172 results match your criteria Granular Parakeratosis


Granular parakeratosis secondary to benzalkonium chloride exposure from common household laundry rinse aids.

N Z Med J 2021 04 30;134(1534):128-142. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Dermatologist, Department of Dermatology, Auckland District Health Board and University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Aim: Granular parakeratosis (GP) is a benign dermatosis characterised by a rash at intertriginous sites. The pathogenesis is uncertain although it is proposed to be an irritant contact reaction with cases related to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) reported. Our experience is that patients often have delayed diagnosis. Read More

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Generalized epidermolytic ichthyosis with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.

Dermatol Online J 2021 Feb 15;27(2). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta.

Epidermolytic ichthyosis (EI, OMIM 113800) is a rare autosomal dominant keratinization disorder that is caused by keratin 1 or 10 gene mutation. It can be classified clinically based on the presence of palmoplantar hyperkeratosis involvement and extent of skin involvement. The diagnosis is made by clinical and histopathological examinations that can be confirmed by genetic testing. Read More

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February 2021

Follicular Granular Parakeratosis: A Case Report, Literature Review, and Proposed Classification.

Skin Appendage Disord 2021 Feb 26;7(2):144-148. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Granular parakeratosis (GP) is a distinctive acquired keratotic dermatosis that is usually presented with brownish-red hyperkeratotic papules and plaques in the intertriginous areas. Follicular involvement in GP could be either extending lesions from interfollicular epithelium or originating primarily from the follicular epithelium. The latter was named follicular GP and is considered an extremely rare condition. Read More

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February 2021

Real-world evaluation of "Eczema in psoriatico": Bridging the gap between dermatology and dermatopathology.

Dermatol Ther 2021 01 23;34(1):e14672. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Dermatology, Goztepe Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey.

The diagnosis of psoriasis is mainly made by clinical examination but on some occasions according to the localization or duration of the lesions when spongiosis is more prominent, it can be challenging and may be considered as overlapping eczema. To evaluate the patients for "eczema in psoriatico" and to present the differences between psoriasis. Biopsy outcomes of thirty-one patients who were histologically diagnosed with psoriasis and psoriasiform dermatitis because of the erythematous and scaly plaque lesions located on hands and feet, between 2013 and 2015, were evaluated retrospectively. Read More

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January 2021

Linear porokeratosis with bone abnormalities treated with compounded topical 2% cholesterol/2% lovastatin ointment.

Pediatr Dermatol 2021 Jan 10;38(1):242-245. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Dermatology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

We describe a case of linear porokeratosis with associated bone resorption in a 17-year-old female with marked improvement after 2% cholesterol/2% lovastatin ointment application. Porokeratosis is a heterogenous group of keratinization disorders characterized by a cornoid lamella, consisting of focal dyskeratotic cells in the granular layer and columns of parakeratosis. The pathogenesis of porokeratosis is not fully elucidated; however, germline mutations have recently been identified in the mevalonate pathway which can lead to a buildup of metabolites that could play a role in dysmaturation. Read More

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January 2021

Differential histopathological and immunohistochemical findings between palmar psoriasis and chronic hand eczema.

Eur J Dermatol 2020 Dec;30(6):710-715

Department of Dermatology.

Background: The differential diagnosis between palmar psoriasis (PP), chronic hand dermatitis (CHE), and hyperkeratotic hand dermatitis (HHD) is challenging.

Objectives: We sought to distinguish the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics between PP, CHD, and HHD.

Materials & Methods: Hands, clinically diagnosed with PP, CHD, or HHD, were further evaluated using skin biopsy sections based on haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis for β-defensin 2 and interleukin-36γ. Read More

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December 2020

Adult-onset inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus: Immunohistochemical studies and review of the literature.

J Cutan Pathol 2021 Jan 6;48(1):140-146. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Dermatology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Adult-onset inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus (ILVEN) is an uncommon cutaneous disease compared to childhood-onset ILVEN. The typical histopathologic features are alternating parakeratosis and orthokeratosis with an absent granular layer underneath parakeratosis, in contrast to a thickened granular layer below the foci of orthokeratosis in psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia. Herein, we present a 49-year-old woman with typical clinical and histopathologic characteristics of adult-onset ILVEN, including linear arrangement of thick scaly papules and plaques localized on the medial side of her right leg, ankle, and foot. Read More

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January 2021

Imiquimod does not elicit inflammatory responses in the skin of the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

BMC Res Notes 2020 Sep 5;13(1):416. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: Naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has recently attracted interest in biomedical research due to its exceptional longevity, cancer resistance and tolerance to potentially harmful conditions or stimuli. Given its unique attributes, this study was designed to characterize inflammatory skin reactions of this animal to topical application of imiquimod, a toll-like receptor 7 and 8 agonist that triggers psoriasis-like skin reaction.

Results: Imiquimod did not cause the expected psoriasis-like skin changes. Read More

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September 2020

Granular parakeratosis.

Cutis 2020 Jun;105(6):E42-E43

Tri-County Dermatology, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, USA.

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Granular parakeratosis involving the glans of the penis and foreskin.

J Dermatol 2020 Aug 11;47(8):e295-e296. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Dermatology Department, APHP, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris, France.

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Clinico-Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Ruminant's Cutaneous Papillomavirus in Iraq.

Vet Med Int 2020 21;2020:5691974. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Al-Muthanna Veterinary Hospital, Al-Muthanna Governorate, Iraq.

The papilloma viruses are constituted of double-stranded DNA and are a more common lesion in ruminant's skin in Iraq. The p53 tumor suppressor protein reveals an essential role in cell cycle control. This study intends to investigate the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of cutaneous papilloma in ruminants in Iraq. Read More

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February 2020

Cluster of Vacuolated Spinous Keratinocytes: A Clue to Cornoid Lamellation and a Case of Porokeratosis Disseminata.

Am J Dermatopathol 2020 Sep;42(9):673-676

Ackerman Academy of Dermatopathology, New York, NY.

Cornoid lamella is a definitive diagnostic feature of porokeratosis, a disorder of keratinization that has various different clinical presentations. A tiered column of parakeratosis and a diminished granular layer with dyskeratotic keratinocytes at the column base are all useful and known features of cornoid lamellation. We have found a cluster of vacuolated spinous cells to be a reliable fourth feature of cornoid lamellation and a feature when present alone to be a reliable sign of impending cornoid lamellation on deeper sections. Read More

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September 2020

Case of granular parakeratosis with marked keratinocyte apoptosis.

J Dermatol 2020 Mar 17;47(3):e88-e90. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Dermatology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan.

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Granular parakeratosis is a reaction pattern in hyperkeratotic flexural erythema.

Australas J Dermatol 2020 May 9;61(2):159-160. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Pathwest, QE2 Medical Centre, Perth, WA, Australia.

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Aluminum Chloride-Induced Apoptosis Leads to Keratinization Arrest and Granular Parakeratosis.

Am J Dermatopathol 2020 Oct;42(10):756-761

Sapporo Dermatopathology Institute, Sapporo, Japan.

Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is the main active ingredient in commonly used antiperspirant. Antiperspirant use may cause a rare keratinization disease, granular parakeratosis (GP), then AlCl3 may be associated with the etiology of GP. The objective of this study is to elucidate the skin effect of topical aluminum application using a mouse model. Read More

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October 2020

Hyperkeratotic flexural erythema responding to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy: Report of four cases.

Australas J Dermatol 2019 Nov 2;60(4):311-314. Epub 2019 May 2.

Pathwest, QE II Medical Centre, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Hyperkeratotic eruptions in the flexures, especially in the inguinal region, often pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Inguinal keratotic eruptions may be caused by various infections, inflammatory dermatoses, vesico-bullous dermatoses, nutrient deficiencies, medication allergies and other miscellaneous causes such as granular parakeratosis. We hereby report four patients who presented with idiopathic hyperkeratotic erythematous eruptions with a migratory nature involving the inguinal region and occasionally showing the histopathologic features of granular parakeratosis. Read More

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November 2019

Granular parakeratosis in an adult female secondary to exposure to benzalkonium chloride laundry rinse.

Australas J Dermatol 2019 Aug 24;60(3):254-256. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Dermatology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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Axillary granular parakeratosis with osmidrosis successfully treated with topical maxacalcitol.

J Dermatol 2019 05 21;46(5):e155-e157. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Dermatology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama City, Japan.

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Genitogluteal porokeratosis: a clinical review.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2018 1;11:219-229. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Dermatology, Mumbai Port Trust Hospital, Mumbai, India.

Porokeratosis is an uncommon disorder of keratinization that presents with keratotic papules or annular plaques that expand centrifugally with a thread-like elevated border. A distinctive histologic structure, the cornoid lamella, is diagnostic of this disorder and consists of a column of parakeratosis with the absence of the granular layer and dyskeratotic cells in the upper spinous zone. Porokeratosis confined to the genitogluteal region is rare and may be subclassified into three types, namely, classical porokeratosis on the genital region, ptychotropic porokeratosis most often seen in the natal cleft and buttocks and penoscrotal porokeratosis that is seen on the penis and adjacent scrotal skin in young men in their third decade of life. Read More

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Recalcitrant psoriasiform dermatosis of the face: Is it related to pityriasis rubra pilaris?

J Cutan Pathol 2018 Jul 23;45(7):491-497. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

National Skin Centre, Singapore.

Background: There are patients with recalcitrant psoriasiform plaques that do not fit into conventional categories of facial dermatoses. Our study aims to describe the clinicopathological characteristics of several patients with a unique presentation of persistent psoriasiform facial rashes.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed clinical and histological data of known cases of recalcitrant psoriasiform dermatosis of the face diagnosed at National Skin Centre, Singapore, over 10 years. Read More

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Psoriasiform Pemphigus Foliaceus in an African American Female: An Important Clinical Manifestation.

J Drugs Dermatol 2018 Apr;17(4):471-473

A 50-year-old African-American woman presented to the dermatology clinic with a pruritic eruption of 3 years' duration. On clinical examination, the patient had well-demarcated, pink, atrophic plaques and superficial erosions over the inframammary folds and mid-chest. She also had well-demarcated, hyperpigmented, hyperkeratotic scaly plaques over the abdomen, suprapubic region, elbows, knees, and back with sporadic small superficial blisters. Read More

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Validating a Selective S1P Receptor Modulator Syl930 for Psoriasis Treatment.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 Apr 7;41(4):592-596. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College.

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by red, scaly and raised plaques. Thus far, T-cell infiltration is one of the most prominent pathogenic triggers, however, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying psoriasis have not been clearly established. Sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid regulator modulating a variety of immune cell trafficking via interactions with its cognate receptors, S1P. Read More

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Eosinophils are rare in biopsy specimens of psoriasis vulgaris.

J Cutan Pathol 2017 Dec 13;44(12):1027-1032. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Histological features of lesional biopsies can be helpful in distinguishing psoriasis subtypes from disease mimickers. However, occasionally, classic histological features are not sufficient for distinction, and additional clues would be useful. There is a common belief that the presence of eosinophils in skin biopsies argues against psoriasis, but actual literature is scant. Read More

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December 2017

Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Criteria of Pigmented Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ.

Am J Dermatopathol 2018 Mar;40(3):173-179

Department of Dermatology, Sheba Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Pigmented squamous cell carcinoma in situ (pSCCis) is difficult to diagnose based on clinical and dermoscopic examination. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows noninvasive differentiation between malignant and benign pigmented skin lesions. We determined the frequency of key RCM features of pSCCis and correlated the RCM criteria with the corresponding dermoscopic and histopathologic criteria. Read More

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Submammary Granular Parakeratosis Treated With Mastopexy.

J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Aug;16(8):810-812

Granular parakeratosis, originally named axillary granular parakeratosis, is an uncommon disease with an unclear etiology. It is thought to result from defective processing of profillagrin to fillagrin, causing retention of keratohyaline granules in the epidermis. A myriad of causative factors has been proposed, including friction, moisture, heat, and contact irritants such as deodorants. Read More

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Follicular porokeratosis: four new cases.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Dec 27;42(8):881-886. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Department of Cellular Pathology, Warwick Hospital, Warwick, Warwickshire, UK.

Porokeratosis, a disorder of keratinisation, is clinically characterized by the presence of annular plaques with a surrounding keratotic ridge. Clinical variants include linear, disseminated superficial actinic, verrucous/hypertrophic, disseminated eruptive, palmoplantar and porokeratosis of Mibelli (one or two typical plaques with atrophic centre and guttered keratotic rim). All of these subtypes share the histological feature of a cornoid lamella, characterized by a column of 'stacked' parakeratosis with focal absence of the granular layer, and dysmaturation (prematurely keratinised cells in the upper spinous layer). Read More

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December 2017

Childhood-Onset Keratosis Lichenoides Chronica Accompanied by Severe Hair Loss.

Skinmed 2017;15(3):211-213. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Hacettepe University, Sıhhıye Ankara, Turkey.

A 37-year-old woman attended the dermatology outpatient clinic because of recent hair loss from the eyebrows and axillae. Her past medical history revealed mild generalized erythema and hyperpigmented papules and plaques since childhood. On dermatologic examination, there were flat-topped, purple to brown hyperkeratotic lichenoid papules and linear plaques on the elbows, trunk, and buttocks, some of which coalesced into hyperpigmented reticular plaques on the axillae, neck, and groin. Read More

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Granular parakeratosis induced by benzalkonium chloride exposure from laundry rinse aids.

Australas J Dermatol 2017 Aug 19;58(3):e138-e140. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Department of Dermatology, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium cationic detergent present in a number of household products, which can act as a major skin irritant. We present the case of six children who developed granular parakeratosis after exposure to benzalkonium chloride in laundry rinse aids, presenting as a brightly erythematous, tender but minimally pruritic, intertriginous eruption followed by superficial desquamation. The eruptions resolved over 3-4 weeks after cessation of exposure. Read More

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Nucleophagy: A New Look at Past Observations.

J Invest Dermatol 2016 07 5;136(7):1316-1318. Epub 2016 May 5.

Department of Dermatology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Electronic address:

Keratinization of the stratum corneum involves a highly choreographed sequence of events in which granular cells lose their nuclei and become desiccated corneocytes. Akinduro et al. detail the molecular machinery underlying removal of the nucleus (nucleophagy) during the final stages of keratinization. Read More

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