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    [Spinal tuberculosis: experience in a third level medical facility in Puebla, Mexico].
    Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2017 ;55 Suppl 1:S80-S84
    División de Investigación en Salud, Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia, Centro Médico Nacional "Manuel Ávila Camacho", Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Puebla, Puebla, México.
    Background: Pott's disease or spinal tuberculosis (STB) is a serious infectious disease, caused by the migration of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the spine. Knowing this disease is a priority for all the physicians. The objective was to show the experience in patients with STB treated in a third level hospital in Puebla, Mexico. Read More

    Excessive daytime sleepiness in a patient with coexisting myotonic dystrophy type 1, myasthenia gravis and Graves' disease.
    Neurol Neurochir Pol 2017 Feb 3. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland. Electronic address:
    A 41-year-old female with history of Graves' disease, bilateral cataract, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was admitted because of muscle weakness, daytime sleepiness, fatigability, drowsiness, bilateral eyelid ptosis, descending of head and lower jaw. On neurological examination the patient was presented with muscle weakness, muscle atrophy (in face and sternocleidomastoid muscles), features of myotonia and apocamnosis (orbicular muscles). Electromyography revealed myopathic changes, myotonic and pseudomyotonic discharges, positive repetitive nerve stimulation test in proximal muscles. Read More

    Relationship between dose of antithyroid drugs and adverse events in pediatric patients with Graves' disease.
    Clin Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 Jan 31;26(1):1-7. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Pediatrics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Graves' disease (GD) accounts for a large proportion of pediatric hyperthyroidism, and the first-line treatment is antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Methimazole (MMI) is effective in most patients but is associated with significant adverse events (AEs). We reviewed the medical records of GD patients (n = 56) with onset age of <15 yr and investigated the relationship between MMI dose and AEs. Read More

    Histologic Findings and Cytological Alterations in Thyroid Nodules After Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Graves' Disease.
    Int J Surg Pathol 2017 Feb 1:1066896917693091. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    1 Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL, USA.
    Unlike the well-documented relation between radiation to the neck and development of papillary thyroid carcinoma, a causal association between radioactive iodine treatment for Graves' disease and development of thyroid malignancy is less defined. However, patients with a background of thyroid dysfunction presenting with clinically palpable thyroid nodules are followed more closely than the average population, and fine needle aspiration is recommended in such circumstances. Cytological examination of aspirates, and histologic examination of tissue provided from patients with a known history of Graves' disease, managed by radioactive iodine therapy can create a diagnostic dilemma, as the distinction between radiation effect and a malignant primary thyroid neoplasm can be very challenging. Read More

    Carbonic Anhydrase I and II Autoantibodies in Behçet's Disease.
    Acta Reumatol Port 2016 Dec 3. Epub 2016 Dec 3.
    Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Gumushane University.
    Background: Behçet's disease is a vasculitis, seen more frequently around the Mediterranean and the Far East, and evinces with oral and genital ulcerations, skin lesions and uveitis. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a metalloenzyme which is widely distributed in the living world, and it is essential for the regulation of acid-base balance. Anti-CA antibodies have been reported in many disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, endometriosis, idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, type 1 diabetes and Graves' disease. Read More

    Intraindividual variation of microRNA expression levels in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the associations of these levels with the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases.
    Clin Chem Lab Med 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in the blood and negatively regulate the expression of mRNAs. Some miRNAs are associated with the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD); however, there are few reports on the association between miRNA expression and the pathogenesis of AITD or the physiological variations of circulating miRNAs, which are important to examine as biomarkers.

    Methods: We examined the circadian and day-to-day variations in the expression levels of 5 miRNAs (miR-125a, miR-146a, miR-155, let-7e and miR-106a) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Read More

    MiR-346 and TRAb as Predicative Factors for Relapse in Graves' Disease Within One Year.
    Horm Metab Res 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Endocrine, Ningbo No. 2 Hospital, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Despite the efficacy and safety, antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy for Graves' disease (GD) is associated with a high risk of relapse, especially within the first year. The inability to predict whether and when relapse may occur is a major problem for ATD therapy. This study was aimed to investigate potential predicative factors for GD patients after ATD withdrawal. Read More

    A comparative study of nuclear 8-hydroxyguanosine expression in Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and its relationship with p53, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 cancer related proteins.
    Adv Med Sci 2016 Jun 22;62(1):45-51. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
    Laboratory of Analysis, Development and Food Safety, Research Group "Biotechnology and Pathology", National School of Engineers of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia.
    Purpose: To investigate whether the oxidative stress is involved in the evolution of Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) into Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cancer related proteins (Bcl-2, p53 and Ki-67) expressions were evaluated in these pathologies.

    Patients And Methods: Immunohistochemical method was applied on 25 thyroid tissues. Allred score (AS) serving to evaluate the immunostaining is based on a scale from 0 to 8. Read More

    Treatment by rituximab on six Grave's ophthalmopathies resistant to corticosteroids.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Service d'ophtalmologie, hôpital Bretonneau, centre hospitalier universitaire de Tours, 2, boulevard Tonnellé, 37044 Tours cedex 9, France; Faculté de médecine de Tours, 10, boulevard Tonnellé, BP 3223, 37032 Tours cedex 1, France.
    Objectives: Graves' ophthalmopathy occurs in 50% of Graves' disease cases. Treatment is based on smoking cessation, and control of the euthyroidism and ocular repercussions associated with the disease. The active orbital forms are treated with glucocorticoids. Read More

    Rituximab Treatment in a Patient with Active Graves' Orbitopathy and Psoriasis.
    Turk J Ophthalmol 2017 Jan 17;47(1):42-46. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Eskişehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Eskişehir, Turkey.
    Management of Graves' orbitopathy remains an important therapeutic challenge. Current therapeutic modalities are unsatisfactory in about one third of patients. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody against CD20 antigen that is expressed in mature and immature B cells. Read More

    The Ocular Manifestations of Drugs Used to Treat Multiple Sclerosis.
    Drugs 2017 Mar;77(3):303-311
    York Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Wigginton Road, York, Yo31 8HE, UK.
    Recent times have seen an increase in the number of options to treat multiple sclerosis. Ocular manifestations of multiple sclerosis are well known to treating physicians; however, the medications used to treat multiple sclerosis can also have ocular side effects. This review article focuses on the ocular manifestations of corticosteroids and disease-modifying agents such as interferon, fingolomod, natalizumab, alemtuzumab and mitoxantron used to treat the disease. Read More

    Changing trend in referral to secondary care specialist thyroid eye disease clinic following the Amsterdam declaration.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Endocrinology, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, UK.
    Introduction: Early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED) improves outcomes. Previous studies have highlighted delays in diagnosis and referral to specialist centres. The Amsterdam declaration (2009) aimed to halve the time from presentation to diagnosis and from diagnosis to referral to a specialist centre in five years. Read More

    Risk factors for post-thyroidectomy hemorrhage: a meta- analysis.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    H Zhang, Department of Thyroid Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
    Background Post-thyroidectomy haemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening and unpredictable complication of thyroid surgery. In this study, we analysed the potential risk factors for the occurrence of post-thyroidectomy haemorrhage. Methods The PubMed and SCIE databases were comprehensively searched for studies published before June 30, 2016. Read More

    A new method of subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease leaving a unilateral remnant based on the upper pole.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Feb;96(6):e5919
    aDepartment of Thyroid and Breast Surgery bInstitute of Orthopedics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Background: The aim of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate the feasibility of subtotal thyroidectomy with leaving a unilateral remnant based on the upper pole.

    Methods: Patients who underwent the subtotal thyroidectomy and isthmusectomy leaving either a unilateral remnant based on the upper pole (Group I, 79 patients) or the bilateral dorsal thyroid tissue remained (Group II, 89 patients) were compared in operation time, blood loss, recurrence, and postoperative complications.

    Results: Among 168 patients analyzed, the operation time remained similar, but the blood loss, the reoperation time, and recurrence in Group I were much less than Group II. Read More

    Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in Chinese patients with Graves Disease and Graves Ophthalmopathy.
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2017 Jan 29. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Tianjin First Center Hospital ,Tianjin , Tianjin , China ;
    We aimed to evaluate the genetic variation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) as risk factor in development of Graves' disease (GD) and Graves Ophthalmopathy (GO) among Chinese individuals. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of GD or healthy individuals with no clinical symptoms of hyperthyroiditis were enrolled at department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, China. Genetic polymorphism was studied in plasma DNA samples of subjects by polymererase chain reaction of restriction fragment length polymorphism to confirm test our hypothesis. Read More

    HLA DRB1*03 as a possible common etiology of schizophrenia, Graves' disease, and type 2 diabetes.
    Ann Gen Psychiatry 2017 2;16. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire, Service d'Hématologie., Hôpital Militaire de Tunis, Montfleury, 1008 Tunis, Tunisia ; Académie Militaire Fondouk Jédid, 8012 Nabeul, Tunisia.
    Background: Autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia share many common features. Association studies confirm a shared genetic association in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region between schizophrenia and most autoimmune diseases. To our knowledge, the simultaneous syndromes of Graves' disease (GD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in schizophrenia are rare in Tunisia. Read More

    Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants and Thyroid Autoimmunity.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2016 24;7:150. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Laura Schwarz-Kipp Chair for Research of Autoimmune Diseases, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
    The autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), presented by Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin in 2011, is an entity that incorporates diverse autoimmune conditions induced by the exposure to various adjuvants. Adjuvants are agents that entail the capability to induce immune reactions. Adjuvants are found in many vaccines and used mainly to increase the response to vaccination in the general population. Read More

    The IL15 +96522 A>T functional polymorphism is related to the differentiation of Th17 cells and the severity of Hashimoto's disease.
    Int J Immunogenet 2017 Feb 5. Epub 2017 Feb 5.
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, Division of Health Sciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
    To clarify the association between the genetic producibility of IL-15, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), we genotyped +96522 A>T and +82889 A>G polymorphisms in the IL15 gene using 127 patients with Hashimoto's disease (HD), including 55 patients with severe HD and 48 patients with mild HD; 130 patients with Graves' disease (GD), including 52 patients with intractable GD and 44 patients with GD in remission; and 79 healthy volunteers. Both the IL15 +96522 A allele and AA genotype were more frequent in patients with severe HD than in those with mild HD. The serum levels of IL-15 were higher in individuals with the IL15 +96522 AA genotype than in those with the T allele, and they were also higher in patients with severe HD than in those with mild HD. Read More

    Persistent Graves' hyperthyroidism despite rapid negative conversion of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Feb 6;11(1):32. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Ojiya General Hospital, Niigata, Japan.
    Background: Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, and patients exhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody. The major methods of measuring circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody include the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays. Although the diagnostic accuracy of these assays has been improved, a minority of patients with Graves' disease test negative even on second-generation and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins. Read More

    QT Prolongation due to Graves' Disease.
    Case Rep Cardiol 2017 5;2017:7612748. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Crittenton Hospital Medical Center, Wayne State University, Rochester, MI 48307, USA.
    Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Read More

    [Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutive aspects of Basedow-Graves disease in the Depatment of Internal Medicine at CHU Aristide Le Dantec, Dakar (Senegal)].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 14;25. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Médecine Interne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Aristide Le Dantec, Dakar, Sénégal.
    Basedow-Graves disease is an autoimmune affection characterized by the association of thyrotoxicosis with variable frequency events such as goiter, ophthalmopathy and pretibial myxedema. Its diagnosis is often easy, while its management remains difficult. A simple medical treatment exposes patient to recurrence risk. Read More

    Effectiveness of the cardiac-diabetes transcare program: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
    BMC Health Serv Res 2017 Feb 2;17(1):109. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    School of Public Health & Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Background: This paper presents a protocol for a randomised controlled trial of the Cardiac-Diabetes Transcare program which is a transitional care, multi-modal self-management program for patients with acute coronary syndrome comorbid with type 2 diabetes. Prior research has indicated people hospitalised with dual cardiac and diabetes diagnoses are at an elevated risk of hospital readmissions, morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness (and cost-effectiveness) of a Cardiac-Diabetes Transcare intervention program on 6-month readmission rate in comparison to usual care. Read More

    Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) for Graves' disease: a comparison of surgical results with open thyroidectomy.
    Gland Surg 2016 Dec;5(6):546-552
    Minimally Invasive and Endocrine Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Police General Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) provides excellent cosmetic results from its potential for scar-free operation. The procedure has been applied successfully for Graves' disease by the authors of this work and compared with the standard open cervical approach to evaluate its safety and outcomes.

    Methods: From January 2014 to November 2016, a total of 97 patients with Graves' disease were reviewed retrospectively. Read More

    Pathogenesis of Hyperthyroidism.
    Compr Physiol 2016 Dec 6;7(1):67-79. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare Systems, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Hyperthyroidism is a form of thyrotoxicosis in which there is excess thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. Multiple etiologies can lead to a common clinical state of "thyrotoxicosis," which is a consequence of the high thyroid hormone levels and their action on different tissues of the body. The most common cause of thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder in which stimulating thyrotropin receptor antibodies bind to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors on thyroid cells and cause overproduction of thyroid hormones. Read More

    Objective and subjective outcomes of strabismus surgery in Graves' orbitopathy: a prospective multicentre study.
    Acta Ophthalmol 2017 Jan 30. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Purpose: To assess the change and interrelationship of the field of binocular single vision (BSV) and the quality of life (QoL), tested with two different tools, after one or two strabismus surgeries in patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO).

    Methods: Prospectively, consecutive patients with GO who were scheduled for their first strabismus surgery were recruited from five centres specialized in the treatment of GO. One week preoperatively and 3 months after the last operation, a full ophthalmic and orthoptic examination was performed. Read More

    General and Specific Genetic Polymorphism of Cytokines-Related Gene in AITD.
    Mediators Inflamm 2017 4;2017:3916395. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Department of General Surgery, Dongzhimen Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.
    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) shows the highest incidence among organ-specific autoimmune diseases and is the most common thyroid disease in humans, including Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). The susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is affected by increased autoantibody levels, susceptibility gene polymorphisms, environmental factors, and psychological factors, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. Various cytokines and related genes encoding them play important roles in the development and progression of AITD. Read More

    Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis arising in a patient with Graves' disease.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jan 27;2017. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Department of Medicine, University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines.
    Although Graves' disease and systemic sclerosis are both autoimmune disorders, their relationship is rarely reported. We present the case of a Filipino woman with goitre and thyrotoxic signs and symptoms. Diagnosed with Graves' disease at the outpatient clinic, she took antithyroid medications and underwent radioactive iodine ablation with resultant hypothyroidism after 6 months, during which she began to experience skin tightness over the face, neck and fingers. Read More

    TSHR as a therapeutic target in Graves' disease.
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 2017 Feb 6:1-6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    a Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI , USA.
    Introduction: Graves' disease (GD) and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) are thought to result from actions of pathogenic antibodies mediated through the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). This leads to the unregulated consequences of the antibody-mediated receptor activity in the thyroid and connective tissues of the orbit. Recent studies reveal antibodies that appear to be directed against the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR). Read More

    Side-of-onset of Parkinson's disease in relation to neuropsychological measures.
    Brain Behav 2017 Jan 19;7(1):e00590. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Department of Neurology Boston University School of Medicine Boston MA USA.
    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) usually emerges with a unilateral side-of-onset (left-onset: LOPD; right-onset: ROPD; Marinus & van Hilten, 2015) due to an asymmetrical degeneration of striatal dopaminergic neurons (Donnemiller et al., Brain, 135, 2012, 3348). This has led to a body of research exploring the cognitive, neuropsychological, and clinical differences between LOPD and ROPD (e. Read More

    Hyperthyroidism-associated hypercalcemic crisis: A case report and review of the literature.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(4):e6017
    Department of Endocrinology, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Rationale: Hyperthyroidism is one of the major clinical causes of hypercalcaemia, however, hyperthyroidism-related hypercalcemic crisis is rare, only 1 case have been reported. The potential mechanisms are still not too clear. It may be related that thyroid hormone stimulate bone turnover, elevate serum calcium, increase urinary and fecal calcium excretion. Read More

    Copy number variations exploration of multiple genes in Graves' disease.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(4):e5866
    Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Jinshan District, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Few previous published papers reported copy number variations of genes could affect the predisposition of Graves' disease (GD). Herein, the aim of this study was to explore the association between copy number variations (CNV) profile and GD.

    Methods: The preliminary copy number microarray used to screen copy number variant genes was performed in 6 GD patients. Read More

    Autoimmune diseases and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(4):e5769
    aDépartement de Médecine Interne, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon bPôle Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche des Hospices Civils de Lyon cDépartement de Maladies Infectieuses, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon dUniversité de Lyon, Université Lyon 1 eDépartement de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.
    To describe the clinical manifestations, treatments, prognosis, and prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.All HIV-infected patients managed in the Infectious Diseases Department of the Lyon University Hospitals, France, between January 2003 and December 2013 and presenting an AD were retrospectively included.Thirty-six ADs were found among 5186 HIV-infected patients which represents a prevalence of 0. Read More

    Intestinal Epithelial Cell Regulation of Adaptive Immune Dysfunction in Human Type 1 Diabetes.
    Front Immunol 2016 10;7:679. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, University of Florida Health Science Center , Gainesville, FL , USA.
    Environmental factors contribute to the initiation, progression, and maintenance of type 1 diabetes (T1D), although a single environmental trigger for disease has not been identified. Studies have documented the contribution of immunity within the gastrointestinal tract (GI) to the expression of autoimmunity at distal sites. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) regulate local and systemic immunologic homeostasis through physical and biochemical interactions with innate and adaptive immune populations. Read More

    Evaluation of a follow up protocol of infants born to mothers with antithyroid antibodies during pregnancy.
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Jan 24:1-25. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of a follow up intervention of newborns of mothers with antithyroid antibodies during pregnancy.

    Results: We evaluated a 72 mother-infant pairs. 2-3 blood tests were done at least in 50% of the infants included in the study during the follow up. Read More

    [Botulinum Toxin - New Developments in Ophthalmology].
    Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Orthoptik und Neuro-Ophthalmologie, Universitäts-Augenklinik, Bonn.
    Botulinum toxin is recognised as the gold standard for the treatment of essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm, which is similar in effect in synkinesis after facial nerve palsy. The injection intervals can be adjusted according to the patients' needs and be shortened for up to six weeks in cases of eyelid cramping. Newer indications for the use of botulinum toxin in ophthalmology include eyelid retraction in Graves' disease, induction of protective ptosis and treatment of crocodile tears syndrome after facial nerve palsy. Read More

    Periodic Granulocyte Count Measuring Is Useful for Detecting Asymptomatic Agranulocytosis in Antithyroid Drug-Treated Patients with Graves' Disease.
    Eur Thyroid J 2016 Dec 6;5(4):253-260. Epub 2016 Sep 6.
    Kuma Hospital, Kobe, Japan.
    Objective: Finding agranulocytosis (AG) at an early stage is important to improve outcome, but periodic granulocyte count monitoring is not generally recommended for patients with Graves' disease, because AG develops suddenly.

    Method: At the Kuma Hospital, Graves' patients under antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment in an outpatient clinic have a granulocyte count examination during each visit, and if it is <1,000/μl, a warning is immediately sent to the patient's physician. We evaluated the usefulness of this system. Read More

    Immunoglobulin G4-Related Thyroid Diseases.
    Eur Thyroid J 2016 Dec 3;5(4):231-239. Epub 2016 Dec 3.
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a new disease category involving many organ systems, including the endocrine system in general and the thyroid in particular. Since an initial association was made between hypothyroidism and autoimmune (IgG4-related) pancreatitis, more forms of IgG4-related thyroid disease (IgG4-RTD) have been recognized. Four subcategories of IgG4-RTD have so far been identified: Riedel thyroiditis (RT), fibrosing variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis (FVHT), IgG4-related Hashimoto thyroiditis, and Graves disease with elevated IgG4 levels. Read More

    External validation of the GREAT score to predict relapse risk in Graves' disease: results from a multicenter, retrospective study with 741 patients.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Apr 18;176(4):413-419. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Medical University DepartmentClinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism.
    Context: First-line treatment in Graves' disease is often done with antithyroid agents (ATD), but relapse rates remain high making definite treatment necessary. Predictors for relapse risk help guiding initial treatment decisions.

    Objective: We aimed to externally validate the prognostic accuracy of the recently proposed Graves' Recurrent Events After Therapy (GREAT) score to predict relapse risk in Graves' disease. Read More

    High-level intrathymic thyrotrophin receptor expression in thyroiditis-prone mice protects against the spontaneous generation of pathogenic thyrotrophin receptor autoantibodies.
    Clin Exp Immunol 2017 Jan 18. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Thyroid Autoimmune Disease Unit, Cedars-Sinai Research Institute and UCLA School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    The thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) A-subunit is the autoantigen targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies that cause Graves' hyperthyroidism, a common autoimmune disease in humans. Previously, we reported that pathogenic TSHR antibodies develop spontaneously in thyroiditis-susceptible non-obese diabetic (NOD).H2(h4) mice bearing a human TSHR A-subunit transgene, which is expressed at low levels in both the thyroid and thymus (Lo-expressor transgene). Read More

    Distinct effects of obesity and puberty on risk and age at onset of pediatric MS.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2016 Dec 4;3(12):897-907. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    Department of NeurologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoCalifornia; Department of PediatricsBenioff Children's HospitalUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoCalifornia.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relative contributions of body mass index (BMI) and pubertal measures for risk and age of onset of pediatric MS.

    Methods: Case-control study of 254 (63% female) MS cases (onset<18 years of age) and 420 (49% female) controls conducted at 14 U.S. Read More

    Building the Case for Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor-I Involvement in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2016 3;7:167. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology , Rotterdam , Netherlands.
    The pathogenesis of orbital Graves' disease (GD), a process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), remains incompletely understood. The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) represents the central autoantigen involved in GD and has been proposed as the thyroid antigen shared with the orbit that could explain the infiltration of immune cells into tissues surrounding the eye. Another cell surface protein, insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), has recently been proposed as a second antigen that participates in TAO by virtue of its interactions with anti-IGF-IR antibodies generated in GD, its apparent physical and functional complex formation with TSHR, and its necessary involvement in TSHR post-receptor signaling. Read More

    Sunshine vitamin and thyroid.
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2017 Jan 14. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", Via S. Pansini, 5, 80131, Napoli, Italy.
    Vitamin D exerts its canonical roles on the musculoskeletal system and in the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. In the last years, increasing evidences suggested several extra-skeletal actions of this hormone, indicating that vitamin D may produce effects in almost all the body tissues. These are mediated by the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and thanks to the presence of the 1-α-hydroxylase, the protein that converts the 25-hydroxyvitamin (calcidiol) to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin (calcitriol). Read More

    Thyroid Storm Precipitated by Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Influenza A: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Intern Med 2017 15;56(2):181-185. Epub 2017 Jan 15.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center, Japan.
    A 46-year-old woman with a history of Graves' disease presented with the chief complaints of appetite loss, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, and sweating. She was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), thyroid storm, and influenza A. She was treated with an intravenous insulin drip, intravenous fluid therapy, intravenous hydrocortisone, oral potassium iodine, and oral methimazole. Read More

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