790 results match your criteria Goiter Diffuse Toxic


The Role of Nuclear Medicine in the Clinical Management of Benign Thyroid Disorders. Part 2. Nodular Goiter, Hypothyroidism, and Subacute Thyroiditis.

J Nucl Med 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, United States.

Goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland, is a common endocrine abnormality. Constitutional factors, genetic abnormalities, and/or dietary and environmental factors may contribute to the development of nodular goiter. Most patients with non-toxic nodular goiter are asymptomatic or have only mild mechanical symptoms ("globus pharyngis"). Read More

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February 2021

Current approach to surgical management of hyperthyroidism.

Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Jun 26;65(2):124-131. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Endocrine Surgery, Third Chair of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Kraków, Poland -

Hyperthyroidism is a set of disorders that involve excess synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland, which leads to thyrotoxicosis. The most common forms of hyperthyroidism include diffuse toxic goiter (Graves' disease), toxic multinodular goiter (Plummer disease), and a solitary toxic adenoma. The most reliable screening measure of thyroid function is the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Read More

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[Radioiodine therapy outcome in toxic multinodular goiter patient with concomitant hereditary Hasharon hemoglobinopathy].

Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 2020 Sep 16;66(3):27-32. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Endocrinology Research Centre.

This research describes a clinical case of treatment of a patient with thyrotoxicosis with concomitant hematological pathology – carriage of unstable hemoglobin Hasharon. A patient diagnosed with «Diffuse toxic nodular goiter. Thyrotoxicosis of medium severity. Read More

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September 2020

Progress in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and new drug development.

Taiwan J Ophthalmol 2020 Jul-Sep;10(3):174-180. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of toxic diffuse goiter (Graves' disease), also known as Graves' ophthalmopathy/orbitopathy. As an organ-specific autoimmune disease, the pathogenesis of TAO is still unclear. In recent years, great progress has been made in revealing the mechanism of TAO. Read More

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Microsomal reductase activity in patients with thyroid neoplasms.

Endocrine 2020 Oct 3. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Inozemtsev City Clinical Hospital of Moscow Department of Health, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: Cytochrome b5-reductase (CYB5R) and cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR) are important for cell metabolism; however, their role in thyroid hormonogenesis and carcinogenesis has not been elucidated yet. The activity of CYB5R correlates with the metastasis in breast cancer, but there are no similar studies for CYB5R and CYPOR for thyroid tumors. The aim of this study was to elucidate the activity of CYB5R and CYPOR changes in benign euthyroid and hyperthyroid neoplasms and in papillary thyroid cancer for their potential application as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis prediction of thyroid cancer. Read More

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October 2020

A Rare Case of Subacute Painful Thyroiditis Causing Thyroid Storm and a Successful Trial of Propylthiouracil.

Cureus 2020 Jul 29;12(7):e9461. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Psychiatry, Lewisgale Medical Center, Salem, USA.

Thyroid storm is a rare, life-threatening condition characterized by severe or exaggerated clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis, commonly occurring in patients with longstanding, untreated hyperthyroidism such as Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter. Subacute painful thyroiditis, also known as de Quervain thyroiditis, is a self-limited inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland that is characterized by neck pain, a tender diffuse thyroid goiter, elevated inflammatory markers, and a predictable course of thyroid function evolution. Rarely, it can cause thyroid storm. Read More

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Racial disparities in comorbid conditions among patients undergoing thyroidectomy for Graves' disease: An ACS-NSQIP analysis.

Am J Surg 2021 01 21;221(1):106-110. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Surgery, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, 200 Hawkins Drive, 1500 JCP, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Studies indicate that racial disparities exist in the presentation and outcomes of patients undergoing thyroidectomy for cancer and benign disease. We examined the relationship between race, pre-operative characteristics and outcomes in patients undergoing thyroidectomy for GD.

Methods: Patients were identified from the 2013-2016 American College of Surgeons NSQIP database using ICD-9/10 codes consistent with diffuse toxic goiter. Read More

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January 2021

A systematic review of the incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients undergoing thyroidectomy for thyrotoxicosis.

Clin Otolaryngol 2020 07 20;45(4):538-544. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

ENT Consultant, Surrey & Sussex NHS Trust, Redhill, UK.

Introduction: Hyperthyroidism (HT) has been associated with no insignificant rates of thyroid malignancy. There are no current specific guidelines that suggest routine preoperative imaging for thyroid nodules in patients with Grave's disease. We therefore performed a systematic review assessing rates of thyroid malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for different causes of HT: Grave's disease (GD), toxic adenoma (TA) and toxic multinodular goitre (TMNG). Read More

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Patterns of Surgically Treated Thyroid Disease: A Two Years Review at St. Paul Hospital Millennium medical Collage, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2020 Jan;30(1):31-36

Surgery and Renal Transplant Surgeon, St. Paulos Hospital Millennium Medical College.

Background: Thyroid disease is a common disorder of the endocrine system worldwide. It is a common problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the burden and the pattern of thyroid disease in St. Read More

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January 2020

[Chronic right ventricular failure in a patient with diffuse toxic goiter and alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver: case description].

Kardiologiia 2019 Jul 24;59(6S):61-64. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University).

We present a case of a patient with pronounced edematous‑ascitic syndrome. Initially, its causes were considered to be alcoholic cardiomyopathy (right ventricular failure) with heart rhythm disturbances and liver cirrhosis. Targeted treatment had a low clinical effect, which served as a basis for revising the diagnostic concept. Read More

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[An unusual cause of jaundice].

Pan Afr Med J 2018 2;31:72. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie de l'Hôpital Aritide Le Dantec, Dakar, Sénégal.

Hepatic impairment is common during hyperthyroidism. It is most often asymptomatic. Hyperthyroidism revealed by jaundice has been rarely described in the literature. Read More

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Primary Cilium in the Human Thyrocyte: Changes in Frequency and Length in Relation to the Functional Pathology of the Thyroid Gland.

Thyroid 2019 04 22;29(4):595-606. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

1 School of Medicine, Department of Normal and Pathological Cytology and Histology, University of Seville, Seville, Spain.

Background: Primary cilia (PC) are conserved structures in the adult thyroid gland of different mammals. It was recently described that in humans, PC are usually present as a single copy per follicular cell emerging from the follicular cell apex into the follicular lumen.

Methods: To understand the role developed by PC in thyroid hormonogenesis better, their changes in different human functional thyroid diseases (diffuse toxic hyperplasia/Graves' disease [GD] and nodular hyperplasia [NH]/nodular goiter), in comparison to normal thyroid tissue, were investigated using immunofluorescence, morphometry, and electron microscopy analyses. Read More

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[Prediction of activity and severity of endocrine ophthalmopathy by multidimensional linear regression modeling].

Vestn Oftalmol 2018;134(2):23-31

State Research Center of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 10 building 3 Petroverigsky per., Moscow, Russian Federation, 101990.

Endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP) is a severe chronic autoimmune disease associated with autoimmune thyroid pathology that leads to loss of sight, cosmetic defects and quality of life decrease. EOP is difficult to give prognosis for due to various factors affecting its course and outcome.

Purpose: To develop a reliable and precise prognosis method for EOP activity and severity based on personalized combination of risk factors in specific patients by multidimensional linear regression modeling. Read More

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Graves' disease following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia: case report and literature review.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr;31(5):589-593

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Similar autoimmune processes (defective T-cell function) take place during the pathogenesis of aplastic anemia (AA) and Graves' disease (GD). Antithyroid drugs used for the management of GD may induce AA and GD may occur following treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA).

Case Presentation: Clinical and laboratory investigations were performed for an 11-year-and-2-month-old girl who was referred for bilateral exophthalmus and abnormal thyroid function tests. Read More

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I-Induced Graves' disease in patients treated for toxic multinodular goitre: systematic review and descriptive analysis.

J Endocrinol Invest 2018 Sep 20;41(9):1019-1028. Epub 2018 Jan 20.

Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of Egas Moniz, Lisbon's Occidental Center of Hospitals, Estrada do Forte do Alto do Duque, 1449-005, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: Graves' disease (GD) arising after the treatment of toxic multinodular goitre (TMNG) with radioiodine has long been described but it remained unclear whether GD was in fact iodine induced, its incidence, risk factors, natural history and treatment outcomes.

Methods: A systematic search using The Cochrane Library, Medline and PubMed Central allowed the pooling of data from 3633 patients with thyroid autonomy, 1340 patients with TMNG, to fill gaps in knowledge, regarding the clinical expression of iodine-induced GD (I-IGD) in adults.

Results: I-IGD developed in 0-5. Read More

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September 2018

Management of thyrotoxicosis in children and adolescents: 35 years' experience in 304 patients.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jan;31(2):159-165

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

Background: Diffuse toxic goiter accounts for about 15% of all childhood thyroid diseases. There is great controversy over the management of Graves' disease in children and adolescents. This article reports our experience in 304 children and juvenile patients with Graves' disease. Read More

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January 2018

[Forensic Analysis of 6 Cases of Sudden Death due to Hyperthyroid Heart Disease].

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Oct 25;33(5):482-485. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Department of Forensic Pathology, School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China.

Objectives: To analyse the cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease, and explore the general information of deaths and the forensic pathological characteristics to provide reference evidence for forensic identification of such cases.

Methods: Six cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease between 2001 and 2016 were selected from School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University. The general information (gender and age), clinical manifestations, medical history, anatomical and histopathological findings, biochemical parameters and cause of death were analysed retrospectively. Read More

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October 2017

[Molecular biological markers for proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in diffuse toxic goiter].

Arkh Patol 2017;79(6):3-7

Acad. I.P. Pavlov Saint Petersburg State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

The pathogenesis of diffuse toxic goiter has not yet been fully understood. The literature increasing commonly focusses on the issues related to the processes occurring in the thyroid gland itself: proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis.

Aim: to investigate clinical and laboratory parameters, as well as the expression of Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bax, Fas-L, CD34, VEGF, and FGF proteins in various postoperative outcomes of patients operated on for diffuse toxic goiter. Read More

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Graves' Disease Thyrotoxicosis and Propylthiouracil Related Agranulocytosis Successfully Treated with Therapeutic Plasma Exchange and G-CSF Followed by Total Thyroidectomy.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2017 16;9(1):e2017058. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Division of Hematology, University Hospital-Santa Maria Misericordia, Udine, Italy.

Antithyroid drugs can be a rare cause of agranulocytosis (0.5% of treated patients). Suspension of these drugs is mandatory in these patients and may result in worsening hyperthyroidism. Read More

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October 2017

In silico and in vitro analysis of cross-reactivity between Yersinia pseudotuberculosis OmpF porin and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Feb 25;107(Pt B):2484-2491. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100 let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok, 690022, Russia.

This work is devoted to the ascertainment of serological cross-reactivity between OmpF porin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YpOmpF) and human thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR). Extracts containing hTSHR were isolated from surgical thyroid tissue of patients with clinical and diagnostic signs of diffuse toxic goiter. Monoclonal antibodies to hTSHR (mAbs) were shown to interact both with antigens in thyroid tissue extracts and with YpOmpF. Read More

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February 2018

Analyzing cost-effectiveness of neural-monitoring in recurrent laryngeal nerve recovery course in thyroid surgery.

Int J Surg 2017 Dec 10;48:180-188. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Division for Endocrine and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University Hospital G. Martino, University of Messina, Via C. Valeria 1, 98125, Messina, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: The increasing use of intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroid surgery imposes an evaluation of cost-effectiveness.

Methods: The analysis estimated the cost versus utility of different alternatives that simulate nerve injury course and the consequences for the following cohorts of patients: (1) no RLN injury, or vocal fold palsy (VCP) recovery within 1 month (2), 2 months (3), 6 months (4), and after 12 months (5). In the model applied, the average simulated cohort consisted of a young female patient, 40 years old, employed, daily voice user, who underwent elective, conventional total thyroidectomy via cervical incision using a standardized intermittent IONM technique, for an operable benign, bilateral, diffuse, multinodular, non-toxic, non-retrosternal goiter. Read More

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December 2017

Incidence of Hypothyreoidism after Radioactive Iodine-I131 Treatment in Dependance of Hyperthyreoidism Etiology and Therapy Dose.

Med Arch 2017 Aug;71(4):270-273

Clinic of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Introduction: Consensus hasn't been yet achieved about optimal dose quantity that could prevent post therapy hypothyroidism, thus dosing approach varies among different centers. I131 doses can be fixed or calculated, although treatment outcomes don't differ significantly according to recent acknowledgments.

Aim: Determination of the incidence of hypothyroidism after radioiodine treatment (I131) in dependence of hyperthyroidism etiology and quantity of applied doses. Read More

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[Comparative long-term results of surgical treatment of patients with diffuse toxic goiter].

Khirurgiia (Mosk) 2017(8):13-17

Pavlov Ryazan State Medical University, Ryazan, Russia.

Aim: To analyze long-term outcomes of Graves' disease management.

Material And Methods: There were 428 patients for the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2010. Patients were called for examination and thyroid status control. Read More

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December 2017

The Concomitant Association of Thyroid Disorders and Myasthenia Gravis.

Transl Neurosci 2017 30;8:27-30. Epub 2017 Apr 30.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Some of the thyroid disorders (TD) and Myasthenia gravis (MG) are autoimmune related disease. The purpose of the study to evaluate the relationship of MG with all morphological and functional thyroid disorders.

Methods: We constructed a population-based cohort study during the period from January 2000-December 2002 by using reimbursement data from the Bureau National Health Insurance (NHI) system in Taiwan. Read More

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Infiltrative thyrotoxicosis: an unusual case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2016 Nov 4;2016(11):omw082. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Consultant Medical Oncologist, University Hospital Limerick , Limerick , Ireland.

Thyrotoxicosis is most commonly caused by Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goitre, a functioning thyroid adenoma, or thyroiditis. Extrinsic infiltrative conditions affecting the thyroid gland are typically destructive, and associated with thyroid hypofunction. We describe the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, neck swelling and thyroid function tests consistent with hyperthyroidism. Read More

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November 2016

[The choice of surgery in patients with diffuse toxic goiter].

Khirurgiia (Mosk) 2016(8):13-17

Department and Clinic of Faculty Surgery, Samara State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Russia.

Aim: to define clear individual indications for different operations for diffuse toxic goiter by research of immunological markers of thyrotoxicosis recurrence probability.

Material And Methods: Long-term results of survey and treatment of 215 patients with diffuse toxic goiter are presented. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Read More

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January 2017

Graves Disease Induced by Radioiodine Therapy for Toxic Nodular Goiter: A Case Report.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther 2015 Oct;24(3):135-7

Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aydın, Turkey Phone: +90 256 444 12 56 E-mail:

Graves' disease (GD) may be observed as an infrequent adverse effect after radioiodine therapy (RAIT) for toxic thyroid adenoma (TA) and toxic multi nodular goiter (MNG). We present a case of a 55-year-old male with a toxic nodule who was treated with RAI. After therapy, the patient's serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels gradually increased. Read More

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October 2015

[Rarer causes of thyrotoxicosis].

Przegl Lek 2016 ;73(4):250-61

Thyrotoxicosis is a pathological syndrome in which tissue is exposed to excessive amounts of circulating thyroid hormones. Including its subclinical form, it is considered as one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in the general population. If not detected in a timely fashion, thyrotoxicosis can have serious health consequences. Read More

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September 2016

Radioiodine (1-131) Dose for the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism in Rajavithi Hospital.

J Med Assoc Thai 2016 Feb;99 Suppl 2:S123-9

Background: The main cause of hyperthyroidism is diffuse toxic goiter (Graves' disease), and the treatment of choice after medical therapy failure is radioiodine (I-131). There are two common methods of determining the optimal I-131 dose: calculated dose or fixed dose. The calculated dose method is based on the following formula: 75-200 microcuri/gram of thyroid gland divided by the percentage of radioiodine uptake at 24 hours (24-hour RAIU). Read More

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February 2016