32,382 results match your criteria Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in Adults


Bisphenol F causes disruption of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neural development in zebrafish via an estrogenic mechanism.

Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biology, Neuroscience Program, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington, USA. Electronic address:

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the brain are the main controllers of reproduction and reproductive behavior in most vertebrates, and are susceptible to endocrine disruption by different bisphenols. While the endocrine disrupting properties of bisphenol A have been well documented, commonly used analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) are not as well studied. In this study we examined the effects of early, low-dose, chronic BPF exposure on the development of the GnRH neural system in the zebrafish embryo. Read More

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December 2018

Semaphorin signalling in GnRH neurons: from development to disease.

Neuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.


In mammals, fertility critically depends on the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by scattered hypothalamic neurons (GnRH neurons). During development, GnRH neurons originate in the nasal placode and migrate first in the nasal compartment and then through the nasal/forebrain junction, before reaching their final positions in the hypothalamus. This neurodevelopmental process, which has been extensively studied in mouse models, is regulated by a plethora of factors that might control GnRH neuron migration or survival as well as the fasciculation/targeting of the olfactory/vomeronasal axons along which the GnRH neurons migrate. Read More

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December 2018

Unintended Consequences: A Review of Pharmacologically-Induced Priapism.

Sex Med Rev 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Urology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Priapism has been linked to many commonly prescribed medications, as well as recreational drugs and toxins. Although the incidence of priapism as a result of medication is small, the increasing use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, and recreational drugs may lead to more cases of pharmacologically-induced priapism in the future.

Aim: To provide a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the most common causes of pharmacologically induced priapism and discuss incidence, pathophysiology, and basic management strategies. Read More

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November 2018

Increasing hypothalamic nucleobindin 2 levels and decreasing hypothalamic inflammation in obese male mice via diet and exercise alleviate obesity-associated hypogonadism.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, PR China; School of Kinesiology, Shenyang Sport University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110102, PR China. Electronic address:

To explore the role of nesfatin-1 in regulating male reproductive function during energy balance variation, we employed an obese mouse model which was first induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and followed by interventions of a normal diet (ND) and/or moderate exercise, and then serum reproductive hormones of male mice, hypothalamic nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1, inflammatory factors, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were tested. Our findings showed that both serum nesfatin-1, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) levels and hypothalamic NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and Gnrh mRNA levels were reduced, whereas, the mRNA and protein levels of hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, inhibitor kappa B kinase β (IKKβ), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were increased in obese male mice. Diet, exercise, and diet combined with exercise interventions reversed the decreases in serum nesfatin-1, FSH, LH, and T levels; increased hypothalamic NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and Gnrh mRNA levels; and reduced hypothalamic TNF-α, IL-1β, IKKβ, and NF-κB levels. Read More

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November 2018

Endometrial but not Ovarian Response is Associated With Clinical Outcomes and can be Improved by Prolonged Pituitary Downregulation in Patients With Thin and Medium Endometrium.

Reprod Sci 2018 Dec 3:1933719118816835. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

1 Reproductive Medicine Centre, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medicine College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ovarian and endometrial response on live birth rates (LBRs) in young normal and high responders and prolonged pituitary downregulation on endometrial receptivity and clinical outcomes in patients with different endometrial thickness. Between January 2013 and December 2017, 9511 patients underwent first in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with age ≤35 years, follicle stimulating hormone < 10 IU/l, and ≥4 retrieved oocytes were conducted. The estradiol (E) levels on the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) day were classified into 4 groups: group 1 (<3000 pg/mL); group 2 (3000-5000 pg/mL); group 3 (5000-7000 pg/mL), and group 4 (≥7000 pg/mL). Read More

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December 2018

Evolution of the regulatory mechanism for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in vertebrates - hypothesis from a comparative view.

Authors:
Shinji Kanda

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. Electronic address:

Reproduction is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) in vertebrates. In addition to wealth of knowledge in mammals, recent studies in non-mammalian species, especially teleosts, have provided evidence that some of the components in the HPG axis are conserved in bony vertebrates. On the other hand, from the comparisons of the recent accumulating knowledge between mammals and teleosts, unique characteristics of the regulatory system in each group have been unveiled. Read More

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November 2018

Androgen Deprivation Therapies and Changes in Comorbidity: A Comparison of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonists and Antiandrogen Monotherapy as Primary Therapy in Men with High-risk Prostate Cancer.

Eur Urol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, UK; Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Some studies suggest that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are associated with higher risk of adverse events than antiandrogens (AAs) monotherapy. However, it has been unclear whether this is due to indication bias.

Objective: To investigate rates of change in comorbidity for men on GnRH agonists versus AA monotherapy in a population-based register study. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

[Secondary osteoporosis. Cancer treatment-induced bone loss.]

Authors:
Yasuo Imanishi

Clin Calcium 2018 ;28(12):1665-1670

Department of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for prostate cancer in men, are associated with bone loss, leading to the increment of fracture risks. Assessment of bone status, improvement of life style such as diet and exercise, and osteoporosis treatments are essential to keep good bone health in cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

ErbB4 point mutation in CU3 inbred rats affects gonadotropin-releasing-hormone neuronal function via compromised neuregulin-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release from astrocytes.

Glia 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-secretion is not only regulated by neuronal factors but also by astroglia cells via growth factors and ErbB receptors of the epidermal growth factor family. Studies in transgenic mice carrying mutations in the ErbB receptor system experience impaired reproductive capacity. In addition, some of these animals show a typical skin phenotype with wavy hair and curly whiskers. Read More

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November 2018

How to Contribute to the Progress of Neuroendocrinology: Discovery of GnIH and Progress of GnIH Research.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 12;9:662. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Laboratory of Integrative Brain Sciences, Department of Biology and Center for Medical Life Science, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

It is essential to discover novel neuropeptides that regulate the functions of pituitary, brain and peripheral secretory glands for the progress of neuroendocrinology. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulating gonadotropin release was isolated and its structure was determined by Schally's and Guillemin's groups at the beginning of the 1970s. It was subsequently shown that GnRH is highly conserved among vertebrates. Read More

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November 2018

HDAC inhibitors impair Fshb subunit expression in murine gonadotrope cells.

J Mol Endocrinol 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

D Bernard, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University , Montreal, H3G 1Y6, Canada.

Fertility is dependent on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a product of gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and intra-pituitary activins are regarded as the primary drivers of FSH synthesis and secretion. Both stimulate expression of the FSH beta subunit gene (Fshb), although the underlying mechanisms of GnRH action are poorly described relative to those of the activins. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of Kisspeptin-10 on Hypothalamic Neuropeptides and Neurotransmitters Involved in Appetite Control.

Molecules 2018 Nov 24;23(12). Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Pharmacy, "G. d'Annunzio" University, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

Besides its role as key regulator in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion, reproductive function, and puberty onset, kisspeptin has been proposed to act as a bridge between energy homeostasis and reproduction. In the present study, to characterize the role of hypothalamic kisspeptin as metabolic regulator, we evaluated the effects of kisspeptin-10 on neuropeptide Y (NPY) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and the extracellular dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIIA) concentrations in rat hypothalamic (Hypo-E22) cells. Our study showed that kisspeptin-10 in the concentration range 1 nM⁻10 μM was well tolerated by the Hypo-E22 cell line. Read More

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November 2018

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-modified chitosan as a safe and efficient gene delivery vector for spermatogonia cells.

Reprod Domest Anim 2018 Nov;53 Suppl 3:23-28

National Nanotechnology Centre (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani, Thailand.

The use of male gonadal tissue as a site for the local delivery of DNA is an interesting concept. Previously, we reported synthesis, physiochemical and biological properties of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-conjugated chitosan as a carrier for DNA delivery to GnRH receptor-overexpressing cells. In this study, the application of modified chitosan as a potential vector for gene delivery to testicular cells was carried out. Read More

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November 2018

Effect of hormone modulations on donor-derived spermatogenesis or colonization after syngeneic and xenotransplantation in mice.

Andrology 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Cytotoxic cancer treatments, such as irradiation, can cause permanent sterility in male mammals owing to the loss of spermatogonial stem cells. In animal models, spermatogenesis could be restored from transplanted spermatogonial stem cells. Previously, we showed that transient suppression of FSH, LH, and testosterone in the recipient with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-ant), given immediately after irradiation, enhanced spermatogenesis from transplanted spermatogonial stem cells in mice and monkeys. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Pharmacology of medications used for ovarian stimulation.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Medications to stimulate the ovaries may be used to induce ovulation in patients with anovulatory infertility or to hyperstimulate the ovaries in a controlled fashion in ovulatory patients as part of assisted reproductive treatments (ART). The pharmacology of all current major medications used to stimulate ovarian function is reviewed in this article, including letrozole, clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins, and pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Novel potential compounds and adjuvant treatment approaches are also discussed, such as kisspeptin agonists and androgens. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Prenatal Programming of Neuroendocrine System Development by Lipopolysaccharide: Long-Term Effects.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 21;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia.

Various stress factors during critical periods of fetal development modulate the epigenetic mechanisms controlling specific genes, which can affect the structure and function of physiological systems. Maternal immune stress by bacterial infection simulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in an experiment is considered to be a powerful programming factor of fetal development. Studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling the formation and functioning of physiological systems are in the pilot stage. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Synthesis, in vitro stability, and antiproliferative effect of d-cysteine modified GnRH-doxorubicin conjugates.

J Pept Sci 2018 Nov 22:e3135. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Hebei Province Key Laboratory of Research and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengde Medical University, Chengde, Hebei, 067000, China.

Overexpression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor in many tumors but not in normal tissues makes it possible to use GnRH analogs as targeting peptides for selective delivery of cytotoxic agents, which may help to enhance the uptake of anticancer drugs by cancer cells and reduce toxicity to normal cells. The GnRH analogs [d-Cys , desGly , Pro -NH ]-GnRH, [d-Cys , desGly , Pro -NHEt]-GnRH, and [d-Cys , α-aza-Gly -NH ]-GnRH were conjugated with doxorubicin (Dox), respectively, through N-succinimidyl-3-maleimidopropionate as a linker to afford three new GnRH-Dox conjugates. The metabolic stability of these conjugates in human serum was determined by RP-HPLC. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Occupational manganese exposure, reproductive hormones, and semen quality in male workers: A cross-sectional study.

Toxicol Ind Health 2018 Nov 22:748233718810109. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

1 Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

It has been found that exposure to manganese (Mn) could induce reproductive dysfunction, but its occupational risk in male workers is unclear. This study aims to assess the association of occupational Mn exposure with reproductive hormones and semen quality in a cross-sectional study. Urinary Mn, semen quality, and reproductive hormones were explored in 84 male workers occupationally exposed to Mn and 92 referents. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Immunization against Kisspeptin-54 perturb hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular signaling pathway in ram lambs.

Theriogenology 2018 Nov 6;125:193-202. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Kisspeptin, a peptide product of KISS1 gene, recently identified as essential upstream gatekeeper in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. This study was designed to investigate the effect of immunization against kisspeptin-54 on hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular signaling pathway. A total of ten intact 56-days-old ram lambs were used and randomized into the treatment and control groups, which were, respectively immunized by kisspeptin-54 based vaccine and the empty plasmid via intramuscular route. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Recent studies of LPXRFa receptor signaling in fish and other vertebrates.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis plays a major role in coordinating the reproduction of fish and other vertebrates. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the primary stimulatory factor responsible for the hypothalamic control of gonadotropin secretion. In 2000, a previously unidentified hypothalamic neuropeptide was isolated from the brain of Japanese quail and termed gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) based on its ability to directly inhibit gonadotropin release from the cultured quail anterior pituitary gland. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Precocious or early puberty in patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to POU1F1 gene mutation: case report and review of possible mechanisms.

Hormones (Athens) 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Istanbul University, Çapa 34093, Istanbul, Turkey.

Central precocious puberty (CPP) or early puberty (EP) is a rare entity in combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), the latter caused by mutations in pituitary transcription factor genes. The early onset of puberty in two patients with CPHD with POU1F1 gene mutation was evaluated. A 3-month-old boy was diagnosed with central hypothyroidism, and L-thyroxine was commenced. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Role of RFRP-3 in the Regulation of Kiss-1 Gene Expression in the AVPV Hypothalamic Cell Model mHypoA-50.

Reprod Sci 2018 Nov 20:1933719118813456. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo, Japan.

Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss-1 gene, plays a crucial role in reproductive function by governing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The recently established Kiss-1-expressing cell model mHypoA-50 displays characteristics of neuronal cells of the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) region of the mouse hypothalamus. Because Kiss-1 gene expression in these cells is upregulated by estradiol (E2), mHypoA-50 cells are regarded as a valuable model for the study of Kiss-1-expressing neurons in the AVPV region. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Chronic administration of gonadotropin releasing-hormone improves learning in old gonadectomized rats.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Nov 17;157:35-40. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Physiology and Pharmacology, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Av. Universidad 940 C.P. 20131, Aguascalientes, Mexico. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic administration of GnRH improves performance of learning tasks and expression of spinophilin in the hippocampus of gonadectomized old rats. Eighteen-month-old male Wistar rats were used and divided into three groups: control (intact rats); gonadectomized; and gonadectomized + GnRH. The latter group was injected intramuscularly with GnRH (100 nM) twice a day for five weeks. Read More

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November 2018

The effects of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone on growth performance, reproductive activity and carcass traits of heavy weight gilts.

Animal 2018 Nov 20:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

4Department of Animal Science,School of Veterinary - Federal University of Minas Gerais,Campus Pampulha da UFMG, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, 6627,Brazil.

Heavy weight gilts commonly show signs of oestrus during the late finishing phase, which results in a period of reduced feed intake and growth rate. Immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (IM, immunocastration) was developed for finishing boars and recently extrapolated to females. Immunocastration acts by suppressing reproductive activity and improving the growth potential. Read More

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November 2018
13 Reads

Body mass index and basal androstenedione are independent risk factors for miscarriage in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2018 Nov 19;16(1):119. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 N Garden Rd, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: There is limited literature investigating the effects of body mass index (BMI) and androgen level on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-antagonist protocol in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Androgen-related variation in the effect of body mass index (BMI) on IVF outcomes remains unknown.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 583 infertile women with PCOS who underwent IVF using the conventional GnRH-antagonist protocol were included. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Cloning and effects of fasting on the brain expression levels of appetite-regulators and reproductive hormones in glass catfish (Kryptopterus vitreolus).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2018 Nov 17;228:94-102. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Departments of Biology and Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. Electronic address:

The regulation of feeding is a complex process that involves coordination between various signals. Feeding hormones can be described as orexigenic (stimulate food intake, e.g. Read More

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November 2018

DNA Vaccine Targeting Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Application in Animal Contraception.

Mol Biotechnol 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Scott-Ritchey Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, 1265 HC Morgan Drive, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA.

Overpopulation of free-roaming and wildlife animals negatively affects economy and public health in many parts of the world. Contraceptive vaccines are viewed as a valuable option for reducing numbers of unwanted animals. This study develops vaccines for potential use in animal contraception exploiting a DNA platform. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Androgen induced cellular proliferation, neurogenesis, and generation of GnRH3 neurons in the brain of mature female Mozambique tilapia.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 15;8(1):16855. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Life Sciences, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Itakura, Oura, Gunma, 374-0193, Japan.

The neuroplastic mechanisms in the fish brain that underlie sex reversal remain unknown. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (GnRH3) neurons control male reproductive behaviours in Mozambique tilapia and show sexual dimorphism, with males having a greater number of GnRH3 neurons. Treatment with androgens such as 11-ketotestosterone (KT), but not 17β-estradiol, increases the number of GnRH3 neurons in mature females to a level similar to that observed in mature males. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Immunolocalization of VEGF/VEGFR system in human fetal vomeronasal organ during early development.

Acta Histochem 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Biosciences and Territory, University of Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche, Isernia, Italy. Electronic address:

The vomeronasal system (VNS) is an accessory olfactory structure present in most mammals adhibited to the detection of specific chemosignals implied in social and reproductive behavior. The VNS comprises the vomeronasal organ (VNO), vomeronasal nerve and accessory olfactory bulb. VNO is characterized by a neuroepithelium constituted by bipolar neurons and supporting and stem/progenitor cells. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

First in vivo evaluation of a potential SPECT brain radiotracer for the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Nov 15;11(1):811. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Medical Imaging Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Objectives: In vivo evaluations of a gonadotropin releasing hormone-receptor single photon emission computed tomography radiotracer for non-invasive detection of gonadotropin releasing homone-receptors in brain.

Results: We have used a simple, robust and high-yielding procedure to radiolabel an alpha-halogenated bioactive compound with high radiochemical yield. Literature findings showed similar alpha-halogenated compounds suitable for in vivo evaluations. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

GnRH antagonist versus follicular-phase single-dose GnRH agonist protocol in patients of normal ovarian responses during controlled ovarian stimulation.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2018 Nov 15:1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

a Reproductive Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan , People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study aims to explore the differences of the ovarian stimulation (OS) characteristics, laboratory, and clinical outcomes between follicular-phase single-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).

Methods: About 1883 consecutive IVF/ICSI fresh cycles of normal ovarian responders were retrospectively analyzed, with 1229 in the single-dose GnRH agonist protocol group and 654 in the GnRH antagonist protocol group at Reproductive Medical Center of Tongji Hospital from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017.

Results: The follicular-phase single-dose GnRH agonist group showed significantly more oocytes obtained, higher implantation rate and pregnancy rate, as well as lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level and estradiol (E2)/oocyte ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. Read More

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November 2018

Long noncoding RNA uc.4 inhibits cell differentiation in heart development by altering DNA methylation.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

In previous studies, we have demonstrated that long noncoding RNA uc.4 may influence the cell differentiation through the TGF-β signaling pathway, suppressed the heart development of zebrafish and resulting cardiac malformation. DNA methylation plays a significant role in the heart development and disordered of DNA methylation may cause disruption of control of gene promoter. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Enhanced In Vitro Antitumor Activity of GnRH-III-Daunorubicin Bioconjugates Influenced by Sequence Modification.

Pharmaceutics 2018 Nov 9;10(4). Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Faculty of Science, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Hungary.

Receptors for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) are highly expressed in various human cancers including breast, ovarian, endometrial, prostate and colorectal cancer. Ligands like human GnRH-I or the sea lamprey analogue GnRH-III represent a promising approach for the development of efficient drug delivery systems for targeted tumor therapy. Here, we report on the synthesis and cytostatic effect of 14 oxime bond-linked daunorubicin GnRH-III conjugates containing a variety of unnatural amino acids within the peptide sequence. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Phoenixin: Expression at different ovarian development stages and effects on genes ralated to reproduction in spotted scat, Scatophagus argus.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Nov 10;228:17-25. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Fisheries College, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China; Guangdong Research Center on Reproductive Control and Breeding Technology of Indigenous Valuable Fish Species, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address:

Phoenixin (Pnx), a recently discovered neuropeptide, has been implicated in reproduction. Pnx mainly exists in two active isoforms, phoenixin-14 (Pnx-14) and phoenixin-20 (Pnx-20). However, little is known about the functions of Pnx in teleosts. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Little information about fertility preservation is provided for cancer patients: A survey of oncologists' knowledge, attitude and current practice.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2018 Nov 12:e12947. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

The objective of this survey was to explore the knowledge, attitude and current practice of Iranian oncologists about fertility preservation (FP) services provided to cancer patients. Oncologists who completed this survey were a convenience sample of 103 specialists in radiation oncology and haematology who attended large national and international congresses and symposia across Iran. A 23-item self-administered questionnaire included questions on knowledge, attitudes and practice. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Exploring Dynamics and Noise in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Signaling.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1819:405-429

Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) acts via G-protein coupled receptors on pituitary gonadotropes. These are G-coupled receptors that mediate acute effects of GnRH on the exocytotic secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as the chronic regulation of their synthesis. FSH and LH control steroidogenesis and gametogenesis in the gonads so GnRH mediates control of reproduction by the central nervous system. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Activation of Pyk2 by CaM kinase II in cultured hypothalamic neurons and gonadotroph cells.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 11. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from hypothalamic GnRH neurons and stimulates a GnRH receptor in gonadotroph cells and GnRH neurons. The GnRH receptor belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptors, and stimulation of the GnRH receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). We reported previously that the δ2 isoform of Ca /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase IIδ2) was involved in GnRH-induced ERK activation in cultured GnRH neurons (GT1-7 cells). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Changes in GABAergic Transmission to and Intrinsic Excitability of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons during the Estrous Cycle in Mice.

eNeuro 2018 Sep-Oct;5(5). Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons form the final common central output pathway controlling fertility and are regulated by steroid feedback. In females, estradiol feedback action varies between negative and positive; negative feedback typically regulates episodic GnRH release whereas positive feedback initiates a surge of GnRH, and subsequently luteinizing hormone (LH) release ultimately triggering ovulation. During the estrous cycle, changes between estradiol negative and positive feedback occur with cycle stage and time of day, with positive feedback in the late afternoon of proestrus in nocturnal species. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

[The role of the combined balneotherapeutic treatment as the 'add-back therapy' against the background of the anti-hormonal effects of the agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the women suffering from endometriosis genitalis externa].

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2018 ;95(5):31-39

Pyatigorsk state scientific research institute of balneotherapeiutics, Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency, Pyatigorsk, Russia.

Background: The use of agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) for the rehabilitation treatment of the patients presenting with endometriosis genitalis externa is known to significantly enhance the risk of development of hypoestrogenism. The so-called 'add-back-therapy' is carried out as a preventive measure to eliminate hypoestrogenism caused by the intake of GnRH agonists without detriment to the effectiveness of anti-hormonal therapy.

Aim: The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the new method ('add-back hormone replacement therapy') in comparison with anti-hormonal therapy with the use of GRH agonists at the stage of the early postoperative medical rehabilitation based on the drinking of mineral waters (MW) and radon therapy (RT) in the patients who had undergone the laparoscopic interventions for the treatment of endometrioid heterotopies of the ovaries (1-3 months post-operatively). Read More

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January 2018
6 Reads

Delayed Start Protocol with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Antagonist in Poor Responders Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Clinical Trial.

Oman Med J 2018 Nov;33(6):506-511

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: We sought to determine the effects of the delayed start protocol with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists in poor responders undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted during a 15-month period from April 2014 to July 2015 in clinics in Shiraz, Iran. A total of 42 poor responders with primary infertility were randomly assigned to the controlled ovarian stimulation group utilizing the delayed start protocol (n = 21) or the traditional group (n = 21) using GnRH antagonist, Cetrotide. Read More

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November 2018

Utility of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonists for Fertility Preservation: Lack of Biologic Basis and the Need to Prioritize Proven Methods.

J Clin Oncol 2018 Nov 8:JCO1800420. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Volkan Turan, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, and Yeni Yuzyil University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; Giuliano Bedoschi, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Kenny Rodriguez-Wallberg, Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Murat Sonmezer, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey; Fernanda Silva Pacheco, Classiclínica, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Ozgur Oktem, Koc University School of Meidcine, Istanbul, Turkey; and Hugh Taylor and Kutluk Oktay, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

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November 2018
12 Reads

Could polymorphisms of some hormonal receptor genes, involved in folliculogenesis help in predicting patient response to controlled ovarian stimulation?

J Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Reproductive Medicine and Gynecological Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Maribor, Ljubljanska ulica 5, 2000, Maribor, Slovenia.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected genes, responsible for hormonal regulation of folliculogenesis, are associated with response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and clinical characteristics of women enrolled in in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 60 (IVF) patients underwent COH by using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) protocol. Patients were classified into three groups: poor-responders (according to Bologna criteria), normo-responders (≤ 15 oocytes), and hyper-responders (> 15 oocytes). Read More

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November 2018

The Role of Interleukin-10 in Mediating the Effect of Immune Challenge on Mouse Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons .

eNeuro 2018 Sep-Oct;5(5). Epub 2018 Oct 15.

MTA NAP-B Molecular Neuroendocrinology Research Group, Institute of Physiology, Medical School, Centre for Neuroscience, Szentágothai Research Institute, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Hungary.

Immune challenge alters neural functioning via cytokine production. Inflammation has profound impact on the central regulation of fertility, but the mechanisms involved are not clearly defined. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 is responsible for balancing the immune response in the brain. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Dietary Genistein Alleviates Lipid Metabolism Disorder and Inflammatory Response in Laying Hens With Fatty Liver Syndrome.

Front Physiol 2018 24;9:1493. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

This study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of dietary genistein (GEN) on fatty liver syndrome (FLS) in laying hens. Hens in the control group (CG) were fed a high-energy and low-choline (HELC) diet to establish the FLS model. The livers of the FLS hens were friable and swollen from hemorrhage. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Efficacy and Safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Agonists Triptorelin Acetate and Cetrorelix Acetate in Assisted Reproduction.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Nov 8;24:7996-8000. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 GnRH agonists - triptorelin acetate and cetrorelix acetate - in assisted reproduction. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 182 females who received in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF+ET) from March 2014 to July 2014 were involved, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 91 patients received treatment with short-acting triptorelin (group A) and another 91 patients were treated with cetrorelix acetate (group B). Read More

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November 2018

GnRH agonist long protocol versus GnRH antagonist protocol for various aged patients with diminished ovarian reserve: A retrospective study.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(11):e0207081. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

This retrospective analysis compared the efficiency of the gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (GnRH-ant) protocol and the GnRH agonist long (GnRH-a) protocol for patients with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). A total of 1,233 patients with DOR (anti-Mullerian hormone <1.1 ng/mL) were recruited for this retrospective case-control study. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Anti-cancer effect of GV1001 for prostate cancer; function as a ligand of GnRHR.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

K Kang, Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, SEOUL, Korea (the Republic of).

GV1001, a 16-amino acid fragment of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT), has been developed as an injectable formulation of cancer vaccine. Here, we revealed for the first time that GV1001 is a novel ligand for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR). The docking prediction for GV1001 against GnRHR showed high binding affinity. Read More

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October 2018
11 Reads
4.800 Impact Factor

GnRH antagonist treatment of malignant adrenocortical tumors.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2019 Jan;26(1):103-117

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Aberrantly expressed G protein-coupled receptors in tumors are considered as potential therapeutic targets. We analyzed the expressions of receptors of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRHR), luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (LHCGR) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSHR) in human adrenocortical carcinomas and assessed their response to GnRH antagonist therapy. We further studied the effects of the GnRH antagonist cetrorelix acetate (CTX) on cultured adrenocortical tumor (ACT) cells (mouse Cα1 and Y-1, and human H295R), and in vivo in transgenic mice (SV40 T-antigen expression under inhibin α promoter) bearing Lhcgr and Gnrhr in ACT. Read More

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January 2019
4 Reads

Arterial Spin Labeling and Central Precocious Puberty.

Clin Neuroradiol 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, AP-HP, 149 rue de sèvres, 75015, Paris, France.

Purpose: To evaluate a non-invasive method to assess the progressivity of idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP) by quantifying perfusion of the pituitary stalk with arterial spin labeling (ASL) and using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test as a reference test to define progressive CPP.

Methods: In a single center retrospective study, 52 consecutive patients, observed between October 2015 and April 2017 and referred with early signs of puberty, were evaluated using the GnRH test and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with peripheral or non-idiopathic puberty were excluded. Read More

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November 2018

Maternal attitude towards delaying puberty in girls with and without a disability: a questionnaire-based study from the United Arab Emirates.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2018 9;2(1):e000306. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Paediatric Department, Mediclinic City Hospital, Dubai, N/A, United Arab Emirates.

Background: Parental anxiety about the impact of puberty/menses, particularly in girls with severe disability leads to seeking therapeutic pubertal suppression. We aim to explore maternal attitudes and reasons for seeking pubertal suppression.

Methods: Mothers of girls receiving gonadotropin -releasing hormone analogue therapy in Mafraq hospital, Abu Dhabi were enrolled in the study. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads