47,850 results match your criteria Granuloma Faciale
Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):811-817
Research Center for Microscopic Morphology and Immunology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania;
Introduction: Periapical granuloma is one of the most frequent periodontal pathology and belongs to the group named as apical periodontitis.
Materials And Methods: Out of 78 of diagnosed granulomas, we selected samples that we analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically.
Results: The histopathological aspect has been dominated by the presence of mononuclear cells of the lymphocyte and plasma cells type, showing the chronic aspect of the apical lesion. Read More
Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):679-690
Discipline of Histology, Department of Morphological Sciences, "Iuliu Haţieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania;
Giant cell granulomas in the oral cavity are reactive hyperplastic lesions that arise either peripherally in the mucoperiosteum or centrally in the bone. The peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a benign lesion induced by local chronic irritation. It may develop at any age, and tends to be more frequent in females. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2717. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Granulocyte Research Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Lipocalin-2 is a constituent of the neutrophil secondary granules and is expressed by macrophages and epithelium in response to inflammation. Lipocalin-2 acts in a bacteriostatic fashion by binding iron-loaded siderophores required for bacterial growth. (M. Read More
J Bone Jt Infect 2018 24;3(5):255-257. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Service de Bactériologie-Hygiène hospitalière, CHU de Nantes, Nantes, France.
After rifampin and levofloxacin treatment for a bone infection, a pyogenic granuloma due to a newly described species, developed on the tibia former external fixator. This rifampin resistant bacterium, selected during treatment, harbored a mutation in the gene. This case illustrates the possible selection of resistant mutant most likely due to the bacterial burden and therefore the importance of adequate bone infection treatment. Read More
Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018 Oct-Dec;21(4):263-269
Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab, India.
Objectives: Many community-based and hospital-based studies across the world have yielded contradictory results regarding association of positive serology and epilepsy. The present study was planned to analyze disease burden of epilepsy in rural community of North India and its association with exposure to in this part of the world.
Methods: A door-to-door screening survey was carried out in the rural community using a validated questionnaire for epilepsy by trained field workers, which was finally confirmed by trained neurologists. Read More
J Am Dent Assoc 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Background: Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia (LJSGH) is a gingival lesion of unknown cause. The purpose of this study is to present a series of LJSGH cases and compare the findings with the literature.
Methods: After obtaining institutional review board approval, cases of biopsy-proven LJSGH from 2008 through 2018 were retrieved from the University of Pittsburgh Oral Pathology Biopsy Service archives and reviewed. Read More
World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Neurosurgery, Xinhua hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine. Electronic address:
Objective: Extra-axial lymphoma involving the trigeminal nerve, an uncommon condition that presents as a trigeminal schwannoma, resulted in misdiagnosis and a flawed surgical strategy. We report two cases: a primary lymphoma of Meckel's cave and a metastasis lymphoma in the prepontine cistern arising from the supraclavicular lymph node.
Cases Report: The first patient presented with a 3-month history of persistent, sharp facial pain across the area innervated by the V2 nerve. Read More
Reprod Biol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Biology, Texas Woman's University, Denton, Texas, USA. Electronic address:
Sperm granuloma may develop in the epididymis following vasectomy or chemical insults. Inflammation due to sperm granuloma causes abdominal and scrotal pain. Prolonged and persistent inflammation in the epididymis due to sperm granuloma may lead to infertility. Read More
Radiographics 2018 Dec 7:180108. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
From the Departments of Radiology (M.S., A.L., N.K.), Histopathology (A.B.), General Surgery (T.D.Y.), and Gastroenterology (R.K., S.K.S.), PGIMER, Chandigarh, India; and the Abdominal Imaging Section, Department of Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, 1053 Carling Ave, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1Y 4E9 (S.K., S.N., A.M.S.).
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but serious condition that results in (a) encapsulation of bowel within a thickened fibrocollagenous peritoneal membrane and (b) recurrent episodes of bowel obstruction. Although described by various names in the literature, the preferred term is encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis because it best describes the morphologic and histologic changes in this disorder. The etiology of EPS is multifactorial, with a wide variety of implicated predisposing factors that disrupt the normal physiologic function of the peritoneal membrane-prime among these factors being long-term peritoneal dialysis and bacterial peritoneal infections, especially tuberculosis. Read More
Respirol Case Rep 2019 Feb 28;7(2):e00390. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Respiratory Department Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.
Pleural anthracosis is rare and, in most cases, is diagnosed incidentally or at autopsy. We report a 67-year-old man with pleural anthracosis. He was initially referred for possible tuberculous pleural effusion and had recurrent admissions for symptomatic pleural effusion, which increased with each subsequent episode. Read More
BMC Clin Pathol 2018 28;18:13. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Pathology, Military General Hospital Mohammed V, Mohammed V- Souissi University, Hay Riad, 10000 Rabat, Morocco.
Background: Urinary schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease in endemic countries.
Case Presentation: We report the case of a patient who was on a working trip to Mauritania. This parasitosis, suspected in the presence of hematuria and the notion of stay in an endemic zone, was confirmed by the presence of Schistosoma heamatobium eggs during the histological examination of the bladder biopsy performed after cystoscopy, highlighting a bilharzial granuloma and of course, the diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of eggs during the direct examination of the freshly collected urine. Read More
Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Department of Dermatology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2019 Mar 14;13:9-12. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
MUHC - McGill University Ocular Pathology Laboratory, 1001 Boul Decarie, Block E, E02.6217, Montreal, QC, H4A 3J1, Canada.
Purpose: Granuloma annulare (GA) is a rare clinical entity that does not classically arise from the peri-orbital area in adults. The purpose of this case report is to present a 69-year-old female with GA of the orbit. As well, the pathological and immunohistochemical features of these tumors will be discussed. Read More
Indian Dermatol Online J 2018 Nov-Dec;9(6):409-413
Department of Pathology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India.
Background: Granuloma annulare (GA) is an uncommon dermatologic disorder that presents as annular, skin-colored to erythematous plaques. Histopathologically, it is characterized by palisaded histiocytic granulomas. A definitive diagnosis of GA is based on clinicopathologic correlation. Read More
Oman J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep-Dec;11(3):227-231
Department of Cornea, The Eye Foundation Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the surgical outcomes of pterygium excision with conjunctival autograft using sutures, fibrin glue (tisseel), and autologous blood for the management of primary pterygium.
Patients And Methods: A retrospective study done in 681 eyes with primary nasal pterygium. Excision of the pterygium was performed followed by closure of the bare sclera with conjunctival autograft using interrupted 10-0 monofilament nylon sutures in 173 eyes (Group 1), fibrin glue (tisseel-baxter healthcare corporation, westlake village, ca-91362 USA) in 351 eyes (Group 2), and autologous blood in 157 eyes (Group 3). Read More
Nat Methods 2018 Dec 30;15(12):1098-1107. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
A central and critical structure in tuberculosis, the mycobacterial granuloma consists of highly organized immune cells, including macrophages that drive granuloma formation through a characteristic epithelioid transformation. Difficulties in imaging within intact animals and caveats associated with in vitro assembly models have severely limited the study and experimental manipulation of mature granulomas. Here we describe a new ex vivo culture technique, wherein mature, fully organized zebrafish granulomas are microdissected and maintained in three-dimensional (3D) culture. Read More
Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 30;51(4):1815-1829. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen,
Background/aims: Mycobacteria-induced diseases, especially tuberculosis, cause more than 1 million deaths each year, which is higher than any other single bacterial pathogen. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (Nsm2) has been implied in many physiological processes and diseases, but the role of Nsm2 in pathogen-host interactions and mycobacterial infections has barely been studied.
Methods: We investigated the role of the Nsm2/ceramide system in systemic infection of mice and murine macrophages with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a model for mycobacterial infection. Read More
Immunol Lett 2018 Nov 29;206:11-18. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:
Parasites from genus Schistosoma currently infect more than 200 million people worldwide. Infection with Schistosoma mansoni causes intestinal schistosomiasis with geographical distribution across Africa, Middle East, Caribbean, Brazil, Venezuela and Suriname. People with Schistosomiasis mansoni suffer from a chronic disease as result of an exacerbated immune response to the eggs deposited in hepatic tissue. Read More
Am J Otolaryngol 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.
Head and Neck Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Pyogenic granuloma (PG) may involve gingival mucosa (granuloma gravidarum) in pregnancy but rarely involves the airway. This case report is perhaps the only reported presentation of PG in the larynx causing hemoptysis at a late stage of pregnancy. On laryngoscopic exam, a vascular, right false vocal fold neoplasm was identified with pathological characteristics consistent with PG. Read More
Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2018 Dec 10;113:130-138. Epub 2018 Oct 10.
Laboratory for Immunogenetics, Central Institute for Tuberculosis, Moscow, Russia; Department of Immunology, School of Biology, Moscow State University, Russia. Electronic address:
TB infection in mice develops relatively rapidly which interferes with experimental dissection of immune responses and lung pathology features that differ between genetically susceptible and resistant hosts. Earlier we have shown that the M. tuberculosis strain lacking four of five Rpf genes (ΔACDE) is seriously attenuated for growth in vivo. Read More
BMC Pediatr 2018 Dec 4;18(1):382. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Children's Hospital, National Center for Children's Health, Capital Medical University, Nanlishi Road 56, Xicheng District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Background: Mediastinal teratoma is uncommon in children. It can be very difficult to diagnose especially in early stage. Rarely, teratoma may rupture into adjacent structures and lead to lung lesions or pleuritis. Read More
BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 4;18(1):619. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic and Transplant surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.
Background: Anisakid nematodes (Anisakis spp. or Pseudoterranova spp.) usually infect gastric or intestinal walls, while they rarely infect in extra-gastrointestinal sites of human body. Read More
Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Nov 27;131:50-58. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Microbiology and Cell Biology, Centre for Infectious Disease Research (CIDR), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), CV Raman Av, Bangalore 12, India. Electronic address:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives under oxidatively and nitosatively hostile niches inside host phagocytes. In other bacteria, adaptation to these stresses is dependent upon the redox sensitive two component systems (e.g. Read More
Vestn Oftalmol 2018 ;134(5):32-38
Saint Petersburg branch of S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution, 21 Yaroslava Gasheka St., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 192283.
Eye lesion in sarcoidosis is often the first and only sign of a disorder, which suggests a possible systemic disease. Currently sarcoidosis is considered a multisystemic granulomatous disease that requires multidisciplinary approach.
Purpose: To study the prevalence and clinical aspects of sarcoidosis eyes based on the representative sample of patients diagnosed with extraocular nonspecific granulomatous disease. Read More
Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Neurosurgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625, Hanover, Germany.
J Neurosurg 2018 Oct 1:1-11. Epub 2018 Oct 1.
OBJECTIVEIntracranial giant cell tumors (GCTs) are extremely rare neoplasms with dismal survival and recurrence rates. The authors aimed to confirm independent adverse factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and to propose an optimal treatment algorithm.METHODSThe authors reviewed the clinical data of 43 cases of intracranial GCTs in their series. Read More
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.
Reports detailing the acute formation of aluminum granulomas, which can cause persistent, intensely pruritic nodules secondary to the administration of aluminum-containing vaccines, are infrequently described in medical literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the development of an aluminum granuloma causing a persistent, pruritic nodule at the injection site following the administration of the DTaP-IPV vaccine. We present the case of a 6-year-old girl who developed a severely pruritic subcutaneous nodule on her anterior right thigh at the injection site three weeks after the administration of the aluminum-containing DTaP-IPV (Kinrix) vaccine. Read More
Int J STD AIDS 2018 Nov 28:956462418813505. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Dermatology, Topiwala National medical College & B. Y. L. Nair Ch. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Nov;98(44):3587-3591
Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, China.
To investigate the effect of different cryoablation time on tracheal traumatic granulation formation and its mechanism. A total of 32 rabbits were randomly assigned into four groups (A-D). Group A underwent tracheotomy alone. Read More
An Bras Dermatol 2018 Nov/Dec;93(6):878-880
Division of Dermatopathology, Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
Granuloma annulare is a relatively common, idiopathic, benign inflammatory dermatosis, with a varied clinical presentation that often makes diagnosis difficult. It mainly affects the extremities, such as the dorsa of the hands and feet, forearms and legs. Palmar and plantar regions are generally spared. Read More
JGH Open 2018 Apr 2;2(2):34-38. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
Department of Gastroenterology GB Pant Hospital New Delhi India.
Background And Aim: Esophageal involvement in tuberculosis (TB) is rare and is usually secondary. Data on esophageal TB are scarce. We aimed to analyze clinical and endoscopic features and outcomes of treatment in esophageal TB. Read More
Tuberk Toraks 2018 Sep;66(3):212-216
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Teknik University, Trabzon, Turkey.
Introduction: Granulomatous lung disease (GLD) is caused by a wide range of conditions and it is challenge for pulmonologist. A detailed history of exposures is fundamental in GDL and has been found pivotal to reach a precise diagnosis.
Materials And Methods: Between September 2014 and December 2016, the distribution of patients diagnosed with granulomatous lymphadenitis in the mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or mediastinoscopy was analyzed. Read More
J Endod 2018 Dec;44(12):1783-1787
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade de Pernambuco, Camaragibe, Pernambuco, Brazil.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in periapical granuloma (PG) and radicular cyst (RC) samples and to correlate it with the type of lesion, the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, and the thickness of the epithelial lining.
Methods: A total of 51 cases of periapical lesions (25 PGs and 26 RCs) were subjected to morphologic analysis and immunohistochemical study. The anti-COX-2 and anti-TNF-α antibodies were applied using the immunoperoxidase technique. Read More
J Exp Ther Oncol 2018 Nov;12(4):291-294
MBBS student, Hind Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, U.P, India.
Objective: A telangiectatic granuloma is a localized reactive lesion associated with prolonged irritation to the soft tissues. It may be misdiagnosed as a vascular malformation, hemangiomas, angiosarcomas, etc; as clinical presentation of the lesions resembles each other. Here, we present a case of asymptomatic swelling in the maxilla of a 17-year old female patient. Read More
Dermatol Clin 2019 Jan;37(1):49-64
Dermatology Administration, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, 7th Floor, South Tower, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
Inflammatory granulomatous dermatitides include cutaneous sarcoidosis, necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, and reactive granulomatous dermatitis. The etiopathogenesis of these disorders is not well understood; but the T helper 1 response mediated by interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL) 1, 2, and 6 and the T helper 17 response mediated by IL-17 play a role. These inflammatory granulomatous disorders often have cutaneous manifestations in addition to extracutaneous manifestations or associations with systemic diseases. Read More
Infect Drug Resist 2018 30;11:2069-2071. Epub 2018 Oct 30.
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, I.R.C.C.S. Foundation, Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy,
is the etiologic agent of fish tank granuloma. The clinical course is usually benign: spontaneous healing is possible within weeks or months. However, fish tank granuloma is sometimes resistant to several antibiotics. Read More
Dermatology 2018 Nov 21:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Objectives: Potassium iodide (KI) is a medication that has been used for decades in dermatology and it is mentioned as a treatment option in all major dermatology textbooks. Yet, there is little recent information on its efficacy. In our study, we wanted to retrospectively evaluate the therapy response to KI in our patients. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 29;9:2492. Epub 2018 Oct 29.
School of Medicine, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity in humans invoked by chronic infection with parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes have a complex life-cycle involving infections of an aquatic snail intermediate host and a definitive mammalian host. In humans, adult male and female worms lie within the vasculature. Read More
World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.
Department of Neurosurgery, Saint-Luc Hospital, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:
Background: Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty (TDA) or cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR) is an alternative technique to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of symptomatic degenerative cervical spine disease. The main goal of TDA is to maintain cervical motion and therefore lower the risk of adjacent levels' deterioration. Granuloma formation on a cervical TDA is exceptional. Read More
Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 Dec;116(6):e744-e748
Servicio de Infectología, Hospital de Niños Sor María Ludovica.
Chronic granulomatous disease is an uncommon primary immunodeficiency due to a defect of the killing activity of phagocytes, caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding subunits of the superoxide-generating phagocyte NADPH oxidase system. The incidence is 1 in 250 000 live births. It can occur from infancy to adulthood, usually in children under 2 years. Read More
Clin J Gastroenterol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Department of Gastroenterology, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, 1-847 Amanuma, Omiya, Saitama, 330-8503, Japan.
Gossypiboma is an iatrogenic granuloma caused by retained surgical gauze. A 48-year-old woman with a history of cesarean section was incidentally found to have a pelvic mass on preoperative computed tomography examination for pectus excavatum. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography showed a 40-mm mass containing air in the pelvis. Read More
JAAD Case Rep 2018 Nov 10;4(10):1024-1026. Epub 2018 Nov 10.
Department of Dermatology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.
The biocompatibility of a textile implant is determined by various parameters, such as material composition and surface chemistry. However, little is known about the influence of geometry of sutures on biocompatibility. To elucidate this factor we focused on geometry-modification resulting in ultrafine polyethylene terephthalate (UFPET) suture and a snowflake like shaped polyvenylidenfluorid (PVDF) suture. Read More
Pol J Vet Sci 2018 Jun;21(2):265-272
Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.
Lipogranulomas are lesions found in histopathological liver examination in humans and in various animal species, including dogs, especially those with portosystemic shunts. They consist of macrophages and other inflammatory cells, and sometimes they contain iron salts (pigment granuloma). This study aimed at determining the number of granulomas and cellular composition of lipogranulomas in dogs with the congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and to identify factors associated with their development. Read More
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2018 Nov;45(11):1649-1652
Dept. of Surgery, Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital.
A 67-year-old man was diagnosed with esophageal cancer. Computed tomography(CT)revealed multiple sites of bilateral mediastinal lymph node swelling. Serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor(sIL-2R)were elevated; however, serum levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE)were normal. Read More
J Fr Ophtalmol 2018 Dec 16;41(10):e451-e467. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Ophthalmology, hôpital Cochin, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, université Paris Descartes, 27, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis characterized by the formation of epithelioid and giant cell granulomas without caseous necrosis. To make the diagnosis, it is necessary to prove systemic granulomatosis involving at least two organs; but in practice, a combination of clinical, paraclinical and histologic findings is used. It affects predominantly women with a bimodal age distribution: 25-29 years and 65-69 years. Read More
J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Electronic address:
A diverse spectrum of benign oral mucosal lesions exists, presenting as either isolated oral findings or in association with dermatological conditions. Oral lesions can closely resemble one another; therefore, it is important for clinicians to be able to recognize their distinctive features and recognize benign versus malignant disease and when a biopsy is warranted. In this continuing medical education series, we review oral anatomy and the clinical attributes of several benign lesions of the oral cavity along with the appropriate management and therapeutic modalities. Read More
J Fr Ophtalmol 2018 Dec 13;41(10):991-992. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Departement A of ophtalmology, Mohammed V university, Rabat, Maroc.