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    144 results match your criteria Granular Parakeratosis

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    Granular parakeratosis induced by benzalkonium chloride exposure from laundry rinse aids.
    Australas J Dermatol 2016 Sep 19. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Department of Dermatology, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium cationic detergent present in a number of household products, which can act as a major skin irritant. We present the case of six children who developed granular parakeratosis after exposure to benzalkonium chloride in laundry rinse aids, presenting as a brightly erythematous, tender but minimally pruritic, intertriginous eruption followed by superficial desquamation. The eruptions resolved over 3-4 weeks after cessation of exposure. Read More

    Nucleophagy: A New Look at Past Observations.
    J Invest Dermatol 2016 Jul 5;136(7):1316-8. Epub 2016 May 5.
    Department of Dermatology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Electronic address:
    Keratinization of the stratum corneum involves a highly choreographed sequence of events in which granular cells lose their nuclei and become desiccated corneocytes. Akinduro et al. detail the molecular machinery underlying removal of the nucleus (nucleophagy) during the final stages of keratinization. Read More

    Constitutive Autophagy and Nucleophagy during Epidermal Differentiation.
    J Invest Dermatol 2016 Jul 25;136(7):1460-70. Epub 2016 Mar 25.
    Centre for Cell Biology and Cutaneous Research, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. Electronic address:
    Epidermal keratinocytes migrate through the epidermis up to the granular layer where, on terminal differentiation, they progressively lose organelles and convert into anucleate cells or corneocytes. Our report explores the role of autophagy in ensuring epidermal function providing the first comprehensive profile of autophagy marker expression in developing epidermis. We show that autophagy is constitutively active in the epidermal granular layer where by electron microscopy we identified double-membrane autophagosomes. Read More

    Orthokeratotic Bowen disease: a histopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular study.
    J Cutan Pathol 2016 Jan 18;43(1):24-31. Epub 2015 Sep 18.
    Dermatologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: Some examples of Bowen disease lack the characteristic broad parakeratosis making their histopathologic diagnosis particularly difficult in small and incomplete biopsies.

    Materials And Methods: The archives of our dermatopathology laboratory were searched for cases of Bowen disease with >75% orthokeratosis (orthokeratotic Bowen disease) and classic Bowen disease (>25% parakeratosis). Selected specimens were evaluated histopathologically, using immunohistochemical stains (CK10, CK7, Bcl-2, p16 and Ki-67) and by DNA amplification/sequencing for human papilloma virus (HPV) subtypes. Read More

    Granular Parakeratosis: A Comprehensive Review and a Critical Reappraisal.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2015 Dec;16(6):495-500
    Department of Dermatology, State University of New York at Downstate, 450 Clarkson Ave, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.
    Granular parakeratosis (GP) is a rare, idiopathic, and benign skin condition that presents classically as erythematous to brown hyperkeratotic papules that can coalesce into plaques. Axillary GP was initially observed by Northcutt and colleagues and has since been described in various other areas of the body including other intertriginous and non-intertriginous sites. The term "granular parakeratosis" is now used to describe not only the skin condition, but also a distinctive histological reactive pattern on biopsy specimens that are either regarded as the disease itself, or merely as an incidental finding. Read More

    Vulvar dermatoses: a histopathologic review and classification of 183 cases.
    J Cutan Pathol 2015 Aug 25;42(8):510-8. Epub 2015 Jun 25.
    Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Vulvar dermatoses are often difficult to classify due to histopathologic overlap. We aimed to report our experience at a single institution.

    Methods: A total of 183 non-neoplastic, non-infectious vulvar biopsies were reviewed. Read More

    Fibromatosis over the dorsa of both feet: An unusual presentation.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2015 Mar-Apr;6(2):98-100
    Department of Dermatology, MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Hoskote, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Fibromatosis is benign fibrous tissue condition intermediate between benign fibroma and metastasizing fibrosarcoma. The lesion tends to infiltrate and recur when removed, but do not metastasize. The lesion may be single or multiple, and the likelihood of recurrence after surgical removal varies with location of the lesion and age. Read More

    Infantile granular parakeratosis: cytologic examination of superficial scrapings as an aid to diagnosis.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2015 May-Jun;32(3):392-6. Epub 2015 Feb 7.
    Department of Pathology, Acıbadem University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Granular parakeratosis (GP) is a benign disorder of keratinization presenting with unilateral or bilateral red to brown hyperkeratotic plaques and papules at the intertriginous areas. The first pediatric case of GP was reported in 2002, and only a few cases have been reported since. Although the exact etiology of GP is unknown, it is thought that certain environmental factors compromise the epidermal barrier and lead to proliferation and altered maturation of the epidermis in predisposed individuals. Read More

    The many clinico-pathologic faces of actinic keratosis: an atlas.
    Curr Probl Dermatol 2015 18;46:64-9. Epub 2014 Dec 18.
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are intraepithelial neoplasms formed by atypical keratinocyte proliferation. Histopathologically, typical AKs are characterized by a slightly thickened epidermis, usually with irregular downward buds, orthokeratosis alternating with parakeratosis ('pink and blue') with loss of the underlying granular layer and a disarrangement of the epidermis with atypical keratinocytes at the basal layer. There are several histopathological variants of AK according to the different degrees of keratinocytic atypia, epidermal hyperplasia/atrophy, inflammation and pigmentation. Read More

    A comparative study of histopathological findings in skin biopsies from patients with psoriasis before and after treatment with acitretin, methotrexate and phototherapy.
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2015 29;34(4):276-81. Epub 2014 Sep 29.
    b Department of Dermatology , Istanbul Medeniyet University, School of Medicine, SB Goztepe Training and Research Hospital , Istanbul , Turkey , and.
    Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic and inflammatory skin disease. Few studies in the literature evaluate the responses to the treatment histopathologically.

    Objectives: In this study, we evaluated and compared skin biopsies taken from patients with psoriasis before and after phototherapy and therapy with acitretin and methotrexate. Read More

    Circumscribed palmar or plantar hypokeratosis: first report on a nonacral site with unique histologic features.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2013 Jun;35(4):491-3
    Department of Dermatology, Lehigh Valley Hospital, Allentown, PA 18103, USA.
    Circumscribed palmar or plantar hypokeratosis was first described by Pérez et al in 2002 as a unique entity of the skin in which they reported 10 patients who presented with well-circumscribed areas of erythematous depressed or eroded skin mostly over the thenar or hypothenar eminences of the palms and less commonly on the soles. Histologically, the lesions demonstrated an abrupt drop-off in the cornified layer resulting in a broad area of hypokeratosis. Pérez et al hypothesized that these lesions were a distinctive epidermal malformation. Read More

    Keratinous cyst of the palpebral conjunctiva: new observations.
    Cornea 2013 Apr;32(4):513-6
    David G. Cogan Laboratory of Ophthalmic Pathology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
    Purpose: To describe an acquired keratinizing cyst of the palpebral conjunctiva.

    Methods: Observational case report with clinical and histopathologic correlations.

    Results: A 41-year-old man presented with diffuse mild left upper eyelid swelling, eye pain, and redness in the absence of a nodule. Read More

    Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity associated with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2013 Jun;35(4):e63-6
    Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
    Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity is not classically associated with prominent tissue eosinophilia. We present a case of acute methotrexate toxicity associated with pancytopenia and mucocutaneous erosion with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. A 79-year-old male, with a history of psoriasis vulgaris on methotrexate therapy, presented with blisters of the oral mucosa, groin, sacrum, and extremities after daily consumption of methotrexate. Read More

    Caspase-14-deficient mice are more prone to the development of parakeratosis.
    J Invest Dermatol 2013 Mar 27;133(3):742-50. Epub 2012 Sep 27.
    Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit, Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, Ghent, Belgium.
    Caspase-14 is an important protease in the proper formation of a fully functional skin barrier. Newborn mice that are deficient in caspase-14 exhibit increased transepidermal water loss and are highly sensitive to UVB-induced photodamage. Decreased caspase-14 expression and incomplete caspase-14 processing in lesional psoriatic parakeratotic stratum corneum has been reported previously. Read More

    Two episodes of axillary granular parakeratosis triggered by different causes: case report.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2012 ;20(2):105-7
    Algeciras 583, Las Condes, Santiago de Chile, Chile.
    Granular parakeratosis is an acquired disorder of keratinization characterized by keratotic papules and plaques located in the intertriginous areas. Its etiology is unknown. Some cases have been related to the application of deodorants and antiperspirants, local irritation or increased sweating; in other cases no precipitant factors have been found. Read More

    Histological differentiation between palmoplantar pustulosis and pompholyx.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2013 Jul 13;27(7):889-93. Epub 2012 Jun 13.
    Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital Seoul, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic and intensely inflammatory skin disease with pustules, erythema and scaling localized to the palms and soles. Pompholyx is characterized by recurrent crops of vesicles on the lateral aspects of the fingers and the palms and soles. Because both PPP and pompholyx share similar clinical and histological features, it is difficult to differentiate between these two diseases even for dermatologists. Read More

    Granular parakeratosis of eccrine ostia.
    Ann Dermatol 2012 May 26;24(2):203-5. Epub 2012 Apr 26.
    Department of Dermatology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Granular parakeratosis is a recently recognized disorder of keratinization that is usually confined to intertriginous areas. The histopathologic features are distinctive and diagnostic. Rarely, histopathologic variants such as follicular granular parakeratosis and granular parakeratosis of eccrine ostia have been described. Read More

    Granular parakeratosis: response to calcipotriene and brief review of current therapeutic options.
    Skinmed 2010 Nov-Dec;8(6):357-9
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    A 34-year-old Hispanic woman presented with an 18-month history of an intermittent, asymptomatic eruption that began on her left axilla after using a depilatory cream containing corn starch and thioglycolate (Figure 1A). The eruption then spread to her right axilla and lower abdomen (Figure 1B). She reported worsening with deodorant use, but had been using the same deodorant for many years and had continued using it twice a day. Read More

    Intertriginous eruption.
    Clin Dermatol 2011 Mar-Apr;29(2):173-9
    The Dermatology Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, Rechovot 76100, Israel.
    Intertrigo is a superficial inflammatory skin disorder involving any area of the body where two opposing skin surfaces can touch and rub or chaff. The word "intertrigo" comes from the Latin inter (between) and terere (to rub) and reflects the rubbing together of skin against skin to create maceration and irritation, hence, friction dermatitis or chaffing. It is a common disorder that can affect any individual from infancy to old age. Read More

    Notch signaling regulates late-stage epidermal differentiation and maintains postnatal hair cycle homeostasis.
    PLoS One 2011 Jan 18;6(1):e15842. Epub 2011 Jan 18.
    Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli County, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    Background: Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. Read More

    Solitary epidermolytic acanthoma: a clinical and histopathological study.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2011 Feb 9;25(2):175-80. Epub 2010 Jun 9.
    Section of Dermatopathology, Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Epidermolytic acanthoma (EA) is an uncommon cutaneous entity that typically presents as a solitary lesion, or, less commonly, as multiple or disseminated discrete lesions. It usually appears at or after middle-age, and has been reported in various locations including the face, trunk, extremities and genitalia. Histopathologically, EA shows epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK) involving either the entire thickness of the epidermis or just the granular and upper spinous layers. Read More

    Human papillomavirus type 7-associated condyloma.
    Dermatology 2010 Aug 13;221(1):5-8. Epub 2010 May 13.
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Department of Dermatology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.
    Human papillomavirus type 7 (HPV-7) was originally identified in common warts of butchers. It has remained unclear, however, whether HPV-7 also induces other distinct types of cutaneous lesions. We observed similar keratoses on the groins of 2 patients. Read More

    C/EBPalpha and beta couple interfollicular keratinocyte proliferation arrest to commitment and terminal differentiation.
    Nat Cell Biol 2009 Oct 13;11(10):1181-90. Epub 2009 Sep 13.
    EMBL Mouse Biology Unit, Monterotondo, 00016 Italy.
    The transcriptional regulators that couple interfollicular basal keratinocyte proliferation arrest to commitment and differentiation are yet to be identified. Here we report that the basic region leucine zipper transcription factors C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are co-expressed in basal keratinocytes, and are coordinately upregulated as keratinocytes exit the basal layer and undergo terminal differentiation. Mice lacking both C/EBPalpha and beta in the epidermis showed increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes and impaired commitment to differentiation. Read More

    Clinical and histopathological analysis of intramucosal zirconia inserts used for improving maxillary denture retention.
    Braz Dent J 2009 ;20(2):149-55
    Center for the Study of Osseointegrated Implants, University City of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Intramucosal inserts made of zirconia ceramic have been used for the rehabilitation of edentulous patients. This study aimed to follow up on patients with complete dentures having intramucosal zirconia inserts and to perform a histological analysis of biopsies of the epithelium surrounding the inserts. Twelve 31-66-year-old subjects of both genders received complete denture treatment having the intramucosal inserts in place. Read More

    Concordance between in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and histology in the evaluation of plaque psoriasis.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009 Jun 20;23(6):660-7. Epub 2009 Feb 20.
    San Gallicano Dermatological Institute, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Psoriasis is a common skin inflammatory disease that affects 2% of the general population. Plaque psoriasis (PP) is its most common variant. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive, reproducible imaging technique that has proven to give useful information for morphometric evaluation of several inflammatory skin conditions, such as acute contact dermatitis and discoid lupus. Read More

    Ovarian and paraovarian squamous-lined cysts (epidermoid cysts): a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases with comparison to mature cystic teratomas.
    Int J Gynecol Pathol 2009 Mar;28(2):193-6
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.
    The origin of ovarian epidermoid cyst is unknown. Sixteen ovarian and 2 paraovarian squamous-lined cysts unassociated with teratomatous elements were studied. The ovarian cysts represented 1. Read More

    Granular parakeratosis--a clinical-pathological correlation of 10 cases.
    J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2009 Apr 3;7(4):340-4. Epub 2008 Dec 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Freiburg University Clinic, Germany.
    Background: Granular parakeratosis describes chronic skin lesions within the intertriginous areas that demonstrate microscopically parakeratosis together with retention of keratohyalin granules within a thickened stratum corneum. Granular parakeratosis is rarely diagnosed, since it is still relatively unknown within the differential diagnoses of intertriginous eruptions, and a skin biopsy is required for diagnosis. In order to gain insight into the clinical-histopathologic correlation, we present 10 cases of granular parakeratosis. Read More

    Progressive symmetric erythro-keratosis associated with oligodontia, severe caries, disturbed hair growth and ectopic nail: a new syndrome?
    Dermatology 2008 18;217(4):347-50. Epub 2008 Sep 18.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    A 7-year-old girl had well-demarcated erythematous plaques covered with white pityriasiform scales which were symmetrically distributed and involved the extensor surfaces of the extremities as well as the abdomen, buttocks and face. Histological examination showed marked hyperkeratosis with parakeratosis, and a thickened granular cell layer, mild acanthosis and slight lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the papillary blood vessels, compatible with a diagnosis of progressive symmetrical erythro-keratosis. Remarkably, a keratotic excrescence similar to a normal nail plate involved the tip of the nose since the age of 6 months. Read More

    Granular parakeratosis.
    Int J Dermatol 2008 Jul;47(7):707-8
    Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valencia, Spain.
    A healthy 62-year-old woman was referred to our dermatology department with a 1-month history of a pruritic axillary eruption. On examination, multiple erythematous and brownish hyperkeratotic papules were seen in both axillae. Some of these lesions coalesced into plaques, with small areas of sparing, and a background erythematous color was also found in the axillary vaults (Fig. Read More

    Granular parakeratosis in a patient treated with liposomal doxorubicin for ovarian carcinoma.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2008 May;58(5 Suppl 1):S84-7
    Department of Dermatology, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France.
    Granular parakeratosis is a rare benign dermatosis caused by an acquired disorder of keratinization that usually manifests with reddish-brown keratotic papules and plaques in intertriginous areas. It has specific histologic features but its pathogenesis remains unclear. Its frequency is probably underestimated because the condition is usually misdiagnosed as simple intertrigo. Read More

    Non-pustular palmoplantar psoriasis: is histologic differentiation from eczematous dermatitis possible?
    J Cutan Pathol 2008 Feb;35(2):169-73
    Department of Pathology, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasxa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.
    The differential diagnosis of psoriasis affecting palmoplantar skin might be troublesome because of the anatomic properties of this region. Both palmoplantar psoriasis and eczematous dermatitis of this skin area share similar histologic features. The punch biopsies from 17 patients with psoriasis and 25 with eczematous dermatitis were evaluated, blind to the clinical diagnosis. Read More

    Granular parakeratosis of eccrine ostia.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2008 Feb;30(1):65-6
    Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xian, China.
    Granular parakeratosis was used to define a disease characterized by keratotic papules or plaques that are distributed within skin folds. The follicular involvement in granular parakeratosis has been described. In this report we have presented a case of granular parakeratosis that mainly affected the eccrine ostia. Read More

    Granular parakeratosis presenting with facial keratotic papules.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2008 Jan-Feb;74(1):53-5
    P. D. Hinduja Hospital, Mahim, Mumbai, India.
    A 27-year-old female presented with pruritic keratotic papules over the left side of the face since one month. The lesions developed a few days after working in a hot humid environment and were preceded by severe uncontrollable pruritus for which she had repeatedly wiped the area with handkerchiefs and towels. A biopsy from one of the keratotic papules revealed granular parakeratosis with a markedly thick stratum corneum that had parakeratosis and also housed keratohyaline granules. Read More

    Granular parakeratosis of multiple intertriginous areas.
    Australas J Dermatol 2008 Feb;49(1):35-8
    Grimshaw Street, Greensborough, Victoria, Australia.
    A 60-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of a recurrent reddish-brown macular eruption mainly involving the submammary and inguinal flexures and with transient involvement of the axillae. The eruption usually flared during winter and would settle spontaneously within a few months. At presentation, it had persisted longer than usual into the warmer weather and varied in clinical appearance over the time of observation, at times showing psoriasiform features and hyperkeratosis. Read More

    Facial porokeratosis.
    Skinmed 2008 Jan-Feb;7(1):51-2
    Division of Dermatology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
    A 34-year-old man from El Salvador was referred to our clinic with a 10-year history of a pruritic erythematous facial eruption. He reported increased pruritus and scaling of lesions when exposed to the sun. He worked as a construction worker and admitted to frequent sun exposure. Read More

    Isotretinoin as a treatment for axillary granular parakeratosis.
    Cutis 2007 Jul;80(1):55-6
    University of Louisville, Kentucky, USA.
    Granular parakeratosis is a condition presenting with hyperkeratotic plaques and papules that are confined to intertriginous body sites. The exact etiology is unknown, but chemical and mechanical irritation and a moist environment are potential factors. Numerous treatments have been attempted, yielding variable results. Read More

    [Palmar filiform parakeratotic hyperkeratosis without underlying malignancy].
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2007 Jul-Aug;98(6):420-4
    Servicio de Dermatología, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Facultad de Medicina, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, España.
    Filiform hyperkeratosis (FH) is a rare entity clinically characterized by keratotic spicules on the palms, soles or other areas of the body surface. Its association with several diseases, including neoplasms, has been extensively discussed but currently it is not considered a well-defined paraneoplastic disorder. We report a 72-year-old patient that referred lesions on both palms of three months duration. Read More

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