital or adult GH deficiency (GHD) prompted interest in GH as an anti-aging agent. However, the benefits of treatment of normal elderly subjects with GH appear to be marginal and counterbalanced by worrisome side effects. Read More

    Experimental approach to IGF-1 therapy in CCl4-induced acute liver damage in healthy controls and mice with partial IGF-1 deficiency.
    J Transl Med 2017 May 4;15(1):96. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Escuela de Medicina, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Background: Cell necrosis, oxidative damage, and fibrogenesis are involved in cirrhosis development, a condition in which insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels are diminished. This study evaluates whether the exogenous administration of low doses of IGF-1 can induce hepatoprotection in acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage compared to healthy controls (Wt Igf (+/+)). Additionally, the impact of IGF-1 deficiency on a damaged liver was investigated in mice with a partial deficit of this hormone (Hz Igf1 (+/-)). Read More

    A Case Report of Hypoglycemia and Hypogammaglobulinemia: DAVID syndrome in a patient with a novel NFKB2 mutation.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 May 3. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Division of Allergy, Immunology & Rheumatology, Departments of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
    Context: DAVID syndrome (Deficient Anterior pituitary with Variable Immune Deficiency) is a rare disorder in which children present with symptomatic ACTH deficiency preceded by hypogammaglobulinemia from B-cell dysfunction with recurrent infections, termed common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Subsequent whole exome sequencing studies have revealed germline heterozygous C-terminal mutations of NFKB2 as either a cause of DAVID syndrome or of CVID without clinical hypopituitarism. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no cases in which the endocrinopathy has presented in the absence of a prior clinical history of CVID. Read More

    The Role of the Growth Hormone/Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in Visceral Adiposity.
    Biochem Insights 2017 20;10:1178626417703995. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    School of Health, Nursing & Midwifery, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, UK.
    There is substantial evidence that the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the pathophysiology of obesity. Both GH and IGF-I have direct effects on adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, and this system is involved in the cross-talk between adipose tissue, liver, and pituitary. Transgenic animal models have been of importance in identifying mechanisms underlying these interactions. Read More

    Growth and Growth hormone - Insulin Like Growth Factor -I (GH-IGF-I) Axis in Chronic Anemias.
    Acta Biomed 2017 Apr 28;88(1):101-111. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Pediatrics, Alexandria University Children Hospital, Elchatby, Alexandria, Egypt.
    Anaemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human health as well as social and economic development. It occurs at all stages of the life cycle, but is more prevalent in pregnant women and young children. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was considered to be among the most important contributing factors to the global burden of disease. Read More

    The Korean herbal formulation Yukmijihwangtang stimulates longitudinal bone growth in animal models.
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 May 2;17(1):239. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Yukmijihwangtang (YJT) is a traditional Korean medicine that has been used to treat kidney-yin deficiency symptoms such as dizziness and tinnitus. In addition, because it is also thought to nourish kidney-yin, it has been used to treat short stature from congenital deficiency. This study evaluated the effects of YJT on longitudinal bone growth in rats. Read More

    Deficiency in the manganese efflux transporter SLC30A10 induces severe hypothyroidism in mice.
    J Biol Chem 2017 May 1. Epub 2017 May 1.
    The University of Texas at Austin, United States;
    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that becomes toxic at elevated levels. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A10, a cell surface-localized Mn efflux transporter, cause a heritable Mn metabolism disorder resulting in elevated Mn levels and parkinsonian-like movement deficits. The underlying disease mechanisms are unclear; therefore, treatment is challenging. Read More

    Survival and Late Effects after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancy at Less than Three Years of Age.
    Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Apr 28. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Very young children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are a unique and vulnerable population. We analyzed outcomes of 717 patients from 117 centers who survived relapse free for ≥1 year after allogeneic myeloablative HCT for hematologic malignancy at <3 years of age, between 1987 and 2012. The median follow-up was 8. Read More

    Dental Abnormalities in Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    Case Rep Dent 2017 28;2017:5849173. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Department of Surgical Medical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostic, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
    Hypopituitarism is a disorder caused by a reduced level of trophic hormones that may be consequent on different destructive processes. The clinical manifestations depend on the type of hormone involved. A deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in children causes the lack of growth known as pituitary dwarfism. Read More

    Endocrine status of patients with septo-optic dysplasia: fourteen Japanese cases.
    Clin Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 22;26(2):89-98. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    Department of Medical Genetics, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan.
    A clinical diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is made when two or more of the classical triad of optic nerve hypoplasia, pituitary hormone abnormalities or midline brain defects. To date, a clinical study of SOD, regarding its endocrinological features in particular, has not been undertaken in Japan. We retrospectively evaluated 14 SOD patients at our institution. Read More

    Ocular findings in adult subjects with an inactivating mutation in GH releasing hormone receptor gene.
    Growth Horm IGF Res 2017 Apr 21;34:8-12. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Division of Endocrinology, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, SE, Brazil.
    Objective: Ocular function is fundamental for environmental adaptation and survival capacity. Growth factors are necessary for a mature eyeball, needed for adequate vision. However, the consequences of the deficiency of circulating growth hormone (GH) and its effector insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on the physical aspects of the human eye are still debated. Read More

    Thyroid, cortisol and growth hormone levels in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 31;26:52. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
    Introduction: The similarities in presentation of cortisol excess, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome suggest that subtle abnormalities of these endocrine hormones may play a causal role in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of cortisol, thyroid and growth hormones in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the relationship between levels of these hormones and components of the syndrome.

    Methods: This was a case control study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Read More

    Priority target conditions for algorithms for monitoring children's growth: Interdisciplinary consensus.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(4):e0176464. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    INSERM, UMR1153 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Sorbonne Paris Cité Center (CRESS), Obstetrical, Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology Research Team (EPOPé), Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.
    Background: Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious conditions through the use of both clinical expertise and algorithms that define abnormal growth. Optimization of growth monitoring requires standardization of the definition of abnormal growth, and the selection of the priority target conditions is a prerequisite of such standardization.

    Objective: To obtain a consensus about the priority target conditions for algorithms monitoring children's growth. Read More

    Craniofacial morphology and dental maturity in children with reduced somatic growth of different aetiology and the effect of growth hormone treatment.
    Prog Orthod 2017 Dec 27;18(1):10. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece.
    Children with reduced somatic growth may present various endocrinal diseases, especially growth hormone deficiency (GHD), idiopathic short stature (ISS), chromosomal aberrations, or genetic disorders. In an attempt to normalize the short stature, growth hormone (GH) is administered to these children. The aim of this literature review was to collect information about the craniofacial morphology and dental maturity in these children and to present the existing knowledge on the effect of GH treatment on the above structures. Read More

    Cholestasis caused by panhypopituitarism and acquired cytomegalovirus infection in a 2-month-old male infant: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(17):e6757
    aDivision of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, MacKay Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan bMacKay Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Taipei, Taiwan cDivision of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, MacKay Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan dDivision of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, MacKay Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan eDivision of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, MacKay Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan fMacKay Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Rationale: Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare congenital disorder that may cause jaundice in infants. However, it is usually prone to neglect and misdiagnosis in infants with cholestasis because endocrine disorder such as panhypopituitarism is rare in the cause of infantile cholestasis. We report a case of SOD concurrent with acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, who presented with prolonged jaundice as the first clinical sign. Read More

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