13,826 results match your criteria Gonococcus


A Case of Acute Gonococcal Conjunctivitis in an Unusual Age Group.

Nepal J Ophthalmol 2021 Jan;13(25):137-140

Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Nepal.

Introduction: This is a case of case of acute gonococcal conjunctivitis in a 2.5 years old female child.

Case: A 2. Read More

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January 2021

A portable magnetofluidic platform for detecting sexually transmitted infections and antimicrobial susceptibility.

Sci Transl Med 2021 May;13(593)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.

Effective treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is limited by diagnostics that cannot deliver results rapidly while the patient is still in the clinic. The gold standard methods for identification of STIs are nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), which are too expensive for widespread use and have lengthy turnaround times. To address the need for fast and affordable diagnostics, we have developed a portable, rapid, on-cartridge magnetofluidic purification and testing (PROMPT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Read More

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Coordination of Substrate Binding and Protonation in the MtrD Efflux Pump Controls the Functionally Rotating Transport Mechanism.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.

Multidrug resistance is a serious problem that threatens the effective treatment of the widespread sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium . The drug efflux pump primarily implicated in antimicrobial resistance is the inner membrane transporter MtrD, which forms part of the tripartite multiple transferable resistance (Mtr) CDE efflux system. A structure of MtrD was first solved in 2014 as a symmetrical homotrimer, and then, recently, as an asymmetrical homotrimer. Read More

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HIV risk and pre-exposure prophylaxis interest among women seeking post-abortion care in Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 May;24(5):e25703

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Introduction: Post-abortion clinics located in regions with high HIV burden may ideal locations to integrate counselling and delivery of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), aligning with normative goals for integrated delivery of HIV and reproductive health care. The objective of this study was to gauge the degree to which Kenyan women seeking care for a pregnancy loss, including induced abortion, are at risk for HIV and whether women would welcome an introduction to PrEP prior to discharge from post-abortion care.

Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study from August 2019 to February 2020 with women ages 15 to 30 recruited sequentially as they were accessing post-abortion care at public and private facilities in Thika and Kisumu, Kenya. Read More

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Cross-sectional assessment of determinants of STIs among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kigali, Rwanda.

Sex Transm Infect 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) continue to increase. In Rwanda, STI management relies on syndromic management with limited empirical data characterising the burden of specific STIs among MSM/TGW. This study evaluated the prevalence of syphilis, (NG) and (CT) and associated factors among MSM/TGW in Kigali. Read More

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Sexually transmitted infections and factors associated with risky sexual practices among female sex workers: A cross sectional study in a large Andean city.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0250117. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Medicine, Universidad Internacional de Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Background: There are limited published data on factors related to risky sexual practices (RSP) affecting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Ecuador.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of FSWs presenting for a consultation in a primary health care centre during 2017. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on RSP and potential risk factors including age, membership of an FSW association, self-report of previous STI diagnosis, previous treatment for suspected STI and temporary migration for sex work. Read More

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A lysine-cysteine redox switch with an NOS bridge regulates enzyme function.

Nature 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular Enzymology, Göttingen Center of Molecular Biosciences, Georg August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Disulfide bonds between cysteine residues are important post-translational modifications in proteins that have critical roles for protein structure and stability, as redox-active catalytic groups in enzymes or allosteric redox switches that govern protein function. In addition to forming disulfide bridges, cysteine residues are susceptible to oxidation by reactive oxygen species, and are thus central not only to the scavenging of these but also to cellular signalling and communication in biological as well as pathological contexts. Oxidized cysteine species are highly reactive and may form covalent conjugates with, for example, tyrosines in the active sites of some redox enzymes. Read More

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Societal factors contributing to infections caused by and in a veteran population.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 May 5:956462421999276. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pharmacy, 20073Veteran Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Background: Veterans have a higher incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to the general population. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of societal factors on the risk of chlamydia or gonorrhea.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated data from Veteran Health Administration. Read More

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Telephone-triage services do not lead to an increased wait time for assessment of gonorrhoea in symptomatic patients.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 May 5:956462421999280. Epub 2021 May 5.

Genitourinary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 7423University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

In Spring 2017, Southampton and Portsmouth Sexual Health Services (SHSs) replaced an overstretched walk-in service with a telephone-triage service: patients calling that were symptomatic, vulnerable or at high risk of having an STI were invited into a clinic, whereas others were signposted to remote self-sample NHS postal testing services. This study aimed to establish whether patient care was disadvantaged by the introduction of the triage service. Electronic patient notes for all patients attending for treatment of gonorrhoea for two years before and for two years after the service change were interrogated; the site of infection and duration of symptoms before testing were compared. Read More

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Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnant women by multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0251119. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Women and Infants Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou, China.

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the main pathogenic microorganisms causing sexually transmitted infections. In this study, a multiplex thermostable recombinase polymerase amplification-lateral flow detection (RPA-LFD) assay was established, and the reaction conditions such as the ratio of primer concentration, magnesium ion concentration, amplification time and template DNA concentration in the multiplex RPA reaction were optimized. The optimized multiplex RPA-LFD method was used to detect both CT and NG positive control plasmids, and it was found that the LFD could be used to obtain visible results when the plasmid copy number was only 200. Read More

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Performance of TaqMan probes for the detection of sexually transmitted infections in South African women.

Afr J Lab Med 2021 31;10(1):1124. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

and are the four main aetiologies of sexually transmitted infections responsible for vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS). Commercially available multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are expensive and generally not customisable. We evaluated a highly customisable singleplex PCR approach by testing it in parallel with the Anyplex™ II STI-7 detection assay in a cohort of South African women that presented with VDS between May 2016 and January 2017. Read More

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Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme Annual Report, 2020.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2021 Apr 30;45. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Neisseria Reference Laboratory and World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for STI and AMR, Sydney. New South Wales Health Pathology, Microbiology, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, 2031, Australia.

Abstract: The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP), established in 1981, has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae for more than 40 years. In 2020, a total of 7,219 clinical isolates of gonococci from patients in the public and private sectors, in all jurisdictions, were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Current treatment recommendations for gonorrhoea, for the majority of Australia, continues to be dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Read More

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Molecular characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates collected through a national surveillance programme in Japan, 2013: evidence of the emergence of a ceftriaxone-resistant strain from a ceftriaxone-susceptible lineage.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: To investigate the spread of ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae lineages similar to strains H041 (2009) and FC428 (2015), we characterized 55 strains collected in 2013 from hospitals across Japan.

Methods: Susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing.

Results: Susceptibility rates were 58% for cefixime and 98% for ceftriaxone. Read More

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Urethritis: Rapid Evidence Review.

Am Fam Physician 2021 May;103(9):553-558

Penn State Health Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

Urethritis refers to inflammation of the urethra and is classified as gonococcal (caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae) or nongonococcal in origin (most commonly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, or Trichomonas vaginalis). The most common signs and symptoms include dysuria, mucopurulent urethral discharge, urethral discomfort, and erythema. Diagnostic criteria include typical signs, symptoms, or history of exposure in addition to mucopurulent discharge, Gram stain of urethral secretions showing at least two white blood cells per oil immersion field, first-void urinalysis showing at least 10 white blood cells per high-power field, or a positive leukocyte esterase result with first-void urine. Read More

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[Gonococcal pharyngitis].

Vestn Otorinolaringol 2021 ;86(2):85-89

Ural Research Institute of Dermatovenerology and Immunopathology, Ekaterinburg, Russia.

A description of a clinical case of oligosymptomatic pharyngitis associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae is presented. On the example of oligosymptomatic localized gonococcal pharyngitis in a sexually active young man, included in the risk group for extragenital forms of sexually transmitted infections, an advantage has been shown molecular biological diagnostic method. Study of the spectrum of microflora of the oropharynx and urethra with assessment sensitivity to antibacterial drugs of representatives of the genus Neisseria isolated during mixed infection oropharynx, demonstrated that non-pathogenic Neisseria species are resistant to cephalosporins III-IV generations. Read More

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: An Unexpected Cause of Polyarthritis and Meningitis.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:23247096211012194

University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

, a gram-negative coccus, is a major cause of morbidity among sexually active individuals. Hematogenous spread of from the initial site of infection is thought to occur in only 0.5% to 3% of infected patients. Read More

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Epidemiological and Clinical Observations of Gonococcal Infections in Women and Prevention Strategies.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Immunology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

is rapidly developing antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for an effective gonococcal vaccine. In this study we examined epidemiological and clinical factors associated with gonorrhea in a cohort of women exposed to men with gonococcal urethritis attending the National Center for STD Control clinic in Nanjing, China, to understand the natural history and the risk factors for gonorrhea in this vulnerable population. Read More

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Developing and validating a risk algorithm to diagnose Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in symptomatic Rwandan women.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 28;21(1):392. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Projet San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Kigali, Rwanda.

Background: Algorithms that bridge the gap between syndromic sexually transmitted infection (STI) management and treatment based in realistic diagnostic options and local epidemiology are urgently needed across Africa. Our objective was to develop and validate a risk algorithm for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) diagnosis among symptomatic Rwandan women and to compare risk algorithm performance to the current Rwandan National Criteria for NG/CT diagnosis.

Methods: The risk algorithm was derived in a cohort (n = 468) comprised of symptomatic women in Kigali who sought free screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections and vaginal dysbioses at our research site. Read More

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The microbiome of HPV-positive tonsil squamous cell carcinoma and neck metastasis.

Oral Oncol 2021 Apr 23;117:105305. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Background: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has now surpassed cervical cancer as the most common site of HPV-related cancer in the United States. HPV-positive OPSCCs behave differently from HPV-negative tumors and often present with early lymph node involvement. The bacterial microbiome of HPV-associated OPSCC may contribute to carcinogenesis, and certain bacteria may influence the spread of cancer from the primary site to regional lymphatics. Read More

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Pilot study of pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

Sex Health 2021 May;18(2):200-201

Sexual Health and HIV Medicine, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK; and Sexual Health and HIV Medicine, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK; and Corresponding author. Email:

Unlike pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae, less is known about pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis in men who have sex with men (MSM). We reviewed cases of pharyngeal chlamydia in MSM from January to December 2019. The overall prevalence of pharyngeal chlamydia was 75/6613 (1. Read More

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Acquisition of ciprofloxacin resistance among an expanding clade of β-lactamase positive, serogroup Y Neisseria meningitidis in the United States.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Penicillin and ciprofloxacin are important for invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) management and prevention. IMD cases caused by penicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis containing a ROB-1 β-lactamase gene (blaROB-1) and a mutated DNA gyrase gene (gyrA), have been recently reported in the USA.

Methods: We examined 2097 meningococcal genomes collected through US population-based surveillance from January 2011-February 2020 to identify IMD cases caused by strains with blaROB-1 or gyrA-mediated resistance. Read More

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Prevalence assessment of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women visiting an antenatal care center of Nepal: Pilot of the World Health Organization's standard protocol for conducting STI prevalence surveys among pregnant women.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(4):e0250361. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Global Programmes of HIV, Hepatitis, STI, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common during pregnancy and can result in adverse delivery and birth outcomes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of STIs; Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Trichomonas vaginalis (trichomoniasis), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among pregnant women visiting an antenatal care center in Nepal.

Materials And Methods: We adapted and piloted the WHO standard protocol for conducting a prevalence survey of STIs among pregnant women visiting antenatal care center of Dhulikhel Hospital, Nepal. Read More

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[Increased infections by herpes simplex virus type 1 and polymicrobials of the genital tract, in the general population of a Spanish middle city].

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

José Gutiérrez-Fernández. Laboratorio de Microbiología. Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves. Avenida de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2. E-18012 Granada, Spain.

Objective: Infections by genitopathogens are a frequent reason for consultation in Primary Health Care and in the specialties of Infectious Diseases, Urology, Gynecology, and Dermatology. The most common causes are opportunistic microorganisms and responsible for sexually transmitted infections associated with unprotected sex. The objective is to determine the microorganisms that cause these infections in patients treated at the Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves in Granada and Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to antibiotics. Read More

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Are Urogenital Symptoms Caused by Sexually Transmitted Infections and Colonizing Bacteria?

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venereology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and colonizing bacteria in relation to urogenital symptoms.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients visiting the STI clinic at Umeå University Hospital were asked for symptoms and condom use. Samples from 759 patients (465 male and 294 female) were analyzed for 4 STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium) and 3 colonizing bacteria (Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum). Read More

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Screening for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea in primary health care: systematic reviews on effectiveness and patient preferences.

Syst Rev 2021 Apr 19;10(1):118. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 11405 87 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1C9, Canada.

Background: We conducted systematic reviews on the benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening or alternative screening approaches for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in non-pregnant sexually active individuals, and on the relative importance patients' place on the relevant outcomes. Findings will inform recommendations by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.

Methods: We searched five databases (to January 24, 2020), trial registries, conference proceedings, and reference lists for English and French literature published since 1996. Read More

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Etiologies of genital inflammation and ulceration in symptomatic Rwandan men and women responding to radio promotions of free screening and treatment services.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250044. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Project San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Kigali, Rwanda.

Introduction: The longstanding inadequacies of syndromic management for genital ulceration and inflammation are well-described. The Rwanda National Guidelines for sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromic management are not yet informed by the local prevalence and correlates of STI etiologies, a component World Health Organization guidelines stress as critical to optimize locally relevant algorithms.

Methods: Radio announcements and pharmacists recruited symptomatic patients to seek free STI services in Kigali. Read More

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A community-driven resource for genomic epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance prediction of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at Pathogenwatch.

Genome Med 2021 Apr 19;13(1):61. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Centre for Genomic Pathogen Surveillance, Big Data Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK.

Background: Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an urgent threat to public health, as strains resistant to at least one of the two last-line antibiotics used in empiric therapy of gonorrhoea, ceftriaxone and azithromycin, have spread internationally. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) data can be used to identify new AMR clones and transmission networks and inform the development of point-of-care tests for antimicrobial susceptibility, novel antimicrobials and vaccines. Community-driven tools that provide an easy access to and analysis of genomic and epidemiological data is the way forward for public health surveillance. Read More

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[MutL Protein from the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Mismatch Repair System: Interaction with ATP and DNA].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2021 Mar-Apr;55(2):289-304

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

The mismatch repair system (MMR) ensures the stability of genetic information during DNA replication in almost all organisms. Mismatch repair is initiated after recognition of a non-canonical nucleotide pair by the MutS protein and the formation of a complex between MutS and MutL. Eukaryotic and most bacterial MutL homologs function as endonucleases that introduce a single-strand break in the daughter strand of the DNA, thus activating the repair process. Read More

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High prevalence and resistance rates of among patients visiting two sexually transmitted infection clinics in the Netherlands.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 Apr 16:956462421999287. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

is a well-known cause of urethritis in men and has been associated with cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and adverse obstetric outcomes in women. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the current prevalence of infection and the rate of macrolide resistance in isolates, in patients visiting two large Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics, to evaluate whether the recommendations in Dutch guidelines should be revised. In addition, risk factors for were identified. Read More

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